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REVIEW QUESTIONS AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO. 30 TOPIC: REVIEW QUESTIONS LECTURE NO. 1: INTRODUCTION TO TOWN PLANNING: PURPOSE AND SCOPE 1. What is town planning? Explain its purpose and scope. 2. Write down the significance of the subject town planning. 3. What is the role of a civil engineer and a town planner in a city? LECTURE NO. 2: DEFINITIONS OF TOWN PLANNING 1. Define and explain the following: i. Town ii. Municipality iii. City iv. Local Government v. Megalopolis vi. Mega-cities vii. New Towns viii. Guild Towns ix. Satellite Town x. Garden City 2. Define and explain the following: i. City Centre ii. Central Business District iii. Outer Business District iv. Sub Centre v. Neighbourhood vi. Neighbourhood Centre vii. Fringe viii. Family ix. Migration x. Public Utilities 3. Define and explain the following:

i. Street ii. Road iii. Highway iv. Motorway v. Transport vi. Public Transport vii. Mass Transit viii. Park and Street Park ix. Locality Park and Urban Park x. National Parks and Nature Reserves 4. Define and explain the following: i. Hard Landscape and Soft Landscape ii. Townscape iii. Conservation iv. Preservation v. Restoration vi. Redevelopment vii. Rehabilitation viii. Renovation ix. Rejuvenation x. Revitalization 5. Define and explain the following: i. Restitution ii. Animation iii. Adaptive Reuse iv. Urban Renewal v. Urban Economics vi. Socialist Economy and Capitalist Economy vii. Production and Factors of Production viii. Money, Prices and Market Forces ix. Supply and Demand x. Commodity, Goods and Services 6. Define and explain the following: i. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics ii. Economic Systems iii. House, Houses and Housing iv. Family and Household v. Public Sector vi. Private Sector vii. Cooperative Sector viii. Formal and Informal Sector ix. Social and Rental Housing x. Land Lease and Land Grabbing

LECTURE NO. 3: TRENDS IN URBAN GROWTH 1. What is Urban Growth and Urban Sprawl? 2. Define the process of urban growth and explain the trends in urban growth 3. Narrate your understanding regarding Metropolitan Cities, Mega Cities, and Small and Intermediate Cities. 4. Define and explain the following i. Low Density Continuous Development Pattern ii. Leapfrog Development Pattern iii. Ribbon Development Pattern iv. Cellular Growth v. Linear City. 5. Describe in details the theories and models of urban growth and citys life cycle. 6. In your own words write down the details of Concentric Zones Theory, Axial Development Theory, Sector Development Theory and Multiple Nuclei Development Theory. 7. Delineate a definition and description to following terms: i. Eopolis ii. Polis iii. Metropolis iv. Megalopolis v. Tyranopolis vi. Necropolis vii. Infantile viii. Juvenile ix. Mature x. Senile 8. Delineate the theories of Lewis Mumford and Griffith Taylor about citys life cycle. 9. Write a critique on Global Urban Population in Developed and Developing Countries. 10. Why is the urban population increasing so fast around the globe? 11. What are the problems and issues associated with rapid urban growth? 12. In your opinion what are the major aspects of urban growth and how the process of urban planning works? Narrate your answer by citing a suitable example of a city from the local or global context. LECTURE NO. 4: OBJECTIVES OF SOUND PLANNING 1. Explain the phrase Sound Planning and narrate your opinion regarding Objectives of Sound Planning. 2. How do we develop the goals and objectives for a city?

3. In your opinion how do we formulate the objectives of sound planning for Karachi? LECTURE NO. 05: MODERN PLANNING IN PAKISTAN AND ABROAD 1. Delineate and describe the concepts of Modern, Modernity, Modernism and Modern Planning. 2. Write short notes on: i. Authoritarian Planning ii. Utilitarian Planning iii. Romantic Planning iv. Utopian Planning v. Technocratic Planning vi. Technocratic Utopia vii. Organic Planning viii. Post Modern Planning ix. Sustainable Planning x. Smart Planning 3. Write an article about Modern Planning in Pakistan and abroad. LECTURE NO. 06: INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR TOWN PLANNING 1. What kind of information required for conducting a town planning exercise? 2. What is the significance of information for town planning? 3. What nature of information required for Landuse Planning, Economic Development and Environmental Quality in a city? LECTURE NO. 07: MAPS 1. What is the significance of Maps in town planning? 2. How many types of maps are required for planning and development of urban areas? 3. Write an essay about Scales of Maps. 4. Write an inventory and format of maps required for preparation of a Master Plan, Zonal Plan and Area Plan. LECTURE NO. 08: NATURAL RESOURCES 1. What is meant by Natural Resources? 2. How do we classify Economic Resources? 3. Narrate the relation between natural resources and town planning. 4. Decode and define the following: i. IEE ii. EIA

iii. SIA iv. LVIA LECTURE NO. 09: ECONOMIC RESOURCES 1. What is meant by Economic Resources? 2. How do we classify Economic Resources? 3. Narrate the relation between economic resources and town planning. 4. What is economics and urban economics? 5. Discuss and deliberate on the following: i. Market forces in the development of cities ii. Land use within cities and metropolitan areas iii. Economic policy in urban areas iv. Urban transportation and urban economics v. Housing and public policy vi. Government expenditures and taxes in urban economics vii. Natural, human and capital resources viii. Goods and services ix. Urban problems x. Local government and town planning LECTURE NO. 10: LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS 1. What is a Law? 2. What is an Administration? 3. What is Public Administration? 4. What are Urban Problems? 5. Discuss and deliberate on the following urban problems: i. Unemployment ii. Inappropriate solid waste management iii. Urban poverty iv. Inadequate housing stock v. Inadequate water/sanitation facilities vi. Inadequate public transportation vii. Traffic congestion viii. Inadequate health & education services ix. Urban violence/crime/personal safety x. Discrimination (women. ethnic, poor) 6. Discuss and deliberate on the urban problems of: i. United States & Latin America ii. Europe iii. Africa iv. Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East v. Asia and Pacific 7. Discuss and deliberate on the urban problems of Karachi?

LECTURE NO. 11: CIVIC SURVEY 1. Describe in details the types of surveys and significance of survey and mapping techniques in any town planning exercise. 2. What is meant by Civic survey or Socio-Economic survey? Discuss. 3. Develop a sample Performa for socioeconomic survey. 4. Discuss in details the description of Survey and Mapping by G.K. Hiraskar and John Ratcliff. LECTURE NO. 12: URBAN ECOLOGY 1. What is meant by the phrase urban ecology? Elaborate with suitable examples. 2. What is the significance of urban ecology? Discuss by citing suitable examples. LECTURE NO. 13: NEED AND SCOPE OF COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 1. Describe in details the need and scope of comprehensive plan. 2. Write short notes on: i. Town planning controls ii. Subdivision regulations iii. Building and housing codes iv. Social, economic, and environmental policy v. The future of cities and town planning LECTURE NO. 14 and 15: PHASES OF PLANNING & PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING 1. Describe in details the phases of planning and principles of planning. 2. Explain in detail the principles of panning that helps a town planner in decision making for planning a city. 3. Develop a hierarchy or phases though which town planning is carried out in an appropriate manner. 4. A planner can be defined as An artist of rationality with reference to human activity Explain this statement with suitable examples. 5. Narrate the seven steps of planning process. 6. Describe in details the principles of planning as described by G. K Hiraskar and Abir Bandy Opadhyay in their books on town planning. 7. Elucidate the following four principles of town planning: i. Health of Citizens ii. Physical, Social and Economic Convenience iii. Aesthetics and Beauty iv. Safety and Security 8. The planners established the principles of planning from four major directions i.e. through quantitative techniques, aesthetic considerations, political behavioral imperatives

and social welfare concerns. Explain. 9. Explain the details of seven phases of planning as given below: i. Preliminary Study (Contextual Appraisal). ii. Formulation of Goals (Public Participation / Views of People). iii. Identification of Objectives (Public Demand & Details of Policy & Plan). iv. Preparation of Alternative Strategies (Various Courses of Actions). v. Evaluation (Strategy for enforcement by Considering the Physical, Social, economic & Political Realities). vi. Implementation (Public Private Partnerships, Regulation and Control over Development). vii. Monitoring & Review (Redefining Goals & Objectives with Changing Socio-Political Situations). 10. Explicate town planning by means of at least seven phases of planning and seven principles of planning. LECTURE NO. 16, 17, 18 and 19: COMMUNICATION (ROADS, RAILWAYS, AIRPORTS AND HARBORS) 1. Write a comprehensive essay about Communication i.e. roads, railways, airways and waterways. 2. Cities are the engines of our civilization, where specialized services are available for our living, working and recreation. No city can be termed as a good city which does not possess efficient communication system Explain these statements. 3. Explain the phrase communication with reference to transportation. 4. Explain the function, necessity and classification of roads and road network within an urban context. 5. Write an essay about metropolitan railways. 6. Explicate in details the definition, meaning, types and classification of metropolitan railways and enlighten upon modern developments in urban rail transport. 7. Write short notes on following communication means: i. Local Road, District Roads, State Highways and National Highway ii. Ring road, Diagonal road, Radial road and Circular road iii. Residential road, Commercial road, Avenue, Promenade and Boulevard iv. Arterial roads, Sub-arterial roads, Local roads, bypass roads, Outer & Inner Ring roads, Express ways and free ways. v. Subways, Underground Street Cars, Metro, Metropolitano, U. Bahn, and S. Bahn Systems 8. Inscribe an article about Airways and Air Transport. 9. Write an article on Airport and its development in an urban context. 10. Elucidate the function, location, planning and design of Airport facilities in an urban context. 11. Write an essay about water ways, sea ports, harbors and docks.

12. Explicate in details the definition, need, impacts, efficiency, type and classification of water ways, sea ports, harbors & docks. 13. Describe in details the natural, functional and location classification of sea ports and harbor facilities. 14. Write short notes with suitable examples about the types of harbors given below: i. Natural and Semi-Natural Harbor ii. Artificial Harbor iii. Commercial Harbor iv. Military Harbor v. Harbor of Refuge 15. Inscribe an essay about waterways and water transport. 16. Write an article on planning & design of sea ports, harbors and docks and dockyards. 17. Elucidate the significance of developing waterways, sea ports, harbors, docks and dockyards in an urban context. 18. Discuss in details the sea ports harbors, docks and dockyards development in the context of Karachi. 19. Draw a typical layout of a natural and an artificial harbor, label them and explain. LECTURE NO. 20: STREET TRAFFIC AND DESIGN 1. Write a comprehensive essay about Street Traffic and Design. 2. Elucidate the definition, types, function, location, planning and design of a street and its role in built environment. 3. Write short notes on: i. Role of street in the built environment ii. Circulation within streets iii. Vehicular traffic in streets iv. Parking for vehicles in streets v. Pedestrian traffic in streets vi. Vehicular amenities in streets vii. Interaction in streets viii. Identity of streets ix. Streets as distinct from other spaces x. Nomenclature of streets LECTURE NO. 21: URBAN ZONING & LAND USE CONTROL 1. Write an all-inclusive essay about Urban Zoning and Land Use Control. 2. Compare the definitions of Urban Zoning and Land Use Control as defined by G. K. Hiraskar in his book Fundamentals of Town Planning and W.PAUL Farmer and Julie A. Gibb in the book Introduction to Urban Planning. 3. Elucidate the phrase Urban Zoning and Land Use Control and explain its objectives, purpose, scope, need and significance.

4. What is meant by Land Use Control and how it is exercised by the institutions in an urban context? 5. Narrate the relation between Land Use and Environment. 6. Explicate in details the origin and history of zoning in United States of America and United Kingdom. 7. Write a brief note on zoning types i.e. euclidean, performance based, incentive based and form based. 8. The zoning is classified in three categories i.e. use zoning, height zoning and density zoning. Explain with suitable examples and sketches. 9. Write short notes on: i. Use Zoning ii. Height Zoning iii. Density Zoning iv. Residential Zone v. Commercial Zone vi. Industrial Zone vii. Civic Zone viii. Institutional Zone ix. Recreational Zone x. Zoning Powers 10. Mark and make clear the zoning and landuse classification on given map of a town with appropriate colour coding. LECTURE NO. 22: PARKS AND RECREATION FACILITIES 1. Write an all-inclusive essay about Parks and Recreation Facilities. 2. Government-owned or operated parks are of three types i.e. National Park, Sub National Parks and Urban Parks. Explain with suitable examples. 3. Define recreation and its significance in an urban context? 4. Elucidate the popular types of recreational activities exists in various urban contexts around the globe. 5. Write an article on provision of parks and recreational facilities in major urban centers of Pakistan. LECTURE NO. 23: LOCATION OF PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS, CIVIC CENTERS, COMMERCIAL CENTERS, LOCAL SHOPPING CENTERS, PUBLIC SCHOOLS 1. What is meant by location? Explain location theory. 2. Write an all-inclusive essay about location of public and semi-public buildings, civic centers, commercial centers, local shopping centers and public schools. 3. In town planning what are the major factors involved while making decisions about


location of: i. Public and Semi-Public Buildings ii. Civic Centers iii. Local Shopping Centers and iv. Public Schools LECTURE NO. 24: LOCATION OF INDUSTRY & RESIDENTIAL AREAS 1. Write an all-inclusive essay about location of Industry and Residential areas. 2. In town planning what are the major aspects which needs to be considered while making decision about location of Industry and Residential areas. 3. What are the reasons for the location of a particular business or industry in a specific area? 4. Why people decide about living in a particular housing scheme at a particular location whereas; different types of residences available at variety of locations within city? 5. How will you decide about the location of your workplace and residence? 6. How do people decide about locating their business and industry within a city? 7. Elucidate the physical, human and economic factors that help in making decisions about locating an industry, business or a residential area. 8. Define the significance of following contributing factors for locating an industry or business within a city. i. Nearness to power ii. Nearness to market iii. Nearness to a supply of raw materials iv. Nearness to a supply of labour v. Proximity of other businesses external economies of scale vi. The reputation of an area vii. Transport and communication services viii. Incentives ix. Competition x. Opportunities for expansion LECTURE NO. 25: LAYOUT OF STREET, ROAD CROSSING & LIGHTING 1. Write an all-inclusive essay about Layout of Street, Road Crossing and Lighting. 2. Define and explain the terms Street and Street Furniture. 3. Elucidate the following terms with suitable sketches: i. Lane ii. Track iii. Street iv. Avenue v. Pathway vi. Alleyway vii. Walkway


viii. Boulevard ix. Thoroughfare x. Culdesac 4. Explicate the phrase Traffic Calming and elucidate the practical engineering measures employed for it. 5. Explain the phrase Road Crossing and enlighten its characteristics. 6. Elucidate the methods of Street Lighting with suitable sketches. LECTURE NO. 26: COMMUNITY PLANNING 1. What is Community Planning? Write at least 10 benefits of Community Planning. 2. How do we start with community planning? Write at least 8 steps approach adopted for Community Planning. 3. Write an all-inclusive essay about Principles of Community Planning. 4. Write at least 50 Principles of Community Planning. LECTURE NO: 27: SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT 1. Define the meaning, etymology and usage of the term suburb 2. Explain the process of suburban growth in United States of America and United Kingdom? 3. Why do suburbs developes? Discuss. 4. Write an essay about suburbs, suburbanisation and suburban development in a global context 5. Describe the following terms and concepts: i. Boomburbs ii. Commuter town iii. Exurbs iv. Edge city v. Ethnoburb vi. Inner suburbs vii. Penurbia viii. Streetcar suburb ix. Urban rural fringe x. Urban sprawl. LECTURE NO. 28 and 29: SLUM AREAS AND THEIR UPGRADING 1. Write an all-inclusive essay about Slum Areas and their Upgrading around the globe. 2. Clearly establish the definition and background of Slum Areas and Squatter Settlements. 3. Differentiate between the phrases Slum Areas and Squatter Settlements. 4. Elaborate the definitions of Slum Areas and Squatter Settlements. 5. Why squatter settlements emerge and formed in a city and what are its socioeconomic


and physical implications on city and city dwellers. 6. Write a comprehensive article about development of squatter settlements in Pakistan and in Karachi. 7. What is meant by Informal / Illegal Land subdivisions? What are its actors and processes? 8. Put in writing a wide-ranging critique about development of slums in India. 9. Write at least eight main causes for the formation of slums and seven major effects of slums on town life. 10. What is meant by Slum Clearance? What are the two major processes of Slum Clearance? Elaborate. LECTURE NO: 28 & 29 TOPIC: SLUM AREAS AND THEIR UPGRADING INTRODUCTION: The theme of current lecture is the slum areas and their upgrading. This theme clearly identify that there are two main aspects that would be discussed in current lecture. On the one hand the discussion would be focused on understanding of the slum areas, whereas; on the other hand the description would be given for upgrading of a slum area within an urban and regional context. In the following all these issues are discussed and described in details. BACKGROUND OF SLUM AREAS: It is grave reality that, in current urbanizing world the numbers of urban poor are increasing with enormous speed. Whereas; the formal sectors efforts of providing housing to urban poor are inadequate due to absence of political will, extraordinary growth of population & influx of migrants in urban areas. As a repercussion there emerge slums & squatter settlements in the cities. The term squatter settlements, leads us to variety of concepts. The depth in this term is such a huge phenomenon that it compels us to think of its process of development and address the numerous questions attached to it such as: Why squatter settlements emerge? How they are formed in a city? What are its socioeconomic and physical implications with human abuse cycles? In order to understand the phenomenon of slum areas and squatter settlements one has to look at the existing housing situation, formal sectors approaches in housing provision process and development of squatter settlements via informal sectors mechanism. DEFINITIONS OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS AND SLUM AREAS: Before going into further details of slums and squatter settlements or Katchi Abadis it is necessary to understand the definitions of squatter settlements & slum areas in the city. SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS: The Oxford English Dictionary explains that A squatter settlements is defined as the


occupied land by a group of settlers having no formal or legal title to the land occupied by them, especially one thus occupying land in a district not yet surveyed by the government. The term squatter settlement if analyzed into some details one can easily find that the word Squatter means an unauthorized occupant of the land where as settlement means the placing of person & things in a fixed or permanent position. Therefore one can also conclude that, when an unauthorized occupation of land occurs in any district or area then the people or things fixed or placed themselves on permanent basis to their occupied land. However such occupied land often removed or bulldozed by authorities in the name of slum clearance or slum upgrading. As a repercussion large number of people becomes displaced & millions of rupees invested in one such occupied land go waste. Thus the issue of squatter settlements has a human and financial value attached to it. SLUM AREAS: According to Mr. G.K. Hiraskar[1] there are three different definitions of slum areas. These are as follows: A slum is predominantly an over crowded area which is in advanced state of decay where dwellings are unfit for human habitation. It is an area which lacks the basic amenities like water supply & drainage for standard living and where an unsanitary condition prevails & diseases flourish. Slum is a poverty-stricken area where there is high birth rate, infant morality, illegitimacy, juvenile crime, delinquency & death, thus represent the state of hell on the surface of earth. Thus these definitions clearly spell out that; slum is menace to health, safety, morality and general welfare of the inhabitants. SO, WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT? Squatter settlements & slum areas are quite common. According to a rough estimate in Karachi alone, more than 60 percent of population lives in more than 700 squatter settlements & slums. SO, HOW TO DEAL WITH THIS ISSUE? It is a self evident fact that, squatter settlements & slum areas are growing with an enormous speed in the entire major urban centers of the world. Whether; it is Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, New York, Tokyo, London, Riode-Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Shanghai or any other large metropolitan or mega city for that matter. The basic question always remain that how to deal with this ever enlarging monster in


which major victims are the human beings themselves? The answer to this & such type of questions is to first understand the current situation of any context where slums & squatters are emerging. Secondly what is the process of their making? Thirdly who are the actors involved behind squatter making drama? Fourthly how to deal with this issue? Fifthly what are the good practices in this regard which addressed this issue and Finally what are the good practices that exist and needs to be enhanced in order to find out the solutions to address this problem? RETROSPECT OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS IN PAKISTAN: After the freedom from British Raj in 1947, Karachi became the capital of Pakistan and during the first three years after independence a major influx of migrants came to Karachi. The population of Karachi at that time was 4 lackh inhabitants where as within three years of time 6 lackhs migrants came to Karachi who has an abject need for housing. Considering the housing demand government allowed them to squatter in whatever feasible place for their survival. As a repercussion an unorganized invasion of government land occurred & city because filled with slums & squatter settlements and city become very congested with a filthy built environment. Thus in this way the phenomenon of squatter settlement emerges as housing option for poor people who are in immediate need of a shelter. In all our cities of Pakistan the government owns a lot of land which is mainly belongs to C.B.R. i.e. Central Board of Revenue and P.B.R. i.e. Provincial Board of Revenues in both inside and outside the cities. Likewise, there are other departments such as Pakistan railways. Owns a lot of land in the country. In 1950 and 60s the people came from India occupy these governments land in the form of cluster planning of settlements. These were mainly known as Unorganized invasion on government land. In Karachi, this unorganized invasion not only occurred on government land but private houses and buildings were also occupied by these migrants. In 1958, Pakistan has seen its first Martial Law Administration or military government. Now military regime has a particular policy regarding these unorganized squatter settlements. They particularly do not like them at all in (then) capital i.e. Karachi. They call it the scars on face of city (just like G.K. Hiraskar) and they like the city to be clean from these settlements. Therefore, they start bulldozing these settlements and throw them out of the city. As a repercussion informal sector get into shape. In the informal sector process, mainly government employees meet the middlemen (A Dalal) and tough guys (Gundas) and give them protection and advice to make an unorganized invasion or Kabza on governments land. They jointly occupied the land, subdivided it in haphazard plots and sell it. In this way occupation of land occurred in 50s by the migrants from India. However later on in 1960s an organized invasion on governments land took place through


the organized efforts of informal sector actors. This illegal occupation of government land is popularly known as ISDs or Informal / Illegal Land subdivisions. The process of this illegal subdivisions or ISDs has nine major actors. It includes, a political top, an administrative top, Mr. X, a middle man, police, field personal belongs to different institutions & departments, land grabbers (plot sellers), tough guys and other services providers. All these nine actors have different roles to play in the squatter making dram. Their interrelationships are so strongly organized and in hierarchy that an squatter settlement establish without any hindrance or spontaneously & in a peculiar manner that it seems a solution to provision of housing to urban poor. This relationship emerged in 1960s & 70s. it was defined by Professor Dr. Jan Van Der Linden[2]to author is a training course on Appropriate shelter strategies held at SKAA Karachi. The process of making a squatter settlement begins with Mr. X; Mr. X may be any body who has the information about land, contacts in administrative or political setup and a powerful & sound background. Lets suppose his name is Mr. Wahab. This Mr. X has a subordinate or a middle man who may be a Dalal or locally known as Thalla Wala or Block Maker, let's suppose his name is Mr. Aqeel. Mr. Aqeel has the contacts with plots sellers (locally known as land grabbers), tough guys (Shagirds) and informal service providers. All these actors has different role to play at different period of time during the development of the settlement. At first Mr. Wahab contacts the administrative top & political top and identifies a piece of land in the outskirts of city because it is quite risky business to occupy land within city. On a secret place a meeting held between these three actors and their shares are decided. Then Mr. Wahab made a claim to 500 acres to land and asks his subordinate Mr. Aqeel to take at least 100 families to the site, to occupy the land. Mr. Aqeel then contacts the plot sellers and tough guys to bring the destitute and all those families who are in need of house to the site. By the time Mr. Wahab conceptualizes the occupation of land & establishes contacts with the administrative top and political top, he is informed by Mr. Aqeel that the plot sellers have prepared a list of destitute and needy people. Thus in the middle of the night these people are brought into site on the trucks with bamboos posts and mats for the construction of shacks. After they began to put up their huts, the original owners of the site arrive on site with people or guards with guns. They inform the people that the land is leased to them by the government and they will kill any body who tries to occupy it. A scuffle followed and some of the tough guys get injured in the process. Here enters the police into the scene and try to control the situation & held negotiation between the original owner & Mr. Aqeel. Then it is decided that no houses shall be put up however the destitute can stay on the site until the matters are settled. Next day the original owner hire a lawyer & made a case in court of law against the occupation of land by Mr. Aqeel & his associates, which is leased to him. The case gets admitted. On the other hand Mr. Aqeel filed a complaint with the local police that the guards of original owner had caused a bodily harm to his Shagirds clients & associates. Then further negotiations took place between the original owner & Mr. Aqeel, under the auspices of mutual friends and local police. As a result the original owner is given option to receive rupees 500/plot which was developed by land grabbers of the area & Mr. Aqeel. Where as these mutual friends & police get few plots as a fee for these negotiations. Then those plots which was given


to destitute are exempted from the payment to original owner, similarly, Mr. Aqeel also do not change any profit on these plots. However, Rs. 200/plot was paid to government officials by Mr. Aqeel for not interfering in this whole event. This money is also obtained from the plot owners, who also pay Rs. 200 per plot to police directly for not bulldozing their shacks or removing people from site. Afterwards the negotiations complete. The original owner withdraws its case against Mr. Aqeel & his Shagirds and Mr. Aqeel also with draw his case against original owner. However the original owner files a new case against the government officials for permitting the Squatment of land which was leased to the original owner. This case never ends for the years to come. After the completion of negotiations with owner the real process of settlement begins with the sufferings & miseries of people. At first Mr. Aqeel laid out the plan of the settlement with the guidance of Mr. X and helps of his Shagirds develop around 2000 plots on grid iron pattern. The roads of the settlements are leveled with hiring tractors & bulldozers from governments line departments. Its charges are taken from people. Plots for mosques & shops are set a side. This time the negotiations took place with government officials and 30 percent of plots are given to them & will be sold by Mr. Aqeel on their behalf at an appropriate time. Now plot sellers become quite active to sell the plots in the settlement except those reserved for government officials. Now whoever purchases a plot in the settlement, has to construct his house in a months time and move in, otherwise Mr. Aqeel sells his plot to someone else & refund the money. However this refund never really happens. The price of 80 square yards plot was set at Rs. 900 only.[3] From which Rs. 500 went to original owner and 200 rupees to government officials and Rs. 200 to Mr. Aqeel as a profit. The original owner of the land appointed a Chowkidar or caretaker to keep track on number of plots developed so that Mr. Aqeel may not cheat him. Similarly government officials had their informal representatives who visit the site regularly. Each week accounts are settled between all the parties involved. Additionally; when the local body elections takes place the selected members i.e. the councilors also get their share. Initially in the development process of squatter settlements the major problem is water provision. This is done through tankers of government agencies on payment for each tanker. Therefore at first they made a water committee and a water tank is made in the area. The 2nd problem in squatter settlement was transport, which is solved through the Dalals (Aqeel) pressure group and linkage with transporters. They pressurize the agencies through political leaders and get the approval of transport route. After land occupation the poor people starts house building process on incremental basis. At first through Katcha structure people based build their houses. Then arise another action in this squatter making dram and that is Thalla Wala who gets the plot in settlement and made contact with material mafia with 20% profit to them. This Thalla Wala sells this material to people on 30% profit with credit. This Thalla Wala is actually playing a dual role of technical advisor to poor people for their house building process and work as an architect. He also works in the squatter settlement as a financer of house; because he gives building materials on credit. Another actor in the development process of squatter settlement is police. They also get their share when plot was subdivided and sold to people or when people made their house as pucca house. The police is a main actor in squatter development process who get more money than any body else in the settlement. It is also an evident fact that whenever they need money they bulldoze a house and then


get money form each house. In the mean time the squatter settlement develops with very fast pace and become larger and larger. Then middleman or (Dalal) or Mr. Aqeel later on, make a social welfare organization and register it with the government. Then he called a meeting of people in squatter settlement and invitee a political leader and asks him to help them in development and getting services of water, electricity or gas. From them they get the facilities, on the spot such as on the spot they get the sign on documents from politicians and the engineers and technocrats of bureaucracy. This process is called lobbying. Now in this case the police left behind, so they made contact to newsmen and Journalists start writing about the illegal subdivisions in the newspaper. Finally in this way this process of squatter settlement continues and organized invasion become the grave reality of the cities & towns in Pakistan. CASE STUDY OF SLUMS & SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA: After having a clear picture of slums & squatter settlements in Pakistan; lets look at the case example of slums in India. Slum and squatter settlements are too common in India. It is estimated that about twenty-five percent population of any city in India live under subhuman conditions of slums. These are commonly called as Bustees in Calcutta, Jhoparpattis in Bombay Jhuggi Jhonpries in Delhi, Cheries in Madras and Ahataas in U.P. It is estimated that more than 6 lakh persons live in bustees in Calcutta, 2 lack in Jhoparpattis in Bombay, 1.5 lack in Jhuggi Jhonpris in Delhi, and 1.2 lack in Cheries in Madras.[4] That is why Bombay is dubbed as a city without Soul and its beauty is only Skin-Deep, although it is one of the finest cities, in the world. Even one cane clearly spells out that all over the world the primate cities are the cities without soul. Similarly there is a saying that, God made the country, man made the town and the Devil made the slums. This devil that made the slums is avaricious, anti-social, lacks civic sense, and is beyond the ordinary means of control. Though this notion of slum is quite common; however one must also realize the causes & reasons behind the development of slums in urban context of India. Because, it s also a disgrace to both the dwellers and the town authorities in India who allow the slum to grow and develop as a black spot on the citys face with each new slum area or squatter settlement. CAUSES OF SLUMS AND SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA: There are eight main causes for the formation of slums in India. RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION: The Industrial growth and employment opportunities in towns and cities have acted as powerful magnets to attract the rural population to cites the workers employed in the in these factories & industrial areas generally make their habitation as near as possible to the place of work. They are low waged persons and cannot afford daily traveling from the distant places in the city. Hence in a short time the available land or open space is occupied by them buildings without any proper planning. This gives rise to the formation of slums. POPULATION GROWTH: There is a great demand/supply gap between the tremendous growth of population and


the construction of houses. These shortages manifest themselves in creating slums. LACK OF ZONING: If zoning regulations are not enforced in the early development of town, there are chances for industrial area to encroach upon residential areas. Thus very soon there emerges overcrowding with the formation of slums. PHYSICAL & SOCIAL DECENTRALIZATION: One of the major reasons for slum development is the physical and social decentralization in which the rich and middle class people move out to the extension areas of city by leaving the poor in the overcrowded part of the town to make it more unsanitary. As a result the slum colonies start mushrooming at a fast rat within city. LACK OF EDUCATION: If the inhabitants are lacking in education, they may not pay attention to improve the living conditions, and lose the civic interest and neighbourhood spirit. They are therefore easily attracted by social evils, and delinquency. As a repercussion an apathy (every thing goes) emerges in people and they make slums. POVERTY: One of the main causes for the slum formation can be described in one word as poverty. The meager and unsteady income leaves the family with no other choice but to direct all the energies in earning their daily bread and butter with some minimal clothing. It is difficult for them to pay heavy rent for a decent living. They therefore move in slum move in slum areas, for nobody with black money builds decent houses for the slumdwellers. REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE: There is nothing wrong with old houses if they are looked after from time to time. But in India, repair and maintenance are the foreign words. Hence most of these buildings remain in a state of decay to favor the formation of slums. INADEQUATE POWERS: Lack of adequate powers and enforcing the same by the local authorities for the proper development of the town are also the reasons for the formation of slums. If preventive measures are not taken in time, the decent localities of the town will be the slums of tomorrow. Even Chandigarh which is a planned capital is growing beyond the bounds of rigid planning in suburbs and slums. EFFECTS OF SLUMS ON TOWN-LIFE: There are seven major effects of slums on town life. PEOPLES HEALTH: Unhealthy conditions are created due to absence of public facilities like water supply, drainage, sanitation and light etc. the sub-human conditions of the slums considerably affect the health and life of the people.


