NBME 15 review

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1st Brachial arch

Cartilage: Meckel's (Mandible, Malleus, Mandibular) Muscles: Muscles of mastication (Masseter, medial pterygoids, Mylohyoid) Nerves: CN V2, V3 -Chew Middle ear cavity Eustachian tube Mastoid air cells Cartilage: Reichert's (Stapes, Styloid, Stylohyoid) Muscles:Stapedius, Stylohyoid Nerves:CN 7 -Smile Epithelial lining of palatine tonsil Cartilage: Greater horn of hyoid Muscles: Stylopharyngeus Nerves: CN 9 -Swallow stylishly Dorsal wings -Inferior parathyroids Ventral wings -Thymus 3 structures Thymus, right & left parathyroids


Affinity column chromatography


1st Brachial Pouch 2nd Brachial arch

Method of separating biochemical mixtures -Based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand. Can be used to. 1. Purify and concentrate a substance from a mixture into a buffering solution 2. Reduce the amount of a substance in a mixture 3. Discern what biological compounds bind to a particular substance 4. Purify and concentrate an enzyme solution.



2nd Brachial Pouch 3rd Brachial arch




3rd Brachial Pouch

African American, bilateral hilar adenopathy, righ paratracheal node enlargment, noncaseating granuloma =??? Albinism

sarcoidosis (ethnicity is risk factor)


Congenital deficiency in: Tyrosinase Defective tyrosine transporter (↓ tyrosine → ↓ melanin) Can result from lack of migration of neural crest cells Lack of melanin results in ↑ risk of skin cancer


4th Brachial Pouch 4th-6th Brachial arches

Dorsal wings -Superior parathyroid Cartilage: Thyroid, cricoid, Muscles: 4 = pharyngeal constrictors 6 = intrinsic muscles of larynx Nerves: 4 = CN X (superior laryngeal branch) -Simply swallow 6 = CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch) -Speak Brief (usually less than 20 seconds), generalized epileptic seizures of sudden onset and termination



Ammonia source in ammonioagenesis

Aspartate & GLUTAMINE donate NH4 ( amonia ) in renal ammoniaagenesis


Absence seizure

Clinically, the impairment of consciousness (absence) Electroencephalography (EEG) shows generalized spike-and-slow wave discharges ~3Hz

acute ischemic injury = kidney findings?

Acute Tubular Necrosis - Muddy Brown Casts with epithelial cells

lentigo maligna (melanoma) 29. peritonitis and abscesses following rupture of viscus. Smile 3. Ammoniagenesis Occurs within proximal tubular cells Glutamine made in the liver. short palate = which artch? Broca's aphasia brown-black. 20. 18. Alpha-keto glutarate (Metabolized further into two HCO3. mottled. Anabolic steroids Leads to ↑ sex-hormone binding globulin ↓ free testosterone -Gynecomastia results ↓ Hb concentration causes ↓ O₂ content of blood → hypoxia oculomotor nerve palsy (NOT Horner's) Posterior 1/3 of tongue ATP is quickly regenerated from creatine phosphate Consider themselves to be socially inept or personally unappealing and avoid social interaction for fear of being ridiculed. micrognathia. atypical melanocytes along basilar layer? Carbaminohemoglobin Nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehension. protective endospore. eosinophils? Brachial Arches (Pneumonic) CML (9:22) responds to imatinib When at the golden arches. 30. humiliated. narrow thorax. speak There is no 5! 26. catalase-positive bacterium Rod-shaped Has the ability to form a tough. or disliked first arch (TreacherCollins) 28. 21.15. and subcutaneous abscesses or burns near the anus 16. 25. 17. Bacillus subtilis Gram-positive. mandibular cleft. simply swallow 6. rejected. NH4+ (Secreted into renal tubules) 23. glossoptosis. tonsils. CO₂ bound to hemoglobin -Account for very small amount of CO₂ in blood ↓ O₂ content of blood → hypoxia 31. 27. Anemia blast proliferation. ears with periauricular skin tags. Carbon monoxide poisoning .ions. baby. cyanosis. bottom to top 1(ear) 2(tonsils) 3 dorsal (bottom for inferior thyroid) 3 ventral (to = thymus) 4 (top = superior parathyroids) 22. irregular borders. swallow stylishly or 4. allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions Only known to cause disease in severely immunocompromised patients 24. Bacteroides fragilis Gram-negative bacillus bacterium species Involved in 90% of anaerobic peritoneal infections Predominates in bacteremia associated with intraabdominal infections. scaly. respiratory distress. Chew 2. which then leave the cell and enter systemic circulation by crossing the basolateral membrane) 2. is received from peritubular capillaries and is metabolized into 1. 1. Brachial pouch pneumonic Ear. aneurysm of PCA? Arches 3 & 4 ATP concentration doesn't fall much dring normal twitches because? Avoidant Personality Disorder 19.

