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CHAPTER

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FOUNDATIONS OF THE STUDY OF HISTORY
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E S S O N

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Basic Facts on the Study of History

1. What is history? 2. Why is it important to know history? 3. How do relics and artifacts, like a carved idol (bul’ol) or a clay jar (banga), tell us something about our history? 4. What process do historians follow when recording history?

The Social Sciences
Social science is “the study of human society and of individual relationships in and to society.” Scholarly or scientific disciplines that deal with such study include sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, political science, and history. All scientific inquiries and knowledge acquired and learned in the fields of social sciences have been

introduced, transferred, used, and translated into the high school level through Social Studies. Social Studies is a learning area within the high school curriculum that provides coordinated and systematic study of information, skills, and concepts about the different fields of the social sciences. Below is a diagram showing the different disciplines in social sciences and the concepts used in Social Studies.

Social Science

Political Science

Geography

Sociology

Linguistics

Psychology

History

Anthropology

Philosophy

Social Studies

History

Demography

Culture
IN

Climate

Ethics

Environment

Change

Mores

Government

Laws

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SOCIAL STUDIES

PERSPECTIVE I

SECOND EDITION

F. how he did them. The Definition of History History is the science that deals with the study of past events. It is the story of the rise of Persian power and its fight against Greece.” To guide them in their studies. University of the Philippines “History is not only the recording of chronological events but the understanding of the relationship between history and archaeology.” 4. History makes use of the other social sciences to better understand what is then and its direct or indirect effect to what is now.” PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND Understanding first what history is. government. “History creates a nation and unites its people. and the emergence of philosophy and religion. The study of history leads us to analyze the structure of society of a given period. why studying it is important. Our understanding of history is not complete without an understanding of the relevance of events in the past. and the process by which history is recorded will be carried out in the following discussion. The Chinese and Egyptians engaged their civilizations in documenting their history. But the Greeks are known to have formalized this study since the time of Herodotus. buried relics. One of the oldest disciplines in social sciences is history. is best known for his work entitled Histories. and ancient wisdom (Reither.Social Studies helps students to develop the necessary knowledge and skills that will make them well-informed individuals. Renato Constantino (1919–1999) – former professor of History at the University of the Philippines and respected Filipino historian “The study of history should not only be based on a particular group of people or some known historical figures. Certain events that have played a crucial role in the development of man and their effects on the society to which he belongs are studied more thoroughly (Garraghan & Delanglez. Here are some views of well-known historians and anthropologists on the study of history: 1. the Greeks used fossils of both humans and animals. and how he had come to do them.” 3. It is a science that deals with the study of important events of the past that are significant at present. There are two types of history (written or oral) which tell of man’s progress and failures from the past to the present time. 1948). George Santayana – respected historian “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. It will help them make correct decisions as citizens of a world with culturally diverse but interdependent societies. languages. it should also consider the history of the masses. the Father of History. its community. 1946). the things he had done. Landa Jocano – former dean and professor of Anthropology at the Institute of Philippine Studies. otherwise known as the “Father of History. Center for Advanced Studies. William Henry Scott – well-known historian of the Cordilleras and the pre-colonial period Herodotus. It is an account of GEOGRAPHY 3 . man’s activities.” 2.

and the Japanese that are included in the National Archives c. accurate. 2. Interviews with World War II veterans The Process of Recording History Recording the history of a certain place or people is a challenging and complex task. those who were considered as “bandits. It symbolizes Filipinos’ belief in life after death. Gather data. 4 SOCIAL STUDIES IN PERSPECTIVE I SECOND EDITION . cultural. Americans. The fossils of the Tabon Man found in the Tabon Cave in Palawan b. as well as oral sources in the form of songs and epics. They are also studied carefully for their relevance in certain periods. According to Garraghan and Delanglez (1946). are artifacts. aside from written documents. Analyze sources and data. b. the sculptured cover of the Manunggul jar that shows two people riding a boat proves to be more than just a creative design. and recording of history. The electronic spin resonance is a method that enables archeologists to analyze and estimate the length of time fossils have been buried before their discovery. analysis. 1. social. habits and traditions. Example of this is the case of Macario Sakay. their environment. such as the Homo erectus in Cagayan and the early settlers in the Tabon Cave. For example: A particular framework may follow the perspective of a Filipino historian rather than a non-Filipino historian. The framework refers to the organization and direction that the researched information will follow to present a unique yet analytical perspective of history. Spaniards. c. fanatics. For example: a. The objective of its study is to give both the casual reader and the serious scholar an analytical. here are the steps to follow in the study.” For example: a. Researched materials and sources are analyzed and evaluated thoroughly to verify their authenticity and accuracy. With this framework. between 25 and 50 centuries ago.5. customs. and relevant account of the significant past of people. The carbon-14 technique led historians to confirm the presence of early inhabitants in the Philippines. This can be done by examining the circumstances underlying the political. Fernand Braudel – French historian “In order to achieve a so-called total history. The Laguna Copperplate was meticulously and thoroughly deciphered and analyzed to verify its authenticity. By piecing information together. and society. 3. Using the methodological process to fulfill this objective. This method was used in the discovery of the Tabon Man. 4. beliefs. Included in these sources. Understand the meaning and relevance of data. dramatizing how the souls of the departed get to the afterlife via a boat (bangka). historians need authentic sources to make an accurate and reliable recording of history. and pirates” by American colonizers may be perceived as heroes and martyrs who fought for independence of the Philippines. and economic aspects. Documents written by Filipinos. all aspects of man’s past must be integrated. Develop a framework.