LACK OF SOCIO CULTURAL LIFE: There is complete absence of social and cultural life due to slum formation in the city. PEOPLES MORAL CONDUCT: The mental outlook of the slum dweller is affected due to his physical environment. He develops low moral character as such he is easily attracted by vice, delinquency, crime and clandestine activities in bootlegging, narcotics, drugs, adulteration, etc. PEOPLES PERFORMANCE & EFFICIENCY: The overcrowding area is full of noise, smoke and congestion. This affects considerably on the working conditions of the people in offices, schools, hospitals etc. ACCELERATION OF ACCIDENTS: Due to slum development the road trend to become congested i.e. children play on roads so there is a danger from traffic accidents. LACK OF PUBLIC PLACES: With the development of slums all open areas being attacked and there emerge no open space for recreation, pure air etc. LACK OF CIVIC SENSE: A slum dweller loses his ambition, civic interest as well as wholesome neighborhood spirit. In short a slum as such forms a black spot and spoils the healthy environment of the city as a whole. Thus it becomes an abject need to improve the physical, social & cultural life of city. And preventive measures shall be taken to avoid formation of slums. PRECAUTION AGAINST FORMATION OF SLUMS: The slums in the towns gradually grow & develop to prevent them. Slums are health hazards to the cities which later on create serous socio-economic and political problems. Thus Nip in the bud or Prevention is better than cure are the watch words against the formation.First of all, the authorities should make provision for healthy conditions of living and working. The subsidized cheap housing in sufficient number should be provided for the workers, Labourers, and poor people with all civic amenities and utility services. The authorities should enforce the law that the employers should provide better housing facilities for their Labourers. They should have power to control the rents under Rend Restriction Act. They should arrest the sub-standard and unauthorized constructions on vacant lands. Proper wages should be provided to the labors to improve their standard of living. The laborers in return should maintain and carry out repairs whenever required so as to keep the existing buildings in a good condition. The laborers should be properly educated to take care of health, cleanliness and general welfare of their families. SLUM CLEARANCE: Even after taking precautions if the slums develop then there emerges only one option for authorities and that is slum clearance. The process of slum clearance in India is done with


two basic methods. i.e. Improvement Method and Complete Removal Method. IMPROVEMENT METHOD: One methods of not aggravating the housing shortage is to take up slum-improvement scheme. This method has an added advantage of not causing much disturbance to the slum dwellers. As the slums are developed due to poor drainage system and unhealthy conditions. Hence the drainage arrangement is modified and improved. Public utility services like water, drainage, electricity, gas may be provided in the affected area. In slum area the housing conditions are also fairly good and only a few houses need some improvement to make them slightly more habitable. Further, any impending structures coming in the way may be removed. Low portions of the old slums like ditches, or swamps may be filled up and then the existing roads may be widened. With proper planning and improvement works it is possible to make the slums slightly more habitable at the minimum cost. COMPLETE REMOVAL METHOD: In this method area may be completely cleared out of the existing locality. In this case only such buildings which are really in good condition are retained and all other dilapidated structures are pulled down. Transit Camps in the form of temporary buildings near the slum areas should be constructed to accommodate those displaced in the process of slum clearance. Any stinking factory that occurs in slum areas may be shifted to some other more suitable place. The areas thus cleared up may be used as open spaces and as sites for new buildings; part of it may also be used for widening the streets. Care should be taken to keep the density within amenities such as water supply, drainage, sanitary arrangements, electricity, gas etc. Lastly the legal aspects of this scheme while shifting the population should also receive due attention. The legal aspect include publication of the slum clearance scheme; acquiring the land, paying compensation for the acquired land, making accommodation for the displaced persons in the process of slums clearance etc. The slum eradication by this method proves to be very costly, but it is certainly worth-while to bear it in the interest of the community of the city. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR SLUM CLEARANCE SCHEMES: In India the scheme introduced in 1956 contemplates the grant of financial assistance by the Central Government to State Government and Union Territories for slum clearance and improvement schemes. The main principles of the scheme are given below. There should be minimum dislocation of the slum dwellers. They should be re-housed in nearby area of the existing sites. To keep down rent within paying capacity of the slum dwellers and emphasis is given on the provision of minimum standards on environmental hygiene and utility services rather than on construction of costly structures. The government of India provides financial assistance to the state government in the form of block grants and block loans and the state governments are free to make its use as per their requirements. The state government and local bodies can provide dwelling units viz. open developed plots, skeletal house, pucca tenements, hostel dormitory type and night shelters, to slum dwellers. These units will be provided with independent lavatory, pucca bath, and washing platforms connected with drains and taps. The cost of these dwelling units ranges from Rs. 1850 to Rs. 8750 per units and the subsidized rental ranges from Rs. 6 to


Rs. 39 per months, depending upon the type and place of construction. The existing ceiling cost for normal two-roomed house is Rs. 5000 and that for a small two-roomed house is Rs. 4000. In case night shelters are constructed, the ceiling cost is limited to Rs. 727 and the rent chargeable for sleeping accommodation for the pavement dwellers should not exceed 25 paise per person per night including service charges. Financial assistance is admissible under the scheme which is repayable by slum dwellers in 25 years with the rate of interest fixed by the central government from time to time. Such colonies will be provided with water mains, drainage, sewerage, community baths, latrines, water taps, properly paved roads with adequate widths, street lighting etc. The government of India has also approved a scheme in 1960 to remove jhuggis and jhonpris which is applied only to New Delhi. The plots were given on lease for 99 years on paying the cost (with 50% subsidy) in a lump sum or in ten equal annual installments. Likewise central government is making all possible efforts by providing financial assistance to slum dwellers for the improvement of their living conditions. ANALYSIS & EVALUATION: The case study of India as described above is taken from the book, Fundamentals of Town Planning by G.K. Hiraskar. The reason behind discussing this case study is that, in the text books of Town Planning such type of solutions are given for slum clearance & upgrading; which become obsolete and currently such type of solutions are not applicable. Whereas; the local authorities still believe in such type of temporary solutions for slum clearance & upgrading & propagate it their slum clearance & upgrading programs. Lets analyze why such type of slum clearance & upgrading programs are obsolete? First of all one must understand the existing ground realities. In 1992 a report published by Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation[5] which estimated that there are 330-340 million people in south Asia who lives under the poverty level. It means that around 30-40 percent of total population of south Asia lives below poverty live. Furthermore the urban poverty of total poor population has increased from 13% to 18% during the decade of 1986-96. It is also a reality that, Everyday in Asia the urban population increases by the equivalent of one city of 140,000 people[6] where at it is expected that urban population shall be doubled in next 20 years. The cities have so far absorbed the growing number of population in settlements with varying quality of living. However, urban growth has resulted in negative growth of sprawling squatter settlements & slums. In every city in developing countries, there is a large population of less affluent people who reside in squatter settlements. A study from the united nations in 1994 (ESCAP) predicted that 60% of the urban population of Asia shall be living in slums & squatter settlements by the year 2000, whereas; currently the number of squatter settlements & slum dwellers has increased from this number. For instance in Karachi only there are more than 700 squatter settlements in which 60% of urban population lives & it is estimated that by the year 2020 the population of Karachi shall be doubled & 80 percent of population shall be living in slum & squatter settlements. Thus in a city where 60 % of population is living in slums & squatter settlements; can there be any solution like slum clearance with prescribed improvement method or complete removal method? The answer is definitely not because 60 % housing stock neither can be bulldozed completely nor re-planned comprehensively be pulling down all dilapidated structures.


The only option available is muddling through or gradual & incremental improvement with the support of public, private & informal initiatives. Because no financial assistance can be equivalent to human sufferings & decades of hard work in building the housing by poor or making of squatter settlements & slums. Even then large number of evictions still takes place in most of the urban centers in Asian countries. For instance, in the city of soul, Korea in just three years of time 750000 people was evicted (Between 1985-88) Similarly Philippines evicted 100000 people each year between 1986-92[7] According to urban resource centers eviction watch in Karachi alone more than 2000 households are evicted between the year 1997-2000. Whereas in 2008 an age old project of Lyari expressway in Karachi may evict around 25000 families with just the compensation of Rs. 50000 each from which a decent toilet is difficult to build. The evictions may cause three basic impacts on the affected of forceful eviction i.e. physical, economic & psychological. It takes around two decades to recover from the misery of eviction from peoples minds. The eviction reduces the housing stock of city & ruins the economic value of housing which may be small in real terms but for an individual it is very big. The eviction detaches the squatter from employment opportunities which are usually in near by areas or within the settlement itself. The eviction also up roots the community & break their social & cultural activities which functions as an economic and psychological safety net. The home is the center of every bodys lives and forceful eviction form home is a very traumatic experience especially for children its impacts never goes from their memories. While eviction is a traumatic experience in itself the most harmful impact of eviction may actually be the fear of being evicted. It makes people fatalistic, with lost confidence in themselves & discouragement form improving their housing. It can not be denied that there are occasions such as major infrastructure projects where eviction can not be avoided or deny the land owners the right to evict. However it is a reality that land acquisition mostly takes place without compensation. Thus it is quite necessary that evictions should not take place without a dialogue and solutions which are acceptable to both parties. Because squatters have often lived on the land for very long time &they have there by acquitted an informal right to land due to their efforts & hardships of decades for the development & investments on the land. Whereas their nostalgic values are also attached with the settlements they live in for a long period of their life. Thus there is a need to develop a policy regarding slums & squatter settlement while upgrading the city and its slum areas. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: On the basis of analysis & evaluation of slums & squatter settlements issue following conclusions can be drawn. i) The major issue regarding provision of housing to poor is land, which is pure gold as far as squatter and private sector institutions are concerned. ii) As the land in urban area is considered a commodity through which money can be made! So appropriate land management is an abject need of the time and provision of land to poor by formal sector initiatives can not be avoided. iii) As the population influx to urban areas reached to its zenith the scarcity of land is a grave reality and access to land is required by poor communicated through any means. iv) As the poor people can not have access to the land through formal sector initiatives,


therefore they opt for informal sector processes & occupy the governments land & make slums & squatter settlements. v) It is also a reality that in some cases the formal sector it self involved in making squatter settlements due to there failures in provision of housing to poor. vi) Once the slums & squatter settlements develop the major issue which requires immediate attention is the provision of services & infrastructures which is usually obtained by squatter at a very high cost. vii) Furthermore it is a bitter reality that population influx to urban centers continues and shall continue & it can not be eliminated & through formal sector processes housing can not be provided to poor urban communities. viii) Thus what options & strategies are available to formal sector? This is the question which needs to be answered in an appropriate manner. For that matter policies regarding slums & squatter settlements by different countries & the solutions given by different institutions should be analyzed. On the basis of which recommendations can be made. ix) There are two major case examples which can be cited with respect to appropriate policy option for squatter settlements and slum upgrading. One is Guided Land development (GLD) Jakarta and other is Katchi Abadi improvement and Regularization Program of Sindh Katchi Abadi Authority Karachi Pakistan. GUIDED LAND DEVELOPMENT IN JAKARTA, INDONESIA: Jakarta suffers from housing shortage & tremendous demand of land for housing the poor just like any other city. The government of Indonesia changed its housing policy in late 1960s from focusing on conventional Housing delivery system to strengthening the informal housing sector by providing basic infrastructure & security of land tenure. This policy of government of Indonesia is manifested in their Kampungs Improvement Program (KIP). The Kampungs are basically a common form of low income informal settlements which house around 70% of Jakartas population. The Kampungs Improvement Program (KIP) provided around 70 to 80 percent basic infrastructure to these Kampungs. As a repercussion overwhelming majority of Kampungs dwellers have bought the land they live one. However their access to land remained the same through private & informal land subdivision with a limited land tenure security, therefore land conflicts are quite common. Considering the growing land scarcity, rapidly increased land prices and population growth and the growing awareness and understanding of land management issues the guided land development was established. The GLD-program would provide basic infrastructure such as secondary access roads, foot paths, drainage & water, where as the cost of this development would be recovered through betterment taxes (or more appropriately termed as the cost recovery tax.) The GLD-program recognized the current ongoing process of private & informal land subdivisions; however they guide & control its development & improving its technical standards. In this respect betterment tax allow the government to recover around 60 % of the cost. In 1979 it was estimated that, the cost to residents ranges between Rs. 20000 to Rs. 230000


depends on type & size of plot. (one US $ = approximately Rs. 24 in 1994) Up till now, there are three basic objections raised & debated on GLD-program. Some low income groups may be adversely affected such as tenants. Better income groups also get benefited directly from this program. Subsidized infrastructure provision created negative environmental consequences due to without regulating land use changes. Conclusively there are seven basic objectives, themes, concepts or steps for working of guided land development GLD-program which are as follows: i) To assist poor people to build housing by providing technical and financial support as well as affordable land. The program applies reasonable standards, such as, for example, as minimum plot size of 20 square meters. ii) To guide the transformation of Kampungs, informal settlements and villages into functional urban structures. iii) To provide infrastructure and services at minimum costs for the government and the residents, including an element of cross-subsidy between high and low income groups. Plots adjacent to access roads will for example, be charged considerably higher than plots with access to only a foot path. iv) To stimulate the development of small-scale industries and other work opportunities. v) To set up a special organization within the government for efficient and quick land registration and land titling. vi) To set up a special implementation body within each project area consisting of local land regional government representatives as well as development consultant(s). The development consultant(s) should act as an intermediary between the private sector and the local community. The functions of the implementation body are to promote, regulate, facilitate and coordinate the development. vii) Finally, to form a management board, consisting of representatives of local government and the residents, initially represented by an NGO, to solve project management problems more directly. After having the clear perception about the guided land development program of Indonesia it is necessary to see another option for slum upgrading and development of squatter settlements through the case example of Sindh Katchi Abadis Authoritys settlement upgrading program. SETTLEMENT UPGRADING IN SINDH, PAKISTAN THROUGH THE INITIATIVES OF SINDH KATCHI ABADI AUTHORITY (SKAA): The government of Pakistan passed the Katchi-Abadis Regularization Act; regularizing all squatter settlements (Katchi Abadis) located on government land and built before 31 March 1985. At the same time, the authorities announced a freeze on the Katchi Abadis that could be regularized. In return for paying a one-time charge to cover the costs of raw land, internal and external development as well as a nominal annual rent, squatters received 99-year leases that could not be transferred within five years. Although the involved costs were low, few households applied for titles and cost-recovery became a major problem. Many residents wanted to see whether fees would be further reduced or


removed completely. Sindh Katchi Abadi Authority (SKAA) in Sindh Province has adopted a policy whereby they will only provide land titles to households which have paid the costs of raw land and external development and undertaken internal development themselves (by community itself). The concept of internal development is the development & maintenance of primary roads by community where as external development means provision of infrastructure in secondary and major roads of the settlements by the Sindh Katchi Abadi Authority. This concept is applied to all aspects of physical development such as supply of water & sewerage, sanitation etc. SKAA has taken the approach to encourage the setting-up of community-based organization (CBOs) for the provision of infrastructure. Under the UNICEF funded Urban Basic Program, SKAA has been working closely with the Orangi Pilot Project, a non-governmental organization, which has proven that CBOs can provide infrastructure at a substantially lower cost and at mush faster pace than the government. Where as training & extension services to community based organization is the solution to slum upgrading. In 1994, infrastructure was being constructed by CBOs, funded by squatter households, in several cities in Sindh including Karachi, Sukkur, Larkana, Shikarpur, and was to be introduced in Hyderabad. As of the second quarter of 1994, out of total of 1293 katchi abadis, 132 have completed development works, 201 schemes have been approved and 64,190 households have been provided land rights (SKAA, 1994). FINAL THOUGHT: In the end it is necessary to recognize that squatter settlements, slum area &their upgrading is an issue which is humanitarian, functional (because a healthy work force is more productive) and political (because adequate shelter is a basic human right). There are one-ninety-two nations in the world who have signed the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. The covenant acquired legal status in 1976, and provides a legal obligation for its signatories to provide adequate shelter among the other things. Though the world is changing the governments policies & priorities are also changing, however it is a reality that if governments whishes they will be more efficient if they act as a catalyst & facilitators to informal processes in provision of shelter to poor. It is now proved or rather it is a proven fact that housing the poor as well as squatter settlements and slum upgrading is actually more political and institutional issue rather than technical. As most of the observers of squatter settlements have realized that, people will gradually upgrade their housing overtimes, they invest their capital and labor and mobilize their social network if they are provided the opportunity and their housing is considered legitimate. Thus the three major actors must come together i.e. People, Politicians and Professionals.


It will make the world a better place to live without squatter settlements & slums, or improved and upgraded settlements. REFERENCES: 1. Arif Hasan, Seven Reports on Housing March 1992, Published by OPP-RTI, Orangi Karachi, Pakistan. 2. G.K. Hiraskar, Fundamentals of Town Planning, 1993, Published by Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 1682, Nai Sarak Delhi 110006 India. 3. Municipal Land Management in Asia, A comparative study, 1994-95 published by United Nations economic and social commission for Asia & Pacific (UNESCAP) and Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements (City Net). [1] G.K. Hiraskar is the author of the book Fundamentals of Town Planning 1993, Published by Dhanpat Rai and Sons, 1682, Naisarak, Delhi 110006, India. [2] Professor Dr. Jan Van Derlinden was the processor at free university Amsterdam Holland, has studied various squatter settlements in Pakistan & India and come across these interrelationships in the making of squatter settlements in Pakistan. Though he has published various publications on squatter settlements However two of his marvelous works are the books, Dalalabad and Land is Pure Gold which defines the process of developing squatter settlement, and the interrelationships of actors involved in it. Similarly another book, Seven Reports on Housing: by Arif Hasan, published by OPPRTI, March 1992, Karachi, may also define this process quite explicitly. [3] This price of plot was in 1978. for details please see, Seven Reports on Housing by Arif Hasan March 1992, Published by Orangi Piolet Project-Research & Training Institute (OPP-RTI) Karachi, Pakistan. [4] For details please see, Fundamentals of Town Planning by G.K. Hiraskar, 1993 Published by Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 1682, Naisarak Delhi 110006 India. [5] The South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation is an independent Commission which is appointed by SAARC countries in 1991s Colombo summit of SAARC. [6] For details please see, Municipal Land Management in Asia, A comparative study, 1994-95 published by United Nations economic and social commission for Asia & Pacific (UNESCAP) and Regional Network of Local Authorities for the Management of Human Settlements (City Net). [7] Ibid No.6 SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi


LECTURE NO: 27 TOPIC: SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION: In order to understand the process of suburban development; it is imperative to at first grasp the concept of suburbs and suburban growth and then an interpretation of the phrase suburban development in the context of a town, city and a region may be possible. In the following all these three issues are discussed and described in details. WHAT IS MEANT BY SUBURBS? Suburbs[1] are commonly defined as smaller residential communities lying immediately outside a city. In the United States, suburbs have a prevalence of usually detached[2] single-family homes.[3] Some suburbs have a degree of political autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods. Modern suburbs grew in the 20th century as a result of improved road and rail transport and an increase in commuting. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities which ideally have an abundance of adjacent flat land.[4] Any particular suburban area is referred to as a suburb, while suburban areas on the whole are referred to as the suburbs or suburbia, with the demonym being a suburbanite. ETYMOLOGY AND USAGE OF THE TERM SUBURB: The word is derived from the Old French subburbe and ultimately from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub, meaning "under", and urbs, meaning "city". In Rome, important people tended to live within the city wall on one of the seven roman hills, while the lower classes often lived outside of the walls and at the foot of the hills. "Under" in later usage sometimes referred variously to lesser wealth, political power, population, or population density. The first recorded usage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, comes from Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis is used. SUBURB HAS DIFFERENT MEANINGS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD: In the United States, Canada, suburb usually refers to a separate municipality, borough, or unincorporated area outside a town or city. This definition is evident in the title of David Rusk's book CITIES WITHOUT SUBURBS[5], which promotes metropolitan government. U.S. colloquial usage sometimes shortens the term to 'burb, and "the Burbs" first appeared as a term for the suburbs of Chicago. In Ireland and the United Kingdom, suburb merely refers to residential areas outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries. Suburbs in this sense are not separated by open countryside to the city centre. In large cities such as London, suburbs include formerly separate towns and villages which have been gradually absorbed during city's growth and expansion. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalized as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas of Australia their equivalent are called localities. In Australia, the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to


differentiate between the higher-density suburbs with close proximity to the city center, and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are usually characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas. HISTORY OF SUBURBS: Prior to the 19th century, suburb often correlated with the outlying areas of cities where work was most inaccessible; implicitly, where the poorest people had to live. Charles Dickens used the word this way, albeit not exclusively, in his descriptions of contemporary London. The modern American usage of the term came about during the course of the 19th century, as improvements in transportation and sanitation made it possible for wealthy developments to exist on the outskirts of cities. The Australian and New Zealand usage came about as outer areas were quickly surrounded in fast-growing cities, but retained the appellation suburb; the term was eventually applied to the original core as well. GROWTH OF SUBURBS IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: The growth of suburbs was facilitated by the development of zoning laws, redlining and various innovations in transport. After World War II availability of FHA loans stimulated a housing boom in American suburbs. In the older cities of the northeast U.S., streetcar suburbs originally developed along train or trolley lines that could shuttle workers into and out of city centers where the jobs were located. This practice gave rise to the term bedroom community, meaning that most daytime business activity took place in the city, with the working population leaving the city at night for the purpose of going home to sleep. The growth in the use of trains, and later automobiles and highways, increased the ease with which workers could have a job in the city while commuting in from the suburbs. GROWTH OF SUBURBS IN UNITED KINGDOM: In the United Kingdom, railways stimulated the first mass exodus to the suburbs. The Metropolitan Railway, for example, was active in building and promoting its own housing estates in the north-west of London, consisting mostly of detached houses on large plots, which it then marketed as "Metro-land".[6] As car ownership rose and wider roads were built, the commuting trend accelerated as in North America. This trend towards living away from towns and cities has been termed the urban exodus[7]. ZONING AND SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT: Zoning laws also contributed to the location of residential areas outside of the city centre by creating wide areas or "zones" where only residential buildings were permitted. These suburban residences are built on larger lots of land than in the urban city. For example, the lot size for a residence in Chicago is usually 125 feet (38 m) deep, while the width can vary from 14 feet (4.3 m) wide for a row house to 45 feet (14 m) wide for a large standalone house. In the suburbs, where standalone houses are the rule, lots may be 85 feet (26 m) wide by 115 feet (35 m) deep, as in the Chicago suburb of Naperville.


SUBURBANISATION: Manufacturing and commercial buildings were segregated in other areas of the city. Increasingly, more people moved out to the suburbs, known as suburbanization[8].Moving along with the population, many companies also located their offices and other facilities in the outer areas of the cities. This has resulted in increased density in older suburbs and, often, the growth of lower density suburbs even further from city centers. An alternative strategy is the deliberate design of "new towns" and the protection of green belts[9] around cities. Some social reformers attempted to combine the best of both concepts in the garden city movement.[10]In the United States, since the 18th century urban areas have often grown faster than city boundaries. Until the 1900s, new neighborhoods usually sought or accepted annexation to the central city to obtain city services. In the 20th century, however, many suburban areas began to see independence from the central city as an asset. In some cases, White suburbanites saw self-government as a means to keep out people who could not afford the added suburban property maintenance costs not needed in city living. Federal subsidies for suburban development accelerated this process as did the practice of redlining by banks and other lending institutions.[11] Cleveland, Ohio is typical of many American central cities; its municipal borders have changed little since 1922, even though the Cleveland urbanized area has grown many times over. Several layers of suburban municipalities now surround cities like Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, Dallas, Fort Worth, San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia. While suburbs had originated far earlier; the suburban population in North America exploded after World War II. Returning veterans wishing to start a settled life moved en masse to the suburbs. Levittown developed as a major prototype of massproduced housing. At the same time, African Americans were rapidly moving north for better jobs and educational opportunities than were available to them in the segregated South. Their arrival in Northern cities en masse in addition to race riots in several large cities such as Detroit, Chicago, and Philadelphia further stimulated white suburban migration. In the U.S., 1950 was the first year that more people lived in suburbs than elsewhere. In the U.S, the development of the skyscraper and the sharp inflation of downtown real estate prices also led to downtowns being more fully dedicated to businesses, thus pushing residents outside the city center. SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT IN CANADA: Urban development in Canada has largely paralleled development in the United States. After World War II, large bedroom communities of single-family homes and shopping centers sprouted on the outskirts of Canadian cities. However, Canada has far fewer suburban municipalities than the U.S. Many large cities, such as Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, and Ottawa, extend all the way to, and even include the countryside. However, the fact that literal boundaries of suburbs are not present in Canada does not eliminate suburbs, per se. The boundaries of Canadian cities are under the jurisdiction of the provinces, which have imposed city-suburb mergers. Vancouver and Montreal regions still have suburban municipalities, although their suburban areas are generally grouped into fewer cities than is typical in the United States. British Columbia created a "metropolitan" government for the Vancouver area in 1965, but the urbanized area has


since grown well beyond it. Today, Toronto has some of the largest suburban municipalities in North America, and the two largest suburbs in Canada are in this metro area. Mississauga (668,549) and Brampton (433,806) together claim 1.1 million inhabitants, and would be the third largest city in Canada if merged. Many Toronto suburbs have significantly improved on the suburban philosophy, adding a downtown to many suburban centers, notably Mississauga, Brampton, Vaughan and Markham. In 1998 the governmental structure was reorganized to include many of these formerly independent suburbs into the Greater Toronto Area. Vancouver has several large suburbs, with more than three quarters of a million people living in Surrey (the third largest suburb in Canada), Richmond, and Burnaby. Montreal has its two largest suburbs, Laval and Longueuil, as well as a suburban group of smaller municipalities neighbouring Montreal known as the West Island. CHARACTERS OF POST WORLD WAR II SUBURBS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: Many post-World War II American suburbs are characterized by eight major aspects: i. Lower densities than central cities, dominated by single-family homes on small plots of land, surrounded at close quarters by very similar dwellings. ii. Zoning patterns that separate residential and commercial development, as well as different intensities and densities of development. Daily needs are not within walking distance of most homes. iii. Subdivisions carved from previously rural land into multiple-home developments built by a single real estate company. These subdivisions are often segregated by minute differences in home value, creating entire communities where family incomes and demographics are almost completely homogeneous, although suburban developments have become and are becoming more diverse. iv. Shopping malls and strip malls behind large parking lots instead of a classic downtown shopping district. v. A road network designed to conform to a hierarchy, including culs-de-sac, leading to larger residential streets, in turn leading to large collector roads, in place of the grid pattern common to most central cities and pre-World War II suburbs. vi. A greater percentage of one-story administrative buildings than in urban areas. vii. A greater percentage of Caucasians and less percentage of citizens of other ethnic groups than in urban areas. Black suburbanization grew between 1970 and 1980 by 2.6% as a result of central city neighborhoods expanding into older neighborhoods vacated by whites.[12], [13] , [14] viii. Compared to rural areas, suburbs usually have greater density, higher standards of living, more complex road systems, and less wildlife SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLDS: In many parts of the developed world, suburbs are different from the American suburb, both in terms of population and in terms of what they represent. In some cases suburbs of


cities outside of North America are economically distressed areas, inhabited by higher proportions of recent immigrants, with higher delinquency rates and social problems. Sometimes the notion of suburb may even refer to people in real misery, who are kept at the limit of the city borders for economic, social and where applicable some argue ethnic reasons. An example in the developed world would be the banlieues of France, or the concrete suburbs of Sweden. In most ways, the suburbs of most of the developed world are comparable to several inner cities of the U.S. and Canada. In the UK, the government is seeking to impose minimum densities on newly approved housing schemes in parts of southeast England. The new catch phrase is 'building sustainable communities' rather than housing estates. However, commercial concerns tend to retard the opening of services until a large number of residents have occupied the new neighbourhood. In the illustrative case of Rome, Italy, in the 1920s and 1930s, suburbs were intentionally created ex novo in order to give lower classes a destination, in consideration of the actual and foreseen massive arrival of poor people from other areas of the country. Many critics have seen in this development pattern (that was circularly distributed in every direction) also a quick solution to a problem of public order (keeping the unwelcome poorest classes together with the criminals, in this way better controlled, comfortably remote from the elegant "official" town). On the other hand, the expected huge expansion of the town soon effectively covered the distance from the central town, and now those suburbs are completely engulfed by the main territory of the town. Other newer suburbs were created at a further distance from them. In China, the term suburb is new, although suburbs are already being constructed rapidly. Many new suburban homes are similar to their equivalents in the United States, primarily outside Beijing and Shanghai, which also mimic Spanish and Italian architecture.[15] In Hong Kong, however, suburbs are mostly government-planned new towns containing numerous public housing estates. New Towns such as Tin Shui Wai may gain a notorious reputation as a slum. However, other new towns also contain private housing estates and low density developments for the upper middle and upper classes. In Malaysia, suburbs are common, especially in areas surrounding the Klang Valley, which is the largest conurbation[16] in the country. These suburbs also serve as major housing areas and commuter towns[17]. Terraced houses[18], semi-detached houses[19] and shophouses[20] are common concepts in suburbs. In certain areas such as Klang, Subang Jaya and Petaling Jaya, suburbs form the core of these places. The latter one has been turned into a satellite city[21] of Kuala Lumpur. Suburbs are also evident in other smaller conurbations including Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching and Penang. MAJOR PROBLEM OF SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT: Suburbs typically have more traffic congestion[22] and longer travel times than traditional neighborhoods.[23] Only the traffic within the short streets themselves is less. This is due to three factors: almost-mandatory automobile ownership due to poor suburban bus systems, longer travel distances and the hierarchy system, which is less efficient at distributing traffic than the traditional grid of streets. In the suburban system, most trips from one component to another component require that cars enter a collector road, no matter how short or long the distance is. This is


compounded by the hierarchy of streets, where entire neighborhoods and subdivisions are dependent on one or two collector roads. Because all traffic is forced onto these roads, they are often heavy with traffic all day. If a traffic accident occurs on a collector road, or if road construction inhibits the flow, then the entire road system may be rendered useless until the blockage is cleared. The traditional "grown" grid, in turn, allows for a larger number of choices and alternate routes. Suburban systems of the sprawl type are also quite inefficient for cyclists or pedestrians, as the direct route is usually not available for them either. This encourages car trips even for distances as low as several hundreds of meters (which may have become up to several kilometres due to the road network). Improved sprawl systems, though retaining the car detours, possess cycle paths and footpath connecting across the arms of the sprawl system, allowing a more direct route while still keeping the cars out of the residential and side streets. SOME KEY WORDS TO HAVE INSIGHT ABOUT SUBURBS & SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT: Finally it is necessary to know that there are many more expressions of the term suburbs through which the concept of suburbs and suburban development can be further elaborated i.e. Boomburbs[24];Commuter town[25]; Developed Environments[26] such as Rural[27],Exurban[28], and Urban[29]; Edge city[30]; Ethnoburb[31];Exurb[32]; Faubourg[33]; Inner suburbs[34]; Microdistrict[35];Penurbia[36]; Streetcar suburb[37]; Suburbia bashing[38]; Urban rural fringe[39]; Urban sprawl[40]; White Flight[41] etc. In addition aList of largest suburbs by population[42] may be explored online orLondon commuter belt[43] (Stockbroker belt) and other Settlement types[44] such as Hamlet[45], Village[46], Town[47], City[48], andMegalopolis[49] can be studied from the world wide web. REFERENCES: [1] [2] Land Development Calculations 2001 Walter Martin Hosack. "single-family detached housing" = "suburb houses" p133 From id=uULJlcYkJ1oC [3] "Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005"Energy Information Association From ehc2.1.pdf [4] The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region by Jonathan Barnett From hl=en&lr=&id=2t2P4t8fkJMC [5] ISBN 0-943875-73-0 from [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Garden Cities of To-Morrow From


[11] Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival By Paul S. Grogan, Tony Proscio. ISBN 0813339529 Published 2002 Page 142 "Perhaps suburbanization was a 'natural' phenomenonrising incomes allowing formerly huddled masses in city neighborhoods to breathe free on green lawn and leafy culs-de-sac. But, we will never know how natural it was, because of the massive federal subsidy that eased and accelerated it, in the form of tax, transportation and housing policies." From and [12] Barlow, Andrew L. (2003). Between fear and hope: globalization and race in the United States. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.ISBN 0-7425-1619-9 From ; and id=2gJhgr0BrooC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA39,M1 [13] . Noguera, Pedro (2003). City schools and the American dream: reclaiming the promise of public education. New York: Teachers College Press. ISBN 0-8077-4381-X. From id=bfuFosKIPeEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA24,M1 ; and [14] Naylor, Larry L. (1999). Problems and issues of diversity in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey. ISBN 0-89789-615-7 From and,M1 [15] Modern suburbia not just in America anymore From [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] Why adding lanes makes traffic worse From [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33]


[34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 6:03 AM NO COMMENTS: URBAN ECOLOGY AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B) By: RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO: 12 TOPIC: URBAN ECOLOGY INTRODUCTION: The theme of current lecture is urban ecology. The phrase urban ecology is composed of two entirely different terms i.e. urban and ecology. The one way to understand this theme is to look at both the terms individually and then try to establish a relationship between them. Whereas; the other way to comprehend this phrase is to define it with an earlier established definition and identify its application in town planning. In the following a detailed description of this theme is given. WHAT IS URBAN? The term urban means town or a city; whereas; A city is an agglomerate social organism containing a population of at least 20,000 (UN definition), in a relative density that packages a critical population mass necessary for spawning a variety of value systems, lifestyles, and power constellations. Cities are particularly receptive to, and instrumental in, creating innovation and change. With this capacity for change is introduced various kinds of dysfunctional effects, including cultural, sociological, economic, psychological, and spiritual.[1]


WHAT IS ECOLOGY? The term ecology means balance in nature; it is the study of ecosystems. Ecology is derived from the GREEK word "eko" used for household and understanding logos meaning an understanding of the "household of life."[2] Ecology is a synthetic & systemic study of an organism or a species and its surroundings: the basic unit of study is an ecological system or the interdependent populations in any place as they impact the ecosystems which they occupy, use, or visit.[3] In both history & natural history, ecology is the study of how organisms depend on one another and their surroundings.[4] URBAN + ECOLOGY: If the terms urban and ecology combined together it would mean a town or city where living organisms, species of flora and fauna, communities of human beings, and survive together with interdependency and individualism within their surroundings. In other words the urban context where all kinds of people, plants, birds, and beasts exist together must live in harmony because they are interdependent and their survival with one another in cohesiveness can be termed as urban ecology. WHAT IS URBAN ECOLOGY? Urban Ecology is the study of the relationships between organisms, including humans, and the particular opportunities for, and challenges to, their survival presented by cities. [5] Urban Ecology is the study of biodiversity in areas that are densely populated by humans.[6] Urban Ecology is the subfield of ecology which deals with theinteraction of plants, animals and humans with each other and with their environment in urban or urbanizing settings.[7] SIGNIFICANCE OF URBAN ECOLOGY:[8] Analysis of urban settings in the context of ecosystem ecology(looking at the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through the ecosystem) hopes to result in healthier, better managed communities. Studying the factors which allow wild plants and animals to survive (and sometimes thrive) in built environments can also create more livable spaces. Urban ecology also involves the study of the effects of urban development patterns on ecological conditions. Emphasis is also placed on planning communities with environmentally sustainable methods via design and building materials in order to promote a healthy and biodiverse urban ecosystem. Interactions between non-living factors, such as sunlight or water, and biological factors, such as plants and microbes, take place in all environments, including cities. By concentrating humans and the resources they consume, metropolitan areas alter soil drainage, water flow, and light availability. Urban ecologists think of how architecture, such as sidewalks and rooftops, impacts the way rainwater is received and transported and the way garbage dumps and sewage plants centralize waste products. Some species of animals have been able to survive or thrive in a non-natural urban setting. These include rats, Feral Pigeons, and cockroaches.