sporeforming bacterium Infections show evidence of tissue necrosis. such as tunnel vision or a change in the size of objects (macropsia or micropsia). or only a selection May be confounded by selection bias -Limits statements on the causality of correlations observed -Physicians who look at patients with a certain illness and a suspected linked exposure will have a selection bias in that they have drawn their patients from a narrow selection (Their hospital) 34. Case Control Two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute Medical research descriptive study that: 1. Tracks patients with a known exposure given similar treatment 2. -A simple partial seizure. Congentio pharyngocutaneous fistula Cyanide poisoning Persistence of cleft and pouch → fistula between tonsillar area. Seizure aura might also occur as a visual disturbance. Clostridium perfringens Gram-positive. and gas gangrene 33. Examines their medical records for exposure and outcome Can be retrospective or prospective Usually involves a smaller number of patients than more powerful case-control studies or randomized controlled trials May be consecutive or non-consecutive -Depends on whether all cases presenting to the reporting authors over a period were included. 42. There may also be loss of memory (amnesia) surrounding the seizure event. 38. bacteremia. hypotonia. metamyelocytes. Myeloid stem cell proliferation (30-60 year olds) .32. fear. BCR-ABL 9:22 Caused by a single (90%) or two (10%) sperm combining with an egg which has lost its DNA The genotype is typically 46.22) Low leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (as opposed to leukemoid reaction) 43. the person may display automatisms such as lip smacking. 35. chewing or swallowing. euphoria or depersonalization. Once consciousness is impaired.XX (diploid) 41. emphysematous cholecystitis. basophils. Carnitine deficiency Inability to transport LCFA (Long chain fatty acids) into mitochondria Results in toxic accumulation in the cytoplasm Causes weakness. Chloroquie kills malaria/ Primaquine kills hypnozoites Hypertrophy of heart 37. heavy heart? Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) internal iliac nodes 36. although such movements are not purposeful or planned. Case series Toxin involved in gas gangrene is known as -toxin -Inserts into the plasma membrane of cells. Person may still be able to perform routine tasks such as walking. t(9. cleft in lateral neck 44. anaerobic. jamais vu. Complex partial seizure Often preceded by a seizure aura. Witnesses may not recognize that anything is wrong. primaquine MOA Chronic HTN. hypoketotic hypoglycemia 39. Aura may manifest itself as a feeling of dj vu. cervical cancer drains to? Chloroquine. CML treatment Complete hydatidiform mole Imatinib. ↓ O₂ utilization by tissues → hypoxia .↑ neutrophils. producing gaps in the membrane that disrupt normal cellular function 40. rod-shaped.