5.. Manunggul jar This new understanding is relevant in providing a wider perspective of ancient history and civilization. Stone and porcelain antiques dating from 700 to 900 CE were found in Laurel and Calatagan. and pieced together to form a chronological. and various everyday implements of an ancient culture (Kottak. consistent.g. and accurate timeline and narration. Examples of secondary sources are textbooks. evaluated. Historical Sources We need reliable sources to validate the authenticity and accuracy of historical data and events. 1. Artifacts/Remains. Primary sources are eyewitness accounts of a historical event either written or said by the people who have experienced or who have lived in a certain period of time. The Spaniards used this large sailing ship not only as a means of commerce but also in their war against the Dutch on 14 December 1600. instruments. Historical sources can be classified into two: primary and secondary.would include delineation between oral (e. interviews and songs) and written (e. The Manunggul jar used by early inhabitants in Palawan between 810 and 790 BCE held the remains of their deceased. “Reconstruct” history. A more detailed classification of historical sources Chinese porcelain c. For example: a. then lieutenant-governor of Manila. The information on the location of the San Diego Galleon was found in PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 5 . This final stage refers to the actual writing process when all data and sources of information have been analyzed. diaries and books). weapons. early Filipinos already had a profound belief in the afterlife. Batangas. secondary sources are those based on primary sources. On the other hand. The San Diego Galleon was discovered in Fortune Island in Nasugbu. These can be classified as primary but not written historical sources. Batangas on 24 April 1991. 1991). review of literature.. It shows that even before the introduction of Christianity by the Spaniards. These are tools. The ship was built upon the instructions of Don Antonio de Morga. b.g. and similar materials.

Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. • 2. and mineral like crystals were discovered in Palawan also in 1957. • d. Stone tools and instruments discovered in Pangasinan in 1957. SOCIAL STUDIES IN Tabon Man skull 6 PERSPECTIVE I SECOND EDITION . identified as parts of the skull and the jaw. h. and plants that have lived thousands of years ago (Kottak. Balanghai boat e. a. animals. were considered to be the first direct evidence of early inhabitants in the archipelago. took charge of the search for the sunken ship. f. A great number of fossils have been discovered in different parts of the country by various archaeological teams. From the wreck. Batangas. written by Don Antonio de Morga himself. The National Museum. Palawan in 1962. Fossils. It took three years to find the San Diego Galleon. A clay medallion was found in Calatagan. A statue of God Garuda was discovered in Brooke’s Point. These fossils. Agusan del Norte in 1976.these were only a fraction of the weapons used by Morgan’s army 1 569 pieces of porcelain dating from the time of the Ming dynasty g. were Precious metals such as copper. steel. 1975). some 34 407 artifacts were discovered. with a team of expert divers from France.an ancient instrument that aided the Greeks in their sailing expeditions 14 bronze cannons . j. and gold. Archaeological digs in different parts of the country gathered a collection of Buddhist statues. Among these were: • bronze astrolabe . Palawan (Jocano. 1991). A golden statue of an ancient religion was unearthed in Agusan. i. Ancient boats (balanghai) of our Filipino ancestors were found in Butuan. Manuel Santiago and Robert Fox found the fossils of the Tabon Man in a cave at Lipuun Point. These are the bones and remnants of humans.

