Foundations (Prehistory – 600 CE

• Social differentiation in the Andean Chavin society was based on location (those in the east had lower prestige than those in the west) •

Aztec women, for example, were treated as near equals to men, but each had different responsibilities Work in Andean regions was divided by men and women; hunting, military service, and gov't were reserved for men; textile production, agriculture, and the home were for women Islam strengthens the repression of women throughout this time period; by 1450 making women wear veils and otherwise concealing themselves in society Patriarchal families ere the norm Class distinctions based on money and rural v. urban A freed slave woman, Rabia, establishes basic tenets of Sufism, a mystical religion emphasizing one's personal relationship with God 1198 – 1252 = Sorghaghtani Beki, most influential woman of mongol Empire; assisted trade and intellectual exchange 7th century AD = Adoption of purdah by Muslims during Arab conquest of presentday Iran; purdah is the act of preventing women from being seen by their spouses (i.e. wearing veils) •

The basic Mayan social structure was comprised by kings at the helm, priests below them, and commoners and slaves at the very bottom •

The latter two centuries of this time period are characterized by the Independence Era, as the societies and governments of various countries strive for Independence •

Overall poverty in various Mesoamerican nations still feature the poor living in less than proper conditions

Central and South America

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In Egypt, Queen Hatsepshut was the first female ruler in history' Men hunted animals/ women gathered and cultivated food Women in Egypt were given high status

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Middle East

The Ottoman Empire was ultimately ruled by the Sultana and his family Integration of foreigners (religiously speaking) results in those qualified to contribute their best to the Empire

Women in the Ottoman Empire of the 19th century were usually not given full inheritance rights

In the modern world, the status of women differs by nation in the Islamic world; Saudi Arabia, for example, is notoriously oppressive towards women

1500 BCE = The establishment of the strict Caste system

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South Asia (India)

1400s CE = Mandukai Khatun, female empress of Mongol Empire

1774 – 1910 CE = Revolts, mainly against British rule, by lower castes

Most communities initially low in the Caste System remain low today

Central Asia

1920s Bolshevik governments bring equal rights to women in Central Asia But, 1991 Fall of USSR brings female oppression back to Central Asia w/nationalism

East Asia (China/Japan)

Chinese philosphy's yin/yang establshed natural differences between man and woman Written c. 45 -120 CE, Lessons becomes most durable Chinese source for advice about female behavior; proclaims women should yield to others, among other things Confucianism places women on lower end of patriarchal society

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625 – 705 CE = Reign China's only female emperor, Wu Zetian (rules during Tang dynasty) Buddhism in Japan grants women empowerment 960 – 1279 CE = NeoConfucianism during Song dynasty in China further stratifies women's position 950 – 1050 CE = During Heian era (Japan) women held relative equity in marriage, education, and property rights

1600 – 1868 = during Tokugawa Shogunate (Japan) women's rights were practically nonexistent within the samurai family; always obeyed male figure (incl. son); called Htree obediences

1762 = Greater learning for Women is written; proclaims Three Obediences

Beliefs of women's right heavily challenged during the nationalist and reform movements in Japan and China, of the twenieth century 1868 – 1912 = Transition to modern nation (Japan) allows women to partake in public participation (politics and public speaking)

Southeast Asia (Burma, Cambodia, Laos, etc.)

Buddhism gives women various rights, incl. Right to remarry, right to inherit, etc.

ASEAN was formed in the 1960s , an economic organization between various SE Asia nations; also attempts to protect social rights

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