INSTITUTIONS FOR URBAN ECOLOGY: The afforementioned description clearly spell out what urban ecology means and how it is related to urban context? There are various institutions related to urban ecology that is working at their local context across the globe. These institutions had developed their own urban models and projects to deal with their urban ecology. Furthermore; they also developed different methodologies of work and instruments to deal with growing problems in their urban ecology. As in our local context of Karachi we (Third Year Civil Engineering Students) have started an attempt for making our city a sustainable one through research; similarly internationally there are various institutions who have initiated their own local attempts for an urban ecology. Few of them included here for the reference of students to surf these websites and learn: Urban Ecology Agency of Barcelona Baltimore Ecosystem Study Central Arizona - Phoenix LTER ARCUE Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology Urban Ecology Center in Milwaukee, WI Urban Ecology Research Laboratory at the University of Washington Urban Ecology Institute (Newton, MA) Center for Urban Restoration Ecology BioCity@UniSA research centre REFERENCES: [1] Session1b/Definitions/tabid/264/Default.aspx [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Ibid POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 3:59 AM 3 COMMENTS: AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B) By: RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO: 11 TOPIC: CIVIC SURVEY 1. INTRODUCTION:


There are variety of survey & mapping techniques to be learned by a civil engineer. Though; some of these survey and mapping techniques are already known to a civil engineer. However it is necessary to understand how different authors explained these techniques, because the survey & mapping techniques are always subject to refinement during the course of development & planning. Therefore let us look at different authors how they perceived the issue of survey & mapping. 2. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEYS BY JOHN RATCLIFFE: At first let us discuss what Mr. John RatCliffe, defined about survey preparation & techniques of analysis in his book An Introduction to Town & country planning. He says that; In order understand the society, for which planning is to be done, to identify the nexus of needs & problems, to have comprehensive understanding of city elements & their effect upon each other, to formulate policies & choose between them or adjust them in practice; a town planner must be equipped with variety of tools & techniques. Because the planning is based upon knowledge; the knowledge depends upon information & information depends upon survey. Now the survey of many components from the built and natural environment is the main concern in this respect. Here the big question is that, what are those many components for which the survey is required?According to Mr. RatCliffe; at first we survey about physical characteristics, then utilities, then population, then employment, then housing, then shopping, then education, then leisure & recreation, then movement & management, & finally for evaluation. In this way he defined eleven types of surveys. Now the big question is that, what are the available sources of information to carry out these surveys? Ideally the first hand information should be collected by specifically designed survey forms related to specific problems in a precise time. However due to ever existing constraints of time & money this is not always possible. So what do we do in such situation? In that case the researchers, the student concerned with thesis or project work are usually compelled to depend on existing sources of information. The existing sources of information are mostly,published statistics by the government institutions. There are also other information database such as individual researches & surveyscarried out by some non governmental institutions. Now the information sources are various, such as each state department & ministry has the facts & figures. Then there is census of population, housing statistics. The department of trade & industry will have census of distribution & census of production. Then there are different library sources, currently there is internet. Then there are professional journals & researches, business & economic reviews. Then there are different resource centers available such as Urban Resource Center (URC) in Karachi. Finally there are some international institutions which keep the records and statistics of major countries and their urban centers. These includeUnited Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Band for Development, Asian Development Bank & other United Nation institutions. 2. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEYS, BY G.K. HIRASKAR:


Mr. G K Hiraskar defined in his book Town planning that; Survey means collection of data & information through site visit & personal observations. Similarly there is a principle developed by Sir Patrick Geddes (one of the pioneer of modern town planning) thatalways survey before plan. The survey leads us to information or knowledge which is used by all planners to prepare a mind map of the region before drawing a plan of town. The collected data & information through survey is analyzed & presented in the form maps, charts, tables & models. At present there emerged digital maps, aerial photography & computerized models of surveys which have enhanced the understanding of planners with accurate information of the site. However there are certain ground realities which can only be understood through personal site visit by the planners. This survey of site before planning is also known asdiagnosis before the treatment or diagnosis approach of planners that lead them to make correct decisions about the city. Types of Survey: Mr. G. K. Hiraskar also classified surveys in four broad types. i) Towner city survey ii) Regional survey iii) National survey iv) Civic survey Town Surveys: These surveys are conducted to prepare a base map for the Town planning scheme. Basically these surveys are of three types; i.e. i) Physical survey ii) Social survey and iii) Economic survey Physical survey: These are conducted in two ways i.e. through land survey and aerial survey. In physical survey four types of information or data are collected. i) Natural Features survey i.e. location in respect to existing towns & region, topography & soil conditions, climatology etc. ii) Land Use survey i.e. use of land for residential, commercial, or social purposes, public & semi public spaces, open spaces, transportation networks, agriculture, water elements, vacant lands & other uses. iii) Building Conditions survey i.e. buildings are in very good, good, poor, or in bad condition? iv) Communications survey i.e. highways, roads and its network & railway junctions and its network, availability of parking facilities in the city, origin & destination (O&D) survey, accidents survey; and future trends of traffic surveys etc. Social survey: These are of three kinds, i.e. I) Population II) Housing and III) Community Facilities i) Population: Trends in population growth for last 50 years, present population characteristics, future population growth by considering survival, urban Migration & development of new industries. Demographic survey i.e. classification of population &


town density. ii) Housing: Housing stock, per annum need, current housing conditions, accommodation density, building height, material use & tenancy status, rented or owned. iii) Community facilities: Education, health & recreation Economic survey: Occupational conditions, survey of industries, survey of commerce, financial position of local authorities, utility services. Regional survey: The larger scale surveys carried out in different town & villages to obtain general information about their physical, economic & social conditions is termed as regional survey. These regional investigations are carried out to develop whole region in a coherent manner. These include regional transport, highways & regional water supply system. National survey: This survey is conducted at national level which includes different regions. This survey is conducted to obtain information about, natural resources, potential for locating industries, fixing railways alignment, hydroelectric works etc. Civic survey or Socio-Economic survey: This is local level small scale survey conducted for redevelopment scheme, slum improvement scheme and master plan development. The socio-economic survey is the foundation stone of planning structure. Because it is the detailed house to house survey which helps a town planner to diagnose the core problems & issues to develop its remedies through planning. There are eleven types of aspect covered in socio-economic survey. i) Physical Features: ii) Communication: iii) Traffic Problems: iv) Open Spaces: v) Industrial Survey: vi) Housing Survey: vii) Population: viii) Health Conditions: ix) Landscape Survey: x) Land-cultivation: xi) Public Services: The socioeconomic survey is the key survey and foundation stone of Town Planning, in which a Town is divided into union councils or wards & blocks, and then each block further subdivided into streets and each street has number of houses. This survey is conducted through a survey Performa or questionnaire. The sample Performa for socioeconomic survey is as follows:


THE SAMPLE PERFORMA FOR SOCIOECONOMIC SURVEY i) Surveyors name: ____________ ii) Supervisors name:___________ iii) Ward number: _____________ iv) Block number: _____________ v) Street number: ____________ vi) Unit number: _____________ vii) Date of survey: ___________ There are five issues addressed in a socio-economic survey: i) Housing condition: House Number: _____________ Address: __________________ House Conditions: Poor _________ Good _________ Very Good _____ Number of Floors: ___________ Age of house: _______________ Plot area: __________________ Tenancy Status: Rented ______ Owned ______ Rent per month ________ ii) Family Structure: Total family members: __ Male __ Female __ Literacy of Male & Female: _____________ Marital status: ______________________ School going children __________ College going children __________ Age groups: 5 & below____ 5-10 _______ 10-25 ______ 25-50 ______ 50 & above ___ iii) Economic characteristics:


Total number of Earning Members _____ Occupations _______________ Monthly Income_____________ Expenditure ________________ Savings ___________________ Mode of Transport ___________ iv) Community Facilities: Nurseries ______ Primary Schools _______ Secondary Schools _______ College ______ Shopping Center _________ Park and Open Space _________ Club Theaters _________ Religious Building _________ Post Office _________ Police Station _________ Dispensary ___________ Clinic ___________ Hospital _________ Any Other _________ (In each category find out the Distance from Residence) v) Utility Services: Water Supply _____ Electricity _____ Gas _____ Telephone _____ Water Closet ______ (In each category find out the type of connection as Legal, Illegal, Private, Public etc) Remarks: ____________________ ___________________________ POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 5:52 AM NO COMMENTS: LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning


NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO. 10 TOPIC: LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS Introduction: In order to comprehend the legal and administrative problems in town planning at first it is important to understand the terms Legal and Administrative. The term legal mean established by or founded upon law or official or accepted rules[1]. Thus; legal problems in town planning must be either related to law or official accepted rules of town planning. Here the question arises that in what context the legal problems may be addressed? Because legal problems in town planning; may vary in each context and urban setting. Similarly the term administrative mean of or relating to or responsible for administration[2]. Therefore; administrative problems in town planning must be related to administration of a town. Now; in order to understand the legal and administrative problems in town planning one must have a thorough understanding about the Law and Administration of a town. On the other hand the knowledge about urban problems may also be the way to learn legal and administrative problems in an urban context. What is a Law? Law is a system of rules, usually enforced through a set of institutions. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as the foremost social mediator in relations between people. Law governs a wide variety of social activities. All legal systems deal with similar issues and behaviors, but each country categorizes and identifies its legal standards and principals in different ways. A common distinction is that between "public law" (a term related closely to the state, and including constitutional, administrative and criminal law), and "private law" (which covers contract and property). In civil law systems, contract fall under a general law of obligations, while trusts law is dealt with international conventions. Law spreads far beyond the core subjects into virtually every area of life. Three categories are of importance here i.e. Law and society, Law and commerce, Law and regulation. Law and society include Labour law, Civil rights and Human rights law, Immigration and nationality law, Social security law and Family law. Law and commerce include Commercial law, Admiralty law and the Law of the Sea, Company law and Intellectual property law. Law and regulation include Tax law, Banking law, Competition law, Consumer law and Environmental law. Regulation deals with the provision of public services and utilities. Especially since privatisation became popular private companies doing the jobs previously controlled by government; energy, gas telecomm and water are regulated industries.[3] What is an Administration? The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.[4] In business, administration consists of the performance or management of business operations and thus the making or implementing of major decisions. Administration can be defined as the universal process of organizing people and resources efficiently so as to direct activities toward common goals and objectives.[5]


What is Public Administration? Public administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. The pursuit of the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice is the ultimate goal of the field.[6] What are Urban Problems? [7] Urban problems remain similar worldwide. The United Nations Development Programme announced on 28 July 1997 that unemployment remains the world's number one urban problem, according to a survey of mayors of cities from around the world. The purposes of the survey was to identify issues and severity of urban problems, to identify areas where cities are experiencing some successes, and to establish a baseline for future more systematized surveys to help the United Nations better understand trends, needs and opportunities. More than half of the world's population now lives in cities and towns rather than in rural areas. Urban problems and their solutions, therefore, now on top the world's agenda. The UNDP survey of 14 categories of problems and the percentages of mayors identifying them as "severe" are as follows: Unemployment-----------------------------52.0% Insufficient solid waste disposal -------------42.0% Urban poverty------------------------------41.6% Inadequate housing stock-------------------33.8% Insufficient solid waste collection------------30.9% Inadequate water/sanitation facilities-------28.4% Inadequate public transportation------------26.2% Traffic congestion----------------------------22.3% Poor health services--------------------------21.5% Insufficient civil society participation----------20.9% Inadequate education services----------------18.9% Air pollution----------------------------------17.4% Urban violence/crime/personal safety--------13.5% Discrimination (women. ethnic, poor)---------6.8% Significantly, 70 percent of the responding mayors who rank unemployment a severe problem also rank urban poverty as severe. All problems stem from poverty. Thus, development programmes should be financed to lessen unemployment and hence to urge people to work a bit harder. The education sector should be highlighted to make people understand problems related to modernisation and everything related to illiteracy. Urban problems stem from rural-to-urban migration. The best way to work with the large number of new comers is to have them share the burden of leadership by taking part in providing services.


United States: Although, worldwide, urban violence/crime/personal safety is not ranked high among the survey's 14 categories of problems, crime is ranked severe by mayors in the United States. They say "Our biggest challenge is fighting the crime that has been caused as a result of illegal drug trafficking. Our efforts to strengthen the police department and involve neighborhoods and citizens in addressing their local problems have helped make a real difference in safety levels and decision-making processes. Success in addressing jobs, tax base growth, and road improvement and partnerships, has helped to improve the economic future of community and the quality of life of each resident." On the other hand, Canada's Mayer considers unemployment and air pollution as his city's severe problems and describes "Urban success in the new millennium will hinge on providing cities with the legislative and fiscal capacity to deal with the challenges they are facing. Cities need to forge new partnerships with senior governments to address population growth and employment, the provision of hard infrastructure and social services, and appropriate governance structures." The diversity of major problems identified among North American cities is further illustrated by the mayors of Mexico who rates traffic congestion and inadequate housing as his city's most severe problems, attributable to rural-to-urban migration, whereas insufficient solid waste disposal as that city's most severe problem. Latin America Illustrative of the prominence of unemployment as a severe problem in Latin America is the response of the mayor of Leon, Nicaragua. According to Leon's mayor, "Currently the municipality is facing a truly economic crisis where more than 23% of the population is experiencing extreme poverty and more than 70% of the economically active population is unemployed -- implying a clear tendency for the deterioration of health and education as well as an increase in illiteracy." Similarly, unemployment is reported to be the most severe problem of Argentina's and Ecuador's cities. Besides unemployment, the most serious problems reported for Cordoba, Argentina are traffic congestion and air pollution. Europe A few European mayors consider unemployment a severe problem. Traffic congestion is also cited as a serious problem. Few European cities mark urban poverty as a problem. However, Europe's cities appear to be experiencing problems related to modernization and technology. They write: "We are transforming a typical fordist town into a modern, European town. That is a slow and difficult long-term process that needs time and the participation of the whole city system. The risk of such urban transformation is to forget large parts of the population. We do not want that -- we are working to bring together development and solidarity. Relating technological to environmental concerns, Cologne's Mayor writes: "The success in establishing modern technology enterprises (e.g. media, bio- and genetic technology, environmental technologies) shows that there is a possibility for economic progress without interfering with environmental interests, for reconciling economy and ecology." Africa Many African mayors note the interrelatedness of unemployment and poverty, rural-to-


urban migration, and the consequent negative impact on services. "The most serious problems in our city are interrelated; urban unemployment causes poverty, and because of such poverty, people are not capable of paying for services such as health and education." Similarly, Mayor of Uganda cites "the collapse of industries" as causing "urban poverty arising from unemployment." Also, the mayor of Zimbabwe laments the "low levels of industrial development leading to unemployment and poverty." Mayor of Nairobi Kenya comments: "Due to population influx into the city, adequate provision of services -- such as housing, schools, medical, water, sewerage, roads, etc. -- is a nightmare." Some African mayors link unemployment to problems related to idle youth. Thus, Mayor of Bobo-Dioulasso writes: "Bobo-Dioulasso was a cleaner town in the past. Young men of Bobo-Dioulasso spend most of their time drinking tea. They don't want to work." Mayor of Banjuk Gambia adds: "Problems of drug use and rural-urban migration among our youth have increased considerably as a result of the persistent drought and unemployment, consequently causing enormous strain on the already stretched resources of the city." The city of Dakar Senegal, is undertaking a program to employ youth to improve the city. Thus, Mayor claims: "In the face of the distressing sight which is sometimes found in the city, Operation 'Be clean and make clean' has enabled the municipality to put to work all the young people, grouped in association to clean up the city of Dakar. Other than the creation of employment, this experience has the benefit of: developing a sense of citizenship, enabling participation in the management of the city, and fighting against exclusion and poverty." Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East The mayors of both Damascus Syria and Nicosia Cyprus rank inadequate public transportation as their most serious problem. Damascus Mayor cites "all kinds of pollution" as a major problem. Nicosia's mayor adds that "Nicosia remains the only divided city in the world." The mayor of Turkey's fifth largest city, Bursa comments that its most serious problems (housing, infrastructure, employment, etc.) derive from immigration from eastern Anatolia, Bulgaria, former Yugoslavia, and Albania. The mayors of both Rafah and Gaza in Palestine claim that the lack of infrastructure is their most serious problem, especially inadequate water/sanitation facilities and sewage systems. Gaza's mayor also emphasizes inadequate housing, whereas Rafah's mayor emphasizes not enough paved roads, as other serious problems. Asia and Pacific The city of Wuhan China has given high priority to solid waste collection and disposal as city's most severe problems. Same is the case of the cities of Baroda and Guntur in India, Nagoya of Japan, Kathmandu of Nepal, and Suva of Fiji. Suva's Mayor explains: "The Fiji land tenure system has made it very difficult for our finding an alternative site for our solid waste disposal." Mayor of Kawasaki Japan cites an "aging society and declining birth rate" as that city's most serious problem. "The sudden arrival of the aging society is a serious problem facing the whole of Japan," he comments. "It is predicted that Kawasaki's population over 65 years will double by the year 2010." Accordingly, "we must concentrate on building facilities providing care for the elderly, and find sources of workers." Likewise, Nagoya's Mayor Lists as City's number one problem as "Preparation of a care system for a rapidly aging society." Mayor of Pusan Korea claims that traffic


congestion and clean water are his city's most serious problems. The mayor of Kathmandu Nepal, also cite water supply as their most serious problems and explains: "The demand for drinking water has been increasing due to the increased population and rapid urban growth. At present, the total water supply per day from ground and surface systems in the valley is limited to 60 million litres per day whereas the demand is 114 million litres per day." KARACHI[8] The Karachi Development Authority has categorized the critical problems of Karachi as: Poor environmental conditions in slums and Katchi Abadis; An abnormal increase in population leading to quick urbanization; Health hazards owing to lack of proper water supply, sewerage, and storm water drainage; Pollution owing to industrial wastes; A defective transport system and consequent vehicle-created air pollution; The destruction of historical heritage and green areas; A haphazard location of some industries; A disparity in densities of different areas in the city; Congestion of roads and the downtown area causing, noise and pollution; A defective refuse collection and disposal system; Pollution in coastal waters causing harm to marine life; and Pollution caused by light and electronics. Other issues may also be added, such as a disregard for architectural heritage, faceless blocks of commercial and residential buildings, and the conversion of amenity plots into speculative housing. Urban planning and development in Karachi suffer from many problems, some of which are listed below. A lack of evaluation of previous planning attemptsPlanning initiatives often start anew without adequately evaluating possible merits of past plans. The incapability of the planning authorities to execute the planPlanning in Karachi has been under the auspices of Karachi Development Authority (KDA), which does not possess any legal or administrative control on the nineteen other land development agencies of the city. Thus the capacity of Karachi Development Authority to execute the plans has been constrained. The absence of political mandate for the planning processPlanning processes have usually been under the direction of the donors or UN agencies, without enjoying the political mandate necessary for keeping open the possibility of ad hoc adjustments. Technical shortcomings in the planning processAssumptions used in planning have often been drawn from inadequate sample surveys and obsolete physical data. Even today, Karachi does not have a comprehensive mapping base usually required for all kinds of planning and development exercises. Adding to the lack of information is the fact that data gathered by the Defense institutions are not accessible by the public. The planning authority is usually not the financing agency of the exercisethis fact has made it nearly impossible for planning agencies to execute the various components according to the outlined framework. Conclusion:


Karachi is in chaos, but it is inhabited not only by the prophets of doom and the merchants of gloom. There are those who care, who haveeven if only in their own small wayachieved results that need appraisal, evaluation, and even propagation. Hope for the future lies in these informal efforts. In this city globally known for continued strife and turmoil, the informal sector has indeed managed to keep it alive and thriving. Even with its ever-increasing population and heterogeneous mix, the city has shown great resilience and strength to not only survive but to actually evolve its own alternate culture. Without informal initiatives, this would have been impossible to achieve. References: [1] [2] [3] (must read) [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 5:42 AM NO COMMENTS: LECTURE NO. 09 TOPIC: ECONOMIC RESOURCES Introduction: The phrase Economic Resources means the natural, human and capital resources that are used to produce goods and services. It is also called factors of production.[1] In economics, factors of production (or productive inputs) are the resources employed to produce goods and services.[2] They are generally land, labor, and capital; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services.[3] The definition of economic resources as mentioned above clearly spell out that the theme economic resources is directly related to production of goods and services. In relation to production three questions are very important. What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce? In addition it is also important to understand that why goods and resources are related to town planning and how land labour and capital are the significant elements of town planning? Whereas; it may need a further explanation regarding economics as well as urban economics so as to understand the details about economic resources, and its significance in Town Planning. Lets try to answer all these questions in the following: Natural, Human and Capital resources: Materials or energy from the environment used for human needs are natural resources.[4] Human resources; is a term with which many organizations describe the combination of traditionally administrative personnel functions with performance, Employee Relations and resource planning.[5] It is the collective capabilities, experiences, potential and commitment of the organizations board, management team, staff, and volunteers.[6] The


objective of human resources is to maximize the return on investment from the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. Capital resources are the things produced and used to produce other goods and services.[7] Goods and Services: In economics, economic output is divided into physical goods and intangible services. Consumption of goods and services is assumed to produce utility. We satisfy our needs and wants by buying goods and services. Goods are items you can see and touch, such as a book, a pen, a folder etc. Services are provided for you by other people, such as; doctor, dentist, haircut and eating out at restaurants.[8] Or in other words, things that are produced by a country's economy examples of goods include food; clothing, machines, and new roads, examples of services include those of doctors, teachers, merchants, tourist agents, construction workers, and government officials.[9] What is Economics? Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economics aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Economic analysis is applied throughout society, in business and finance but also in crime, education, the family, health, law, politics, religion, social institutions, war, science and research. Microeconomics looks at interactions through individual markets, given scarcity and government regulation. The theory considers aggregates of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers at each possible price per unit. It weaves these together to describe how the market may reach equilibrium as to price and quantity or respond to market changes over time. This is broadly termed demand-and-supply analysis. In microeconomics, production is the conversion of inputs into outputs. It is an economic process that uses resources to create a commodity that is suitable for exchange. Some economists define production broadly as all economic activity other than consumption. Public finance is the field of economics that deals with budgeting the revenues and expenditures of a public sector entity, usually government.[10] Thus; the field of economics mainly determines every policy that a government makes for development or town planning. What is Urban Economics?[11] Urban Economics is broadly the economic study of urban areas. As such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing, and local government finance. More narrowly, it is a branch of microeconomics that studies urban spatial structure and the location of households and firms. Urban economics focuses on these spatial relationships to understand the economic motivations underlying the formation, functioning, and development of cities. Urban economics is rooted in the location theories [12] that began the process of spatial economic analysis. Economics is the study of the allocation of scarce resources, and as all economic phenomena take place within a geographical space, urban economics focuses of the allocation of resources across space in relation to urban areas.[13] Other branches of economics ignore the spatial aspects of decision making but urban economics focuses not only on the location decisions of firms, but also of cities themselves as cities themselves represent centers of economic activity.[14] Many spatial economic topics can be analyzed within either an urban or regional economics framework


as some economic phenomena primarily affect localized urban areas while others are felt over much larger regional areas.[15] Urban economics is divided into six related themes: Market forces in the development of cities, Land use within cities, Urban transportation, Urban problems and public policy, Housing and public policy, and Local government expenditures and taxes.[16] Market Forces in the Development of Cities Market forces in the development of cities relates to how the location decision of firms and households causes the development of cities. The nature and behavior of markets depends somewhat on their locations therefore market performance partly depends on geography.[17] If a firm locates in a geographically isolated region, their market performance will be different than a firm located in a concentrated region. The location decisions of both firms and households create cities that differ in size and economic structure. When industries cluster, like in the Silicon Valley in California, they create urban areas with dominant firms and distinct economies. By looking at location decisions of firms and households, the urban economist is able to address why cities develop where they do, why some cities are large and others small, what causes economic growth and decline, and how local governments affect urban growth.[18]Because urban economics is concerned with asking questions about the nature and workings of the economy of a city, models and techniques developed within the field are primarily designed to analyze phenomena that are confined within the limits of a single city.[19] Land Use within Metropolitan Areas Looking at land use within metropolitan areas, the urban economist seeks to analyze the spatial organization of activities within cities. In attempts to explain observed patterns of land use, the urban economist examines the intra-city location choices of firms and households. Considering the spatial organization of activities within cities, urban economics addresses questions in terms of what determines the price of land and why those prices vary across space, the economic forces that caused the spread of employment from the central core of cities outward, identifying land-use controls, such as zoning, and interpreting how such controls affect the urban economy.[20] Economic Policy in Urban Areas Economic policy is often implemented at the urban level thus economic policy is often tied to urban policy.[21] Urban problems and public policy tie into urban economics as the theme relates urban problems, such as poverty or crime, to economics by seeking to answer questions with economic guidance. For example, does the tendency for the poor to live close to one another make them even poorer?[22] Urban Transportation and Urban Economics Urban transportation is a theme of urban economics because it affects land-use patterns as


transportation affects the relative accessibility of different sites. Issues that tie urban transportation to urban economics include the deficit that most transit authorities have, and efficiency questions about proposed transportation developments such as light-rail. [23] Housing and Public Policy Housing and public policy relate to urban economics as housing is a unique type of commodity. Because housing is immobile, when a household chooses a dwelling, it is also choosing a location. Urban economists analyze the location choices of households in conjunction with the market effects of housing policies.[24] Government Expenditures and Taxes in Urban Economics The final theme of local government expenditures and taxes relates to urban economics as it analyzes the efficiency of the fragmented local governments presiding in metropolitan areas.[25] Conclusion: Conclusively for any town planning three questions as mentions above are very important. What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce? The answer to these questions is the key factor to understand the whole dynamics of economic resources in town planning. Because the answer clearly lead us to appropriate use of economic resources. References: [1] sa=X&start=0&oi=define&q= [2] [3] Sullivan Arthur, Steven M. Sheffrin (2003) Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 4 ISBN 0-13-0630853 locator=PSZ3R9&PMDbSiteId=2781&PMDbSolutionId=6724&PMDbCategoryId=&P MDbProgramId=12881&level=4 [4] sa=X&start=4&oi=define&q= g=AFQjCNG2lwacryszDZ5-VbwuhKRiJ_VeYQ [5] [6] sa=X&start=5&oi=define&q= =AFQjCNF3x1pNIuJiJ8ZplbqZLRg2uFCbcg [7] sa=X&start=2&oi=define&q= htm&usg=AFQjCNG8tAND3rL3_w-A7VwZOcwxqkBuwA [8] [9]


glish/modules/glossary.htm [10] [11] [12] Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp, Ed (2004) Urban Dynamics and Growth: Advances in Urban Economics. Elsvier Inc. [13] Richard J. Arnott and Daniel P. McMillan, Ed (2006) A Companion to Urban Economics Blackwell Publishing ISBN 1405106298 [14] O'Sullivan, Arthur (2003) Urban Economics Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN 0-07-248784-4 [15] McCann, Philip (2001) Urban and Regional Economics Oxford University Press [16] O'Sullivan, Arthur (2003) Urban Economics Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN 0-07-248784-4 [17] McCann, Philip (2001) Urban and Regional Economics Oxford University Press [18] O'Sullivan, Arthur (2003) Urban Economics Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN 0-07-248784-4 [19] McCann, Philip (2001) Urban and Regional Economics Oxford University Press [20] O'Sullivan, Arthur (2003) Urban Economics Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN 0-07-248784-4 [21] McCann, Philip (2001) Urban and Regional Economics Oxford University Press [22] O'Sullivan, Arthur (2003) Urban Economics Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN 0-07-248784-4 [23] Ibid [24] Ibid [25] Ibid POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 7:55 AM NO COMMENTS: ASSIGNMENT: MY STREET MY NEIGHBOURHOOD

AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT TOPIC: ASSIGNMENT: MY STREET MY NEIGHBOURHOOD 1. Introduction: A Street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. It is a public parcel of land


adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A neighbourhood or neighborhood is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town or union council. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members. 2. Objective: The objective of this assignment is to document the physical, social and economic characteristics and activities of the streets and neighbourhoods of our urban context of Karachi. 3. Reason for this assignment: Some of the students in class are left alone and not a part of any group. They wanted to do an individual assignment instead of doing group work and feel that they can not clearly spell out their abilities and intellect in the group assignment. Therefore for those students who are not working with any group this individual assignment is designed so as they may individually do it in their own personal capacity. 4. Methodology: The assignment "My Street My Neighbourhood" is very simple where a student will document the physical, social and economic conditions of his own neighbourhood. The methodology of this assignment is very easy for anyone who can draw a plan i.e. a base map and make its overlays showing physical social and economic activities in his street and neighbourhood through photographs and comments. Step # 1: At first one has to locate his/her neighbourhood through free online available Google earth map and then save its picture and identify the boundary of his/her neighbourhood. Step # 2: Draw or trace a base map of your neighbourhood showing all four streets around your house or appartment as well as other buildings surrounding your house. Mark or highlight your house / appartment in Red and all other buildings in light brown colour. Step # 3: Visit all the four streets and take pictures of your neighbourhood showing the streets and buildings from any corner so as maximum view can be established. The pictures may also be taken to show the physical conditions of streets and problems in it such as water and sewerage overflow, garbage disposal, electricity, telephone, and cable wires etc Similarly document social and economic conditions such as people sitting and interacting in your street or the commercial enterprises shops in the neighbourhood, Fruit and Vegetable carts, beggars, eunuchs etc Thus; a whole day activity may be photographed. Step # 4: Make maps overlays i.e. first a base map showing the boundary of the neighbourhood and your house / appartment in red highlight with name of streets and neighbourhood. Second map overlay showing the physical conditions and your observed problems with highlighting their location with different colours and legends. Third map


overlay showing the social activities in your street with their identified space/location highlighted with different colours and legends. Fourth map overlay showing the economic activities in your street with their identified space/location highlighted with different colours and legends. Map overlay showing the Master Plan of proposed improvements in your neighbourhood. Step # 5: Make report writing about an Introduction of your neighbourhood; its Location with map, observed Problems and identified issues with pictures on A-4 size paper, Reasons for those problems as observed or discussed with any elder of the neighbourhood, and proposed Recommendations for Improvements with a Master Plan. Complete the report with a Title page on A-4 Size paper and Maps maximum on A-3 Size paper. Ring bind the report and submit. 5. Submission and Deadlines: The deadlines for each step are as follows: Step 1: 27th February 2010 Step 2: 6th March 2010 Step 3: 20th March 2010 Step 4: 17th April 2010 Step 5: 1st May 2010 LECTURE NO. 08 TOPIC: NATURAL RESOURCES INTRODUCTION: The theme of current lecture is Natural Resources. In the following a detailed description about natural resources is given for the understanding of students learning town planning. WHAT IS MEANT BY NATURAL RESOURCES? Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. A commodity is generally considered a natural resource when the primary activities associated with it are extraction and purification, as opposed to creation. Thus, mining, petroleum extraction, fishing, and forestry are generally considered natural-resource industries, while agriculture is not. The term was introduced to a broad audience by E.F. Schumacher in his 1970s book Small Is Beautiful.[1] Afterwards; different authors used this phrase for different purposes and interpreted it in their own manner. For instance in United States natural resources are described as: Land, fish, wildlife, biota, air, water, groundwater, drinking water supplies, and other such resources (including the resources of the exclusive economic zone) belonging to, managed by, held in trust by, appertaining to, or otherwise controlled by, the United


States, any state or local government or Indian tribe, or any foreign government.[2] Similarly other defintions are: Assets that are physically consumed or waste away, such as oil, minerals, gravel, and timber can be said as natural resources.[3] A material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water, or a mineral deposit, that occurs in a natural state and has economic value.[4] Materials found in the natural state, such as water, soil, sunshine, minerals, that are used by humans.[5] Any part of the environment that species depend on for their survival can be termed as natural resources.[6] CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES: Natural resources are often classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. The renewable resources may be further categorized as unconditionally renewable (e.g., solar, tidal or wind energy) and conditionally renewable (e.g., fish, forest products). Conditionally renewable resources will last indefinitely if not over-exploited because that part of the resource that is used can be replaced through natural processes.[7] Furthermore; renewable resources are generally living resources such as fish, coffee, and forests etc. which can restock (renew) themselves if they are not over harvested. Renewable resources can be used indefinitely if they are used sustainably or if not over harvested. Once renewable resources are consumed at a rate that exceeds their natural rate of replacement, the standing stock will diminish and eventually run out. The rate of sustainable use of a renewable resource is determined by the replacement rate and amount of standing stock of that particular resource. Non-living renewable natural resources include soil, as well as water, wind, tides and solar radiation.[8] NATURAL RESOURCES AND TOWN PLANNING: In case of town planning the understanding of natural resources is very important. Because; the end product of any town planning exercise is the construction of new built up structures on a virgin land or in other words change of natural environment into built environment as per future needs. The other outcome of town planning is the reconstruction of the existing old built up structures or in other words transforming the built environment to suit the needs of present time. In both cases there emerge major changes and transformations in the physical appearance and character of the existing context. These changes and transformations may occur in the form of large movements of soil (sand and stones) from one place to another to be used as building material. Grubbing of natural vegetation and trees from a virgin land in a given context to be use inside buildings. Thus; these changes and transformations may cause various impacts such as change in ground water pattern, bearing capacity of soils etc. Furthermore; the towns, cities and urban areas attracts large number of population that


live and work there and consume lots of natural resources such as oil and gas. Large high rise buildings also exist in urban context that requires a lot of building material and natural resources and also become cause of urban heat islands. Additionally in town planning many mega construction projects are made that require major changes in the ecology of land, terrains, soils, vegetation, rivers, storm water drains, coastal belt etc. This change and transformation may be carefully analyzed through Initial Environmental Examination (IEE), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Social Impact Assessment (SIA), Visual Impact Assessment (VIA); Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment (LVSIA) etc. So as the town planning may be sustainable. Initial Environmental Examination (IEE): IEE is a preliminary attempt to evaluate environmental impacts in order to determine whether a full-scale environmental impact assessment is needed. It is also called as Initial Environmental Investigation (IEI), partial EIA or "Preliminary EIA".[9] Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): A process by which, the consequences of planned development projects are evaluated as an integral part of planning the project. The EIA can be defined as the analysis of biological, physical, social and economic factors to determine the environmental and social consequences of a proposed development action. The goal of the EIA is to provide policy makers with the best available information in order to minimize economic costs and maximize benefits associated with a proposed development.[10] Social Impact Assessment (SIA): It is the component of EIA concerned with changes in the structure and functioning of social orderings. In particular the changes that a development would create in: social relationships; community (population, structure, stability etc); peoples quality and way of life; language; ritual; political/economic processes; attitudes/value. Can sometimes include health impacts.[11] "Social impact assessment includes the processes of analysing, monitoring and managing the intended and unintended social consequences, both positive and negative, of planned interventions (policies, programs, plans, projects) and any social change processes invoked by those interventions. Its primary purpose is to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical and human environment."[12]This technique is a form of direct impact analysis used to assess how the costs and benefits of reforms are distributed among different stakeholders and over time. SIA is based on stakeholder analysis, and is particularly useful for disaggregating data on assets (physical, financial) and capabilities (human, organizational) into meaningful social categories. When reasonable national survey data exists, SIA uses a range of qualitative data collection tools (focus groups, semi-structured key informant interviews, ethnographic field research, stakeholder workshops to determine impacts, stakeholder preferences and priorities, and constraints on implementation. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, SIA supplements qualitative, sociological impact analysis with purposive surveys that capture direct impacts and behavioral responses to reform, or specific dimensions (e.g. time-use patterns) that affect reform outcomes.[13]


Visual impact assessment:[14] It is an evaluation of the visual impact of resource development proposals on forest landscape. Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment:[15] Landscape and visual impacts are two separate but closely related elements. Landscape refers to the appearance of the land, including its, shape, texture and colours. It also reflects the way these components combine to create specific patterns and pictures that are distinctive to certain areas. Landscape is not just a visual, phenomenon it relies on a number of other features/influences that will have shaped its character. For example topography, geology, ecology, land management and architecture all play a part in the formation of a landscape. TOWN PLANNING IN THE 1900S IN UNITED KINGDOM (UK):[16] The significance of resources in town planning can be further understood through a brief historical background of Town Planning in the 1900s in United Kingdom. At the turn of the century, legislation continued to improve conditions for the industrial work force. This included Town Planning Act 1909, which forbade the building of back-to-back housing, symbolic of the poverty of the industrial cities, and allowed local authorities to prepare schemes of town planning Housing Act 1919, which gave the Ministry of Health authority to approve the design of houses Housing Act 1930, which required all slum housing to be cleared in designated improvement areas Around this time, the Garden Cities movement was formed under the influence of Sir Ebenezer Howard, a visionary who took public health reform further by planning to build green cities on the principle that: 'by so laying out a Garden City that, as it grows, the free gifts of 'Nature fresh air, sunlight, breathing room and playing room shall be still retained in all needed abundance.' This eventually led to the New Towns movement and the New Towns Act 1946 although, by the time new towns were being built, the rise of the privately owned motor car had made much of Howard's vision unattainable. Pressure on the countryside: With all the new housing, the rise of the motorcar and continued industrial development, the countryside came under increasing pressure. For example, between 1919 and 1939 over four million new homes were built, the majority on green fields, and advertising hoardings sprung up unregulated across the landscape. In response to this threat, the need for planning controls to be extended to cover the countryside as well as towns was recognised and in 1926 the Council for the Preservation of Rural England was formed later renamed the Campaign to Protect Rural England. As pressure was put on the


Government to take action, two important acts of Parliament were passed: Town and Country Planning Act 1932, which was the first legislation to accept the desirability of countrywide rural planning Restriction of Ribbon Development Act 1935, which was designed to prevent the sprawl of towns and cities across the countryside. 'Ribbon development' is linear development of long rows of buildings built along main roads leading out of towns Town and country planning comes of age: The end of the Second World War brought consensus over the need for comprehensive planning to rebuild bombed out towns and cities and to help reorganise industry. The Town and Country Planning Act 1947 introduced the basis of the system that we have today. It introduced two significant changes i.e. Local authorities now had to complete a local plan, setting out detailed policies and specific proposals for the development and use of land in a district. Land use would be controlled and planning permission would be required for development. However some sectors, such as agriculture, were granted significant exemptions from planning controls, called permitted development rights, which still exist today. After the 1947 Act, the system continued to evolve. Important events include 1955: The national Green Belt system is put in place to prevent urban sprawl (the first Green Belts were designated around London before the Second World War 1968: County structure plans are introduced to co-ordinate and guide local plans 1988: Regional planning guidance is introduced to act as a strategic guide for county structure plans 1990: The Town and Country Planning Act 1990. The act divides planning into forward planning and development control. Forward planning is about setting out the authority's strategy for the future - through a development plan - and development control is about controlling the development that happens 1991: The Planning and Compensation Act 1991 amends the Town and Country Planning Act and introduces the plan-led system, affirming that planning applications should be decided in line with the development plan Conclusion: Finally it is clearly spelled out that the understanding about natural resources is quite significant in any town planning exercise. References: [1] [2]


[3] [4] [5] oc [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] A/0,,contentMDK:20433436~menuPK:2453409~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSite PK:490130,00.html [14] [15] [16] POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 2:32 AM NO COMMENTS: FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 6, 2009 MAPS

AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO. 07 TOPIC: MAPS Introduction: The theme of current lecture is Maps. In the following a detailed description about maps is given for the understanding of students learning town planning. What is a map?[1]


A map is a visual representation of an area or a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes. Many maps are static two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representations of threedimensional space, while others are dynamic or interactive, even three-dimensional. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or imagined, without regard to context or scale. Map Making or Cartography:[2] Cartography or mapmaking is the study and practice of making representations of the Earth on a flat surface. Cartography combines science, aesthetics, and technical ability to create a balanced and readable representation that is capable of communicating information effectively and quickly. History of Map Making:[3] The earliest known map is a matter of some debate, both because the definition of "map" is not sharp and because some artifacts speculated to be maps might actually be something else. A wall painting which may depict the ancient Anatolian city of atalhyk (previously known as Catal Huyuk or atal Hyk) has been dated to the late 7th millennium BCE.[4]/[5] The ancient Greeks and Romans created maps beginning at latest in the 6th century BC. As early as the 700s, Arab scholars were translating the works of the Greek geographers into Arabic. In ancient China, geographical literature spans back to the 5th century BC. The oldest extant Chinese maps come from the State of Qin, dated back to the 4th century BC during the Warring States era. Early forms of cartography of India included legendary paintings; maps of locations described in Indian epic poetry, for example the Ramayana. Indian cartographic traditions also covered the locations of the Pole star, and other constellations of use. The Arab geographer, Muhammad al-Idrisi, produced his medieval atlas Tabula Rogeriana in 1154. He incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East gathered by Arab merchants and explorers with the information inherited from the classical geographers to create the most accurate map of the world up until his time. It remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries.[6] In the Age of Exploration from the 15th century to the 17th century, European cartographers both copied earlier maps (some of which had been passed down for centuries) and drew their own based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. The invention of the magnetic compass, telescope and sextant enabled increasing accuracy. In 1492, Martin Behaim, a German cartographer, made the oldest extant globe of the Earth.[7] In 1507, Martin Waldseemller produced a globular world map bearing the first use of the name "America". Due to the sheer physical difficulties inherent in cartography, map-makers frequently lifted material from earlier works without giving credit to the original cartographer. By the 1700s, map-makers started to give credit to the original engraver by printing the phrase "After [the original cartographer]" on the work.[8] In cartography, technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new


generations of mapmakers and map users. The first maps were manually constructed with brushes and parchment and therefore varied in quality and were limited in distribution. The advent of magnetic devices, such as the compass and much later magnetic storage devices allowed for the creation of far more accurate maps and the ability to store and manipulate them digitally. In the late 20th century and early 21st century advances in electronic technology led to a new revolution in cartography. Specifically, computer hardware devices such as computer screens, plotters, printers, scanners (remote and document) and analytic stereo plotters along with visualization, image processing, spatial analysis and database software, have democratized and greatly expanded the making of maps. Map types:[9] In understanding basic maps, the field of cartography can be divided into two general categories: general cartography and thematic cartography. General cartography involves those maps that are constructed for a general audience and thus contain a variety of features. Thematic cartography involves maps of specific geographic themes oriented toward specific audiences. As the volume of geographic data has exploded over the last century, thematic cartography has become increasingly useful and necessary to interpret spatial, cultural and social data. An orienteering map combines both general and thematic cartography, designed for a very specific user community. A topographic map is primarily concerned with the topographic description of a place, including the use of contour lines showing elevation, Terrain or relief. A topological map is a very general type of map. It often disregards scale and detail in the interest of clarity of communicating specific route or relational information. A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; earth sciences and many other geographic disciplines which use highly detailed maps in its standard requirements. Maps for planning and development of urban areas: Town Planning and allied professions have always been demanding suitable base maps as a prerequisite to any planning.[10] Maps are not new to town planners and engineers. However, preparation and use of large-scale maps, especially for urban areas, is not as good as in developed and other developing countries. Maps are required by every Department/agency of the Provincial and Federal Governments having stake in development of urban area. Local authorities, public undertakings, service organizations require maps. However, the requirement of maps in terms of contents, quality and accuracy vary from organization to organization. Also, some organizations use maps every day while some use maps occasionally yet some others use maps once in a way. It is important to note that all the agencies aforementioned and others do not need comprehensive map, i.e. all the information in map. In the myriad of agencies involved in planning and development of towns and cities it is the agencies responsible for planning for physical development, which need maps most. Municipal


authorities rank second in use of maps - comprehensive maps are required for planning and execution of works by engineering department, maps of buildings/plots for taxation and election purposes. The institutions like urban development authorities, Local authorities - Engineering and Health Departments, Power Transmission and distribution agencies, Agencies for Urban Water Supply and Drainage system, Survey, Settlement and Land Records (City Survey) Department, Agencies for city transport system, Fire Force, Police Department - Traffic & Law and Order and Postal Department requires the maps on daily basis. Whereas; other institutions like Public Works Departments, National Highways Authority, Railways, Housing boards, Education Department, Health Department, Census Department and Election Commission requires the maps occasionally. Similarly the maps are required for different purposes. Full topographic maps at different scales are required by Urban Development Authorities for preparation/ revision of Comprehensive Development Plans, Zonal Plans (Sectoral Plans), Neighbourhood Plans, Sub-division Plans, Town Planning Schemes, etc. in the local planning area.[11] The Scale of Maps:[12] The scale of a map is the ratio of a single unit of distance on the map, to the equivalent distance on the ground.[13] Maps are sometimes referred to by relative descriptions of large scale or small scale. A large scale map displays objects so they appear relatively large. For example, an island displayed on a 1:10,000 map will appear larger than if displayed on a 1:100,000 map. Thus, the former is large scale. Maps with a ratio of 1:50,000 or larger (for example, 1:25,000 would be larger) are considered large scale. Maps with a ratio of 1:50,000 to 1:250,000 are considered medium scale. Any maps with a smaller scale (for example 1:500,000) are considered small scale.[14] The scale of map to be used for a particular purpose in a project is determined as to what topographical features and what plan elements (details) are required to be shown with a certain degree of clarity on one or more sheets. Thus, to show a concept for circulation system and layout of plots in a sub-division plan (layout), in any urban area, a 1:2,000 scale map may be adequate. But, if details on plot numbers, entrance to plots, plot dimensions, centre line of roads, chamfers, asphalt, alignment of services like water, electricity and telephone, planting of trees, etc. are to be shown, maps at scale 1:1,000 would be needed. If the width of plot and roads is less than 10 m then a 1:500 scale map would be required to show all the afore cited details. Process in planning - Best Practice: Requirement of maps in terms of content, accuracy, scale, etc. in planning and development of urban areas can be appreciated well when the process involved in planning for physical development and implementation is known. Planning urban areas, especially metropolitan areas and cities, may have three stages, although they can vary: Outline Development Plan (ODP) now re-christened as Perspective Plan, at macro (city/town) level;


Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) also at macro level. This can also be called Master Plan; Zonal Plans for part of city/town to elaborate the details; and Town Planning Schemes at micro (local) level to implement the plan. These levels are basically to perceive, conceptualize and see details from city/ town level to part of city/town and local level. These levels naturally require maps at different scales with different content with one or fewer maps to see the area under consideration. For instance for planning a metro rail system or a bypass for rail or road, entire metropolitan area or city as the case may be has to be on only one or two sheets for all to see the alignment at metropolitan or city level. To fine tune the alignment, to avoid insurmountable obstacles, more and more details will be needed for which maps have to be at larger and larger scales. Only important features are shown on maps at small scale. All the features would be required at detail planning. What features in base map and what elements in plan proposal need to be shown on map user (planners, public and decision makers) determine the scale(s) for maps at a particular level. Preparation of Master Plan: Preparation of Master Plan at Metro/city level is highly complex and needs multidisciplinary team of experts. However, the experts who steer the work on planning are the physical planners. Before embarking on making projections for demographic aspects to estimate the land required to meet the growth during the plan horizon, several studies are carried out by physical planners apart from other discipline. Most important planning survey is the use of building and parcels of lands, not only in the existing developed area but also in the vicinity, what is called Local Planning Area. Planning studies: Statutes on Town and Country Planning in all the States require preparation of Existing Land Use of every plot/property. Land uses are classified broadly in to 8 main groups. Not only that, a register showing the land use of every property need to be prepared and maintained along with the existing land use map. Hard copies of maps must be as large as 1:1,000 to mark the land use in field and to prepare fair maps in office; A GIS in deed, but in hard copy form. Another planning survey for physical aspect is structural condition survey. This survey assumes importance in old areas due for redevelopment and/or rejuvenation. Structural conditions of buildings are classified in to 4 or 5 classes: very good, good, moderate, poor and obsolete. This survey is for structures for which each and every structure must clearly be available on maps to mark the appropriate condition in the field and to prepare fair maps in office. For this purpose also maps must be at least 1:1,000 if not at 1:500. This is yet another GIS earlier to electronic era. All these maps need to be documented for reference and record, lest they are called for in courts of law. Large-scale maps show limited area on a sheet. They need to be generalized to prepare smaller scale maps: 1:5,000, 1:10,000, 1:20,000 to depict parts of urban area or


the whole urban area on one or two sheets. The principle of Part to whole be applied which is similar to preparation of smaller scale maps from survey data at larger scale. Planning studies other than Land Use and Structural Condition are for: Density of population/house holds; House hold survey for social, economic conditions which is a sample survey; Traffic and transportation survey; Problems in physical condition like congested areas, narrow roads, bottlenecks, bad junctions, low lying areas, pollution from industry, etc. All these surveys are not aimed at each and every property and maps at small scales, say 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 may suffice. Analysis of the physical aspect - Land Use and Structural Condition - and socio-economic aspects, problems in physical form, function, need to be made and results shown on small scale maps: 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:20,000. After the land requirement for future growth is established, land availability has to be analyzed for suitability for development. To show the results of the analysis as thematic maps also smaller scale maps, say 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:20,000, area required. Result of each of the study on separate maps (transparencies) at smaller scale (all at same scale) will be compared with one above the other (sounds like GIS in place!) to synthesis the studies and draw inference. The maps showing the results of planning studies at small scales, on one or two sheets, are the basis on which alternative plans at macro level are conceptualized. Concept plans: Concept plans are free hand sketches on the base of accurate maps, at smaller scale (1:10,000 or 1:20,000 depending on the planning area) on one or two sheets, to show the boundaries of land areas for different uses, arterial and lower order road system, railway system, density of population/ house holds, etc. However, boundaries of proposed land uses and road system will not have any definite geometry. Master Plan: After a concept or combination of two or three is accepted, Master Plan (CDP) is prepared on accurate map at larger scales, say 1:20,000 or 1:10,000 (for Metros and large cities), and 1:5,000 for others. Format of maps for Master Plan/Planning Drawings:[15] Town planners, Architects and Engineers convert topographical maps in to working drawings to work on. They use the ISO A Series sheet formats for their drawings. Ammonia prints of drawings on A0 to A3 have to be folded to A4 size to have title block on top to go into files, storage, used in field and sent across by mail. Planning drawings must be in Landscape format. Planning drawings at any scale for any coverage must always be on base of scientifically prepared topographical map. Planning drawings will have legend and title block column at the right hand side of sheet from top to bottom. Column width can be 100 to 175 mm. Title block must be at bottom-right corner.


The drawings of Master Plan approved by Government are statutory and need to be preserved for long time. Album form is best to the purpose. Further, drawings must be compact and handy to go in to album without folding. For this purpose, A1 size (841 x 594 mm) is best both in album and handling on desk and in field. All the drawings in the Master Plan may be to A1 size in modular form. Topographical maps at scale 1:5,000 with an 800 x 400 mm format covering 4 x 2 km (8 sq km) fits within A1size with sufficient margin at bottom for full length for legend and title block and fit in a handy album. Preparation of Zonal Plans: The phase of Zonal Plan is between Master Plan and detail plan. Zonal plans are enlargement of Master Plan for part of city or town or for a particular land use zone. Zonal Plan include plan document to supplement the plan (drawing). Zonal plans may show even the minor roads but may not show individual properties which are very small. Maps for Zonal Plan must be at 1:2,000 to show all the details; but neither dimensions nor all properties. Town planners role does not end on preparation and approval of Master Plan and Zonal Plan at small scale to remain as wall maps for adoration. His role includes translating Master Plan/Zonal Plan in to Action Area Plans. Preparation of Area Plan: Area plans are action plans to implement the proposals in Master Plan. It may be for extension of city/town or rejuvenation or redevelopment of old and blighted areas. Master Plan is the basis for Area Planning. Maps for Area Plan start at the scale of Master Plan (1:5,000) to delineate the area for planning. Site plan at scale 1:1,000 will be required with additional survey data - cadastral boundary and topography and service cadastre. Maps may be in modular form. But, to see the concept (Master Plan content) for the whole area on one sheet site plan has to be at smaller scale. The Master Plan may be fine tuned on the accurate site plan. Draft details plan, keeping the Master Plan concept as it is or with modifications, is prepared on a large scale, say 1:2,000, to show all the details in the plan - plots with numbers, roads, road elements like carriage way, centre line, junction details, plot dimensions, even entrance to plots, etc. Details plans may be in modular form. After the Draft Plan is approved detailed plan is finalized on maps at scale 1:1,000 to show all details and dimensions. Dimensions are also indicated to help setting-out and to prepare engineering designs. But, Plan is not fit for allotment of plots and for development. Physical planners responsibilities do not end after preparation of Master Plan at small scale. Physical planner must co-ordinate development as well not only organizing and overseeing setting-out of his plan on ground but also there after. Conclusion: Finally it is quite clearly spelled out that the understanding about maps is very significant


and a prerequisite for the person involved in any town planning exercise. References: [1] [2] [3] [4] Robert Kunzig (1999). "A Tale of two obsessed archeologists, one ancient city, and nagging doubts about whether science can ever hope to reveal the past" Discover Magazine, May 1999. From [5] Stephanie Meece (2006). "A birds eye view - of a leopards spots The atalhyk map and the development of cartographic representation in prehistory" Anatolian Studies, 56:1-16 From [6] S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire, pp. 461-2 From [7] [8] PHPSESSID=el7bd0vpd8cto0amsqqq5kaj22 [9] [10] Prabhakar Misra (2001) The Changing Frame of Town Planning From [11] L. R. Rudraiah (2003) Maps for planning and development of urban areas published in proceedings Map India Conference 2003 From: [12] [13] [14] [15] ASSIGNMENT: BASELINE STUDY OF UNION COUNCILS AR- 309: Architecture & Town Planning (B) BASELINE STUDY OF UNION COUNCILS By Ravindar Kumar B. Arch, M. Urban Design Assistant Professor, DAP-NED 1. Introduction: It is a grave reality that Karachi is the largest mega city of Pakistan. The city of such magnitude requires immense efforts for its physical, social economic development. Similarly it is also quite difficult to manage such city with mega problems & issues. However if one like to work for the planning of Karachi it would be a huge task to plan for the city because it requires immense efforts of various disciplines & departments to


plan for Karachi. However for the students of Town Planning it is quite possible to look at the city from micro scale and establish its realities & work for its physical, social & economic development. Thus the method for understanding the city like Karachi needs to be looked at from the smallest unit of the city. In this regard it is evident that Karachi is divided in 18 towns an each town is further subdivided into union councils. Thus the smallest basic unit of city is the boundary of a union council which can be easily documented by a group of students to understand its dynamics, identify problems & issues in it and devise solutions. 2. Details of Union Council: For understanding the basics of a union council following data is necessary to be complied through physical survey. i) Karachi Map with boundaries of different towns & other Administrative units. ii) Town Map identifying the boundaries of the union councils. iii) Union Council map identified with streets & different neighborhoods in it. iv) Factual data shown on maps as well as in a report form with visuals. v) Total number of neighborhoods & settlements. vi) Existing conditions of water & sewerage lines with their diameter & slopes. vii) Existing system of solid waste management. viii) Existing system of education, health & other community facilities. ix) Total number of lanes & streets & problems in it. x) Total number of housing units its types & details of problems in it. xi) Total population & ethnic composition. xii) Contribution of people / NGOs / CBOs in above mentioned developments. xiii) Contribution of Government in above mentioned developments. 3. Conclusion: Conclusively it must be clearly spelled out that aforementioned information of union council shall be quite useful & basic for the understanding of the dynamics of a union council. However; it is also a question of quite significance that why such exercise shall be carried out by students? Basically there are two major reasons for that matter. The first reason is clearly evident that this exercise shall be beneficial for students in understanding the subject of town planning with actual hands on with practical situations. This will enable the students with this understanding that what they can do & can not do as a Professional Civil Engineer. The second reason of this exercise is an assumption or hypothesis that, the current elected people in union councils are technically unequipped with the know-how about physical & socio-economic ground realities in their union councils. And as a Civil Engineer when one document and analyze the physical, social & economic conditions of union council & deliver the same information to decision makers it would be easier for them to understand


the problems & issues from an engineers point of view and they will take right decisions for the physical development of their union councils and as a repercussion jobs shall be generated for Civil Engineers. Thus students are advised to start this assignment as soon as possible because the groups are already made by them. The deadlines for the assignment are as follows: Data Collection: 27th February 2010 Data Analysis: 20th March 2010 Maps Making and Report Writing: 24th April 2010 Submission: 1st May 2010 POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 5:17 AM NO COMMENTS: TRENDS IN URBAN GROWTH & OBJECTIVES OF SOUND PLANNING AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B) By: RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor, DAP-NED LECTURE NO: 3 & 4 TOPIC: TRENDS IN URBAN GROWTH & OBJECTIVES OF SOUND PLANNING 1. Introduction: The current discussion is based on the concept of urban growth trends and objectives behind sound planning. According to, Harold MacLean Lewis[1] the trends in urban growth can be visualized through population estimates. He classified the towns with relation to their population sizes. According to his classification the town population begins from 2500 to 5000 persons. He further classified town in nine categories. i) 2500 to 5000 persons may be termed as Eopolis or Infantile Municipality Town ii) 5000 to 10000 persons may be termed as Polis or Juvenile Town iii) 10000 to 25000 persons may be termed as Mature Trade/Industrial Town iv) 25000 to 50000 persons may be termed as Metropolis or Medium Size City v) 50000 to 100000 persons may be termed as Megalopolis Intermediate City vi) 100000 to 250000 persons may be termed as Trade/Industry/Service Sector City vii) 250000 to 500000 persons may be termed as Primate City viii) 500000 to 1000000 persons may be termed as Tyranopolis or a Metropolitan City ix) 1000000 or more persons may be termed as Senile City or Mega City The trends in urban growth can be seen from two major perspectives. One is the trends of emerging urban centers or cities over the period of time and other is the trends of urban growth within urban centers. Considering the first perspective in mind there are three different trends of urban growth evident in the world i.e. Development of Mega Cities, Development of Metropolitan Cities and Development of Small and Intermediate Cities


or Secondary Cities. i) Development of Metropolitan Cities: These are cities with population between one million and above up to less than 10 millions. After the First World War up to Second World War the development trends was of metropolitan cities as a hub of economic activities and centers of administration and power. This development trend continued up to Second World War. In this era small manufacturing towns also developed as industrial cities. After the devastating effects of 2nd world war the redevelopment of cites toll place & large cities emerged as primate cities with large economic base. Due to both push and pull factors the urban areas transformed their morphology to greater extent. ii) Development of Mega Cities: These are the cities with population of Ten million & above. There are total 25 mega cities in the world. The background of mega city development is that, The population explosions and mass migration towards primate cities caused the phenomenal growth & development in metropolitan cities and they become the economic base for the countries at national level and played their respective role in the countrys economic development. The change in these metropolitan cities not only remains at population level but in addition their physical nature and morphology has increase to greater extent. These are termed as mega cities. Mega cities are those which have mega economics and mega problems and issues. Such as its administration setup and physical maintenance and management issues. The devastating effects of Second World War also give birth to importance of small, secondary and intermediate level cities whose economic base also effect and serve the neighboring rural areas. iii) Development of Small and Intermediate Cities: These are the cities with population range from 2500 to less than one million. The development trend of these cities occurred in two different times in the history. At first this trends of cities was evident immediately after Industrial Revolution up to 1st world war and then after Second World War up till now. The current trend is development of small and intermediate cites which has to play an important role in national economics due to security reasons and maintenance and management. The basic reason behind development of such cities is to reduce the pressure of population from primate cities. Secondly such cities are having small size can be better managed and plays a pivotal role in national economics by supporting rural hinter land.


