This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Critical List: 91 coal projects Australia can’t afford
The Climate Commission’s The Critical Decade 2013 confirms that Australians are already suffering the impacts of climate change. The consequences of our failure to tackle rising greenhouse gas emissions, the bulk of which come from burning fossil fuels, are being felt already and will get much worse. The Climate Commission’s recent report confirmed that to avoid dangerous climate change – which means not allowing global average temperatures to rise by more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels – most of Australia’s fossil fuel reserves must stay in the ground.1 Despite this clear warning, State and Federal Governments are considering allowing the coal industry in NSW and Queensland to develop 91 new coal mining projects between now and the end of the critical decade. If they are allowed to proceed, burning the coal from these new projects could add an additional 1.5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere each year after 2018, and help drive dangerous levels of global warming. Australia has committed to not allow global average temperatures to rise by more than 2°C, and this commitment has bi-partisan support. We have been shown that we cannot meet this goal and continue expanding our coal industry. This special report reveals the scale of coal expansion proposed for NSW and Queensland, its likely contribution to global greenhouse pollution, and the projects that must be halted if Australia takes seriously its commitment to preventing 2°C of global warming. The choice is before us: it is coal, or the country.
Burning all fossil fuel reserves would lead to unprecedented changes in climate so severe that they will challenge the existence of our society as we know it today.
Climate Commission The Critical Decade 2013
Our choice: coal means climate change
Worldwide, coal makes the biggest contribution to greenhouse gas pollution, and this pollution is rising quickly. Burning fossil fuels -- coal, oil and gas -- is driving climate change and is killing and harming hundreds of thousands of people every year.2 The Climate Commission has made clear Australia’s key policy conundrum: to continue expanding our coal exports means inflicting the worsening impacts of climate change on every other industry in this country, and every one of its citizens, for the sake of just one industry. This is not reasonable. We know that to have a 50:50 chance of limiting warming to below two degrees above pre-industrial levels we must not mine, sell and burn most of the world’s coal. To have an 80% chance of meeting that goal more than three-quarters of the world’s coal must remain in the ground.3 The International Energy Agency has stated that, “To keep open a realistic chance of meeting the 2°C target, intensive action is required before 2020, the date by which a new international climate agreement is due to come into force. Energy is at the heart of this challenge: the energy sector accounts for around two-thirds of greenhouse-gas emissions as more than 80% of global 4 energy consumption is based on fossil fuels.” According to the International Energy Agency, in a scenario where the world acts to meet the goal of limiting warming to below two degrees, “Global demand for coal peaks around 2016 and then declines by 2.7% per year on average”.5
In a carbon constrained world where energy coal is the biggest contributor to a carbon problem how do you think this is going to evolve… I suspect the usage of thermal coal is going to decline, and frankly, it should.
Marcus Randolph Chief Executive, Iron and Coal BHP Billiton 5 November 2012
How much more coal is Australia planning to mine and sell in this critical time period?
NSW and Queensland already have over 100 operational black coal mines. In those states there are 91 new coal projects proposed, 54 of which are entirely new mines with the remainder being mine extension or expansion projects. Most of these projects are proposed to be approved and begin operation before 2020. All require approval from State or Federal Governments, or both. If these new coal projects go ahead, they will produce, once fully operating, 604 million tonnes of coal per year beyond the roughly 400 million tonnes that are being produced by already operating mines. That is enough coal to create over 1.5Gt of carbon dioxide pollution annually. When added to the 720 million tonnes of carbon dioxide annually produced from the coal already exported from Australia, it would take the carbon dioxide contribution of Australian coal industry globally to over 2 billion tonnes per annum.