The Makapilis were willing to sacrifice their countrymen as long as they could get something out of it. a group who betrayed the country by collaborating with the Japanese in exchange for money and other privileges.” 3. Interviews. songs. He only knew how to speak Spanish and English. The Kabayan mummy of Benguet Interestingly.” b. you would think he was Spanish. Benguet as cultural treasures of the Philippines. customs. The mummification of Apo Anno in Kabayan. Presidential Decree 260 declared the mummies of Kabayan. the mummy was stolen from the cave of Acmi Nabalicong. “I witnessed Manuel L. Stories told through time and handed down from generation to generation preserve the memory of a particular period and are also another way of learning about history. Natubleng in 1918. He wasn’t fluent in Filipino. These are primary and written sources. Apo Anno was a ranking warrior as evidenced by the tattoos all over his body. Rosalinda Amarillo or “Lola Rosalinda” was born on 16 April 1904. He was believed to have died of old age. The discovery of flaked stone tools revealed an early civilization. 4. The mummy was estimated to be 500 years old. and Journals. “My father was killed by the Japanese right before my very eyes. Folk culture and indigenous people are primary and oral historical sources. Tomas Matias or “Lolo Tomas” was born on 17 February 1910. The indigenous people themselves are a living witness of prehistoric Philippines. Benguet was a clear example of the culture of the Ibaloi tribe. are a qualified source of history. dances. Quezon become the first President of the Commonwealth.b. c. Survivors of the Japanese Occupation gave their account of life during those times: a. In 1984. until its return to Benguet. The fossils of prehistoric animals such as the elephas and the stegodons were also discovered in various parts of the country. and the arts during a certain period. This refers to the ancient beliefs. Folk Culture. the National Museum bought it from a private collector and there it had stayed PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 7 . He was identified by one of the members of the Makapili. Memoirs. He was fair in complexion. and hence.

published by Blair & Robertson. vol. the journal is a secondary source. Why did this particular event happen? How did it happen? The issues and problems we face now are linked to the past. published by Blair and Robertson vol. or written. Records of Antonio Pigafetta (Magellan’s Voyage Around the World. 7. Records of Colin (Of the origin of the nations and the peoples who inhabit these islands. The study of history increases our knowledge and understanding of the many contributions of the different races that have populated the earth before us. All things. and divorces among the Filipinos. Most textbooks are a secondary and written source of history. dowries. V). It helps us analyze and evaluate valuable lessons from historical events. This is the primary basis of the origins of a particular community. and sacrifices of each generation at certain points in history. These are printed materials that include ancient laws and contracts. For example: a. and reports. journals. Indeed. that define and shape who we are now are the results of the ideas. Spanish. It expands our knowledge. initiatives. these have a tremendous impact on the present and the future. A secondary written history may include recent publica- 2. For example: • The economic development of the country • Preventing international conflict 8 SOCIAL STUDIES IN PERSPECTIVE I SECOND EDITION . journals. geography. The Importance of History Oath taking of Manuel L. It includes folklore and legends. vol. vol. concrete and abstract. d. published by Blair & Robertson. XII). or even textbooks that are based on or discussed primary sources. 6. • The customs and traditions that define Philippine culture is a fusion of Asian. V). If you are reading a scholarly journal which discusses the finding of the Tabon Man. Such materials are a primary and written sources. Records of Pedro Chirino (Of marriages. and American influences. oral. This could be written or oral. c. Quezon 5. b.” published by Blair & Robertson. The study of history seeks to analyze the causes of certain events. then. Local Histories and Historical Narratives. Published Materials and Documents. For example: • The Catholic faith was the legacy of the Spanish occupation. Each generation has the right to know and understand the events that have shaped its past. Secondary sources of history include those sources that are based on primary historical source. This can be primary.tions. XL). and the actual Tabon Man finding is the primary source. Records of Miguel Lopez de Loarca (Relacion de las Islas Filipinas. Why is the study of history important and relevant to us? 1.