peroxisomes (causes hypotonia. ED. give insulin. Urinary incontinence. bug? Deoxyhemoglobin 63. each time removing the pellet and increasing the centrifugal force. Muscle weakness *Burning or electric pain* 59. A tissue sample is first homogenised to break the cell membranes and mix up the cell contents. Ejection Fraction equation elevated verylong-chain FA. Children-exposure to lead paint -+ mental deterioration Adults-environmental exposure (battery/ ammunition/radiator factory) -+ headache. Strep Mitis . Vision changes. DKA. defect in ihibitory NT = seizures. and the desired layer is extracted for further analysis.alpha hemolytic Better buffer for H ⁺ than oxyhemoglobin -Advantageous that hemoglobin has been deoxygenated by the time it reaches the venous end of the capillaries increased osteoclast. increases activity of which enzyme? drug overdose? Dysostosis multiplex glucokinase 57. -ALA Microcytic anemia. floppy baby defect in renal ammoniagenesis. respiratory acidosis Hereditary disease (autosomal recessive) consisting of an error is mucopolysaccharide metabolism Characterized by severe abnormalities in development of skeletal cartilage and bone and mental retardation 46. 58. 3. Dizziness.21) = good prognosis Increased incidence in people with Down Syndrome 62. 51. Dental procedure. Ferrochelatase Lead poisoning Accumulates: Protoporphyrin. pipecolic acid = absence of? EPO doping = ? Erythropoietin SV/EDV (EDV-ESV)/EDV 60. Cytarabine Pyrimidine analog → inhibition of DNA polymerase Leukemia. purification may be done through equilibrium sedimentation.45. Thrombocytopenia. The homogenate is then subjected to repeated centrifugations. tingling. decreased osteoblast activity burning pain Numbness. 55. poor feeding) 61. DEXA decreased bone density Diabetic neuropathy pain? Diabetic neuropathy symptoms 52. which substrate is source of ammonia production? Density Gradient Centrifuge 47. Megaloblastic anemia glycine receptor glutamine (and aspartate donate NH4 in agenesis) 56. 2. 54. GI and kidney disease. phytanic acid. EPO will increase RBC's erythroid precursors Its primary effect on red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are found in the bone marrow in humans) is promoting their survival through protecting these cells from apoptosis Age < 15 Found in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) TdT+ (Marker of pre-t & pre-b cells) CALLA+ t(12. Excess lymphoblasts 50. Used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells 1. Diaphoresis DiGeorge syndrome Excessive sweating Aberrant development of 3rd & 4th pouches: T-cell deficiency (thymic aplasia) Hypocalcemia (failure of parathyroid development) . RANKL. memory loss. 64. Finally. 49. demyelination 53. 48. lymphomas Toxicity: Leukopenia.

Downward displacement or retraction of the tongue Liver and  cells of pancreas. the more symmetric (congruous) symptoms will be 1. Pain and itching due to insect stings. Glucose-6-P → Glucose Deficient in Von Gierke's disease (fasting hypoglycemia. causing visual neglect of the left-hand side of space A stroke affecting the right parietal lobe of the brain can lead to neglect for the left side of the visual field. HDL with age in woman? HDL of a 25 year old vs. Generalized tonic clonic Generalized seizure that affects the entire brain Divided into two phases. 68. Vasodilation. 74. SE = sleep and appetite suppression. to visual cortex can cause -If lesion is in optic tract. and usually affects both eyes Vascular and neoplastic (malignant or benign tumours) lesions from the optic tract. the other side being distorted or left blank 76. germline mosaicism Glipizide produces disease that is not carried by parent's somatic cells Sulfonylurea (stimulates endogenous insulin release) Close K+ channel in -cell membrane = insulin release via ↑ Ca2+ influx. Bronchial smooth muscle contraction. even though they complain of being hungry -Someone with neglect is asked to draw a clock. glossoptosis Glucokinase 69. Homonymous hemianopsia Visual field loss that respects the vertical midline. a patient with neglect might fail to eat the food on the left half of their plate. Person who has a stroke to the right occipital lobe will have the same visual field defect. increased blood lactate. usually more congruent between the two eyes. high in 25. and there may be macular sparing 72. Glucose-6phosphatase In ER of liver. 70. increased glycogen in liver. 55 year old.65. Person who has a lesion of the right optic tract will no longer see objects on his left side 2. causing a patient with neglect to behave as if the left side of sensory space is nonexistent (although they can still turn left) -Extreme case. what to do to improve symptoms? H1 (Histamine) stop smoking 73. myoglobinuria w/ strenuous exercise 78. Histone deacetylase Removes acetyl groups from AA -Allows histones to wrap DNA more tightly Actions are opposite to that of histone acetyltransferase These would affect transcription of DNA!!!! 71. 66. but can't break it down -Painful muscle cramps. Glycogen phosphorylase Rate determining enzyme for glycogenolysis Skeletal component deficient in McArdle's disease -↑ glycogen in muscle. low in 55 (estrogen) . endothelium. Found on smooth muscle. will be pupillary reflex problem! The more posterior the cerebral lesion. and central nervous system tissue Causes: Bronchoconstriction. induced by insulin Low glucose = hexokinase sequesters glucose in the tissues High glucose = excess glucose is stored in the liver Hemispatial neglect 67. the tonic phase and the clonic phase. Separation of endothelial cells (responsible for hives). hepatomegaly) 77. their drawing might show only numbers 12 to 6. heme biosynthesis pathway glycine + succ (ALA synthase) 5-ALA (ALA dehydratase) porphobilinogen (PBG deaminase) Hydroxymethylbilane (uro synthase) Urophyrinogen III (Uro decarboxylase) Coproporphyrinogen III (Copro oxidase) protoporphyrinogen IX (proto oxidase) protophorphyrin (IX) ferrochelatase + Fe = HEME Results most commonly from brain injury to the right cerebral hemisphere. or all 12 numbers on one half of the clock face. guy with ulcers. Preceded by aura Tonic = skeletal muscles tense Clonic = Rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles 75.