Figure: New carbon dioxide emissions from Australian coal projects
Map: New coal projects in NSW and Queensland
The 91 new coal projects in NSW and QLD
Rockhampton Emerald Gladstone
Q U EENSL AN D
NE W SOU TH WAL ES
KEY Existing mines Expanding mines New mines Bathurst Newcastle Muswellbrook
Table: New coal projects in NSW and Queensland, by region
Coal region Bowen Basin Cape York Clarence-Moreton Basin Galilee Basin Gloucester Gunnedah Basin Hunter Maryborough Basin Newcastle coalfield Southern coalfield Styx Basin Surat Basin Western coalfields Total New coal projects 43 1 3 7 2 5 9 1 2 4 1 9 4 91 Proposed capacity 184 2 9 222 4 26 41 1 9 11 2 72 23 604 Additional CO2 486 4 23 531 9 65 101 1 22 30 4 171 56 1502
Table: New coal projects seeking Government approvals6
Project Alpha Coal Project Appin Area 9 Arcturus Ashton South East opencut Austar underground (stage 3) Baralaba expansion Baralaba South Belvedere underground Bengalla expansion (stage 2) Boggabri opencut Broadmeadow (mine life extension) Bundi Coal Project Byerwen Coal Project Carmichael Coal Project (mine and rail) Caval Ridge China First Coal project (Galilee Coal Project) Coalpac consolidation (Cullen Valley and Invincible mines) Cobbora Company GVK – Hancock Coal BHP Billiton Bandanna Energy Yancoal Australia Yancoal Australia Cockatoo Coal Cockatoo Coal Vale Rio Tinto / Wesfarmers Idemitsu Kosan BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) MetroCoal QCoal / JFE Steel Corporation Adani BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) Waratah Coal Coalpac Cobbora Holding Company State QLD NSW QLD NSW NSW QLD QLD QLD NSW NSW QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD NSW NSW Coal region Galilee Basin Southern coalfield Bowen Basin Hunter Newcastle coalfield Clarence-Moreton Basin Clarence-Moreton Basin Bowen Basin Hunter Gunnedah Basin Bowen Basin Surat Basin Bowen Basin Galilee Basin Bowen Basin Galilee Basin Western coalfields Western coalfields Type New mine Expansion New mine Expansion Expansion Expansion Expansion New mine Expansion Expansion Expansion New mine New mine New mine New mine New mine Expansion New mine Est. Start 2016 2016 2018+ 2018+ 2013 2014 2014 2016 2018+ 2014 2013 2017 2015 2016 2014 2017 2016 2015 Est. capacity 30 3.5 3 3.6 3.6 3.5 3 7 1.4 3.5 0.4 5 10 60 8 40 1.6 12 Est. CO2 72 9 7 9 10 9 8 19 3 8 1 12 27 143 22 96 4 29
Codrilla Colton Comet Ridge Curragh Mine Daunia Dingo West Doyles Creek Drake Coal project Drayton South Duralie Extension project Eagle Downs (Peak Downs East underground) Eaglefield Elimatta Ellensfield coal mine project Foxleigh Plains Project Grosvenor Phase 2 Grosvenor underground Hillalong Jax Jellinbah East Kestrel Kevin's Corner Lake Vermont Maules Creek Metropolitan Middlemount (stage 2) Millennium Minyango Moolarben (stage 2 ) Moorlands Moranbah South project Mount Pleasant Project Mt Penny Mt Thorley – Warkworth extension New Acland (stage 3) New Lenton Newlands
Peabody Energy New Hope Acacia Coal / Bandanna Energy Wesfarmers BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) Bandanna Energy Nucoal Resources / MMI QCoal Anglo Coal Australia Yancoal Australia Aquila Resources / Vale Peabody Energy New Hope Vale Anglo Coal Australia Anglo American Anglo American Rocklands Richfield QCoal Jellinbah, Marubeni, Sojitz Rio Tinto, Mitsui GVK Jellinbah, Marubeni, Sojitz, AMCI Whitehaven Peabody Energy Peabody Energy / YanCoal Peabody Energy Guangdong Rising Assets Management Yancoal Australia Cuesta Coal Limited Anglo Coal Australia / Exxaro Rio Tinto / Mitsubishi Cascade Coal Rio Tinto New Hope Coal New Hope Coal, MPC Xstrata
QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD NSW QLD NSW NSW QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD NSW NSW QLD QLD QLD NSW QLD QLD NSW NSW NSW QLD QLD QLD
Bowen Basin Maryborough Basin Galilee Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Hunter Bowen Basin Hunter Gloucester Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Surat Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Galilee Basin Bowen Basin Gunnedah Basin Southern coalfield Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Western coalfields Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Hunter Hunter Hunter Clarence-Moreton Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin
New mine New mine New mine Expansion New mine New mine New mine New mine Expansion Expansion New mine Expansion New mine New mine Expansion Expansion New mine New mine New mine Expansion Expansion New mine Expansion New mine Expansion Expansion Expansion New mine Expansion New mine New mine New mine New mine Expansion Expansion New mine Expansion
