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Poor Voice Quality Network Congestion False Answer Charges Incorrect Calling Line Identity (Caller ID) Subscriber Dissatisfaction from Spamming Subscriber Privacy and Security Compromises

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An illegal or unauthorized international communications service taking business and revenues away from the authorized and regulated MNO, Telco or international long distance provider Availability of low cost broadband Internet service and GSM chipsets have made GSM Gateway SIM Boxes prolific Typically done with wholesale international traffic terminating to local GSM networks, bypassing international gateways

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International Gateway SIM Box Internet

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Market Rate

Interconnect Provider A

PLMN International Gateway
Bypass Interconnection
Interconnect Providers charge originating Operators market rates to connect. “Gray Route” Providers undercut the market and offer cheap rates while spoofing quality

GSM

SIM Box Terminated Calls
“Gray Route” Providers bypass tolls via Internet VOIP to a GSM “SIM Box” located in destination network. High net profit since calls terminated as GSM local calls with minimal overhead.

Bad Business for Everyone
PLMN is cheated of charging the call at premium interconnect rates. SIM Box saturates local RF resources on the GSM Network, and both callers experience poor call quality.

Market Rate

Interconnect Provider B

GSM

Below Market Rate

Interconnect Provider C
Originating International Traffic
ILEC/CLEC/PLMN subscribers dial internationally .The Operator uses Interconnect Providers to route traffic to the foreign destination.

Internet

GSM
GSM VOIP Gateway SIM Box

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National Rate Arbitrage Traffic Pumping Terminating via Hijacked SIM Accounts SMS Spamming

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Traffic Pumping is where Local Exchange Carriers (LECs) in rural areas inflate the volume of incoming calls to their network High volume calls (Traffic Pumping) accomplished with:
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Multi-Party Conference Calling SIM Boxes Large concentration of mobile phones operated in one location

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Target numbers being called:
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Chat Lines Free International Radio Broadcast Horoscope

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SIM accounts taken over / hijacked by social engineering schemes Stolen SIMs used to originate calls to international destinations International traffic terminated through international GSM calls Frequent swap out of stolen SIMs

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International Traffic

International Calls

VOIP

GSM

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What’s your address? ID numbers?

Call 555-1212 to claim your prize

Missed call from 900.555.1212

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Poor Voice Quality Network Congestion False Answer Charges Incorrect Calling Line Identity (Caller ID) Subscriber Dissatisfaction from Spamming Subscriber Privacy and Security Compromises

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High Quality Originating Trunk

Carrier Class Transit Circuits

High Quality Mobile Vocoder

International Gateway SIM Box

High Quality Originating Trunk

Internet

Poor Quality Retail Grade VOIP with high compression Codecs

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Codec (Coder/Decoder) - Analog to digital conversion algorithm for transmission of speech over a digital network
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ITU G.711 (alaw & ulaw) – 64 kbps, sample based. Delivers precise speech transmission. Needs at least 128kbps for two way ITU G.722 – 48/56/64 kbps. Adopts to various compressions and bandwidth. It is conserved with network congestion. ITU G.726 – 16/24/32/40 Kbps. An improved version of G.721 and G.723 (different from G.723.1) ITU G.728 – 16 kbps ITU G.729 – 8 kbps, Optimum bandwidth utilization. Error tolerant. ITU G.723.1 – 5.3/6.3 kbps, High compression for maximum bandwidth conservation.

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SIM Box operators can choose which Codecs to use To save bandwidth costs and maximize call volumes, high compression / low quality codecs are typically used Subscribers blame the operators not the SIM Boxers for bad voice quality

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Cell sites are planned based on normal subscriber distribution and activity models SIM Boxes create artificially high subscriber density and traffic volumes RF resources on cell sites are saturated, causing legitimate subscribers to be blocked Disrupts and skews the cell site planning process

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Calls connected before actually reaching the dialed party Originating party is charged for the phone call Recorded ring tones used to fake the caller and keep them on the line SIM Boxers use FAS to inflate ASR metrics
Dial Connect Ring

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Subscribers do not answer unknown numbers Subscriber call backs result in unavailable messages
0700591818

0700591818
International Gateway

0709123456

SIM Box Internet

0700591818

Terminating Subscriber sees the Caller ID of the SIM Box SIM Card !

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Ranges from harmless unwanted ads to social engineering schemes Leads to various frauds
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Identity Theft Premium Rate Fraud / Wangiri

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Taxes SMSC and network resources Causes subscriber dissatisfaction Overloads customer support resources

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SIM Box VoIP traffic is unencrypted and unprotected Free, open source packet capture tools can playback voice Lawful intercept systems are unknowingly evaded

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Passive Call Data Record (CDR) Analysis
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Examine switch based CDRs for statistical signatures Provides complete data set for all network activity Call generation through various interconnect routes Positive identification of Gateway SIM Cards Exposes SIM Boxes in competitive networks

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Active Test Call Generation
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Comprehensive analysis of SIM Box operation Document damages and financial losses Leverage network tools and specialty equipment to precisely locate the SIM Box Work with law enforcement to take action

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We do not slow down bypass. We work with you to STOP bypass in order to achieve real revenue increases.

We have experience and proven success in working with regulators and authorities to take action against SIM Box fraud.

+10,000 SIM Cards causes huge damages

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Haiti

Ghana Afghanistan

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SIM Boxes are on your network right now

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Don Reinhart +1.571.435.3129 Mobile donr@latroservices.com

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