cardiogenic = poor pumping. CML. no JVD. cold. 90. Hypoxemia I Cell Disease MOA 89. Depolerizatino opens Ca ⁺ channels → ↑ intracellular [Ca ⁺] → [name of this card] Receive lymphatics from: All the pelvic viscera Deeper parts of the perineum -membranous and cavernous portions of the urethra Buttock and back of the thigh Cervix! Not: Ovary. Process of detecting antigens (e..79. ↑cAMP in urine 86. Glucose binds Glut2 receptor on -cells 2. Glucose oxidizes to ATP → closes K⁺ channels in cell membrane → depolarization of cells 3. Sickle cell disease (↑ HbF) Toxicity: Bone marrow suppression.. Hyperparathyroidism Stone. Imatinib A small molecular inhibitor of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase Treatment of CML (blasts.PaO2 (PAO2=150 PaCO2/0. 97.8) immunohistochemistry Increased tubular hydrostatic pressure from blockage 92. Immunohistochemistry 81. Homozygous for point mutation (GT->AT) causes skipping of exon 12. 82.g. ↑Alk Phos. low CO. phenotype varies glucokinase activity 1. GI upset inclusion cell disease (I-cell disease) 84. Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase → ↓ DNA Synthesis (S-phase specific) Melanoma. urea cycle enzyme deficiencies) excess NH4+ → depletes aketoglutarate → inhibition of TCA cycle Rx: limit protein in diet 95. incomplete penetrance vs. testis. mech? How to calculate A-a gradient How to identify a variant protein? Hydronephrosis causes? Hydroxyurea RNA Splice error 91.g. 87. PAO2 . VE = genotype SAME. IkB function? Internal urethral orifice Opening of the urinary bladder into the urethra . and Groans 96.g.. Bones. backflow. increased TPR. Hypercalcemia Hypercalciuria (Stones) Hypophosphatemia ↑PTH. Hypokinesis of Posterior Left Ventricle? Hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock Stenosis of the right coronary artery low-output failure. or superior half of the rectum Gonads drain to the paraaortic lymph nodes Superior half of the rectum drains to the pararectal lymph nodes 85. 83. 94. increased JVD) ↓Pao₂ causes ↓ %saturation of hemoglobin → hypoxia mannose 6 phosphate addition allows enzymes to go to lysosome. liver disease) or hereditary (e. clammy (hypovolemic = low volume. proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues Inherited lysosomal storage disorder Failure of addition of mannose-6phosphate to lysosome proteins -Enzymes are secreted outside the cell instead of being targeted to the lysosome Presentation: Coarse facial features Clouded corneas Restricted joint movement High plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes 93. but this is defective = abnormal targeting of these enzymes to lysosomes releases NFkB after undergoing phosphorylation 98. variable expressivity Insulin increases? Insulin secretion IP = not all with mutant genotype show mutant phenotype. basophils) 80. Hyperammonia Can be acquired (e. Internal iliac lymph nodes 88.