2. What is Urban Growth? It is basically the growth and development of urban areas, over a period of time. It can also be understood by the term urban sprawl. 3. What is Urban Sprawl? Urban sprawl is the term to describe development pattern in cities. Unfortunately it lacks a precise definition. However it can be understood through visualizing the on going process of growth in cities. The urban sprawl can refer to at least three different patterns. i) Low density continuous development. ii) Ribbon development. iii) Leapfrog development i) Low Density Continuous Development Pattern: This is the development pattern on housing and related land uses in all direction of city. It is also termed as the horizontal growth, which occupy large amount of land and expand the boundary of the city. This development pattern is manly measure for at least 50 years. The affects of low density continuous development pattern are as follows: Waste of land resources. It increase the cost of development i.e. utilities, transport. It increases the travel time and energy consumption. ii) Leapfrog Development Pattern: It is a process of skipping over of parcels of land. This pattern occurs due to various reasons such as property value increase, deteriorating law and order, opportunities of better life & upward mobility. The affects of leapfrog development are as follows: It is unplanned growth that occurs spontaneously. It creates incompatible land uses. iii) Ribbon Development Pattern: It is the development that follows street, car lines roads. Subways, and commuter railroads, by leaving the interstices undeveloped. Mainly the highways promote ribbon development. Interstices mean space between things / objects. According to Encyclopedia of Urban Planning by Whittick Arnold, It is an urban development along main roads leading to cites. According to Mr. G.K. Hiraskar, in this growth pattern, the development takes place in the form of Ribbon or line. It is a single row of house, shops, market, commercial buildings along the bust routes railway lines, and highways. The ribbon development mostly occurs in newly developing towns where zoning rules and regulations have not been strictly enforced. The affects of Ribbon growth are as follows: It has only one advantage that resident have access to transport. Its disadvantages are traffic noise, danger for children, stretch of services, and aesthetically it looks bad thats


why the UK has Restriction of Ribbon Development Act 1935. Initially this kind of growth is very small scale along the road side afterwards it occupy whole area and roads become congested and problem of accidents increase. Same is the case of railway lines. This kind of growth cause congestion and over crowding of all types of buildings i.e. Residence, Schools, Factories, Were housing, Petrol Pumps, Shops, Clinics etc. Every body wants to get frontage advantage of main road and the internal land will be left undeveloped which cause wastage of valuable land. Over growing at the road and narrow starts will raise the accidents. All types of buildings will coexist at the road frontage with no regard to zoning regulations, which will affect the health conditions of resident. The town spread will be far and wise which is costly to maintain. The future improvement will become costly. Incompatible land uses will occurs. Ribbon developed is inverse of planned growth because it is an organic growth which is uncontrollable. Therefore it is necessary to check this kind of development before it become problem for the planners. 4. Cellular Growth: As evident from the term itself the cellular growth is the growth and expansion of cells. What is cell? Cell is basically a unit of planning. Just like different biological organisms grow and expand, or a cell reproduce itself. Like wise in planning when a planned settlement is developed in a city; the city expands with it. For example KDA announces housing schemes in Karachi. Each settlement which is developed in a scheme can be termed as cell. Therefore, in planning cellular growth means repetition of existing cells in city structure or it is a planned addition of new neighborhoods to existing towns. Cellular growth may also means little more than haphazard urban growth. 5. Linear City: The linear city concept can also be termed as more refined version of ribbon development. The concept of linear city was developed by Mr. Don Arturo Soria Y. Mata in 1882, in Madrid. According to his concept, A city should be designed on the principal that transport rout will be the main determinant to develop physical shape / form / morphology of the city. In linear city the development is arranged in a long narrow belt along the both sides of road. There may be a series of linear towns along the route to link existing towns. In Pakistan one can find many examples of this nature such as along Indus Highway many towns and villages developed in this pattern. 6. Suburbs and Suburban Growth: Suburbs are the compactly developed / developing areas in the surrounding of a city. There is no identifiable boundary between city and suburban. However they are distinguished by their homogenous socio-economic and physical characteristics. Cities merge gradually into the suburban areas without and break in the physical aspect. 6.1 Character of Suburbs:


Suburbs can be of different form and function depends on their age, location and circumstances and context within which they are developed. In case of America and Europe (West) they are of three kinds i.e. old suburbs, new suburbs and former independent communities. a) Old Suburbs: These are developed before the wise use of automobile and prosperity. These suburbs were generally located adjacent to central city. Their residents were of varied income groups. The social classes in old suburbs have commercial area or local shopping and ethnic background. They have very little amount of vacant land. The example of old suburb is PECHS area in Karachi. b) New Suburbs: These were developed after Second World War. When automobile use increased & people become affluent. They have low density. They have high rate of automobile ownership, high income, abundance of land and enough parking and open space facilities. Gulshan-eMaymar in Karachi is its example. c) Former Independent Communities: These suburban communities developed as independent towns due to industry. They have a mixture of commercial, industrial and residential activities. They have mix housing type and varied age income and social class. Steel town, in Karachi is its case example. 6.2 Why Suburban Growth Takes Place: There are varieties of reasons for suburban growth such as: Rate of land is low, open space are in abundance, citys congestion increase, fast transport routes developed, & access to automobiles increased. 7. Models & Theories of Urban Growth & Citys Life Cycle: It is a grave reality that city is a growing entity. Over a period of time city grows and develops. As city grows the habitation starts to takes place in fringe areas. As a repercussion changes and transformations occurs both in city center and suburbs. Considering the growth patterns in different cities all over the world the theories and planners tried to analyze them and established their theories & models for urban growth. Some of these theories & models are as under. According to Lewis Mumford, the urban growth or town growth takes place in six stages with respect to their social order. Each town may pass through these six stages, i.e. Eopolis, Polis, Metropolis, Megalopolis, Tyranopolis and Necropolis. Eopolis: The Eopolis indicates the first stage of town as a village community whose economic base is agriculture.


Polis: The Polis indicates and association of population with some mechanization and specialization. Metropolis: The metropolis is a city or town which serves as a capital of a state or region. Megalopolis: The megalopolis indicates the first stage of decline in town or city due to mega problems & issues, or the reign of town or city shows the signs of decline and deterioration. Tyranopolis: the Tyranopolis is the town or city which shows drastic deteriorating situation for example the trade depression or military powers may occur with different war lords. Necropolis: the necropolis is the worst stage of town or city. For example the citizens are shifting to rural areas or hinter land or village due to war, disease or economic break down. In that case the town may recover from it after a large internal of time. According to Mr. Griffith Taylor a town or city passes through four stages, i.e. Infantile, Juvenile, Mature and senile. Infantile: this is the first stage of town in which a city is not yet divided in separate zones. Or the city in which zoning regulations is not being prepared yet. Juvenile: the juvenile stage of town or city indicates that, shops are being separated from the houses or residential area and there are some factories or an industry has been established at a minimal level. Mature: the mature stage of town shows the divisions of residential zone, commercial zone and industrial zone in the city. Or the landuse and zoning regulations in town shows the stage of mature city / town. Senile: Finally the senile stage of town indicates the physical decay in most of the portions of the city. Or the physical, social & economic degradation is evident in the built environment of town or city. Apart from these theories of urban growth and process of decay there are some models of urban growth & its pattern of landuse in the form of different theories. These include concentric zone theory or concentric ring theory, Axial Development theory, Sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. These theories of urban development patterns are quite important in landuse planning. Because in landuse planning process the main focus is on conversion of individual parcels of land from rural to urban uses and the role of public and private sector in that conversion. These theories are an attempt to understand and explain that how an urban area grows and what landuse changes occurs in it. it describes the basic urban structure of a city &


dynamics of urban growth in town or city. Concentric Zone / Ring Theory: The concentric zone theory is based on the pioneering work of Ernest. W. Burgess who have carried out the empirical studies of Chicago and developed the concentric Rings theory. He identified five zones of landuse in the city. The figure developed by him shows the typical process of urban growth by five numbers of concentric circles which emerged & expands form CBD. The fist concentric circle of central business District (CBD) represents the center of activity generally close to the site of original settlement. The concentric circle means that some thing which converges to a focal factor. For example if we think of a smaller commun9ty the house of a land lord will be the focal point or in ancient or medieval time the palace of king & temple was a focal point in city. Like wise in this theory CBD is that focal point of an urban area. It also represents the old town areas or origin of city which has a central position in expansion. The second concentric circle represents the transition zone which consists of mix commercial and industrial land uses. It means the areas around CBD are subject to changes and transformations in which the old residences transform into business and industrial landuse. Such as wholesaling and warehousing activities. The third zone represents the landuse of low income housing in metropolitan area which contains old housing units or housing of workers of CBD. It is developed due to easy access to job or working area proximity to place of living. The fourth zone represents a middle income housing zone that includes some of the old suburbs. In this zone good residential facilities are evident for high income group where as this zone also comprise exclusive districts for high income people. The fifth and final zone is of newer suburban developments or commuters who use the fastest transport routes. This zone consists of high class residences and the outer limit of this zone has one hour journey to CBD. If one analyze this model of given pattern and growth situation it will be evident that, each zone held to invade the outer adjacent zone with a rippling effect. With decline enlarges intro central zone. The basic concept of this theory is that similar activities will locate at the same distance from the center of an urban area. The landuse in each zone depends upon its ability to pay the price for proximity to city center or CBD. In this growth model each zone would have a homogeneous landuse as the physical growth proceed outward from the center and the area occupied would have similar characteristics. From economic point of view the concentric zone is only possible when the site of growth will be located equidistant from center irrespective of direction. According to this theory the process of urban growth is of radial expansion from city center. Although this model is very simple but it has a certain description value. Axial Development Theory: The axial development theory is a continuation of concentric zone theory because its basic premise is same i.e. accessibility to a single focal point. However in this theory the accessibility is measured in terms of time and physical distance and focus is given to transport facilities in an urban area. This theory explains that as the movement will be concentrated along a particular route therefore development also takes place on this route. Thus urban expansion can be controlled by available transport facilities. It is an extension


of each landuse type will develop along major transport route and as a repercussion star shape pattern of landuse will occur in urban built up area. Where as the number of arms of star depends upon the major transport routes in a city. The limit to this development along main transport routes is set through the area development closer to center with less distance to center. Therefore basically this theory explains about the shape of urban built up areas by introducing some transport routes in addition to peripheral expansion by transport radials. And in this kind of development the pattern of internal landuse will be of irregularly shaped zones. Sector Theory: The sector theory is the refinement of both axial development theory and concentric zone theory. The sector theory was first proposed by Homer Hoyt in 1939. In this theory the focus of attention is a particular landuse growth & development. It suggests the cities grow not in strict concentric zones but rather in sectors similar type of development. This theory explains that the growth takes place along a particular axis of transport route with mainly similar type of landuse. Each sector consist a homogeneous landuse which expands outward in a particular direction away from the CBD. The residential areas might expand along with existing transportation links, topographical features or natural amenities such as Chicagos gold cost and north suburbs clearly show this pattern. Thus the major attempt of sector theory is to explain the pattern of urban growth from the view point of residential landuse changes. According to sector theory the growth of n urban area is related with extension of residential districts or more appropriately said the movement of high income residential areas enclosed on each side by middle income group, develops at the edge of existing settlements. The growth for high income housing develops along fastest transport routes up to and edge of an urban area. Beyond which there may be pleasant open country. Some times the direction of this growth may be established by real estate developers. It is quite common practiced that people try to live near the similar social and income class which results in separation in the residential landuse. And as the higher income people can afford better housing & access to amenable environment therefore they can live away from their work place. Whereas; the low income people line on those locations which are low cost & affordable to them near their workplace. The limitation & in adequacy of sector theory is that it can not define rate of growth in different parts of the city or the causes of urban growth and those factors that affects the location of employment opportunities. Especially in case of low in come housing development around the new employment opportunities in suburban or fringe area as evident in our local context the sector theory is silent. Multiple Nuclei Theory: The Multiple nuclei theory was developed in 1945 by the Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman after its initial exploration by Mr. R.D. McKenzie. This theory is quite varied from previous theories & models which explained that down town area or CBD is the only focal pint or nuclei of the city. This theory advocates that down town area or CBD can not be considered as an only nuclei or focal point for growth. This theory explains


that in urban area there may be more than one focal point or multiple nuclei that can affect the location of certain land uses with increased intensity. In this theory the landuse patterns are visualized as series of nuclei develops in a city in which each nucleus can have different function. Each center develops as nuclei from the spatial interdependence of certain functions. For example manufacturing and transport uses may for on nucleis. Like wide hotel, offices and transshipment facilities may develop aro8unjd and air port or sea port areas as evident in Chicagos OHare field or KPT area in Karachi. Basically this theory suggests four manor principles of separate nuclei and different districts in it. Principle No 1: Certain activities requires and especial condition of access. For example retailing activity and accessibility had main coordination. Principle No 2: Certain activities get benefited from grouping. For example a particular, single kind of market exists together. Principle No 3: Certain activities are detrimental to each other location. For example some activities require supports services. Principle No 4: Certain activities are unable to afford the market price of most desirable sites. With the expansion of an urban area more specialized nuclei can emerge. In all major urban areas & cities the CBD is located near the inter city transport. The CBD may not be in the center of city but can be developed at an edge of city or built up areas. It depends on the asymmetrical growth of city or urban area. In an urban area Industry, whole sailing & ware housing develops near inter city transport areas. Where as the heavy industry is located away from the main part of the city or urban areas. As the city size increases the residential districts will show an increasing differentiation. In this way the cultural center and entertainment centers or suburban business districts will take a form of other nuclei in the city. Beyond the built up area, settlements which develops as a repercussion of rail services for commuters and private car use. This theory also explains about the irregular pattern of urban landuse because development occurs from different centers, which means the particular pattern of landuse emerge at each different urban area with no common basic pattern of development. Conclusively; all the theories explained above adds to our knowledge of the cities. Because when the sectors developed in cities and the transit & highways elongated the landuse patterns; eventually a nuclei develop or more appropriately said that transportation and economic development added new dimensions to the landuse of the city. Therefore whenever the landuse patterns of a large old city is evaluated; that has gone through such changes; it may be possible to find all these landuse patterns. It is very rare that contemporary cities show entirely one theory of the landuse change. Finally it is also evident from these theories or models of urban Growth that it only focused on the affects of growth on urban development pattern. Whereas the causes of urban growth is not addressed in these theories; because all theories have an assumption that an urban area will grow in size or physical morphology will change & the growth of city is taken


for granted. 7. Objectives of Sound Planning: According to Harold MacLean Lewis; Whatever the plan may be, but it should have reasonable foresight to be adapted to new conditions with little disturbance and destruction in making improvements. The work of planning should be assigned to people who have a vision, technical training and experience. A reasonable plan once decide, should be implemented with its essential features without any demand and opposition and that is sound planning. However the objectives of sound planning are to have flexibility in plans to adopt change. Foe instance if informal development is more than formal development, then it should be regulated. The efforts & investments of people shall not be destroyed so as resources shall not go waste & that is the objective of sound planning. The logic behind regulation of informal sector is the failure of formal sector in provision of services and infrastructure for example, will it be possible for a poor person to have concrete house? Or can they get the services of an engineer or hire an architect who can provide low cost solutions? The answer is definitely no. So if a poor person made his house without standards he must be regulated not bulldozed. Another thing that must be kept in mind that, who made the great cities? Princes; Kings; some Powerful People or an Institution of Government. So what is their objective to make a new city? Mainly their objective is to develop capital cities as a place of their importance at national and international level to get praise for them from generations to come. Now what a great city Islamabad is? The planners of Islamabad wanted to have a capital in cool climate because people work efficiently in cool climate. Now due to decision makers choice of cool climate billion of rupees of a poor country were spent on it. So can we justify such an objective for sound planning? 8. Conclusions: Thus conclusively the current discussion leads us to following realities. i) Urban growth can be spontaneous on its own or planned growth as directed by the authorities. ii) The concept of planning is to provide a vision for future well before the people actually settle in the settlements and planning may also be appropriate enough to facilitate the process of housing the poor in the city. iii) The basic planning component is that incompatible land uses should not be allowed or located together. iv) Circulation, transport, infrastructure and land use management are the basic tools of planning to guide the urban growth and transformation in the city. v) Suburban growth shall be seen as the series of phases through which a particular location passes or it is the development which proceed from an open land to mature urban development. vi) The objectives of sound planning should be to develop a set of simple guidelines, or principles which should be comprehensive and adaptable to changing conditions of the


future. [1] Harold MacLean Lewis is the author of book Planning the Modern City, 1978, New York, USA. POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 4:10 AM NO COMMENTS: MONDAY, JANUARY 19, 2009 OBJECTIVES OF SOUND PLANNING AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (B) By: RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO. 04 TOPIC: OBJECTIVES OF SOUND PLANNING Introduction: In order to understand the, Objectives of Sound Planning at first it is imperative to comprehend a little bit history of urban planning and the planning attempts made by the initiators of planning in the urban contexts. Then one may also ask the questions like; what kind of objectives they had in mind while developing their cities? Whether they have achieved those objectives or not? Do their defined objectives may be referred as objectives of sound planning or not? What is meant by Sound Planning? And how the Objectives for Sound Planning are formulated? In addition it is also important to identify the urban context for which the planning is to be done so as one may clearly spell out the objectives of sound planning. Thus in this way one may understand the topic objectives of sound planning. In the following all these questions are addressed in some detail. Urban Planning History:[1] Urban, city, and town planning is the integration of the disciplines of land use planning and transport planning, to explore a very wide range of aspects of the built and social environments of urbanized municipalities and communities. Urban planning as an organized profession has existed for less than a century. However, most settlements and cities reflect various degrees of forethought and conscious design in their layout and functioning. The development of technology, particularly the discovery of agriculture, facilitated larger populations than the very small communities, and may have compelled the development of stronger, more coercive governments at the same time. The pre-Classical and Classical ages saw a number of cities laid out according to fixed plans, though many


tended to develop organically. Designed cities were characteristic of the totalitarian government. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley Civilization (in modern-day Pakistan and northwest India) are perhaps the earliest examples of deliberately planned and managed cities. These ancient cities were unique in that they often had drainage systems, seemingly tied to a well-developed ideal of urban sanitation. The Greek Hippodamus (c. 407 BC) is widely considered the father of city planning in the West, for his design of Miletus; Alexander commissioned him to lay out his new city of Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the Mediterranean world, where regularity was aided in large part by its level site near a mouth of the Nile. The ancient Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for military defense and civil convenience. Many European towns still preserve the essence of these schemes. The collapse of Roman civilization saw the end of their urban planning, among many other arts. Urban development in the Middle Ages, characteristically focused on a fortress, a fortified abbey, or a (sometimes abandoned) Roman nucleus, occurred "like the annular rings of a tree" whether in an extended village or the center of a larger city. Since the new center was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing. A few medieval cities were admired for their wide thoroughfares and other orderly arrangements, but the juridical chaos of medieval cities (where the administration of streets was sometimes hereditary with various noble families), and the characteristic tenacity of medieval Europeans in legal matters, prevented frequent or large-scale urban planning until the Renaissance and the enormous strengthening of all central governments, from city-states to the kings of France, characteristic of that epoch. Florence was an early model of the new urban planning, which rearranged itself into a star-shaped layout adapted from the new star fort, designed to resist cannon fire. This model was widely imitated, reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age; the Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city Radial streets extend outward from a defined center of military, communal or spiritual power. And, all this occurred in the cities, but ordinarily not in the industrial suburbs characteristic of this era which remained disorderly and characterized by crowded conditions and organic growth. In developed countries (Western Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia), planning and architecture can be said to have gone through various stages of general consensus in the last 200 years. Firstly, there was the industrialised city of the 19th century, where control of building was largely held by businesses and the wealthy elite. Around 1900, there began to be a movement for providing citizens, especially factory workers, with healthier environments. The concept of garden cities arose and several model towns were built, such as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City in UK. However, these were principally small scale in size, typically dealing with only a few thousand residents. It wasn't until the 1920s that modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilising new skyscraper building techniques, the modernist city stood


for the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier's Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large-scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by war destruction led many cities around the world to build substantial amounts of government-subsidized housing blocks. Planners at the time used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1960 in Brazil. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners were coming to realize that the imposition of modernist clean lines and a lack of human scale also tended to sap vitality from the community. This was expressed in high crime and social problems within many of these planned neighbourhoods. Modernism can be said to have ended in the 1970s when the construction of the cheap, uniform tower blocks ended in many countries, such as Britain and France. Since then many have been demolished and in their way more conventional housing has been built. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder, planning now concentrates on individualism and diversity in society and the economy. This is the postmodernist era. Minimally-planned cities still exist. Houston is an example of a large city (with a metropolitan population of 5.5 million) in a developed country, without a comprehensive zoning ordinance. Houston does, however, have many of the land use restrictions covered by traditional zoning regulations, such as restrictions on development density and parking requirements, even though specific land uses are not regulated. Moreover, private-sector developers in Houston have used subdivision covenants and deed restrictions effectively to create the same kinds of land use restrictions found in most municipal zoning laws. Houston voters have rejected proposals for a comprehensive zoning ordinance three times since 1948. Even without zoning in its traditional sense, metropolitan Houston displays similar land use patterns at the macro scale to regions comparable in age and population that do have zoning, such as Dallas. This suggests that factors outside the regulatory environment, such as the provision of urban infrastructure and methods of financing development, may play as big of a role in urban development as municipal zoning. Sustainable development and sustainability have become important concepts in today's urban planning field, with the recognition that current consumption and living habits may be leading to problems such as the overuse of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, urban heat islands, pollution, growing social inequality and large-scale climate change. Many urban planners have, as a result, begun to advocate for the development of sustainable cities. However, the notion of sustainable development is a fairly recent concept and somewhat controversial. Wheeler, in his 1998 article, suggests a definition for sustainable urban development to be as "development that improves the long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns." He goes on to suggest a framework that might help all to better understand what a 'sustainable' city might look like. These include compact, efficient land use; less automobile use yet with better access; efficient resource use, less pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good housing and living


environments; a healthy social ecology; sustainable economics; community participation and involvement; and preservation of local culture and wisdom. The challenge facing today's urban planners lies in the implementation of targeted policies and programs, and the need to modify existing urban and regional institutions to achieve the goals of sustainability. Aspects of planning: Aesthetics: In developed countries, there has been a backlash against excessive man-made clutter in the visual environment, such as signposts, signs, and hoardings. Other issues that generate strong debate amongst urban designers are tensions between peripheral growths, increased housing density and planned new settlements. There are also unending debates about the benefits of mixing tenures and land uses, versus the benefits of distinguishing geographic zones where different uses predominate. Regardless, all successful urban planning considers urban character, local identity, and respect for heritage, pedestrians, traffic, utilities and natural hazards. Planners are important in managing the growth of cities, applying tools like zoning to manage the uses of land, and growth management to manage the pace of development. When examined historically, many of the cities now thought to be most beautiful are the result of dense, long lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes, uses and features. These allowed substantial freedoms, yet enforce styles, safety, and often materials in practical ways. Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term smart growth. There are some cities that have been planned from conception, and while the results often don't turn out quite as planned, evidence of the initial plan often remains. Safety: Historically within the Middle East, Europe and the rest of the Old World, settlements were located on higher ground (for defense) and close to fresh water sources. Cities have often grown onto, coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges. Urban planners must consider these threats. If the dangers can be localised then the affected regions can be made into parkland or Greenbelt, often with the added benefit of open space provision. Extreme weather, flood, or other emergencies can often be greatly mitigated with secure emergency evacuation routes and emergency operations centers. These are relatively inexpensive and un-intrusive, and many consider them a reasonable precaution for any urban space. Many cities will also have planned, built safety features, such as levees, retaining walls, and shelters. In recent years, practitioners have also been expected to maximize the accessibility of an area to people with different abilities, practicing the notion of "inclusive design," to anticipate criminal behaviour and consequently to "design-out crime" and to consider "traffic calming" or "pedestrianisation" as ways of making urban life more pleasant. City planning tries to control criminality with structures designed from theories such as socio-architecture or environmental determinism. These theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals' obedience to social rules. The theories often say that psychological pressure


develops in more densely developed, unadorned areas. This stress causes some crimes and some use of illegal drugs. The antidote is usually more individual space and better, more beautiful design in place of functionalism. Oscar Newmans defensible space theory cites the modernist housing projects of the 1960s as an example of environmental determinism, where large blocks of flats are surrounded by shared and disassociated public areas, which are hard for residents to identify with. As those on lower incomes cannot hire others to maintain public space such as security guards or grounds keepers, and because no individual feels personally responsible, there was a general deterioration of public space leading to a sense of alienation and social disorder. Jane Jacobs is another notable environmental determinist and is associated with the "eyes on the street" concept. By improving natural surveillance of shared land and facilities of nearby residents by literally increasing the number of people who can see it, and increasing the familiarity of residents, as a collective, residents can more easily detect undesirable or criminal behaviour. The "broken-windows" theory argues that small indicators of neglect, such as broken windows and unkempt lawns, promote a feeling that an area is in a state of decay. Anticipating decay, people likewise fail to maintain their own properties. The theory suggests that abandonment causes crime, rather than crime causing abandonment. Some planning methods might help an elite group to control ordinary citizens. Haussmann's renovation of Paris created a system of wide boulevards which prevented the construction of barricades in the streets and eased the movement of military troops. In Rome, the Fascists in the 1930s created ex novo many new suburbs in order to concentrate criminals and poorer classes away from the elegant town. Other social theories point out that in Britain and most countries since the 18th century, the transformation of societies from rural agriculture to industry caused a difficult adaptation to urban living. These theories emphasize that many planning policies ignore personal tensions, forcing individuals to live in a condition of perpetual extraneity to their cities. Many people therefore lack the comfort of feeling "at home" when at home. Often these theorists seek a reconsideration of commonly used "standards" that rationalize the outcomes of a free (relatively unregulated) market. Slums The rapid urbanization of the last century has resulted in a significant amount of slum habitation in the major cities of the world, particularly in developing countries. There is significant demand for planning resources and strategies to address the issues that arise from slum development. Many planning theorists and practitioners are calling for increased attention and resources in this area, particularly the Commonwealth Association of Planners. When urban planners give their attention to slums, one also has to pay attention to the racial make-up of that area to ensure that racial steering does not occur. The issue of slum habitation has often been resolved via a simple policy of clearance. However, more creative solutions are beginning to emerge such as Nairobi's "Camp of Fire" program, where established slum-dwellers have promised to build proper houses, schools, and community centers without any government money, in return for land they


have been illegally squatting on for 30 years. The "Camp of Fire" program is one of many similar projects initiated by Slum Dwellers International, which has programs in Africa, Asia, and South America. Urban decay Urban decay is a process by which a city, or a part of a city, falls into a state of disrepair and neglect. It is characterized by depopulation, economic restructuring, property abandonment, high unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and desolate urban landscapes. During the 1970s and 1980s, urban decay was often associated with central areas of cities in North America and parts of Europe. During this time period, major changes in global economies, demographics, transportation, and government policies created conditions that fostered urban decay. Many planners spoke of "white flight" during this time. This pattern was different than the pattern of "outlying slums" and "suburban ghettos" found in many cities outside of North America and Western Europe, where central urban areas actually had higher real estate vales. Starting in the 1990s, many of the central urban areas in North America have been experiencing a reversal of the urban decay of previous decades, with rising real estate values, smarter development, demolition of obsolete social housing areas and a wider variety of housing choices. Reconstruction & Renewal: Areas devastated by war or invasion represent a unique challenge to urban planners. Buildings, roads, services and basic infrastructure like power, water and sewerage are often severely compromised and need to be evaluated to determine what can be salvaged for re-incorporation. There is also the problem of the existing population, and what needs they may have. Historic, religious or social centers also need to be preserved and reintegrated into the new city plan. A prime example of this is the capital city of Kabul, Afghanistan, which, after decades of civil war and occupation, has regions that have literally been reduced to rubble and desolation. Despite this, the indigenous population continues to live in the area, constructing makeshift homes and shops out of whatever can be salvaged. Any reconstruction plan proposed needs to be sensitive to the needs of the community and its existing culture, businesses and needs. Urban Reconstruction Development plans must also work with government agencies as well as private interests to develop workable designs. Transport: Transport within urbanized areas presents unique problems. The density of an urban environment can create significant levels of road traffic, which can impact businesses and increase pollution. Parking space is another concern, requiring the construction of large parking garages in high density areas which could be better used for other development. Good planning uses transit oriented development, which attempts to place higher densities of jobs or residents


near high-volume transportation. For example, some cities permit commerce and multistory apartment buildings only within one block of train stations and multilane boulevards, and accept single-family dwellings and parks farther away. Floor area ratio is often used to measure density. This is the floor area of buildings divided by the land area. Ratios below 1.5 could be considered low density, and plot ratios above five very high density. Most exurbs are below two, while most city centers are well above five. Walk-up apartments with basement garages can easily achieve a density of three. Skyscrapers easily achieve densities of thirty or more. City authorities may try to encourage lower densities to reduce infrastructure costs, though some observers note that low densities may not accommodate enough population to provide adequate demand or funding for that infrastructure. In the UK, recent years have seen a concerted effort to increase the density of residential development in order to better achieve sustainable development. Increasing development density has the advantage of making mass transport systems, district heating and other community facilities (schools, health centers, etc) more viable. However; critics of this approach dub the densification of development as 'town cramming' and claim that it lowers quality of life and restricts market-led choice. Problems can often occur at residential densities between about two and five. These densities can cause traffic jams for automobiles, yet are too low to be commercially served by trains or light rail systems. The conventional solution is to use buses, but these and light rail systems may fail where automobiles and excess road network capacity are both available, achieving less than 1% ridership. The Lewis-Mogridge Position claims that increasing road space is not an effective way of relieving traffic jams as latent or induced demand invariably emerges to restore a socially-tolerable level of congestion. Suburbanization: In some countries, declining satisfaction with the urban environment is held to blame for continuing migration to smaller towns and rural areas (so-called urban exodus). Successful urban planning supported Regional planning can bring benefits to a much larger hinterland or city region and help to reduce both congestion along transport routes and the wastage of energy implied by excessive commuting. Environmental factors: Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world. Not only are the specific effects of development to be mitigated, but attempts are made to minimize the overall effect of development on the local and global environment. This is commonly done through the assessment of Sustainable urban infrastructure. In Europe this process is known as Sustainability Appraisal. In most advanced urban or village planning models, local context is critical. In many, gardening and other outdoor activities assumes a central role in the daily life of citizens. Environmental planners are focusing on smaller systems of resource extraction, energy production and waste disposal. There is even a practice known as Arcology, which


seeks to unify the fields of ecology and architecture, using principles of landscape architecture to achieve a harmonious environment for all living things. On a small scale, the eco-village theory has become popular, as it emphasizes a traditional 100-140 person scale for communities. An urban planner is likely to use a number of quantitative tools to forecast impacts of development on the environmental, including roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways. As early as the 1960s, noise pollution was addressed in the design of urban highways as well as noise barriers. The Phase I Environmental Site Assessment can be an important tool to the urban planner by identifying early in the planning process any geographic areas or parcels which have toxic constraints. Light and Sound The urban canyon effect is a colloquial, non-scientific term referring to street space bordered by very high buildings. This type of environment may shade the sidewalk level from direct sunlight during most daylight hours. While an oft-decried phenomenon, it is rare except in very dense, hyper-tall urban environments, such as those found in Lower and Midtown Manhattan, Chicago's Loop and Kowloon in Hong Kong. In urban planning, sound is usually measured as a source of pollution. Another perspective on urban sounds is developed in Soundscape studies emphasizing that sound aesthetics involves more than noise abatement and decibel measurements. Hedfors coined 'Sonotope' as a useful concept in urban planning to relate typical sounds to a specific place. Due to urban planning, there has been an increase in light and sound pollution that destroys the environment. Urban Planning Process: The traditional planning process focused on top-down processes where the urban planner created the plans. The planner is usually skilled in either surveying/engineering or architecture, bringing to the town planning process ideals based around these disciplines. They typically worked for national or local governments. Changes to the planning process over past decades have witnessed the metamorphosis of the role of the urban planner in the planning process. More citizens calling for democratic planning & development processes have played a huge role in allowing the public to make important decisions as part of the planning process. Community organizers and social workers are now very involved in planning from the grassroots level. Developers too have played huge roles in influencing the way development occurs, particularly through project-based planning. Many recent developments were results of large and small-scale developers who purchased land, designed the district and constructed the development from scratch. The Melbourne Docklands, for example, was largely an initiative pushed by private developers who sought to redevelop the waterfront into a high-end residential and commercial district. Recent theories of urban planning, espoused, for example by Salingaros see the city as a adaptive system that grows according to process similar to those of plants. They say that urban planning should thus take its cues from such natural


processes. Conclusion: Conclusively it is now quite clear that, it is the process of urban planning that a society adopts leads towards determination about objectives of sound planning. The objectives of sound planning in current time and space especially in our local context of Karachi shall be based upon the understanding level of our decision makers at federal, provincial and local level regarding significance of urban planning and welfare of citizens at large. Thus the objective of sound planning is quite clear i.e. to provide the city of Karachi a healthy and socially safe livable environment. [1] For details please log on to the website: POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 2:20 AM NO COMMENTS: TRENDS IN URBAN GROWTH AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (B) By: RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO. 03 TOPIC: TRENDS IN URBAN GROWTH Introduction: In order to understand the topic, trends in urban growth at first it is imperative to ask; what is meant by urban growth? Urban growth is the rate of growth of an urban population.[1] The phrase urban growth also described with its synonym urban sprawl which means; The unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into areas adjoining the edge of a city.[2] Similarly another concept is of urbanization that needs to be understood while understanding trends in urban growth. Urbanization (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of rural or natural land into urban areas as a result of population in-migration to an existing urban area. While the exact definition and population size of urbanized areas varies among different countries, urbanization is attributed to growth of cities. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. The UN projects half the world population will live in urban areas at the end of 2008.[3] In the following the trends in urban growth shall be discussed in details. Global Urban Population in Developed and Developing Countries:[4]