we have witnessed some events in the present that are parallel to some periods in the past. and evaluate different issues critically. Finally. and cultural development. and at the same time analyze the society where they belong. (b) (c) (a) EDSA 1. It is instrumental in forging unity and cooperation among nations. History offers a storehouse of information about how people and societies behave. History has proven repeatedly that each country is dependent on the other in terms of its economic progress.htm) 3. and documents.• Exercising human rights and achieving social justice Although events in the past can never happen again in exactly the same manner now. By looking back and learning from history. The study of history requires the application of skills in other areas.focusweb. For example: • The EDSA People Power uprisings in February 1986 and in January 2001 • The march of the supporters of former President Joseph Estrada advancing to Malacañang Palace in 1 May 2001. It helps us understand the way people think and react with situations happening in their surroundings. (c) EDSA 3 PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 9 . 5. (http://www. History provides us with the information needed so we can understand why events happen in accordance with the behavior of the people involved. Serious issues and problems can be resolved with global unity and cooperation. political stability. It urges students to achieve a high level of understanding of and to value written texts such as personal accounts. records.org/publications/ Bulletins/Fop/2001/FOP20. it motivates students to find realistic and practical solutions to the needs of our country. we can manage to avoid repeating the same mistakes. Hardly any country in the world now can assert that it can exist independently without any help from any other nation. (b) EDSA 2. analyze. It develops mastery in other skills. It helps us understand people and societies. official reports. It also demands that students are able to discuss. (a) People asking for reforms 4.

More importantly. thus instilling to the members the importance of loyalty to which institution they belong. It keeps the data of the development of national institutions. History sets the foundation for genuine citizenship. fossils are also useful in determining the lifestyle of a particular human being. With this. the factors that caused this change. It helps us understand and appreciate our present society. The field called for this task is Forensic Anthropology. and values that individuals may hold. voters. and plants are considered valuable historical sources. principles. This enriches a person’s holistic development. This is one of the reasons why the study of history is important. The past causes the present. Through the study of history. and so the future. animals. and the elements of the institution or the society that persisted despite the change. we can understand the reasons behind the changes happening in the society. It allows us to reflect to become better people. Studying history helps us understand how current and future changes may affect the lives of citizens. and their values. providing international and comparative perspectives essential for developing responsible citizenship. An awareness of the past leads to understanding of one’s rights and limitations. or a war in the Mindanao or the Middle East—we have to look for factors that took shape earlier. Link Science The fossils of humans. It presents facts on how nations are built and how they have interacted with other societies. studying history encourages national community leaders. people are inspired to fulfill their duties and responsibilities toward their country. But these are not only important in the study of history.6. 10 SOCIAL STUDIES IN PERSPECTIVE I SECOND EDITION . petitioners or simple observers to become socially aware and responsible public servants. This helps in establishing links to modern society. 7. More importantly. Similarly. the study of history leads one to appreciate the many changes in society and culture that have taken place through time because of a generation’s actions and decisions. When analyzing why something happened—whether a shift in political party dominance in the Philippine Congress. a major change in the prices of commodities. their problems. Most of all. Fossils are also useful in determining the cause of death of what was once a living thing. we gain insights into many different beliefs. It is only through studying history can we be able to understand the changes in the society.

taxation. customs. social relationships. The critical study of leading principles and concepts in a specific branch of knowledge ____ 5. and consumption of wealth. Look It Up Match the items in Column A with those in Column B. The science that deals with the production. period. etc. Examples are history. f. etc. The study of a specific aspect in society or some field that is relevant to society. of humanity ____ 3. The study of humans. social science civilization PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 11 . philosophy e. Column A ____ 1. This exercise will help you understand easily the next lesson. sociology. anthropology b. or group of people ____ 4. Column B a. and economics ____ 6. distribution. economics c. especially of the variety. The branch of science that studies the origin and development of society ____ 2. and with the various related problems of labor. physical and cultural characteristics. You may need to research the concepts below.A. finance. The culture and society of a specific region. distribution. sociology d.

Write a reflection paper on the value of the study of history to you as a student and as a Filipino. 12 SOCIAL STUDIES IN PERSPECTIVE I SECOND EDITION . What are the sources used in recording history? Explain how these different sources contribute to our knowledge of history. organize and prepare a skit illustrating the importance of history in the life of a person. Expand Your Knowledge 1. an artifact. or a fossil. what particular steps would you have to follow? 4. Be ready to show and explain this picture to the class. 2. Invite a historian to share his or her experience in recording history. Form a group with five or six members. If given a chance to write your family’s history what are the sources that you will use? Why will you use them? 3. Challenge Yourself 1. It should be an original script. Let them share their stories about their own families. Discuss these with your group. how do you define history? 2. Bring a picture of a relic. With that same group.B. In your own words. C. Interview your grandparents about the history of their hometowns or provinces. 3. 4. If given the task of recording history. 5.