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FRICTION STIR WELDING Torben Lorentzen CEO of DanStir ApS Danish Stir Welding Technology & Friction Stir Welding Specialist Bayards Aluminium Construction B.V. Out-line Friction Stir Welding - The proces in brief - Weld properties Legal Aspects - Licensees - Patents - Standards Friction Stir Welding at BAYARDS - Equipment functionality and capabilities - Applications Friction Stir Welding - The proces in brief - Weld properties The sequences of a Friction Stir Welding event Micro-structural effect of a Friction Stir Welding event S tr e s s ( M Pa ) 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 P F M B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 S t r a in ( % ) Tensile test behaviour; EN-AW-6082-O 120 110 100 90 Hardness [HV10] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 No. 22 Position [mm] Hardness profile; EN-AW-6082-T6 Heat treatable alloys recovering hardness over time – here EN-AW-7075 Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) recovering essentially to parent metal hardness – here EN-AW-6082-T6 Material 5083-O Parent 5083-O FSW 5083-H321 Parent 5083-H321 FSW 6082-T6 Parent 6082-T6 FSW 6082-T6 FSW & aged 6082-T4 Parent 6082-T4 FSW 6082-T4 FSW & aged 7108-T79 Parent 7108-T79 FSW 7108-T79 FSW & aged 0.2% Proof strength [MPa] 148 141 249 153 286 160 274 149 138 285 295 210 245 Tensile strength [MPa] 298 298 336 305 301 254 300 260 244 310 370 320 350 Elongation [%] 23,5 23 16,5 22,5 10,4 4,9 6,4 22,9 18,8 9,9 14,0 12,0 11,0 Welding factor [UTS-FSW / UTS-Parent] 1,00 0,91 0,83 1,00 0,93 1,19 0,86 0,95 Weld properties for a range of common alloys Refined micro-structure and good surface finish High weld ductility renders good bending performance Legal Aspects - Licensees - Patents - Standards Licensee status : Smith, I. J., 2008, ”FSW Patents – A Stirring Story”, TWI Development in licensees over the past 14 years Country Germany France Belgium The Netherlands Non-commercial 5 3 2 0 Commercial 9 2 1 1 Licensees in an around The Netherlands Patent status : The two original patents held by TWI covers the intellectual property rights regarding the general use of the technology: US-5,460,317 / EPO615480B1 (1992-2012) US-5,813,592 / EPO752926B1 (1995-2015) Patent status : Smith, I. J., 2008, ”FSW Patents – A Stirring Story”, TWI Development in 3rd party patent filings Patent status : Top-10 organisations holding the most Friction Stir Welding patents Smith, I. J., 2008, ”FSW Patents, A Stirring Story”, TWI Company Hitachi Boeing KHI Showa NLM SLM Mazda Lockheed Martin ESAB MHI Total (US/EP/JP) 215 69 44 44 35 23 13 9 9 9 Standards status : Friction Stir Welding is approved by most of the classification bodies including: • American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) • Bureau Veritas (BV) • Det Norske Veritas (DNV) • Germanischer Lloyds (GL) • Lloyd´s Register of Shipping (LRS) • Registro Italiano Navale (RINA) Standards status : An official international standard is under development by the ”B1 Working Group” of the ”IIW Commission III” : ISO/AWI-25239 Part 1-5: ISO/AWI 25239-1: Part 1: Vocabulary ISO/AWI 25239-2: Part 2: Design of welded joints ISO/AWI 25239-3: Part 3: Qualification of welding operators ISO/AWI 25239-4: Part 4: Specification and qualification of welding procedures ISO/AWI 25239-5: Part 5: Quality and inspection requirements Friction Stir Welding at BAYARDS - Equipment functionality and capabilities - Applications Equipment : The Friction Stir Welding installation at BAYARDS Aluminium Constructions B.V. Equipment : - Envelope 3.5 x 15.5 meter - 100 kN down force - Position- or load-control - 2D-programable weld paths - Maximum daylight ≈ 1.6 meters - Prepared for a 2nd weld head Applications : - Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) - Aircraft cargo floor panels - Leight weight fuel tanks for UAV´ - X-ray scanner parts Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) : Tailor Welded Blanks welded for Renault´ inner door panels Aircraft cargo floor panels : Cargo floor panels for Lockheed Martin´ C-130 Hercules aircraft Leight weight fuel tanks for UAV´ : Light weight fuel tanks for un-maned air crafts X-ray scanner parts : C-arc beams for Philips medical X-ray scanning equipment Torben Lorentzen