The human population has lived a rural lifestyle through most of history. The worlds population, however, is quickly becoming urbanized as people migrate to the cities. In 1950, less than 30% of the worlds population lived in cities. This number grew to 47% in the year 2000 (2.8 billion people), and it is expected to grow to 60% by the year 2025. Developed nations have a higher percentage of urban residents than less developed countries. However, urbanization is occurring rapidly in many less developed countries, and it is expected that most urban growth will occur in less developed countries during the next decades. The definition of an urban area changes from country to country. In general, there are no standards, and each country develops its own set of criteria for distinguishing cities or urban areas. A city is generally defined as a political unit, i.e., a place organized and governed by an administrative body. A way of defining a city or an urban area is by the number of residents. The United Nations defines settlements of over 20,000 as urban, and those with more than 100,000 as cities. The United States defines an urbanized area as a city and surrounding area, with a minimum population of 50,000. A metropolitan area includes both urban areas and rural areas that are socially and economically integrated with a particular city. Cities with over 5 million inhabitants are known as megacities. There were 41 in the year 2000. This number is expected to grow as the population increases in the next few decades. It is predicted that by the year 2015, 50 megacities will exist, and 23 of these are expected to have over 10 million people. Table below is a list of the worlds 25 largest cities in 1995. The World's 25 Largest Cities, 1995 Population (Millions) Tokyo, Japan 26.8 Sao Paulo, Brazil 16.4 New York, USA 16.3 Mexico City, Mexico 15.6 Bombay, India 15.1 Shanghai, China 15.1 Los Angeles, USA 12.4 Beijing, China 12.4 Calcutta, India 11.7 Seoul, South Korea 11.6 Jakarta, Indonesia 11.5 Buenos Aires, Argentina 11.0 Tianjin, China 10.7 Osaka, Japan 10.6 Lagos, Nigeria 10.3 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 9.9 Delhi, India 9.9 Karachi, Pakistan 9.9 Cairo, Egypt 9.7


Paris, France 9.5 Metropolitan Manila, Philippines 9.3 Moscow, Russia 9.2 Dhaka, Bangladesh 7.8 Istanbul, Turkey 7.8 Lima, Peru 7.2 Source: United Nations, Population Division. World Urbanization Prospects. 1994 Why is the urban population increasing so fast? The rapid growth of urban areas is the result of two factors: natural increase in population (excess of births over deaths), and migration to urban areas. The natural population growth rate has always been less than the population growth rate due to migration therefore we must concentrate understanding the phenomenon of migration in detail. Migration is defined as the long-term relocation of an individual, household or group to a new location outside the community of origin. Today the movement of people from rural to urban areas (internal migration) is most significant. Although smaller than the movement of people within borders, international migration is also increasing. Both internal and international migration contributes to urbanization. Migration is often explained in terms of either push factors conditions in the place of origin which are perceived by migrants as detrimental to their well-being or economic security, and pull factors the circumstances in new places that attract individuals to move there. Examples of push factors include high unemployment and political persecution; examples of pull factors include job opportunities or moving to a better climate. Typically, a pull factor initiates migration that can be sustained by push and other factors that facilitate or make possible the change. For example, a farmer in rural Sindh whose land has become unproductive because of drought (push factor) may decide to move to Karachi City where he perceives more job opportunities and possibilities for a better lifestyle (pull factor). In general, cities are perceived as places where one could have a better life, because of better opportunities, higher salaries, better services, and better lifestyles. The perceived better conditions attract poor people from rural areas. In order to better illustrate the causes of rural migration, we will consider policies that have led to migration in many developing countries. In order to pay foreign debt and to be more competitive in international markets, national governments have encouraged the export of national resources and agricultural products. Agricultural products (sugar, flowers, coffee, etc.), and primary-sector goods (timber, fish, minerals, etc) become natural resource capital that can be traded to bolster the national economy. In order to produce agricultural products quickly, efficiently, and for a decent price, national governments often look to decrease the number of small producers, and turn agricultural production and resource extraction over to larger enterprises, with larger production facilities, and a lower per-unit cost of production. This trend turns land into a commodity, that can be bought and sold, and it is viewed only in terms of its productive capabilities. Free market economics pursues economic efficiency to deliver goods at the lowest


possible price, and its advocates maintain that any government intervention diminishes this efficiency. Consequently, they seek to eliminate farm programs such as farm subsidies, cheap credit policies, etc. intended to help the farmer, and to maintain stable prices. This scenario leaves farmers to shoulder the burden of farming, sometimes with no alternative but to sell their land to a foreign investor or a domestic-owned enterprise, and move to the cities, where the farmer hopes to have a better life. Other policies reinforce the above scenario. In this case, in order to boost the production of cheaper goods, governments have maintained artificially low food prices in urban areas. The strategy here is to maintain urban food prices below market levels to reduce the cost of urban labor and urban life. This policy has resulted in inadequate compensation of rural producers for the costs they incur to produce food products and thus have aggravated rural poverty. On the other hand, these policies have also made city life more attractive and pulled them from rural areas. As a result of these policies, an average of 270,000 rural migrants have been arriving in Mexico City annually over the last ten years, transforming it into one of the largest cities in the world. International migration includes labor migration, refugees and undocumented migrants. Similar to rural-to-urban migration, individuals move in search of jobs and a better life. Income disparities among regions, and job opportunities, are key motivating factors. The migration policies of sending and receiving countries also play a key role. The best current estimate from the United Nations Population Fund indicates that more than 100 million people were living outside their countries of birth or citizenship in 1998. There are a number of reasons why this figure is rising, but an important one is that the native labor pool in the industrialized countries is shrinking, while the developing worlds workforce is rapidly increasing. Today, international migration is at an all-time high. About 2% of the Earths population has moved away from the country of origin. International refugees contribute to the urban migrant population. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) reports that most of the 22 million people who came under its wing in 1997 were fleeing from domestic or international conflict. The Geneva Convention (1951) on Refugees defines refugees as those individuals who migrate because of: .well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular group, or political opinion Nations honoring the Geneva Convention have an obligation to determine whether, in fact, individuals will truly face persecution at home. Excluded are those who fear famine or are pushed out by natural disasters. The overwhelming majority of refugees come from developing nations, and most of them flee to poor countries. What are the Problems Associated with Rapid Urban Growth? The urbanization process refers to much more than simple population growth; it involves changes in the economic, social and political structures of a region. Rapid urban growth is responsible for many environmental and social changes in the urban environment and its effects are strongly related to global change issues. The rapid growth of cities strains


their capacity to provide services such as energy, education, healthcare, transportation, sanitation and physical security. Because governments have less revenue to spend on the basic upkeep of cities and the provision of services, cities have become areas of massive sprawl, serious environmental problems, and widespread poverty. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, urbanization resulted from and contributed to industrialization. New job opportunities in the cities motivated the mass movement of surplus population away from the countryside. At the same time, migrants provided cheap, plentiful labor for the emerging factories. Today, due to movements such as globalization, the circumstances are similar in developing countries. Here the concentration of investments in cities attracts large numbers of migrants looking for employment, thereby creating a large surplus labor force, which keeps wages low. This situation is attractive to foreign investment companies from developed countries that can produce goods for far less than if the goods were produced where wages are higher. Thus, one might wonder if urban poverty serves a distinct function for the benefit of global capital. One of the major effects of rapid urban growth is urban sprawl"-scattered development that increases traffic, saps local resources and destroys open space. Urban sprawl is responsible for changes in the physical environment, and in the form and spatial organization of cities. Developed and less developed countries of the world differ not only in the percent living in cities, but also in the way in which urbanization is occurring. In Mexico City (950 square miles), as in many other megacities in the developing world, urban sprawl exists as nearly 40% of city dwellers live in the urban periphery in poverty and environmental degradation. These high density settlements are often highly polluted owing to the lack of urban services, including running water, trash pickup, electricity or paved roads. Nevertheless, cities provide poor people with more opportunities and greater access to resources to transform their situation than rural areas. In the United States, and Pakistan poorly planned urban development is threatening environment, health, and peoples quality of life. Consequences of Urban Growth: Increases traffic and Squatter Settlements Pollutes air, water and other threats to natural environment Worsens the existing degraded built environment Destroys agricultural land, parks, and open spaces Costs cities and counties millions of dollars for new housing, water and sewer lines, new schools, and increased police and fire protection Creates crowded schools in the suburbs and empty, crumbling schools in center of cities Solutions to decrease Urban Growth: Enacting growth boundaries, parks and open space protection Planning and promoting public participation in housing and transportation. Reversing government programs and tax policies that help create sprawl. Revitalizing already developed areas through measures such as attracting new businesses, reducing crime and improving schools;


Preventing new development in floodplains, coastal areas and other disaster- prone areas. Readings and References: International Migration: A Global Challenge, Population Bulletin, Population Reference Bureau, Inc.., Vol. 51, No. 1, 1996. Robert Geodes, Ed., Cities in our Future, Island Press, 1997. Samuel P. Hunting ton, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simian and Schuster, 1996. Peter van deer Veer, Nation and Migration, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995 Joel E. Coven, How Many People can the Earth Support?, Norton, 1995. United Nations, International Migration Policies, UN Publication, 1995. World Resources 1996 1997 : The Urban Environment, Global Change and Urbanization in Latin America, Human Population: Fundamentals of Growth Patterns of World Urbanization. [1] [2] [3] [4] ml POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 1:38 AM 1 COMMENT: TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY USED IN TOWN PLANNING AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B) By: RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor, DAP-NED LECTURE NO: 1 TOPIC: TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY USED IN TOWN PLANNING TOWN, CITY & URBAN Town: The town name applied generally to small municipalities, larger than the village and smaller than the city or county. The town is usually operated under its own powers of local government granted by the government. Municipality: According to Anglo-Saxon law, public corporation created by a state and under its legislative control, typically a town, village, or other regional administrative unit. Until


recently a special charter designating specific powers formed municipal corporations. Now, however, they may be formed under general statutes. Among the more important provisions in a charter and the general laws of a municipality are those that give a municipality the power to tax and the power to pass ordinances effective as law for the protection of the public health, safety, morals, and general welfare. The rate of taxation that a municipality may levy is limited in many states by the municipal charter. Among other rights that may be granted under a charter are the powers to sell bonds or notes, to award franchises, to acquire property, to construct public improvements, and to operate public utilities. Municipalities are essential units of local government. City: The city is defined as a large centre of population organized as a community. The word city is derived from the Latin word civitas, which denotes a community that administers its own affairs. In ancient Greece such an independent community was called a city-state; it consisted of a chief town and its immediate neighbourhood. The City is also described as a place where people live with collective sense of purpose/perception. Where internal and external processes shape environment. The city can also be defined according to scale of the settlement and types of services available in it. Some times it is directly connected to the production of the area. The city is also defined with the system of movement and relationships with the region. It has distinctive physical, social & economic characteristics, which differentiate it from the village. There was a big debate in 18th century that, what is the sense of city? And it was established that, city means, that kind of settlement which is developed as a result of industrial revolution in which the production is related to people. Before industrial revolution there were guild towns. However after industrial revolution it was termed as industrial towns/cities. Thus towns & cities can be described with respect to pre industrial & postindustrial scenario. Local Government, the government of smaller units within nations or state, mostly at the level of the county, town, or district. Local government bodies and structures are normally creations of the central government, which delegates authority to them. The personnel of local government are customarily directly elected, because of the immediate relevance of their decisions to local life, and their powers differ from country to country. Local government usually provides administrative, fiscal, and other public services and amenities to local residents. In highly unitary centralized states, such as France or Great Britain, local government enjoys only limited powers, and in some areas these have been subject to erosion by central authority. Though some have regarded it as a basic underpinning for national democracy, local government is ill fitted to resist any encroachment on its powers by the central government. Megalopolis (Greek megas, great; polis, city), the term was first used in the early 1960s to describe the conurbation of the north-eastern United States extending from Boston in Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. and including the major cities of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The term megalopolis was initially applied to those urban agglomerations, or super-conurbations, that developed when separate towns and cities grew together. Such megalopolitan areas are found in many highly urbanized countries and include the area between London and Manchester in the United Kingdom,


the Pacific coastal district of Honshu, Japan, and the Randstad region of the Netherlands. Their growth has depended largely on the economic prosperity of the immediate surrounding region. Since the 1970s, however, the most rapid large-scale growth of cities has occurred in newly industrializing nations. Megalopolitan areas are now a major feature of the countries of Asia and Central and South America. Examples, with their projected populations for the year 2000 include Mexico City (25.6 million), So Paulo, Brazil (22.1 million), Shanghai, China (17.0 million), Jakarta, Indonesia (13.7 million), and Calcutta, India (15.7 million). It is estimated that by the year 2000, 8 of the worlds 15 largest cities will be in Asia. Mega-cities: The Modern mega-cities owe their origins to the globalization of international trade and their ability to attract multinational companies from anywhere in the world. Foreign investors prefer to locate in a single city where services and economic opportunities can be concentrated and encourage further growth. The emphasis on export-oriented industry means that the development of internal markets is generally weak with few opportunities for other towns to develop as industrial centers. These processes result in a snowballing of investment in the largest cities. For example, Shanghai, with about 1.5 per cent of Chinas population, accounts for about 12 per cent of the nations industrial output. A characteristic of modern mega-cities is that they dominate the urban settlement structure with a disproportionate number of people living in them compared to other towns. Their rapid growth has tended to outstrip local resources, creating environmental and social problems. The supply of housing, water, sanitation, power, and transport services is often seriously inadequate. Despite appearances, the supply of jobs does not always keep pace with the arrival of rural migrants from other parts of the country, leading to further problems of social segregation and economic inequality. Rapid migration (frequently coupled with a high birth rate) has lead to the development of inner-city slums or ghettos, or more often the creation of extensive, makeshift, and unofficial shanty settlements on the outskirts of the mega-cities. Although the growth of these cities looks set to continue for the foreseeable future, their vulnerability to changes in world markets is now being recognized, and controls on their growth and economic structure are starting to be considered. New Towns planned urban settlements built either to ease the pressure on existing urban areas or to regenerate a regions economic prosperity. New towns are largely associated with urban planning in the United Kingdom, although similar developments are to be found in other countries, for example, around Paris, France. During the Communist era, the Soviet Union built new towns in remote areas for specific economic projects, and in some countries new capital cities have been built as symbols of development, such as Braslia in Brazil and Islamabad in Pakistan. In the United Kingdom, new towns were initially conceived in the 19th century to improve living conditions in industrial areas. A few enlightened employers provided model towns for their workers, for example, Port Sunlight near Liverpool; Bourneville, built by the Cadbury family in the Midlands; and New Lanark in Scotland.


The development of larger new towns did not begin until well into the 20th century. Two garden citiesLetch worth and Welwyn Garden City in Hertfordshirewere early examples but the major expansion of new towns in the United Kingdom occurred after the New Towns Act of 1946. Eight towns were built on the edge of Londons green belt, including Stevenage, Crawley, and Harlow, to take overspill population from the capital. Washington and Peter lee in the north-east of England, Cambrian in South Wales, and East Kilbride in Scotland were built to revive their regions depressed economies. All these towns were designed to create a pleasant residential environment with low housing density. Homes, shops, and other facilities were clustered to create a sense of community, and to reduce the need for transport. By 1973, 28 new or expanded towns housed 1.7 million people and provided 200,000 new homes. The best known of the later new towns is the city of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire which occupies an area of 309 sq km (119 sq mi) and has a population of 165,000 (1997). The general principle behind new towns is that they should be socially balanced and as independent as possible from existing urban areas. However, with the passing of time, these towns have mainly attracted younger skilled people. Opportunities for work have not kept pace with housing and commuting to and from the new towns are now at a high level. The planned residential mixing of different socio-economic groups has also faced problems. In the future, new towns are likely to be built in countries where economic growth and urbanization are occurring rapidly. Elsewhere, the preferred approach is now the careful redevelopment of existing centers or, like Pound bury in Dorset, England, the building of small new settlements modelled on the lines of traditional villages. County: The County is a unit of local government in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and other nations influenced by the AngloSaxon tradition of government. In England a county was originally a tribal settlement, or even a whole kingdom, known to the Saxons as a shirea term still preserved, as in the county of Hampshire. With the formation of the United Kingdom, the English county form was adopted in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Today counties remain Great Britain's chief governmental division for administrative and related purposes; though in some fields their competence has been reduced as a result of governmental centralizing policies during the 1980s. In the United States they are the largest organized unit in almost all states. In Canada counties are generally less widespread and important than in England. In Australia counties are generally referred to as shires. Guild Towns: Guilds are the communities living together for the practice of their mode of productions and professions. For example in medieval times there were production units at the ground floor and residential units were at upper floors where the communities lived and worked at the same place. Satellite Town: A town conceived as an extension of existing city, Mega city or metropolis which


provides the employment and residential needs of people and served locally can be termed as satellite town. In addition it does not provide any commuting facility to the parent city such as Landhi Korangi and Steel Town and Gulshan-e-Maymar are the few examples of satellite town. Garden City: It is a conceptual outcome of the environmental conditions of city. In which there should be residential areas, which are linked to the city but located away from the city. For example in London there are suburbs, which are, located around one hour drive away from the city of London. In Karachi Maymar Complex was designed on such concept. CITY/URBAN ELEMENTS City Centre: The city centre can be defined as a place where all the major commercial, administrative and cultural activities of city take place. Where all the major commercial and public buildings exist or which should be the hub of all these activities and spaces where popular interaction between people is evident can be termed as city centre. Mostly the city centers were the places where major cultural activity occurs or where the origin of city is located from where the city started. For example: Kharadar Methadar, Old Town area or currently Empress Market or Time Square in New York or Eiffel Tower at Paris etc. CBD: CBD stands for Central Business District. CBD is a place where all kinds of shadow transactions take place. In case of Karachi I.I.Chundrigar Road can be termed as CBD because of stock exchange and offices of money market or foresee or brokerage forms, etc. OBD: OBD stands for Outer Business District. When the functioning of cities decentralized and CBDs activities fails to fulfill the needs of citys shadow transactions and city centre. For example in London city of west minister is a CBD which could not fulfilled the needs of city so OBDs developed in other parts of London. Simultaneously in Manhattan where, Wall Street exists in known as CBD but because it is located in an island and there were also other islands in the surroundings so they developed their own OBD. Well take the case of Karachi. I.I.Chundrigar Road is known as CBD but now there is different brokerage houses developed in Clifton where the forex business is going on. If this trend continued the Clifton might develop as OBD. Sub Centre: When the city centre cannot grow further and constrained to a particular limit sub-centers develops in other parts of the city. When the physical accessibility to city centre become difficult and city centre becomes saturated the sub-centre emerges as a repercussion. For example Saddar Empress Market area can be termed as city centre, which reached to its zenith/peak. As a result Tariq Road emerged, as a sub centre, Liaquatabad market, Hydery market, Babar Market at Landhi Korangi are all examples of sub-centers.


Neighbourhood: The neighbourhood is a residential unit, which possesses all the characteristics of livelihood that is dependent on an economic centre. Neighbourhood Centre: It is a commercial centre or market place for the settlement or a neighbourhood. For example one can observe in their neighbourhood that row of shops develops as the settlement or neighbourhood grows. Fringe: It is the outer boundary of the city where the activities of city diminished. In Karachi its example is Hawks bay, Pipri, Korangi extension. The city fringes of existing cities, mega cities, and metropolis are changing continuously. There are also administrative limits of city. Such as Greater Karachi Metropolitan region, Karachi Divisions, Karachi Metropolitan/Urbanized area (16000 hectors). URBAN SOCIOLOGY Family: Unit of society with particular context, surviving on each other. Unit of people living in the one devilling unit (devilling unit is a house where a single family lives. Nuclear family, joint family). Migration: It reflects movement of people from one place to another for any reason (income, economic, security, natural calamities, etc.). Public Utilities, business operations that provide essential services to the publicfor example, electricity, gas, water supply, sewage disposal, and telecommunications. Utilities are an essential part of the infrastructure of modern developed countries, which require highly integrated networks of distribution or coordination for many essential services, such as the national grid for electricity suppliers. Many operate under favorable cost regimes whereby the unit cost of service to a customer falls as the network grows. However, the existence of these networks often gives public utilities a natural monopoly of provision of service within their area. URBAN TRANSPORTATION Street: It is a path where the pedestrian and vehicular traffic flows. Road, public way, usually maintained by governmental authority, for the passage of vehicles, people, or animals. Roads in cities or towns are also called streets, lanes, avenues, or boulevards. Roads that connect populated areas to one another are often called motorways or highways.


Highway: Highway is a major road where pedestrian movement is discovered and vehicular traffic is allowed. These are connecting different cities or industries. Motorway: Motorway is same as highway where notarized vehicles are allowed to flow with a certain speed limit. Transport, conveyance of people or property from one place to another. Modern commercial transport includes all the means and facilities used in the movement of people or property, and all services involved in the receipt, delivery, and handling of such property. The commercial transport of people is classified as passenger service and that of property as freight service. Transport is one of the largest industries in the world. Public Transport, conveyance of large numbers of passengers, whether in the town or country, by vehicle, usually in return for payment of a fixed fare. Mass Transit: It is an urban transportation mode which addresses the needs of major urban transit/movement of people especially the movement of people from suburbs to city centre and vice versa. Example: Karachi Mass Transit/Circular Railway or Urban Railway System of Bombay. URBAN LANDSCAPE Park: It is an open space with natural and man-made landscape. Street Park: Basically the street parks are developed from the classical planning of Greeks and Romans. The street park can be termed as open spaces located at the corners of an intersection or at the end of street. Locality Park: It is designed and developed at the level of a neighbourhood. For example Aziz Bhatti Park in Gulshan or Jahangir Park in Saddar. Urban Park: The Park developed at the city level both by scale and nature, having majority of as Urban Park i.e. Hyde Park and Kingston Park in London. In New York there is central park which combines the Manhattan with other spaces. The Urban Park provides a relief a breathing space for the people living in the city. National Parks: It is common term used in geography. It is a park provided at the regional level. It is a large landscape unit at a regional scale with a focus on conservation of the national landscape, floors, and fauna natural and wild life. For example, Kheerthar National Park in Sindh which is more than 23000 hectors of land.


National Parks and Nature Reserves, areas selected by governments or private organizations for special protection against damage or degradation. They are chosen for their outstanding natural beauty, as areas of scientific interest, or as forming part of a country's cultural heritage, and often also to provide facilities for public recreation. Hard Landscape: The artificial/manmade landscape can be termed as hard landscape. Soft Landscape: The natural landscape can be termed as soft landscape. Townscape: It is a system of appropriate livable settlements. There are both residential and working spaces existing in each city with exclusive right of use. Simultaneously there are some open spaces of common use which are collectively used and managed with no exclusive right of space use. The system of management, maintenance and utilization of all these spaces in an appropriate way can be termed as townscape. A townscape always faces the pressure of population increase and utilization of its spaces. URBAN CONSERVATION Urban Conservation: It means protection of built environment. The term conservation cannot be understood in isolation until and unless one must define a parameter for it. For example, an architectural conservation, area conservations or urban conservation. Conservation, means sustainable use of natural resources, such as soils, water, plants, animals, and minerals. In economic terms, the natural resources of any area constitute its basic capital, and wasteful use of those resources constitutes an economic loss. From the aesthetic and moral viewpoint, conservation also includes the maintenance of national parks, wilderness areas, historic sites, and wildlife. In certain cases, conservation may imply the protection of a natural environment from any human economic activity. Preservation: It means provision of safe guard from any kind of harm. The term preservation gives a definite meaning of a process. Restoration: It means rebuilding towards originality. There is again controversy in this term. It is also associated to entire field of studies. For example what kind of restoration is required? There are some 1st grade monuments where one cannot change any thing to modify it. Where as in 2nd Grade monuments/buildings one can do some modifications. Redevelopment: It means re-bring to its visible state. It is again another controversial term. In redevelopment one has to recapture the sprit of space, in addition maintain the morphology of the area and its physical density.


Rehabilitation: It means reestablish to former state. In rehabilitation an object/space should be established in such a way that it gets a formal status. Therefore at first it needs restoration through which the object will get its former sate. This can also be termed as empirical stage of an object. Renovation: It means renew or to make it as if new. In the context of conservation the term renovation leads us towards renewing the function and no change in spatial quality is allowed. This term directly related to buildings. Where as in urban context the term urban renewal will be used. Rejuvenation: It means to make young with respect to specific period. In rejuvenation we revive the object to same layout and function as it was at the time of its youth. Revitalization: It means modification. It is very specific term which reflects the changes in the object with respect to some specific needs of that object. The revitalization also takes place to reuse that object in current context to suit the existing conditions, needs and demands. Restitution: Basically the restitution means to restore. The term restitution is mainly related to the development of different options for revival in present time conditions. In original terms it is an option development exercise. Animation: It means enliven or make it alive. This term leads us to a situation in which at first it is assumed that an object or place has lost its functions, characteristics and spirit. So a new function and sprit is introduced in it/or in computer graphics terms make it a live scene. Adaptive Reuse: It means make the object suitable for reuse. This term is mainly applicable to redundant things or objects which are in dilapidated condition or became obsolete and they needs to be sued again for some historical or emotional reasons. Where no drastic changes are required because it would be very vital when used the objects practically. Urban Renewal, the rehabilitation of decaying urban areas, usually funded by government finance and directed according to town planning policies. Urban renewal has been criticized because of the often-accompanying process of gentrification, whereby the stock of affordable housing is considerably shrunk, and essential facilities such as inexpensive food shops may disappear. Urban renewal may, therefore, result in a displacement of the urban poor. URBAN ECONOMICS


Urban Economics: There are two types of economics Capitalist Economy and Socialist Economy. Socialist Economy: In socialist economy state works for people and people work for state. Capitalist Economy: In capitalist economy private entrepreneurs works for people to mobilize the whole economy i.e. chemical, textile industry etc. In urban economics three things are important i.e. capital, goods and labour. The free movement of these three elements denotes free market economy. Employment: Effort to earn livelihood. Production, in economics, manufacture and processing of goods or merchandise, including their design, treatment at various stages, and finance contributed by banks. As the means by which wealth is created by human labour, it is regarded by some as the fundamental economic process. Various economic laws, price data, and available resources are among the aspects of production that must be considered by both private and governmental producers. The inputs or resources used in production are known as the factors of production. Factors of Production, inputs used in the production process. These are conventionally defined as land, labour, and capital (investment in machinery, for example), but enterprise or entrepreneurship is often listed as a fourth factor of production. The relative availability of the various factors of production in a country (its factor endowment) is an important influence on investment and international trade. In order to be successful, a business needs to achieve as good a mix as possible of the factors of production. The desirable mix will change from time to time and will depend on such things as the need to expand, the availability of skilled labour or experienced and enterprising managers, and new technology, as well as, of course, the market price for the different factors of production. Money, any medium of exchange that is widely accepted in payment for goods and services and in settlement of debts. Money also serves as a standard of value for measuring the relative economic worth of different goods and services. The number of units of money required to buy a commodity is the price of the commodity. The monetary unit chosen as a measure of value need not, however, be used widely, or even at all, as a medium of exchange. During the colonial period in North America, for example, Spanish currency was an important medium of exchange, while the British pound sterling served as the standard of value. Prices, in economics are the value of things measured in terms of what the buyers in a market will give in exchange for them. Prices are usually measured in moneyindeed, money's effectiveness as a medium for


expressing prices is the main reason for its existencebut in barter systems prices could be expressed in other commodities with their own value, so that prices of all commodities were mutually determining without the intervening medium of money. Prices are the fundamental mechanism of adjustment of supply and demand, for any commodity in a free market economy should eventually find the level at which production and consumption are balanced: this equilibrium price will be the compromise reached between what the producers can afford to charge and what the consumers are prepared to pay. Prices will therefore decide what and how much is produced, how it is produced, and who can buy it. Questions of price are therefore crucial to economics, particularly microeconomics, and the subject of intensive study. Market: Theoretically the market can be defined as a place where transactions take place. These transactions can be both physical and shadow. However, practically the market is generally known as a place where sell, purchase and storage take place. Market Forces, underlying influences on the operation of the economy. They boil down to supply and demand, which determine price and the allocation of resources. In a pure free market economy, market forces are unrestrained. However, in all countries, governments to a greater or lesser degree restrict the operation of the free market and therefore distort (even negate) the effect of market forces through economic policy. In the former communist countries the system of central planning left no room for market forces to operate. In other parts of the world governments have often, for different reasons, sought to override market forces through such actions as the granting of subsidies to firms or services that (it is judged) could not survive in a free market, or the imposition of tariffs or quotas on imports. Increasingly, however, countries are moving towards a position where market forces are allowed to operate more and more freely. A market revolution is taking place in the former communist nations, but changes have also taken place all over the worldfrom South America to Southern Africa. An open market in which market forces are allowed to operate freely is at the heart of the single market programme of the European Union. However, the principle has never been applied to farming in the EU, which is governed by the Common Agricultural Policy under which prices for agricultural produce are guaranteed, thus encouraging overproduction. Market forces vary from market to market and derive their power from the individuals who make up a market and on whose lives they have enormous influence. They are determined by such factors as wealth, consumer taste, regulation, and taxation. Stringent safety requirements may push up the cost (and therefore the price) of a potentially desirable product beyond that which a sufficient number of consumers can afford (or are willing) to pay. Tax differentials on alcoholic drinks have encouraged thousands of Britons to make day trips to France in order to stock up with beer and wine. Supply and Demand, in economics, basic factors determining prices. According to the theory, or law, of supply and demand, the market prices of commodities and services are determined by the relationship of supply to demand. Theoretically, when supply exceeds demand, sellers must lower prices to stimulate sales; conversely, when demand exceeds


supply, buyers bid prices up as they compete to buy goods. The terms supply and demand do not mean the amount of goods and services actually sold and bought; in any sale the amount sold is equal to the amount bought, and such supply and demand, therefore, always equalizes. In economic theory, supply is the amount available for sale or the amount that sellers are willing to sell at a specified price, and demand, sometimes called effective demand, is the amount purchasers are willing to buy at a specified price. The theory of supply and demand takes into consideration the influence on prices of such factors as an increase or decrease in the cost of production, but regards that influence as an indirect one, because it affects prices only by causing a change in supply, demand, or both. Other factors indirectly affecting prices include changes in consumption habits (for example, a shift from natural silk to artificial silk fabrics) and the restrictive practices of monopolies, trusts, and cartels. In the view of many economists, the multiplicity of such indirect factors is so great that the terms supply and demand are inclusive categories of economic forces affecting prices, rather than precise, primary causal factors. The price-determining mechanism of supply and demand is operative only in economic systems in which competition is largely unfettered. Recourse, in recent times, to governmental regulation of the economy has tended to restrict the scope of the operation of the supply-and-demand mechanism. It was greatly restricted in many countries by the temporary governmental price regulations and rationing during World War II. Under Communist systems the planned economy is controlled by the state, the supply-anddemand mechanism being overridden. However, in recent years there has been a remarkable trend towards the reintroduction of market forces in many former planned economies. Commodity, the economic term with two meanings: in economic theory it is a tangible good or service that is the result of a production process; in general terms it is a primary product (or raw material) that is grown, such as coffee, tea, rubber, or cotton, or an extracted mineral resource, such as gold, copper, or tin; it may also be something that is (in effect) reared, such as wool. Here we concern ourselves only with the second meaning. Countries that are rich in commodities or natural resources have the advantage over others that are not so well endowed in that their economies are (up to a point) less dependent on the ingenuity and effort of their inhabitants. They are, however, dependent on the market for commodities, which determines price. Experience has shown that commodity prices are more vulnerable to dramatic price shifts than are manufactured goods. In the past two decades many commodities, including oil, tin, copper, and coffee, have been subject to huge price fluctuations that were often not foreseen or prepared for by both producers and consumers. Some of these price increases were to a large extent the result of natural conditions that have resulted in crop failures or crop surpluses. Other price shifts have resulted from one or other of a combination of politics and changing markets. Because, on balance, consumers and producers have tended to be in favour of more stable


commodity prices, attempts have been made to achieve commodity price stability through agreements that have involved export and/or production quotas; intervention in the market by buying a commodity when the price is falling (which helps slow or reverse the fall) and storing it until the price has recovered; and long-term contracts between suppliers and purchasers. None of these have worked consistently well, and there have been some serious failures, notably the dramatic collapse of the tin agreement in the mid1980s. Increasingly, international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have been using other ways to help those developing countries whose commodity exports are crucial sources of foreign exchange earnings. There are a number of commodity markets in the world, most of which concern themselves primarily with rights of ownership rather than physical possession. A spot price for a commodity is the current price. A future price is one agreed for transfer of ownership of a specified quantity of the commodity on a specific date in the future (perhaps a month, perhaps a year). The futures market allows buyers to know in advance what they are going to have to pay for a commodity and protects them from unforeseen fluctations in the spot price. It also offers speculators opportunities to profit from price fluctuations they have foreseen (or have been prepared to gamble on) but which the market has not. Suppose you judge that the spot price will be 5 per cent higher in 30 days' time than the current (30-day) future price for a commodity, you will (if your judgment is correct) make a 5 per cent profit (less commission costs) by buying at the future price and selling the commodity on the spot market in 30 days' time. However, if the spot price has fallen below the future price you paid, you will have incurred a loss. Goods: Goods are the commodities, which are produced through a process. These are products which has some determined value. Goods are all tangible tings which human being requires/desires. Services: Services are the counter part of goods. All the work done for others known as services. The services cannot be quantified in a materialistic way. Resources: Resources are the input required to deliver goods and services. The resources can be tangible and intangible such as Natural resources, Capital Resources, and Technological Resources. Poverty, is the economic condition in which people lack sufficient income to obtain certain minimal levels of health services, food, housing, clothing, and education generally recognized as necessary to ensure an adequate standard of living. What is considered adequate, however, depends on the average standard of living in a particular society. Relative poverty is that experienced by those whose income falls considerably below the average for their particular society. Absolute poverty is that experienced by those who do not have enough food to remain healthy. However, estimating poverty on an income basis


may not measure essential elements that also contribute to a healthy life. People without access to education or health services should be considered poor even if they have adequate food. Scarcity: It means fewer resources. It is the limitations of the amount of resources available to individuals and societies to produce goods and services. Free Good: Goods which are available in such abundance that they are able to full fill any quantum of choice i.e. air, sun light, wind, snow. Land cannot be a free good. Economic Goods: Opposite to free goods. Economic goods are those which generate revenue. The economic goods emerge from scarcity. They are produced to fulfill certain proportion of scarcity i.e. 15 million households in Pakistan and each requires T.V., clothes. Difference b/w free goods & economic goods: We always have access to free goods through natural behaviour without any hindrance where as in economic goods we have one practical hindrance i.e. we pay the price. So it leads to cost. Cost: Cost is the value of opportunity in making choices. What is value of opportunity? It is the capacity to fulfill choices and cost is the function of it i.e. you can make highways or you can make missiles. Therefore cost again depends on the availability of resources. Absolute Cost: It is the input required for production such as, capital, human resource, and technology. In theory it works. But in practice it would not. Because one cannot measure the human factor and its cost. Therefore non-human mechanism of production is the absolute cost. Opportunity Cost: It is related to both individuals and societies. It is the value placed on opportunities and choosing to scarce goods i.e. time has certain value it is a scarce good utilize your fee hours and get benefit. If you would not get benefit means you loose and pay the opportunity cost. Its the choice available to you. For example national parks most people use it most not, they pay the price for non-utilization. Accounting Cost: It is a calculated cost. It is the direct definite cost reflected in monitory terms. All costs are convertible to accounting cost. It can be applied on both tangible and non-tangible costs. Margin: Margin can be understood as a profit line. It is the difference b/w cost and benefit in any


given situation. In terms of net benefit it is profit. Marginal Analysis: In any mechanism of production how the margining is carried out. In Marginal Analysis it is calculated that, how much maximization and minimizing of cost and benefit is possible. Marginal Analysis suggested that, how the optimum benefits can be obtained while doing an activity. Prices: These are opportunity cost/market value of a product. It does not give certain value but give idea how to maximize opportunity. Market: It is the Hypothetical arrangement b/w buyer and seller. How market operates? It operates through barter (exchange of goods or commodities). Money: It is generally accepted medium of exchange or transaction. Currency: Currency is the representation of money. Inflation: It is the sustained degradation of money against the increase of prices and reduction in purchasing power of money i.e. in Pakistan inflation rate increased up to 26 percent from last 12 percent due to devaluation of money in Pakistan. Microeconomics: Individual/Personal/Small enterprises. Behaviour of individual units regarding goods production i.e. Panwala, Dal chawal wala. Macroeconomics: It is the study of economy as a whole scale is flexible policy making of govt. or international agencies affect the whole region. Economic Growth: Higher production of a society or sustained increase in productive capacity means economic growth i.e. more goods, more services and human resources. Economic System: The economic system means to determine what, how and for whom the goods and services to be produced. There are three major economic systems i.e. (i) Traditional economic system (ii) Command society economic system; and (iii) Market economic system. Traditional Economic System: It is a tribal/jarga, system where the customs, habits and rituals are the determinant forces of the economic system. This system is unaccountable.


