Recruitment, transportation, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation is known as human trafficking.

The victims are usually very poor, uneducated, gullible, unprotected and vulnerable. Extreme poverty often makes them consent to the ways and designs of exploiting persons. Exploitation includes forced prostitution, slavery, servitude, beggary, recruitment as child soldiers, etc. Human trafficking differs from people smuggling. In the latter, people voluntarily request a smuggler‟s service for fees and there may be no deception involved in this kind of agreement. On arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually free. On the other hand, the trafficking victim is enslaved, and the terms of their debt bondage are highly exploitative. The trafficker takes away the basic human rights of the victim. Victims are sometimes tricked and lured by false promises or are physically forced. Some traffickers use coercive and manipulative tactics including intimidation, feigned love, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage, other abuse, or even force-feeding with drugs to control their victims. People who are seeking entry to other countries may be picked up by traffickers and misled into thinking that they will be free after being smuggled across the border. In some cases, they are captured through slave raiding, although this is becoming rare. Trafficking is a lucrative industry. In some areas, like Russia, Eastern Europe, Japan, Hong Kong and Colombia, trafficking is controlled by large, powerful organisations. However, the majority of trafficking is done by networking of smaller groups that each specialise in a certain area, like recruitment, transportation, advertising or retail. This is very profitable because little start-up capital is needed, and prosecution is relatively rare. Trafficked people are usually the most vulnerable and powerless minorities in a region. They often come from the poorer areas where opportunities are limited. They often are ethnic minorities, and they often are displaced persons such as refugees, though they may come from any social background, class or race.

most have been misguided about the financial arrangements and conditions of their employment. The main motive of a woman or a girl to accept an offer from a trafficker is better financial opportunities for herself or her family. or gain income. In many cases traffickers initially offer „legitimate‟ work or the promise of an opportunity to study. threats and kidnapping as means of obtaining victims. some women learn that they have been deceived about the nature of the work they will do. women are escorted to their destinations and delivered to the employers. Potential kidnappers exploit lack of opportunities. The adaptation process. In majority of the cases. results in cases of trafficking of babies and pregnant women between the West and the developing world. and all find themselves in coercive and abusive situations from which escape is both difficult and dangerous. In David M. Through agents and brokers who arrange the travel and job placements. The main types of work offered are in the catering and hotel industry. trafficked children have often lost one or both parents to the African (AIDS) crisis.Trafficking of children often involves exploitation of the parents‟ extreme poverty. modelling contracts or a pair work. Smolin‟s papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States. while . who form over 70 per cent of trafficking victims. Women. participate in pornography or escort services. but they don‟t have clear view of the circumstances and the conditions of the work in their country of destination. intimidation. in the cities there are systemic vulnerabilities in the country adoption system that makes adoption scandals predictable. or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their children. legal or illegal. in bars and clubs. In West Africa. Some women know they will be working as prostitutes. Upon reaching their destinations. Traffickers often use offers of marriage. Also some prostitutes become victims of human trafficking. are particularly at risk to become involved in sex trafficking. The latter may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts. Many women are forced into the sex trade after answering false advertisements. the women end up in prostitution. and then force the victims to become prostitutes. promise good jobs or opportunities for study.

forced marriage. women and children are trafficked across international borders each year approximately 80 per cent are women and girls and up to 50 per cent are minors. Russia and Belarus and Ukraine have been identified as major trafficking source countries for women and children. and sometimes they are actually sold by their own families. Turkey.” The data also illustrates that the majority of transnational victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. and UK). In some areas children are forced to be child soldiers. Africa. and the United Arab Emirates). the Middle East (Israel. Russia and the United States. Other forms of trafficking include bonded and sweatshop labour. there were 55 documented cases of human trafficking in 2005 and the first half of 2006. Due to the illegal nature of trafficking and differences in methodology. Spain. In 2004. According to an estimate. Thousands of children from Asia. Men are also at risk of being trafficked for unskilled work predominantly involving hard labour. the Netherlands. and South America are sold into the global sex trade every year.000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are working in prostitution in the EU countries alone. Italy. “An estimated 600. and domestic servitude. An estimated 500. three-quarters have never worked as prostitutes before. According to United States State Department data. They are kidnapped or orphaned.000 people are trafficked into the United States each year although because trafficking is illegal.000 men. Moldova. in Massachusetts.000 to 820. accurate statistics are difficult. According to the Massachusetts-based Trafficking Victims Outreach and Services Network in Massachusetts. Since the fall of the iron curtain. the exact extent is unknown.others are simply kidnapped. the impoverished former „Eastern bloc‟ countries such as Albania. The major destinations are Western Europe (Germany. Greece. About 14. two-thirds of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe. Romania. Asia. Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery. Children are also trafficked for both labour exploitation and sexual exploitation. the Royal Canadian Mounted Police .