low potency thyroid follicles 110. infections (↓WBC). when the lysosome doesn't function normally. glycoproteins (sugar containing proteins) or so-called mucopolysaccharides When a particular lysosomal enzyme exists in too small an amount or is missing altogether. Close family relation 2. throughout the lung fields -Suggest the development of pulmonary edema (fluid in the alveoli) -Cyanosis which suggests severe hypoxemia. Leukemia 104. Wiskott Aldrich. including necrotic hemorrhagic pneumonia 114. Discrete tumor masses arising from lymph nodes. what type of cells? Lymphoma Lysosomal storage disease occipital lobe lesion 141) low blood solubility --> rapid induction. mass moves up with swallowing and tongue protusion. Leukocidin Type of cytotoxin created by some types of bacteria Is a type of pore forming toxin Get their names by killing ("-cide") leukocytes Associated with increased virulence of certain strains (isolates) of Staphylococcus aureus Cause of necrotic lesions involving the skin or mucosa. Maintenance dose Cp x CL/F 105.99. heard initially in the lung bases. IB Left Axillary line holosytolic murmur Left sided heart failure signs Releases NF-B after undergoing phosphorylation Mitral Regurg . Irradiated packed RBCs Destroys DNA in WBCs -Prevents graft vs host disease occurring from transfusion Important if transfusion is from: 1. spleen. hemorrhage (↓platelets) Infiltrates in liver. 100.Left Axillary line holosystolic murmur Tachypnea (increased rate of breathing) Increased work of breathing (nonspecific signs of respiratory distress) Rales or crackles. 113. excess products destined for breakdown and recycling are stored in the cell. 102. uptake of technetium 99m pertechnetate. Lithium induced Nephrogenic DI. Caused by lysosomal dysfunction usually as a consequence of deficiency of a single enzyme required for the metabolism of lipids. Unregulated growth of leukocytes in *bone marrow* ↑ or ↓ in # of circulating leukocytes in blood Marrow failure → anemia (↓RBC). and when severe.peroxisomes Facilitates GABAa action by ↑ frequency of Cl⁻ channel opening Use: Anxiety Spasticity Status epilepticus Detoxification 108. 103. 112. is a late sign of extremely severe pulmonary edema. 101. Someone who is immunocompromised (Di George Syndrome. substances accumulate in the cell. 111. Cp x Vd/Bioavailability . and lymph nodes possible 109. long-chain-fattyacids? Lorazepam LCFA . and SCID) 107. where? Loading dose Collecting tubule 106. Loss of left vision in both eyes =? Low blood solubility = slow or fast induction? lump in upper neck. In other words.