Command Society Economic System: In command society a central authority decides about the production of goods and services. The example of command society is Monarchy, Dictatorship and Communists where a party leads and makes decisions about every thing. Market Society: People on their own interest decide about the economy system. In this system a balance and accountability is evident for consumers and producers. URBAN HOUSING Shelter: It is one of the three basic necessities for human survival with minimum requirement (what each human need? i.e. food, clothes and shelter) Housing, is a permanent shelter for human habitation. Because shelter is necessary to everyone, the problem of providing adequate housing has long been a concern, not only of individuals but of governments as well. Thus, the history of housing is inseparable from the social, economic, and political development of humankind. History of Housing: From the beginning of civilization, attention has been paid to the form, placement, and provision of human habitation. The earliest building codes, specifying structural integrity in housing construction, are found in the Code of the 18th-century BC Babylonian King Hammurabi. Town planning activities during the Greek and Roman empires centered almost exclusively on the appropriate placement of urban housing from the perspectives of defense and water supply. These same concerns continued throughout the middle Ages. In 13th-century Europe, the city became a centre of trade, and its walls provided a safe haven from nomadic warriors and looters. People could find shelter for themselves and their flocks, herds, and harvests while the open country was being overrun by enemies of superior force. Demand for urban housing increased. For centuries this demand was filled by unplanned additions to, and subdivisions of, existing structures. Where climate permitted, squatting (occupying without title or payment of rent) became commonplace, but provided only temporary shelter. By the 19th century, with the Industrial Revolution, people were moving to cities in unprecedented numbers. Workers lived in sheds, railway yards, and factory cellars, typically without sanitation facilities or water supply. In the post-industrial society of the 20th century, housing in developing nations and poor parts of developed countries continues to be of insufficient quality and does not meet the demand of some parts of the population. Vacant, abandoned inner-city housing exists alongside structures that are usable but overcrowded and buildings that are structurally reclaimable but are functionally obsolete. At present, there is both a demand for housing and a supply of reusable structures that are


going unclaimed. This situation is a good example of the complex role housing plays in society. Its primary function was to serve the need for shelter, security, and privacy, but housing must now offer other advantages: (1) location, including proximity to the workplace, shopping, businesses, schools, and other homes; (2) environment, for example, the quality of the neighbourhood, including public safety and aesthetics; and (3) investment potential, or the degree to which home ownership may affect capital accumulation. Housing Policy: Housing programmes in the United States and in Western European nations share many similarities. All these countries have initiated public housing, urban renewal, and newtown programmes. However, public intervention in Europe began sooner and has been more extensive than in the United States. Great Britain, for example, embarked on publichousing development in the late 19th century. Labourers' dwelling acts, authorizing local governments to construct public housing, were enacted as early as the mid-19th century, more than 75 years before comparable US housing legislation was passed. Urban-renewal demolition activities were empowered during the same period, almost a century before equivalent American activity. Massive public-housing programmes were started after each of the world wars. By the 1970s, approximately one-third of Britain's housing was publicly subsidized, compared with only 1 to 2 per cent in the United States. Great Britain has also constructed several new community developments that are in contrast to the fledgling and largely unsuccessful new-town ventures in the United States. Housing policies in other Western European nations are similar to those in Britain. For instance, extensive provision and regulation of housing exists, taking the form of subsidies for slum demolition and rental housing assistance. Germany, France, the Netherlands, and other nations provide low- or no-interest housing loans. The development of new-towns is also encouraged or subsidized; indeed, more than ten have been built on the outskirts of Paris. The problems of housing in Canada, both public and private, have been treated with considerable imagination and effectiveness. Federal funds for housing have been directed almost entirely at people with lower incomes. The government provides assistance to the provinces and municipalities and to individuals, to be used for neighbourhood improvement, the purchase of homes, the rehabilitation of residential housing, and the development of new communities. At the same time, the private sector has channelled a high volume of financial support into the mortgage market. Housing in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)and in Eastern European nations was almost exclusively characterized by government regulations and provisions. These countries pioneered the production and installation of massive prefabricated housing units in urban areas. Housing units, usually of pre-cast concrete, were manufactured in factories and then transported to the housing site, where they were assembled into large, multifamily complexes. The former USSR was also a pioneer in


developing new towns, which were frequently located around massive industrial or power-generating facilities. One example was the town of Bratsk, near the Bratsk hydroelectric plant in Siberia. Housing in economically developing countries is typically inferior in quality and space to that found in economically developed nations. Government efforts to upgrade housing conditions are evolving slowly, however. In the 1950s, slum demolition was effected on a large scale in many cities, such as Manila in the Philippines and Baghdad in Iraq. In the 1960s, new-town development, such as Braslia in Brazil, became commonplace. These strategies often proved ineffective; demolition was not usually accompanied by replacement housing, and the new towns sometimes proved to be islands in a sea of slums. In the 1970s, some developing nations turned to self-help housing. Families were given plots of land and building materials to construct or improve their own shelter. This housing approach is commonly referred to as a sites-and-services programme; so far it has been implemented on a large scale in India and many South American countries. Numerous organizations assist housing development and the upgrading of housing standards. These include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements, and the US Agency for International Development. Future Trends Housing is a critical component in the social and economic fabric of all nations. No country is yet satisfied that adequate housing has been delivered to the various economic groups that make up its populace. Thus, most nations, in one form or another, continue to claim a housing problem. As the 1990s began, the West generally was facing a critical shortage of affordable housing for low- and middle-income wage earners, as well as for the poor, and the numbers of homeless people were rising, especially in the cities. Higher home prices plus a reduction in low-income housing led to greater demand for rented accommodation, which resulted in higher rents and fewer available rental units. In addition, different types of housing are required to meet the needs of people with disabilities, as well as of the elderly and of people living alone. A variety of solutions have been suggested, including rehabilitating public housing, organizing public-private partnerships, issuing housing vouchers, granting public funds to non-profit-making developers, amending zoning restrictions, promoting tenant management of public housing, improving mortgageguarantee programmes, and encouraging companies to provide housing assistance programmes for their employees. Each country also faces its own specific problems. Great Britain and much of Western Europe must grapple with suburbanization and the decentralization of cities, while in the former USSR and in Eastern Europe, demand for more private dwelling space has increased. In developing nations, raw housing demand is still largely unmet, with the result that many of the population find themselves forced to live in shanty towns, settlements in which the houses are very poorly equipped to deal with basic human needs. Shanty towns have very little in the way of infrastructure; they are usually without water, sanitation, electricity, or roads. The houses are usually built by the residents themselves,


made from whatever materials have come to hand, and constructed often on land where no building rights exist, or on land illegally squatted. Household: Nos. of kitchen is the determinant of household in Pakistan. Public Sector: The activities and initiatives of state decide on account of people. State is Mumliquat-eKhudadad. Private Sector: Individual or group of individuals working within the framework of state for free enterprise or for earning surplus. Private Sector, part of the economy that is not owned or controlled by the state. It includes personal and corporate private enterprise, including what are known as public companies (those in which there is a market for members of the public to buy shares). After World War II, in many countries governments organized a shift from the private sector to the public sector. The countries that fell under the influence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics adopted centrally planned economies with maximum state control. In the United Kingdom, the Labour government elected in 1945 firmly believed in the principle of common ownership, and that it was better for the public sector to run certain essential industries and services. Its extensive programme of nationalization included taking control of the Bank of England, the coal industry, most hospitals, transport, and the gas, electricity, and iron and steel industries. Since the 1980s, as a result of the policy of privatization championed by Margaret Thatcher, there has been a big shift in economic activity away from the public sector in the United Kingdom as many large state-owned companies have been sold to the private sector. Many other countries have also been following the trend by reducing the public sector in favour of the private sector, including, most notably, the former Communist countries of Eastern Europe and what was the Soviet Union, where there always was a small private sector even if it was not officially acknowledged. Even in current Communist states such as China and Vietnam, there has been a remarkable shift in emphasis towards private enterprise. Many African countries, which followed socialist economic principles, are now too encouraging growth of a private sector. Cooperative Sector: One basic difference between private and cooperative sector is, to get the basic need of people or some specific group identify need and gather around it. Informal Sector: Develops around basic needs within the framework of Government rules and regulations. Where government fails to provide goods and services the informal sector operates parallel, i.e. water supply, tanker mafia, housing (squatter) lands grabber etc. Labor Housing/Colonies: It reflects in the historic development of Industrialization in 1880s. When mass influx of


people come in the city with no facility available to them. So they occupied the available plots and no place left for housing expansion. At that time revolution took place by labour and they had 3 demands. Food, clothes and shelter. So; on that basis the industrialists accepted their demands and provided them labour colonies. Social Housing: This concept developed in the west and their main application is also seen in the west. In social housing, the houses are provided by government to destitute, disables worriers, widows and old people they may be groups or individuals who can not survived on their own, (then the concept of welfare state emerged, in UK and France in 1880s) and state become responsible for their housing needs. If we look into the housing policy document of Pakistan and other developing countries this concept is very much alive but not actually. Rental Housing: This concept mainly developed in France where state established the housing stock so that earning could be done and shelter should be provided to shelter less. It is commonly used term refers to provision of housing to people with a contract between owner and tenant. It is different from normal kind of housing. In developing countries only few countries has this facility but in developed western countries this concept is very popular. Housing Finance: What do we mean by finance? It is the system through which the housing process is monetarily supported. Housing is the process with number of steps. The financial aspect of housing is a first step. The laid is the first commodity. So, the land and finance is the both equitable entities. In Sindh we find that state cannot participate in housing finance because state owns a large amount of land and it got the value and it has certain kind of financial aspect added to it i.e. KDA started a housing project the first thing is set of terms and conditions with respect to financial aspect that how much money will be rotated/revolved. There are three stages of housing finance: (i) Acquisition of land, (ii) House building (it takes time because financial institutions given the loans i.e. HBFC) and (iii) Infrastructure, it is distributed in components with different institutions that provide these facilities i.e. water, gas, electricity, telephone, etc. This is the very set system of housing finance. There are also alternatives for housing finance i.e. from open market lands, materials, credit. Housing Construction: It is the over all process through which the settlement develops and sustains. The actors involved in it are land grabbers, developers, interest groups and state. Subdivision: It has various meanings but division of land is appropriate for housing and landuse. These are the dimensions assigned by developers for land use pattern of the settlements.


Lease: It is the contractual mode of ownership tied up with time frame i.e. in Karachi it is 99 years. In Punjab it is one year Yaksala Pata. Freehold Land: It is the most common pattern of land ownership. It is the land owned by one person and then inherited. Trusts hold Land: It is the ownership acquired by the Government of Pakistan. After independence government established an Evacuee (eviction) property trust. They make charter that who ever left the land in India can make claims and get the trust property here in Pakistan. Demarcation: It has two angles (point of views) Settlement itself and at city level process of demarcation. At the plot or unit of house, marked on site according to the reference taken on site. It is the process of verifying housing unit boundaries. All the right of ownership develops on the basis of demarcation. Land Acquisition: Land is the basic commodity in the process of development of any settlement. Now, the government can acquire the land, private owners acquire the land, informal owners acquire the land. A public sector example in this regard is acquisition of Landhi Korangi Area, which was a rural land. During 1958 Greater Karachi resettlement plan govt. gave notice to the owners to come and sell their land. Land Appropriation: The available land is the first appropriation mechanism used by illegal subdivides. Eviction: It is the process through which illegal or undesired settlements are bulldozed or removed from the (scene) area. Type of Houses (property unit): In housing census we measure the housing in these three categories, katcha, semi pucca and pucca. (i) Katcha house can be considered with no roof, no foundation walls and no permanent structure. (ii) Semi pucca house can be considered with no permanent foundation where as walls and roof structures are permanent. (iii) Pucca house can be considered with permanent foundation, walls and roof. Housing Policy: It is a Federal Document made by EUAD i.e. Environment and Urban Affairs Division according to National Housing Policy. It describes the housing stock, demand and supply level at national scale.


Land Grabbing: It is the illegal occupation of land under the umbrella of various institutions. PARKS AND RECREATION FACILITIES AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO: 21 TOPIC: PARKS AND RECREATION FACILITIES INTRODUCTION: The theme of current lecture on is Parks and Recreational facilities. In order to understand this theme it is important to know about the terms; park and recreation. The term park means a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area or it is a large area of land preserved in its natural state as public property; then there are laws that protect the wildlife in this park.[1] The term recreation means activities which are relaxing to humans or provide diversions from their normal routine.[2] In town planning provision of parks and recreational facilities is a part of an overall urban planning scheme whether a new city is made or improved an existing one. However the provision of parks and recreational facilities is not an easy task and before understanding the process of its provision it is also significant to have clear understanding of both the concepts of Parks and Recreation. In the following these are described in details. WHAT IS A PARK?[3] A park is a protected area, in its natural or semi-natural state or planted, and set aside for human recreation and enjoyment. It may consist of, rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas. Wilderness parks are intact and undeveloped areas used mainly by wild species. Many parks are legally protected by law. Protected wilderness zones are required for some wild species to survive. Some protected parks focus mainly on the survival of a few threatened species, such as gorillas or chimpanzees. The term Park is also used for many other meanings for instance the term park is also used in reference to industrial areas, often termed as industrial parks. Some technology research areas are also called research parks. Small environmental areas, often part of urban renewal plans, are called pocket parks. The word park may also be used in community names, such as Oak Park or College Park. Sometimes the active recreational aspect may be expressed in the extreme of naming as an amusement park, usually privately owned. A car park is an area of land or a building in which cars are parked. An amusement park, or theme park is a generic term for a collection of rides and other entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertainment. Thus; the term park has various uses and meanings however the parks can be divided mainly in two categories i.e. Government owned or operated


parks and private parks. GOVERNMENT-OWNED OR OPERATED PARKS: There are three main types of Government owned or operated parks i.e. National Park, Sub National Parks and Urban Parks. NATIONAL PARK: A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. National parks are protected areas as established by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The largest national park in the world is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. In the United States the concept of preserving landscapes for the pleasure of the people was established on June 30, 1864, when President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill creating the Yosemite Grant. A policy of preservation, rather than co-usage as in the National Forests, where grazing, farming and logging are licensed, was implemented four decades later during the presidential administration of Teddy Roosevelt, and Yosemite became a national park. Tourism and, later, recreation were the intended purposes of the lands Roosevelt set aside in the system. John Muir was instrumental in this effort. These parks were termed national parks and today are looked after by the U.S. National Park Service. U.S. state governments have also set aside land to preserve for the enjoyment of the public. There are also national parks in many other countries. SUB-NATIONAL PARKS: In Federal systems, many parks are managed by the local levels of government, rather than by the central government. In the United States these are called state parks and in Canada provincial or territorial parks, except in Quebec where they are known as National Parks. URBAN PARKS: A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use, usually owned and maintained by a local government. Parks commonly resemble savannas or open woodlands, the types of landscape that human beings find most relaxing. Grass is typically kept short to discourage insect pests and to allow for the enjoyment of picnics and sporting activities. Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade. The world's first public park is claimed to be Peel Park, Salford, England opened on 22 August 1846.[4] Park can be divided into active and passive recreation. Active recreation is that which require intensive development and often involves cooperative or team activity, including playgrounds, ball fields and skate parks. Passive recreation is that which emphasizes the open-space aspect of a park and which involves a low level of development, including picnic areas and trails. Organized football matches take place in parks. Many smaller neighborhood parks are receiving increased attention and valuation as significant community assets and places of refuge in heavily populated urban areas. Neighborhood groups around the world are joining together to


support local parks that have suffered from urban decay and government neglect. A linear park is a park that has a much greater length than width. A typical example of a linear park is a section of a former railway that has been converted into a park (i.e. the tracks removed, vegetation allowed to grow back). Parks are sometimes made out of oddly shaped areas of land, much like the vacant lots that often become city neighborhood parks. An urban park,[5] also known as a municipal park or a public park or open space (United Kingdom), is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of and visitors to the municipality. The design, operation and maintenance is usually done by government, typically on the city level, but may occasionally be contracted out to a private sector company. The oldest Urban Park in the world, Phillips Park, is located in the English city of Manchester. Common features of municipal parks include playgrounds, hiking, running and mixed use trails or paths, bridle paths, sports field and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps and/or picnic facilities depending on the budget and natural features available. In The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982), Professor Galen Cranz identifies four phases of park design in the U.S. In the late 19th century, large tracts of land on the outskirts of cities were purchased by city governments to create "pleasure grounds": semi-open, charmingly landscaped areas whose primary purpose was to allow city residents, especially the workers, to relax in nature. As time passed and the urban area grew around the parks, land in these parks was used for other purposes, such as zoos, golf courses and museums. These parks continue to draw visitors from around the region and are considered regional parks because they require a higher level of management than smaller local parks. According to the Trust for Public Land, the three most visited municipal parks in the United States are Central Park in New York, Lincoln Park in Chicago, and Balboa Park in San Diego, respectively. In the early 1900s, according to Cranz, U.S. cities built neighborhood parks with swimming pools, playgrounds and civic buildings, with the intention of Americanizing the immigrant residents. In the 1950s, when money became available after World War II, new parks continued to focus on both outdoor and indoor recreation with services such as sports leagues using their ball fields and gymnasia. These smaller parks were built in residential neighborhoods, and tried to serve all residents with programs for seniors, adults, teens and children. Green space was of secondary importance. As urban land prices climbed, new urban parks in the 1960s and after have been mainly pocket parks. These small parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, and often a play area for children. All four types of park continue to exist in urban areas. Because of the large amount of open space and natural habitat in the former pleasure grounds, they now serve as important wildlife refuges, and often provide the only opportunity for urban residents to hike or picnic in a semi-wild area. However, these parks can be targeted by city managers or politicians as sources of free land for other uses; Partly for this reason, some of these large parks have "friends of X park" advisory boards that help protect and maintain their semi-wild nature. The largest area of public parks in any city in North


America is the North Saskatchewan River valley parks system in Edmonton. PRIVATE PARKS: Private parks are owned by individuals or businesses and are used at the discretion of the owner. There are a few types of private parks, and some which once were privately maintained and used have now been made open to the public. The most prominent of them may be Hunting Parks. Hunting parks originally referred to an area maintained as open space where residences, industry and farming were not allowed, often originally so that nobility might have a place to hunt such as medieval deer parks. These were known for instance, as deer parks (deer being originally a term meaning any wild animal). Many country houses in Great Britain and Ireland still have parks of this sort, which since the 18th century have often been landscaped for aesthetic effect. They are usually a mixture of open grassland with scattered trees and sections of woodland, and are often enclosed by a high wall. The area immediately around the house is the garden. In some cases this will also feature sweeping lawns and scattered trees; the basic difference between a country house's park and its garden is that the park is grazed by animals, but they are excluded from the garden. In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, the concept of the country park was popular in the 1970s, and many such parks were established with government support during that time. Country parks are often located near to urban populations, and provide recreational facilities typical of the countryside rather than the town. WHAT IS RECREATION?[6] Recreation is one (not the only) kind of stress management. Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's body or mind. While leisure is more likely a form of entertainment or rest, recreation is active for the participant but in a refreshing and diverting manner. As people in the world's wealthier regions lead increasingly sedentary life styles, the need for recreation has increased. The rise of so called active vacations exemplifies this. A few individuals view recreation as largely non-productive, even trivial. Excessive recreation is not considered healthy, and may be labeled as escapism. However, research has shown that recreation contributes to satisfaction, and that the stress management aspects of it contribute to quality of life, health and wellness, happiness, and that the use of recreation as a diversion may have clinical applications to individuals with chronic pain and other health impairments. TYPES OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES: There are various types of recreational activities such as art, computer games, cycling, dancing, Drawing, Eating and drinking, Hobbies, Hunting and fishing, Kite flying Music, Martial arts, Partying, Pet ownership, Reading a book, Recreational drug use, Sexuality and Dating, Sledding, Shopping, Singing, Sports and exercise, Travel and tourism Texting, Using the internet, Video games, Visiting an amusement park, Watching movies, Yoga, Painting. In recent years, more exciting forms of recreation have received more


attention, such as skiing, snowboarding, bungee jumping, sky diving, hang gliding, paintball, rock climbing, backpacking, canyoning, caving, BASE jumping, adventure tourism and motor sport. PROVISION OF PARKS AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES IN TOWN PLANNING:[7] One of the most critical components in maintaining and enhancing a community's quality of life is its system of parks, recreation, and open space. The careful location of parks and open space areas and preservation of the Town's natural resources as a complement to existing development can be a useful tool in guiding the Town's development into a logical, orderly and environmentally sensitive pattern. In addition to recreational and aesthetic benefits, open spaces provide a framework for various land uses. Properly located, they become boundaries and buffers between conflicting uses of land and a nucleus for building neighborhood areas. Natural features can be preserved as valuable scenic and environmental attributes of the Town. A park system and recreational program can also go a long way toward resolving the ageold problem of a community offering nothing for young people to do. In order to provide parks and recreational facilities at first an inventory of existing Town parks and opens space areas is made. For instance in Karachi one of the first things that can be pointed out is that there are a fairly large number of parks and the people overwhelmingly use these parks. These two findings suggest that while Karachi has a lot of acreage for parks, much of it is undeveloped and/or underutilized. This represents an opportunity to proactively improve the availability of Parks and Recreation facilities/programs. Recommended improvements as desirable by the citizens of Karachi included such things as a playground, bathrooms, water fountain, and picnic facilities. These are all amenities which are quite necessary that features the public desires, but that these amenities somehow fall short of their expectations. Perhaps there needs to be more of a particular amenity or perhaps another is simply in need of modernization and/or repair. The Visioning process identified the need for Karachi is to develop a park system in each town and union council. One impediment to this goal is the ownership of the parks and open spaces in Karachi. There are a number of Town Parks, quasi-public parks and facilities, and, being the mega city and home to the largest population base, there are numerous issues such as encroachment, unavailability of due care to existing open spaces and parks. There are also private or semi-private recreational spaces like the golf courses, clubs and gyms etc. A park system would consider all of these lands and evaluate them as a whole as to their effectiveness in meeting the recreational needs of the residents of Karachi and environs. A second factor inhibiting the effective development of a coordinated park system is the way in which these spaces and facilities are managed. There is a Director General Parks in Karachi Municipal Corporation with not much additional staff and part time assistance or community backing which is the key factor in regular maintenance and management of existing parks and recreational facilities.


One step toward providing more direction and more active participation in planning, acquiring, and improving Karachi's parks was taken recently by the City District Government Karachi (CDGK) in the form of road improvements and construction of signal free corridors in the city. However, there is still much work to be done as this organization of city is still struggling with determining its role and how it relates to the Karachi Master Plan 2020, in whom Law vests the authority to make "proposals for the most appropriate and desirable patterns for the general location, character, and extent of parks and recreation areas for specified times as far into the future as is reasonable. Nevertheless, having a group dedicated to examining and making recommendations on park issues shall be a positive step towards the development of a coordinated Town-wide Park system. FUTURE PARKS: One area, in which it is crucial for the CDGK to work hard, is the planning for future park sites. There must be a visioning committee to make several recommendations in this area. There must be a detailed map of Karachi with its complete boundaries, maps of towns and maps of union councils where parks are graphically depicted. These maps shall be publicly available for the citizens of Karachi as the locations reserved for parks so as they may create a check and balance system and cry for parks and recreational facilities if required. The following recommendations for future parks are highlighted for the reference. GOAL: To provide a coordinated system of parks that meet the recreational needs of all of Karachi's residents. OBJECTIVES: Create/preserve public access and recreational opportunities in every town and union council. Increase funding for the operation of a Parks and Recreational Facilities. Develop more of the parks which already exist in Karachi. Identify a site or sites for regional parks in future for annexation areas of Karachi. Develop Karachi's parks as a coordinated system in order to insure that all areas of City are equitably served with parks and that a variety of recreational opportunities are provided. Work with all town and union council administration to coordinate Town and Union Council Park Planning and eliminate unnecessary duplication of services. Examine and refine, if necessary, the policy of requiring usable park/open space during development review and approval. Provide for the contribution of fees in lieu of parks in subdivisions where such land is not available or is not needed due to the lack of appropriate lands or the proximity of other suitable parks or open spaces. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES: The CDGK and all the towns should increase funding to Parks and Recreational facilities of approximately 2% of the budget. Town staff should rely upon the mapped recommendations contained in the Master Plan 2020 for future park lands during the development review process in order to obtain necessary lands for future larger-scale parks. The Planning and Zoning Commission shall be made and it should work with the


D.G Parks to determine which of Karachi's existing parks should be improved and what types of improvements are needed therein as well as to develop a plan for future park sites. The CDGK should meet and coordinate planning efforts with Towns up until Union Council level in order to enhance/increase recreational opportunities available to city residents and in return to provide Karachi's fair share of Parks and Recreational Facilities. All the towns should utilize monies collected as fees-in-lieu of providing parks and open space for the acquisition of new parks and the improvement and/or maintenance of existing undeveloped or underdeveloped parks. REFERENCES: [1] [2] [3] [4] Salford City Council: Parks in Broughton and Blackfriars Retrieved on 2008-09-03 ; Papillon Graphics' Virtual Encyclopaedia of Greater Manchester: The Campaign for City Parks in Manchester and SalfordRetrieved on 2008-09-06 ; University of Salford: Peel Park Retrieved on 2008-09-07 [5] [6] [7] http://www.townCOMMUNITY PLANNING AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (SECTION-B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi LECTURE NO: 26 TOPIC: COMMUNITY PLANNING INTRODUCTION: If you want to know how a shoe fits ask the person who wear it not the person who made it.[1] All over the world there is increasing demand from all sides for more local involvement in the planning and management of the environment. It is widely recognised that this is the only way that people will get the surroundings they want. And it is now seen as the best way of ensuring that communities become safer, stronger, wealthier and more sustainable. But how should it be done? How can local people wherever they live best involve themselves in the complexities of architecture, planning and urban design? How can professionals best build on local knowledge and resources? Over the past few decades, a wide range of methods has been pioneered in different countries. They include new ways of people interacting, new types of event, new types of organisation, new services and new support frameworks. This lecture provides an overview of these new


methods of community planning. BENEFIT OF COMMUNITY PLANNING: When people are involved in shaping their local surroundings, the benefits can include: 1. Additional Resources: Governments rarely have sufficient means to solve all the problems in an area. Local people can bring additional resources which are often essential if their needs are to be met and dreams fulfilled. 2. Better Decisions: Local people are invariably the best source of knowledge and wisdom about their surroundings. Better decision-making results if this is harnessed. 3. Building community: The process of working together and achieving things together creates a sense of community. 4. Compliance with legislation: Community involvement is often, and increasingly, a statutory requirement. 5. Democratic credibility: Community involvement in planning accords with peoples right to participate in decisions that affect their lives. It is an important part of the trend towards democratisation of all aspects of society. 6. Easier fundraising: Many grant-making organisations prefer, or even require, communityinvolvement to have occurred before handing out financial assistance. 7. Empowerment: Involvement builds local peoples confidence, capabilities, skills and ability to co-operate. This enables them to tackle other challenges, both individually and collectively. 8. More appropriate results: Design solutions are more likely to be in tune with what is needed and wanted. Involvement allows proposals to be tested and refined before adoption, resulting in better use of resources. 9. Professional education: Working closely with local people helps professionals gain a greater insight into the communities they seek to serve. So they work more effectively and produce better results. 10. Responsive environment: The environment can more easily be constantly tuned and refined to cater for peoples changing requirements. 11. Satisfying public demand: People want to be involved in shaping their environment and mostly seem to enjoy it. 12. Speedier development: People gain a better understanding of the options realistically available and are likely to start thinking positively rather than negatively. Time-wasting conflicts can often be avoided. 13. Sustainability: People feel more attached to an environment they have helped create. They will therefore manage and maintain it better, reducing the likelihood of vandalism, neglect and subsequent need for costly replacement. GETTING STARTED WITH COMMUNITY PLANNING: How do we get started with community planning? How do we decide which methods to use, and when? How do we design an overall strategy geared to our own circumstances?