2017 2015 2015 2018+ 2013 2014 2018+ 2014 2015 2018+ 2016 2015 2016 2018+ 2014 2017 2013 2018+ 2018+ 2015 2013 2016 2013 2014 2015 2018+ 2013 2014 2018+ 2016 2018+ 2018+ 2018+ 2018+ 2016 2016 2014
3.2 0.5 0.4 1.5-2 4.5 1 4.8 6 4 1.2 4.5 5.2 5 5.5 1.4 6 5 1.8 1.8 2 1.4 30 4 10.8 1.5 3.6 1.5 7.5 3 2 12 10.5 5 0 2.7 5 5
9 1 1 5 12 3 11 15 10 3 12 14 12 14 4 16 14 5 5 5 4 72 11 28 4 10 4 19 7 5 32 25 12 0 6 14 12
North Surat – Collingwood Project Norwood Coal Mine NRE No. 1 Colliery Oaky Creek (phase 2) Orion Downs Project China Stone Ravensworth North (Stage 1) Rolleston (phase 1) Rolleston (phase 2) Sarum South Galilee Coal Project (3 phases) Springsure Creek (stage 1) Springsure Creek (stage 2) Stratford Styx Talwood Coking Coal Project Taroborah Taroom Tarrawonga Expansion Teresa The Range Project Togara North Ulan West United Project Vermont East/Wilunga Vickery Wallarah underground longwall Wandoan opencut (phase 1) Wards Well Washpool coal project Watermark Wilkie Creek Winchester South Wongai Project Wongawilli Colliery Woori
Cockatoo Coal MetroCoal Gujarat NRE Coking Coal Xstrata, Sumisho, Itochu, ICRA OC Endocoal MacMines Austasia Xstrata, Itochu Xstrata, Sumisho, IRCA Xstrata, Sumisho, IRCA Xstrata, Itochu, ICRA NCA, Sumisho Bandanna Energy Bandanna Energy Bandanna Energy Yancoal Australia Waratah Coal, Queensland Nickel Aquila Resources Shenhuo International Cockatoo Coal Whitehaven Linc Energy Stanmore Coal Xstrata Xstrata, Mitsubishi Xstrata, CFMEU Peabody Energy Whitehaven Korea Resources Corp / Sojitz Corp Xstrata, Itochu, Sumisho Coal BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) Aquila Resources Shenhua Energy Peabody Energy Rio Tinto Aust-Pac Capital Gujarat NRE Coking Coal Cockatoo Coal
QLD QLD NSW QLD QLD QLD NSW QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD NSW QLD QLD QLD QLD NSW QLD QLD QLD NSW NSW QLD NSW NSW QLD QLD QLD NSW QLD QLD QLD NSW QLD
Surat Basin Surat Basin Southern coalfield Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Galilee Basin Hunter Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Galilee Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Gloucester Styx Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Surat Basin Gunnedah Basin Bowen Basin Surat Basin Bowen Basin Western coalfields Hunter Bowen Basin Gunnedah Basin Newcastle coalfield Surat Basin Bowen Basin Bowen Basin Gunnedah Basin Surat Basin Bowen Basin Cape York Southern coalfield Surat Basin
New mine New mine Expansion Expansion New mine New mine Expansion Expansion Expansion New mine New mine New mine Expansion Expansion New mine New mine New mine New mine Expansion New mine New mine New mine Expansion Expansion New mine New mine New mine New mine New mine New mine New mine Expansion New mine New mine Expansion New mine
2015 2017 2014 2018+ 2014 2018+ 2013 2014 2018+ 2014 2015 2015 2018+ 2014 2018+ 2016 2015 2018+ 2018+ 2016 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2014 2018+ 2015 2017 2018+ 2015 2016 2016 2018+ 2016 2016
6 6.5 3 5 2.5 45 8 3 3 6.5 17 5.5 5.5 2.6 1.5 3.6 2.3 8 1 8 5 6 6.7 4 3 4.5 5 22 5 2.6 6.15 10 4 1.5 3 4
14 16 8 14 6 107 20 7 7 17 41 13 13 7 4 9 6 19 3 22 12 14 16 11 8 11 12 53 14 7 15 24 10 4 8 10
1. Climate Commission. The Critical Decade 2013. June 2013. http://climatecommission.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/The-Critical-Decade-2013_medres_web.pdf 2. For the human toll of climate change, already estimated to be 300,000 people annually worldwide, see Global Humanitarian Forum Human Impact Report 2009 http://www.ghf-ge.org/human-impact-report.pdf. Studies have been undertaken in various countries of the health impacts and casualties from coal pollution, as one example, see Conservation Action Trust, Urban Emissions and Greenpeace Coal Kills: An Assessment of Death and Disease caused by India’s Dirtiest Energy Source. 2013. http://www.greenpeace.org/india/Global/india/report/Coal_Kills.pdf 3. Carbon Tracker Unburnable Carbon: Wasted Capital and Stranded Assets. June 2013. http://www.carbontracker.org/wastedcapital 4. IEA Special Report: Redrawing the Climate-Energy Map. June 2013. 5. IEA. World Energy Outlook 2011. Page 212. 6. Data in this table is drawn from the Bureau of Resource and Energy Economics (BREE) Resources and Energy Major Projects List. April 2013 with the addition of coal projects seeking planning approvals but not included in that list, and the exclusion of projects for which production levels are not specified. Projects without start dates provided by BREE have been given a start date of 2018+ and italicised.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.