giving thumbs down Pain upper abdomen. 120. Deletion of WT1 on chromosome 11 Can be hypervascular 125. enlarged at 600g after poorly controlled HTN? Oculomotor palsy from aneurysm? Olanzapine 117. 121. Jaw is undersized lkb --> NF-KB post phosphorylation for IL-1/IL-6 fever induction Cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in differentiation Can contract by using smooth muscle type actin-myosin complex. Packed RBCs with adenine-saline added pain associated with diabetic neuropathy? pain in shoulder.both +ve and -ve Bipolar. 133.first antidote Oxytocin increased estrogen in adipose tissue Bitemporal anopia parietal lesion = optic tract lesion Atropine first/Pralidoxime second 130. normal heart weight (450).115. It contains fibroblastic cells (connective tissue cells). Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor) Most common renal malignancy of early childhood (Age 2-4) Contains embryonic glomerular structure. Hematogenous spread of Liver Tumor from Colon via Portal Venous System Km = 1/2 Vmax 129. Border irregularity. NF-B Activation occurs when it's inhibitor. Stimulates labour Uterine contraction Milk let down Controls uterine hemorrhage Allows the blood to flow readily without the addition of saline burning pain supraspinatus 134. Melanoma ABCDE Mesoblastic nephroma Asymmetry. specifically a deficiency of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid Characterized by: Many large immature and dysfunctional red blood cells (megaloblasts) in the bone marrow Hypersegmented neutrophils (those exhibiting five or more nuclear lobes ("segments"). Chiasm. metabolic alkalosis with volume contraction metastaic colon cancer spread MOA Michaelis constant (Km) =? micrognathia MOA IKB Myofibroblast loop diuretic 119. 123. refered to shoulder 135. with up to four lobes being normal) 124. 127. Diaphram ulceration phrenic nerve . is phosphorylated by specific protein kinase (IKK) & degraded hypertrophy 116. Color variation. 137. 118. 136. 122. Megaloblastosis (Megaloblastic anemia) Results from inhibition of DNA synthesis in red blood cell production -Most often due to hypovitaminosis. 131. I-B. reproduced with resisted abduction at 90. Presents with huge flank mass / hematuria. Diameter >6 mm. Posterior Communicating Artery Anuerysm Atypical antipsychotic Use: Schizophrenia . rich in a form of actin called alpha-smooth muscle actin -These cells are then capable of speeding wound repair by contracting the edges of the wound 132. Evolution over time Type of kidney tumor that is usually found before birth by ultrasound or within the first 3 months of life. Oligomenorrhea Optic chiasm lesion optic nerve. depression. anxiety disorder. optic tract Organophosphate poisoning. OCD. and may spread to the other kidney or to nearby tissue 126. mania Fewer extrapyramidal side effects than traditional antipsychotics 128.

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase Phosphorylase kinase Phytanic acid 148. ruminant animal fats. 155. 158. and certain fish Undergoes -oxidation in the peroxisome. decreased? Parietal lobe lesion Partial hydatidiform mole Arm up Thumbs down sign.XXY Partial 1 egg two sperm 69XXY vs paternal complete 46XX 2 sperm no egg Chronic inflammation due to Helicobacter pylori that colonizes the antral mucosa NSAIDs Some studies have found correlations between smoking and ulcer formation Caffeine and coffee.. Painful abdomen 2. not strokes 146. Polyneuropathy 4.138. pinpoint pupils. 147. Pipecolic acid 139. depression portion of gastric fundus herniates through the diaphragm calcium concentration in feces Lower quadrantic anopia Occurs when an egg is fertilized by two sperm or by one sperm which reduplicates itself yielding the genotypes of 69. Accumulates in Pipecolic acidemia . protein processing (assmebling of virions = cleave of polypeptide products of HIV mRNA into functional parts) 150. CN III Palsy: Eye is "down and out" with ptosis and pupil dilation Lesions are typically aneurysms. Posterior Communicating Artery Common site ofsaccular (berry) aneurysm. Placenta grows completely through the endometrium Great risk of haemorrhage during placental removal -Commonly requires surgery to stem the bleeding and fully remove the placenta -In severe forms can often lead to a hysterectomy or be fatal 140. birth defects. where it is converted into pristanic acid by the removal of one carbon 156. uroporphyrin 5 P's 1.Very rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that is caused by a peroxisomal defect Abnormally deep attachment of the placenta to the myometrium without penetrating it. postpartum hemorrhage treated with? Prenatal cocaine effects progestin challenge with withdrawal bleed? protease inhibitors (navirs) oxytocin Associated with premature birth. Partial vs complete mole Peptic ulcers 153. Peroxisome Membrane-enclosed organelle involved in catabolism of very long fatty acids (VLFA) & amino acids Irreversible enzyme in Gluconeogenesis A component of Gluconeogenesis Branched chain fatty acid that humans can obtain through the consumption of dairy products.. Placenta accreta 141. -ALA. also commonly thought to cause or exacerbate ulcers. 144.. Pain with thumbs down. shoulders up pancreatic cancer associated with? paraesophageal hernia parathyroid adenoma. Psychological disturbances 5. supraspinatus. Precipitated by drugs 154. Porphobilinogen deaminase Acute intermittent porphyria Accumulates: Porphobilinogen. 143. 145. have not been found to affect ulcers to any significant exten 151. attention deficit disorder low estrogen production = estrogen increased in adipose tissue 157. 149. Port wine-colored urine 3. 142.. unconscious heroin OD . 152.