over 70 women were known to have been trafficked into prostitution in 1998 and the Home Office recognised that the scale is greater as the problem is hidden and research estimates that the actual figure could be up to 1. „La Strada‟ Ukraine in 2001 -03. found that 3 per cent were fewer than 18. based on a sample of 106 women being trafficked out of Ukraine.000 women have been sold into prostitution abroad-perhaps up to 10 per cent of the female population. Russian women are in prostitution in over 50 countries. a survey conducted by the NGO. However. Russia has significant destination and transit country for persons trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation from regional and neighbouring countries into Russia. South Asia and into North America. Asia. In the United Kingdom. Annually. Japan or South Korea. experts estimate that since the collapse of the Soviet Union between 200.stricken Moldova. and North America. There were reports of trafficking of children and of child sex tourism in Russia. They are typically kidnapped and sold by police to be used for hard labour. even citizens of Russian Federation have become victims of human trafficking. thousands of Russian women end up as prostitutes in Israel.000 and 400.200 persons are trafficked through Canada into the United States. In poverty. Russia is a major source of women trafficked globally for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Europe. The US State Department reported in 2004 that incident of minors being trafficked was increasing. where the unemployment rate for women ranges as high as 68 per cent and one-third of the workforce live and work abroad. which is a form of trafficking. The ILO estimates that 20 per cent of the five million illegal immigrants in Russia are victims of forced labour. and on to the Gulf State.(RCMP) estimated that 600-800 persons are trafficked into Canada annually and that additional 1. Trafficking in people is increasing in Africa. It is estimated that half million Ukrainian women were trafficked abroad since 1991 (80 per cent of all unemployed in Ukraine are women). In Ukraine. The Government of Russia has made some effort to combat trafficking but has also . China.500-2.420 women trafficked into the UK during the same period. being regularly drugged and chained like dogs to prevent them from escaping.

It is common that Thai women are lured to Japan and sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price. Many of the Iraqi women fleeing the Iraq War are turning to prostitution. In parts of Ghana. Qatar. Nepalese women and girls. NATO peacekeeping forces moved in. many under 14. Jordan. the United Arab Emirates. As many as 200. Cheap Iraqi prostitutes have helped to make Syria a popular destination for sex tourists. In this instance. In Syria alone. to countries like Syria. and Iran. especially from the Philippines and Thailand. sometimes called trokosi (in Ghana) or voodoosi in Togo and Benin. Proponents of peacekeeping argue that the actions of a few should not . Peacekeeping forces have been linked to trafficking and forced prostitution. and Benin. High prices are offered for virgins. There are currently an estimated 300.000 women and children involved in the sex trade throughout Southeast Asia. have been sold into the sex slavery in India. In this system of slavery. Of the clients coming from wealthier countries in the Middle-East many are Saudi men. are forced into prostitution. the woman does not gain the title of “wife”.000 Nepali girls. are favoured in India because of their light skin. Japan is the major destination country for trafficked women. despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998. many of them widows.been criticized for not complying with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve a sex slave within the offended family. while others are trafficked abroad.000 Iraqi refugee girls and women. Turkey. or ritual servitude. The majority of child trafficking cases are in Asia. young virgin girls are given as slaves in traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests in addition to providing free labour for the shrine. The US State Department has rated Japan as either a „Tier 2′ or a „Tier 2′ Watch list‟ country every year since 2001 in its annual trafficking in Persons reports. A sharp increase in prostitution has been witnessed in Cambodia. In Asia. especially virgins. Togo. Bosnia and Kosovo after UN and in the case of the latter two. Shrine slavery persists. although it is a global problem. In some parts of Ghana. an estimated 50.

porous borders. and in countries where prostitution is legal or semi legal. yet NATO and the UN has come under criticism for not taking the issue of force prostitution linked to peacekeeping missions seriously enough. in particular people in countries where human traffickers are active. This can take on three forms raising awareness amongst potential victims. There are some causes of trafficking which is lack of employment opportunities. the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the former Yugoslavia have contributed to this globalisation. it has become increasingly transnational in scope and highly lucrative. social welfare workers and immigration officers.incriminate the many participants in the mission.Government Organisations (NGOs). people can be “sold” many times. and Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land. According to the UN a major factor that has allowed the growth of sexual trafficking is. Unlike drugs or arms. . Some have introduced legislation specifically aimed at making human trafficking illegal. Trafficking in people has been facilitated by porous borders and advanced communication technologies. Other actions governments could take are to increase awareness level. especially Women and Children. also called the Palermo Convention. raising awareness amongst the clients of prostitution. organised crime and presence of organised criminal gangs also leads to human trafficking. Then. All of these instruments contain elements of the current international law of trafficking in human beings. to look out for signs of a human trafficking victim. Sea and Air. Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons. “governments and human rights organisation alike have simply judged the women guilty of prostitution and minimized the trafficker‟s role”. and two Palermo protocols there which are Protocol to Prevent. Governments can also develop systems of cooperation between different nation‟s law enforcement agencies and with Non. The opening up of Asian markets. In 2000 the United Nations adopted the convention against Transnational Organised Crime. Actions taken to combat human trafficking differ from government to government. raising awareness amongst police.

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