175. the elderly) -Will lead to prolonged fecal excretion of bacteria 170. RTA1 ("distal". which often infects cattle and poultry Usually does not need ABs (Only if complicated in people at risk such as infants. side effect of H1 blocker . 1. Renal tubular acidosis) Defect in proximal tubule HC03reabsorption Fanconi's syndrome urine pH < 5. Recurrent severe mycobacterial diseases renal failure causes loss of? Right Coronary Artery INF-gamma receptor defect RTA4 ("hyperkalemic". Think RVF! 168. gives off posterior descending artery Supplies SA nodal artery in 60% of patients Give off branch to right marginal artery If lungs are clear to auscultation. small children.25 OH) -Increased Ca+ absorbed from intestine Ca+ release from bone 166. 169. Renal tubular acidosis) Hypoaldosteronism or lack of collecting tubule response to aldosterone Resulting hyperkalemia impairs ammoniagenesis in the proximal tubule ↓ buffering capacity and ↓ urine pH 161. RTA2 ("proximal". Stacks of red blood cells (RBCs) which form because of the unique discoid shape of the cells in vertebrates Conditions which cause: Infections Multiple myeloma Inflammatory and connective tissue disorders Cancers Occurs in diabetes mellitus (one of the causative factors for microvascular occlusion in diabetic retinopathy) 172. a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle. prone to avascular necrosis due to retrograde blood supply Characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships.25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (from decreased conversion via 1a-hydroxylase in PCT) Supplies blood to right ventricle & 25-30% of left ventricle In 85% of patients. secretiveness. pyogenes (Group A) The bacteria behind post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis PHaryngitis can results in PHever & glomerulonePHritis 162. Renal tubular acidosis) Defect in collecting tubule's ability to excrete H+ urine pH >5. elaborate and exclusively internal fantasy world 164. Schizoid personality disorder 173. S. Screening for CD markers? Septic shock Immunohistochemistry high-output failure.5 hypokalemia ↑ risk for hypophosphatemic rickets ↑ serum calcium 160.5 hypokalemia ↑ risk for calcium phosphate kidney stones as a result of ↑ urine pH and bone resorption 174. 167. 163. dilated arterioles. hot patient drowsiness 165. no LVF.159. synth (1. emotional coldness and apathy May simultaneously demonstrate a rich. RNA splice error Rouleaux formation skipping of exons 171. Salmonella enterica Most cases of salmonellosis are caused by food infected with w/ this bacteria. PTH Ca+ resorption from Kidney (Inhibits PO4 resorption) Stimulates Vit D. Salmonella post antibiotic? Scaphoid bone prolonged fecal excretement post antibiotic Most commonly fractured carpel bone. high venous return. decreased TPR.

created to ensure a more representative sample of the population at large (ADHD more likely in boys than girls. Slipped-strand mispairing Denaturation and displacement of the DNA strands. The major cytotoxic agent released by bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the first identified member of the pore forming beta-barrel toxin family -Superantigens (TSST-1) induce toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release (IFN) -Enterotoxin that is the causative of gastroenteritis that is self-limiting. 191. Simple partial seizures Consciousness is not impaired Often precursors to larger seizures. therefore assigned differently) Alcohol: Leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation. diarrhea. Can result in either insertions or deletions. Insertions are thought to be selfaccelerating: as repeats grow longer. fetal alcohol syndrome Cocaine: Abnormal fetal development and fetal addiction. SNoW DRoP Southern = DNA Northern = RNA Western = Protein Identifies DNA-binding proteins Upregulates LDL receptors 187. Other -Protein A. the probability of subsequent mispairing events increases 186. placental abruption Smoking: Preterm labor. Superficial inguinal lymph nodes Anal canal (below pectenate line) Scrotum Thighs Ends up in these lymph nodes 178. Southwestern blot Stain Drug effects Staph -toxin 180. binds to the Fc region of an antibody Abduction of the arm at the shoulder joint -Main agonist muscle for this movement during the first 10-15 degrees of its arc Can test: Shoulder at 90% Empty can (Wrists pronated) 182. 179. an IgG-binding protein. -Exfoliative toxins implicated in (SSSS). placental problems. 183. Statin MOA (upregulate what?) LDL receptors Treacher Collins Syndrome 1st arch neural crest fails to migrate -Mandibular hypoplasia -Facial abnormalities . 181. usually from prolonged tampon use. Protease activity of the exfoliative toxins causes peeling of the skin observed with SSSS. vomiting. hormone excess? Supraspinatus prolactin 188. usually resulting in a complex partial seizure or a tonic-clonic seizure -In this case they are often known as an aura 184. resulting in mispairing of the complementary bases. IUGR. Substance Abuse Teratogens 177. stratified sample NOT random. where the abnormal electrical activity spreads to a larger area of (or all of) the brain. which occurs most commonly in infants and young children. characterized by vomiting and diarrhea one to six hours after ingestion of the toxin with recovery in eight to 24 hours. Staphylococcus aureus 189. ADI-ID 185. suprasellar mass. Fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate do not contain viable lymphocytes and thus do not need to be irradiated 190.176. Symptoms include nausea. and major abdominal pain. Temporal lobe lesion Transfusion associated GVH Upper quadrantic anopia Results from transfusion of immunocompetent T cells capable of engrafting and initiating an immune response against recipient antigens The most susceptible patient groups are those who are severely immunocompromised Gamma irradiation abolishes the proliferative activity of the lymphocytes in the donor blood.

202. macrophages -Granulation tissue depostion. myofibroblasts. Fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension. wound contraction (mediated by myofibroblasts) 3. macrophages 2. Wordy. Type II error Ubiquitin ubiquitin tagged proteins go where? Ureteric orifice 196. 198. Wernicke's area-superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe. oseltamivir MOA -ALA dehydratase 208. Valproic acid A wide spectrum seizure medication -1st line for tonic-clonic Not for status epilepticus Zanamavir MOA zanamivir. Zanamivir MOA . Remodeling (1 week after wound) -Fibroblasts -Type III collagen replaced by type I collagen 200. 199. -ALA synthase Sideroblastic anemia . memory loss. will cause scurvy --Inadequate hydroxylation of collagen peptides RBCs washed in sterile saline to remove: WBCs Lytic mediators Non-self antigens Most useful in IgA deficient persons who have circulating anti-IgA Abs -Use ↓ febrile. Wernicke's aphasia 193. a potentially dangerous complication 195. -ALA Microcytic anemia. Most common porphyria. Valproic Acid MOA inhibits HISTONE ACETYLASE Histones were in DNA transcription error Required fro the hydroxylation of specific purine and lysine residues -If deficient. 205. urticarial and anaphylactic reactions 209. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase 1. Children-exposure to lead paint -+ mental deterioration Adults-environmental exposure (battery/ ammunition/radiator factory) -+ headache. and are usually slit-like in form Porphyria cutanea tarda Accumulates: Uroporphyrin (tea colored urine) Blistering cutaneous photosensitivity. keratinocytes. Vitamin C 210. 197.inhibit virion release inhibits virion release 201. Washed packed RBCs 211. Why deoxyHB can carry CO2 better than OxyHB? Wound healing DeoxyHB = better buffer 207. but makes no sense 194. neutrophils. Inflammatory (immediate) -Platelets. angiogenesis. demyelination 203. Stating there is an effect when none exist saw a difference when none existed = p-value (false positive error) Stating there is not an effect when there is one Tags proteins for destruction by proteosome proteosome for degradation Placed at the postero-lateral angles of the trigonum vesicae. endothelial cells.192. Proliferative (2-3 days after wound) -Fibroblasts. Whole blood Blood that is unmodified except for the presence of an anticoagulant Usually not used because the extra plasma can contribute to transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO). Lead poisoning Accumulates: Protoporphyrin. GI and kidney disease. Trisomy 21 associated with increased risk of which cancers? Type I error Type I error = ALL and AML 204. 206.

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