The approach adopted will be different for every community. There is rarely quick fix or blueprint. Each place needs to carefully devise its own community planning strategy to suit local conditions and needs. But there are principles, methods and scenarios which appear to be universally relevant, and can be drawn on for inspiration and guidance. They are based on pioneering projects and experience from many countries over the past few decades. It is unlikely that we would be able to draw up a complete strategy at the outset. Flexibility is important, in any case, to be able to respond to new circumstances and opportunities. But planning a provisional overall strategy is a useful discipline so that everyone understands the context in which the chosen methods are being used arid the purpose of each stage. First, define the goal or purpose. Then devise a strategy to achieve it. 1. At first we need to understand the general principles and philosophy of community planning 2. Secondly we need to understand the methods and range of options available for community planning 3. Thirdly we need to develop a scenario to see if any case exist elsewhere in the world that may relate to our own context so as to get inspiration 4. Fourthly we need to sketch out a scenario of our own situation 5. Fifthly we need to develop our strategies and planner i.e. action plan, event plan and progress monitoring plan 6. Sixthly we think about the people / community to be involved 7. Seventhly we produce an item wise budget and allocate responsibilities to people 8. Finally we need to organise a process planning meeting with the community to review the implementation of our plan Once we have done this we will be in a position to assess the options available and resources required. We will be working with a fixed budget and known contributors, with our limited options. More likely, securing financial and other support will be part of the process. Raising funding may not be easy, but organisations of all kinds are increasingly prepared to contribute as they begin to see how community planning activity can benefit the communities and there is a great deal that can be achieved by obtaining 'support in kind'; help and assistance in non-financial terms. PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY PLANNING[2]: 1. Accept different agendas: People will want to be involved for a variety of reasons, for instance: academic enquiry, altruism, curiosity, fear of change, financial gain, neighbourliness, professional duty, protection of interests, socialising. This need not be a problem but it helps to be aware of peoples different agendas. 2. Accept limitations: No community planning activity can solve all the worlds problems. But that is not a reason for holding back. Limited practical improvements will almost always result, and community planning activity can often act as a catalyst for more fundamental change. 3. Accept varied commitment:


Far too much energy is wasted complaining that certain people do not participate when the opportunity is provided. All of us could spend our lives many times over working to improve the local environment. Everyone has their own priorities in life and these should be respected. If people do not participate it is likely to be because they are happy to let others get on with it, they are busy with things which are more important to them or the process has not been made sufficiently interesting. 4. Agree rules and boundaries: There should be a common understanding by all main interest groups of the approach adopted. Particularly in communities where there is fear for instance that others may be trying to gain territorial advantage it is vital that the rules and boundaries are clearly understood and agreed. In particular it is important to be clear about what can and cannot be changed as a result of any community involvement. 5. Avoid jargon: Use plain language. Jargon prevents people from engaging and is usually a smokescreen to hide incompetence, ignorance or arrogance. 6. Be honest: Be open and straightforward about the nature of any activity. People will generally participate more enthusiastically if they know that something can be achieved through their participation (eg if there is a budget for a capital project). But they may be quite prepared to participate at risk providing they know the odds. If there is only a small chance of positive change as a result of people participating, say so. Avoid hidden agendas. 7. Be transparent: The objectives and peoples roles should be clear and transparent at events. For instance, it may seem trivial but the importance of name badges to prevent events being the preserve of the in-crowd can never be stressed enough. 8. Be visionary yet realistic: Nothing much is likely to be achieved without raising expectations. Yet dwelling entirely on the utopian can be frustrating. Strike a balance between setting visionary utopian goals and being realistic about the practical options available. 9. Build local capacity: Long-term community sustainability depends on developing human and social capital. Take every opportunity to develop local skills and capacity. Involve local people in surveying their own situation, running their own programmes and managing local assets. Help people to understand how planning processes work and how they can be influenced. Communications and cultural activities are particularly effective at building capacity. 10. Communicate: Use all available media to let people know what you are doing and how they can get involved. Community newspapers or broadsheets in particular are invaluable. Community newspapers and, increasingly, websites are invaluable. Information provision is a vital element of all participatory activities. 11. Encourage collaboration: Create partnerships wherever possible between the various interest groups involved and with potential contributors such as financial institutions. 12. Flexibility: Be prepared to modify processes as circumstances dictate. Avoid inflexible methods and strategies.


13. Focus on attitudes: Behaviour and attitude are just as, if not more, important than methods. Encourage selfcritical awareness, handing over control, personal responsibility and sharing. 14. Focus on existing interests: Start participatory working with a focus on the existing interests and motivations of local people. They will then see the relevance of being involved. 15. Follow up: Lack of follow-up is the most common failing, usually due to a failure to plan and budget for it. Make sure you set aside time and resources for documenting, publicising and acting on the results of any community planning initiative. 16. Go at the right pace: Rushing can lead to problems. On the other hand, without deadlines things can drift. Using experienced external advisors may speed up the process but often at the expense of developing local capacity. Get the balance right. 17. Go for it: This is the phrase used most by people who have experienced community planning when asked what their advice would be to others. You are bound to have doubts; it is usually a leap in the dark. But you are unlikely to regret taking the plunge. 18. Have fun: Getting involved in creating and managing the environment should not be a chore. It can be a great opportunity to meet people and have fun. The most interesting and sustainable environments have been produced where people have enjoyed creating them. Community planning requires humour. Use cartoons, jokes and games whenever possible. 19. Always Work on Human scale: Work in communities of a manageable scale. This is usually where people at least recognise each other. Where possible, break up larger areas into a series of smaller ones and translate regional issues to a local scale. Working on regional planning issues requires a high level of coordination between community and interest groups and the use of specific methods. 20. Integrate with decision-making: Community planning activity needs to be integrated with government decision-making processes. Participatory processes are undermined if there is no clear link to decisionmaking. 21. Involve all those affected: Community planning works best if all parties are committed to it. Involve all the main interested parties as early as possible, preferably in the planning of the process. Activities in which key players (such as landowners or planners) sit on the sidelines are all too common and rarely achieve their objectives completely. Time spent winning over cynics before you start is well worthwhile. If there are people or groups who cannot be convinced at the outset, keep them informed and give them the option of joining in later on. 22. Involve all sections of the community: People of different ages, gender, backgrounds and cultures almost invariably have different perspectives. Ensure that a full spectrum of the community is involved. This is usually far more important than involving large numbers. 23. Learn from others:


There is no need to re-invent the wheel. One of the best sources of information is people who have done it before. Dont think you know it all. No one does. Be open to new approaches. Get in touch with people from elsewhere who have relevant experience. Go and visit them and see their projects; seeing is believing. Do not be afraid of experienced consultants but choose and brief them carefully. 24. Local ownership of the process: The community planning process should be owned by local people. Even though consultants or national organisations may be providing advice and taking responsibility for certain activities, the local community should take responsibility for the overall process. 25. Maintain momentum: Regularly monitor progress to ensure that initiatives are built on and objectives achieved. Development processes are invariably lengthy; the participation process needs to stay the course. If there has to be a break, start again from where you left off, not from the beginning. Periodic review sessions can be very valuable to maintain momentum and community involvement. 26. Mixture of methods: Use a variety of involvement methods as different people will want to take part in different ways. For instance, some will be happy to write letters, others will prefer to make comments at an exhibition or take part in workshop sessions. 27. Now is the right time: The best time to start involving people is at the beginning of any programme. The earlier the better; But if programmes have already begun, participation should be introduced as soon as possible. Start now. 28. Ongoing involvement: Community involvement in planning issues needs to be an ongoing and continuous activity and be supported accordingly. One-off consultations with tight deadlines only have limited value. 29. Personal initiative: Virtually all community planning initiatives have happened only because an individual has taken the initiative. Dont wait for others. That individual could be you! 30. Plan your own process carefully: Careful planning of the process is vital. Avoid rushing into any one approach. Look at alternatives. Design a process to suit the circumstances. This may well involve combining a range of methods or devising new ones. 31. Plan for the local context: Develop unique strategies for each neighbourhood. Understand local characteristics and traditions and use them as a starting point for planning. Encourage regional and local diversity. 32. Prepare properly: The most successful activities are invariably those on which sufficient time and effort have been given to preliminary organisation and engaging those who may be interested. 33. Process is as important as product: The way that things are done is often as important as the end result. But remember that the aim is implementation. Participation is important but is not an end in itself. 34. Professional enablers:


Professionals and administrators should see themselves as enablers, helping local people achieve their goals, rather than as providers of services and solutions. 35. Quality not quantity: There is no such thing as a perfect participation process. The search for one is healthy only if this fact is accepted. Generally, the maximum participation by the maximum number of people is worth aiming at. But any participation is better than none and the quality of participation is more important than the numbers involved. A well organised event for a small number of people can often be more fruitful than a less well organised event for larger numbers. 36. Reach all sectors: Use methods to reach all sectors of the community for example young people, minority ethnic communities, small businesses, the silent majority, the hard to reach. But take care to avoid further alienation of disadvantaged groups by creating separate processes. 37. Record and document: Make sure participation activities are properly recorded and documented so that it can be clearly seen who has been involved and how. Easily forgotten, such records can be invaluable at a later stage. 38. Respect cultural context: Make sure that your approach is suitable for the cultural context in which you are working. Consider local attitudes to gender, informal livelihoods, social groupings, speaking out in public and so on. 39. Respect local knowledge: All people, whether literate or not, whether rich or poor, whether children, women or men, have a remarkable understanding of their surroundings and are capable of analysing and assessing their situation, often better than trained professionals. Respect local perceptions, choices and abilities and involve local people in setting goals and strategies. 40. Shared control: The extent of public participation in any activity can vary from very little to a great deal. Different levels are appropriate at different stages of the planning process but shared control at the planning and design stage is the crucial ingredient. 41. Special interest groups: Important Groups representing different special interests have a vital role to play in shaping the environment because of its complexity. Decision-makers need to consider evidence which represents best the variety of interests of current and future communities, including taking into account views of specific interest groups with particular knowledge. 42. Spend money: Effective participation processes take time and energy. There are methods to suit a range of budgets and much can be achieved using only peoples time and energy. But over-tight budgets usually lead to cutting corners and poor results. Remember that community planning is an important activity, the success or failure of which may have dramatic implications for future generations as well as your own resources. Budget generously. 43. Think on your feet: Once the basic principles and language of participatory planning are understood, experienced practitioners will find it easy to improvise. Avoid feeling constrained by rules or guidance 44. Train:


Training is invaluable at all levels. Encourage visits to other projects and attendance on courses. Build in training to all your activities. 45. Trust in others honesty: Start from a position of trusting others and generally this will be reciprocated. Lack of trust is usually due to lack of information. 46. Use experts appropriately: The best results emerge when local people work closely and intensively with experts from all the necessary disciplines. Creating and managing the environment is very complicated and requires a variety of expertise and experience to do it well. Do not be afraid of expertise, embrace it. But avoid dependency on or hijacking by, professionals. Keep control local. Use experts little and often to allow local participants time to develop capability, even if it means they sometimes make mistakes. 47. Use facilitators: Orchestrating group activities is a real skill. Without good facilitation the most articulate and powerful may dominate. Particularly if large numbers of people are involved, ensure that the person (or people) directing events have good facilitation skills. If not, hire someone who has. 48. Use local talent: Make use of local skills and professionalism within the community before supplementing them with outside assistance. This will help develop capability within the community and help achieve long-term sustainability. 49. Use outsiders, but carefully: A central principle of community planning is that local people know best. But outsiders, if well briefed, can provide a fresh perspective which can be invigorating. Getting the right balance between locals and outsiders is important; avoid locals feeling swamped or intimidated by foreigners. 50. Visualise: People can participate far more effectively if information is presented visually rather than in words. A great deal of poor development, and hostility to good development, is due to people not understanding what it will look like. Use graphics, maps, illustrations, cartoons, drawings, photomontages and models wherever possible. And make the process itself visible by using flipcharts, Post-it notes, coloured dots and banners. 51. Walk before you run: Developing a participatory culture takes time. Start by using simple participation methods and work up to using more complex ones as experience and confidence grow. 52. Work on location: Wherever possible, base community planning activities physically in the area being planned. This makes it much easier for everyone to bridge the gap from concept to reality. METHODS OF COMMUNITY PLANNING:[3] There are so many methods of community planning some of which are given here for the reference of students. The students are advised to search the following sites. Activity week Architecture centre Art workshop Award schemeBriefing workshop Choice catalogues Community design centre Community planning event


Community planning forum Community profiling Design assistance team Design fest Design game Design workshop Development trust DiagramsElectronic map Elevation montage Environment shop Feasibility fund Field workshop Future search conference Gaming Ideas competitionInteractive display Local design statement Mapping Microplanning workshopMobile unit Models Neighbourhood planning office Newspaper supplement Open house event Open space workshop Participatory editing Photo surveyPlanning aid scheme Planning day Planning for real Planning weekend Prioritising Process planning session Reconnaissance trip Review session Risk assessmentRoadshow Simulation Street stall Table scheme display Task force Urban design studio User group Video soapbox References: [1] [2] [3] POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 7:18 AM NO COMMENTS: WEDNESDAY, MAY 20, 2009 LAYOUT OF STREET, ROAD CROSSING AND LIGHTING AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (SECTION-B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi

LECTURE NO: 25 TOPIC: LAYOUT OF STREET, ROAD CROSSING AND LIGHTING INTRODUCTION: The theme of current lecture is, layout of street, road crossing and lighting. The main purpose of this theme is to get a clear understanding about the physical features of a street along with its major elements. The term street itself is a very vast term and it is explained and interpreted in various ways. Similarly the characteristics of streets are also plentiful. Thus in the following all these aspects of streets shall be discussed in details.


WHAT IS STREET? A Street is a paved public thoroughfare in the built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A Street is characterized by the degree and quality of street life it facilitates, whereas a road serves primarily as a through passage for vehicles or pedestrians.[1]

STREET FURNITURE: Street furniture[2] is a collective term for objects and pieces of equipment installed on streets and roads for various purposes, including traffic barrier, benches, bollards, post boxes, phone boxes, streetlamps, street lighting, traffic lights, traffic signs, bus stops, grit bins, tram stops, taxi stands, public lavatories, fountains and memorials, and waste receptacles. An important consideration in the design of street furniture is how it affects road safety.

STREET NAME SIGNS identify streets, for the benefit of visitors, especially postal workers and the emergency services. They may also indicate the district in which the street lies.

A BENCH is essentially a chair made for more than one person, usually found in the central part of any settlement (such as plazas and parks). They are often provided by the local councils or contributors to serve as a place to rest and admire the view. Armrests in between are sometimes provided to prevent people lying down and/or to prevent people from sitting too close to someone who likes to keep some distance.


BOLLARDS are posts, short poles, or pillars, with the purpose of preventing the movement of vehicles onto sidewalks or grass etc.

POST BOXES, also known as MAIL BOXES, are found throughout the world, and have a variety of forms: round pillar style found in Japan and the U.K. (the two feature a difference in that the Japanese version has a round lid while the UK version is flat); rectangular blue boxes in the United States; red and yellow boxes with curved tops in Australia, some on poles. The Canadian version is a red box with a slanted back top.

PHONE BOXES or TELEPHONE BOOTHS are prominent in most cities around the world, and while ranging drastically in the amount of cover they offer users, e.g. many only cover the phone itself while others are full booths, are instantly recognisable. The widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in a decrease in their numbers.

STREETLAMPS are designed to illuminate the surrounding area at night, serving not only as a deterrent to criminals but more importantly to allow people to see where they're going.


TRAFFIC LIGHTS (or TRAFFIC SIGNALS) usually include three colours: green to represent "go", amber to inform drivers that the colour will alternate shortly and red to tell drivers to stop. They are generally mounted on poles or gantries or hang from wires.

TRAFFIC SIGNS warn drivers of upcoming road conditions such as a "blind curve", speed limits, etc. Direction signs tell the reader the way to a location, although the sign's information can be represented in a variety of ways from that of a diagram to written instructions. Direction signs are usually mounted on poles. Recently, illumination has started to be added in order to aid nighttime users.

PUBLIC LAVATORIES allow pedestrians the opportunity to use restroom facilities, either for free or for a per-use fee.

STREETS TYPOLOGY: Streets are of many types and there are different names attributed to a street. For instance street can be termed as an alley, lane, avenue, boulevard etc. In addition there are streets names such as Main Street, side streets, two way streets, numbered streets, walkways and cul-de-sacs etc. Similarly there are processes attached to streets such as traffic calming etc.


An ALLEY[3] or ALLEYWAY is a narrow, pedestrian lane found in urban areas which usually runs between or behind buildings. In older cities and towns in Europe, alleys are often what is left of a medieval street network, or a right of way or ancient footpath in an urban setting. In older urban development, alleys were built to allow for deliveries such as coal to the rear of houses. Alleys may be paved, or simply dirt tracks. Blind alleys have no outlet at one end and are thus a cul-de-sac. Many modern urban developments do not incorporate alleys. In some locations installation of gates to restrict alleyway access have significantly reduced burglary rates. On blocks where gates are not installed, residents sometimes erect home-made barricades at alley entrances. Alleys which are narrow pavements between/behind buildings can be known as SNICKETS, GINNELS, JENNELS or ALLEYWAYS. This has led to the word SNICKELWAY, originally in York, though the term has become more widespread. In Sussex the term TWITTEN is commonly used whilst in Liverpool the term ENTRY or JIGGER is more common. The word JITTY is also often used in Derbyshire and Leicestershire.

GULLEY is the term sometimes used in the Black Country. In Karachi and Mumbai the term PATLEE GALLEE (Narrow Street) is usually used as an admonition for cowards to runaway. In Nottinghamshire TWICHELL is a common name. In Scotland the terms CLOSE, WYND AND PEND are commonplace.


JENNEL is local to Sheffield. In Glasgow, Edinburgh and Belfast, and the surrounding areas, certain alleys are known as ENTRIES, ENTRY, AND ANTRIM. In Australia and Canada the terms LANE, LANEWAY and SERVICEWAY are also used. In the United States and Canada alleys are sometimes known as REAR LANES or BACK LANES because they are at the back of buildings. The word LANE[4] has several meanings and types, it can be a portion of a paved road which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines or a lane is a narrow road or street, usually lacking a shoulder or a median; this is typically applied to roads, but can also be applied to urban streets or areas that used to be streets.

A TRAFFIC LANE OR TRAVEL LANE is a lane for the movement of vehicles traveling from one destination to another, not including shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

A THROUGH LANE or thru lane is a traffic lane for through traffic. At intersections, these may be indicated by arrows on the pavement pointing straight ahead. A CARRIAGEWAY is a series of lanes (or part of a road) in which vehicles travel.


A LOADING LANE is an area next to a curb, which is reserved for loading and unloading passengers. It may be marked by a "LOADING ONLY" sign or a yellow or white curb.

A TRAM LANE is a lane reserved for the use of buses, trams and taxicabs.

AN EXPRESS LANE of a road is used for faster moving traffic and has less access to exits/off ramps.

AN AUXILIARY LANE along a highway or motorway connects slip roads, with the entrance ramp or acceleration lane from one interchange leading to the exit ramp or deceleration lane of the next.

A DECELERATION LANE is a paved or semi-paved lane adjacent to the primary road or street. It is used to improve traffic safety by allowing drivers to pull off the main road and decelerate safely in order to turn, so that the traffic behind the turning vehicle is not


slowed or halted. Deceleration lanes are primarily found in suburban settings.

A FIRE LANE is the area next to a curb, which is reserved for firefighting equipment, ambulances, or other emergency vehicles. Parking in these areas, often marked by red lines, usually warrants a parking ticket.

A PASSING LANE is often provided on steep mountain grades, in order to allow smaller vehicles to pass larger, slower ones. This is sometimes called a climbing lane if on the uphill side. Passing lanes may also be provided on long stretches of other roadway. On two-lane roads, passing in the lane of oncoming traffic is sometimes allowed given a long enough straightaway, if the broken line is on the normal side of travel.

A COLLECTOR LANE of a road is used for slower moving traffic and has more access to exits/off ramps.


A TRANSFER LANE of a road is used to move from express lanes to collector lanes, or vice-versa; it is somewhat similar to an auxiliary lane.

A MERGE LANE is a lane or onramp used to merge two flows of traffic into one, with the merge lane being the lane that disappears at the end of the merging area. Merge lane lengths depend mainly on the speed differential of the two merging flows, as the slower flow has to use the lane to accelerate.

THE EMERGENCY LANE of a road (also known as the breakdown lane, shoulder or hard shoulder) is reserved for breakdowns, and for emergency vehicles. The inner boundary of the lane often features rumble strips in order to physically warn drowsy or inattentive drivers that they are drifting off the roadway. This feature is seen especially often on highways and motorways, where the minimally-stimulating and monotonous nature of high-speed driving at night increases the chances for driver disorientation and serious injury or death if an accident does take place.

A DESIGNATED BICYCLE LANE is a portion of the roadway or shoulder designated for the exclusive or preferential use of bicyclists. This designation is indicated by special word and/or symbol markings on the pavement and "BIKE LANE" signs.


A BUS LANE is reserved for buses providing public transportation on a fixed route, sometimes with overhead catenary for trolleybuses. In some countries, bus lanes may also be used by some other traffic, such as taxis, bicycles and motorbikes.

A TRUCK LANE (United States) or crawler lane (Great Britain) is a lane provided on long and steep uphill stretches of high-speed roads to enhance the ability of vehicles which can maintain speed up the incline to pass those vehicles (usually heavy trucks) which cannot. In addition, these lanes are intended to optimize pavement performance and minimize pavement fatigue.

A REVERSIBLE LANE, which uses overhead lights, signs, poles or barriers to indicate the current direction of travel it is to be used for. Typically, it is used at rush hour to accommodate extra traffic, and at other times as a center turn lane. In between, there is approximately one hour where no traffic is allowed. While the idea is very simple, the term suicide lane became a common slang description for this design, because many people ignored their driving or the lights. Because of their history of numerous accidents and collisions, reversible lanes are rarely used now.


AN OPERATIONAL LANE OR AUXILIARY LANE is an extra lane on the entire length of highway between interchanges, giving drivers more time to merge in or out.

AN OVERTAKING LANE is the lane furthest from the shoulder of a multi-lane carriageway (sometimes called the fast lane, although this is deprecated by the authorities).

AN AVENUE[5] is a straight road with a line of trees or large shrubs running along each side, which is used, to emphasize the "coming to," or arrival at a landscape or architectural feature. In most cases, the trees planted in an avenue will be all of the same species, so as to give uniform appearance along the full length of the avenue. The French term, alle, is confined normally to avenues planted in parks and landscape gardens. In urban or suburban settings, "avenue" is often a qualifier for a road name, along with "lane", "street", "way", etc. In some cities which have a grid plan, such as Manhattan, there is a convention that avenues run in a north-south direction, while streets run in an east-west direction, or vice versa.

BULEVARD[6] has several generally accepted meanings. It was first introduced in the French in 1435 as boloard and has since been altered into boulevard; As a type of road, a boulevard is usually a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the center, and roadways along each side as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, often with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery. Some people also use the term boulevard to refer to the division or central reservation in a road. It can consist of anything from a simple thick curb of concrete, to a wide strip of


grass, to a thoroughly landscaped space of trees, shrubs, and other foliage; in urban areas, boulevards can also contain public art or memorials. Wide boulevards also sometimes serve as rights-of-way for trams or light rail systems. Another use for the term boulevard is for a strip of grass between a sidewalk and a road, and located above a curb. Though in Europe the two are often adjacent, many residential neighbourhoods in the United States and Canada feature strips of grass or other greenery between the sidewalk and the road, placed in order to both beautify the street and to provide a buffer between vehicles and pedestrians.

MAIN STREET[7] is the metonym for a generic street name of the primary retail street of a village, town, or small city in many parts of the world. It is usually a focal point for shops and retailers in the central business district, and is most often used in reference to retailing and socialising. Main Street is commonly used in the United States, Canada, and Ireland, some parts of Scotland and also in some countries in central Europe.

HIGH STREET is the common term in the United Kingdom. In Jamaica as well as North East England and some sections of Canada, the usual term is FRONT STREET. In Cornwall, the equivalent is FORE STREET. In some larger cities, there may be several Main Streets, each relating to a specific neighborhood or formerly separate city, rather than the city as a whole. In Hong Kong, "Main Street" can be translated in Chinese into"ZHENG JIE" or "DA JIE"; however, in Hong Kong, officially "CENTRE STREET" is a branch road off Sheung Wan District. In England, the terms "MARKET STREET" or "MARKET PLACE" are often used to designate the heart of a town or city, as is the more common High Street (certainly in


newer urban developments, or towns or cities which were not original market towns).

HIGH STREET is often the name of a fairly busy street with small shops on either side, often in towns and villages. In Sweden, almost all towns and cities have their own main street, a street called "STORGATAN" (Literally means, "THE BIG STREET"). They are typically surrounded by stores and restaurants, and in most cases open for pedestrians only, where no vehicles are allowed. Likewise in Norway, this type of street is called "GGATE" (Literally means "WALKING STREET").

JALAN BESAR (roughly translated from Malay as "MAIN ROAD") is a common street name used in Malaysia when referring to main streets of older urban centres in the country. Such main streets were originally constructed during British colonisation, and were named in English as "Main Street" or "Main Road", depending on the size and nature of the urban centre. In rural Sindh there are many small villages or sub districts or taluka level settlements that have one main central street bazaar (market) also known as DHAK BAZAAR (literally means a COVERED MARKET) which is an example of Main Street in our local context of Pakistan.


A SIDE STREET[8] is a street that intersects a main street and ends there. Most side streets are lined with residences. Side streets when built are mostly intended only for the traffic of their residents and visitors.

A TWO-WAY STREET[9] is a street that allows vehicles to travel in both directions. On most two-way streets, a line is painted down in the middle of the road to remind drivers to stay on their side of the road. If there is no line, a car must stay on the appropriate side and watch for cars coming in the opposite direction and prepare to pull over to let them pass. A two-way street can also be used as an idiomatic metaphor to indicate that something goes both ways. For example, "Communication within a relationship must be a two- way street that is heavily traveled in both directions."

A NUMBERED STREET[10] is a street whose name is a number rather than a worded name. Numbered streets, are commonly identified with names like "street," "avenue," etc., are among the most common street names found in North America. Numbered streets exist in cities which have grid-based naming systems, with numbers usually starting at 1 and then proceeding in numerical order. Some cities also have lettered street names. For example, Washington, D.C., has streets identified as a letter followed by "Street," such as Street A. New York has avenues titled "Avenue" followed by the respective letter of the alphabet, such as Avenue D.

A WALKWAY[11] is an umbrella term for all formal surfaces which support the act of walking. This includes sidewalks, trails, paths, stairs, ramps and open passageways. The walkway is a path for walking that is generally not enclosed. It can be at ground level, or it can be elevated, such as a boardwalk, or a floating dock/trail. It can be a simple constructed path or something more complex to cross a road or a body of water. An open pedestrian overpass or a special tunnel is also an element of a walkway. It can also be used to board and remove passengers from aircraft to the terminal building.


A CUL-DE-SAC[12] is a dead-end street with only one inlet/outlet. In urban planning culs-de-sac are created to limit through-traffic in residential areas. While some culs-desac provide no possible passage except in and out of their road entry, others allow cyclists, pedestrians or other non-automotive traffic to pass through connecting easements or paths. The word "cul-de-sac" and its variants, "dead end" and "no exit", have inspired metaphorical uses in literature and in culture too.

TRAFFIC CALMING[13] is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the environment for residents. Traffic calming was traditionally justified on the grounds of pedestrian safety and reduction of noise and local air pollution which are side effects of the traffic. However, streets have many social and recreational functions which are severely impaired by car traffic.

The Livable Streets study found that residents of streets with light traffic had, on average, three more friends and twice as many acquaintances as the people on streets with heavy traffic which was otherwise similar in dimensions, income, etc.

For much of the twentieth century, streets were designed by engineers who were charged only with ensuring traffic flow and not with fostering the other functions of streets.


The basis for traffic calming is broadening traffic engineering to include designing for these functions. There are 3 "Es" that traffic engineers refer to when discussing traffic calming: Engineering, (community) Education, and (police) Enforcement. Because neighborhood traffic management studies have shown that often it is the residents themselves who are contributing to the perceived speeding problem within the neighborhood, it is stressed that the most effective traffic calming plans will entail all three components, and that engineering measures alone will not produce satisfactory results. A number of visual changes to roads are being made, to many streets, to bring about more attentive driving, reduced speeds, reduced crashes, and greater tendency to yield to pedestrians.

Visual traffic calming includes lane narrowing (9-10'), road diets (reduction in lanes), use of trees next to streets, on-street parking, and buildings placed in urban fashion close to streets. Physical devices include speed humps, speed cushions, and speed tables, sized for the desired speed. Such measures slow cars to between 10 and 25 miles (15-40 km) per hour. Most devices are made of asphalt or concrete but rubber traffic calming products are emerging as an effective alternative with several advantages.

TRAFFIC CALMING CAN INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING ENGINEERING MEASURES: Narrower Traffic Lanes streets can be narrowed by extending the sidewalk, adding bollards or planters, or adding a bike lane or parking. Narrowing traffic lanes differs from other road treatments by making slower speeds seem more natural to drivers and less of an artificial imposition, as opposed to most other treatments used that physically force lower speeds or restrict route choice.


Speed Bumps, sometimes split or offset in the middle to help emergency vehicles reduce delay.

Speed Humps, parabolic devices that are less aggressive than speed bumps and used on residential streets. Speed Tables, long flat-topped speed humps that slow cars more gradually than humps. Speed Cushions, a series of three small speed humps that slow cars down but allow emergency vehicles to straddle them so as not to slow response time. Chicanes, which create a horizontal deflection causing vehicles to slow as they would for a curve; Raised Pedestrian Crossings and Raised Intersection.

Curb Extensions (also called bull bouts) which narrow the width of the roadway at Pedestrian Crossings. Pedestrian Refuges or small islands in the middle of the street; Median DIVERTERS to prevent left turns or through movements into a residential area; Changing the surface material or texture (for example, the selective use of Brick or Cobblestone); Additional give way (yield) signs; Converting One-Way Streets into TwoWay Streets. Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points.

Allowing parking on one or both sides of a street, converting an intersection into a CulDe-Sac or Dead End, Boom Barrier, restricting through traffic to authorised vehicles only. Close streets to create the Pedestrian Zones. Watchman traffic calming system etc.


ROAD CROSSING: A pedestrian crossing[1] or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. They are designed to keep pedestrians together where they can be seen by motorists, and where they can cross most safely with the flow of vehicular traffic. Pedestrian crossings are often at intersections, but may also be at other points on busy roads that would otherwise be perilous to attempt to cross. They are common near schools or in other areas where there are a large number of children. Crosswalks can be considered a traffic calming technique. CHARACTERISTICS OF ROAD CROSSING: Crossings are of various types. The simplest crossings may just consist of some markings on the road surface. These are often called Zebra crossings, referring to the alternate white and black stripes painted on the road surface. Depending on local laws, pedestrians crossing the road may or may not have priority over road traffic when using the crossing. If the pedestrian has priority, then they have an incentive to use the crossing instead of crossing the road at other places. In some countries, pedestrians may not have priority, but may be committing an offence if they cross the road elsewhere. In this respect term Jaywalking is used. Jaywalking[2] is an informal term used to refer to illegal or reckless pedestrian crossing of a roadway. Examples include a pedestrian crossing between intersections (outside a crosswalk, marked or unmarked) without yielding to drivers and starting to cross a crosswalk at a signalized intersection without waiting for a permissive indication to be displayed. Some crossings have special signals consisting of electric lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) panels. The signals allow pedestrians and road traffic to use the crossing alternately. On some traffic signals, pressing a button is required to trigger the signal. These signals may be integrated into a regular traffic light arrangement or may be on their own if the crossing is not at an intersection. Audible or tactile signals may also be included to assist people who have poor sight. Sites with extremely high traffic or roads where pedestrians are not allowed (freeways or motorways) may instead be crossed pedestrian bridges or tunnels. A variation on the bridge concept, often called a skyway or skywalk, is sometimes implemented in regions that experience inclement weather. In many cities, countdown clocks are being added to give notice to both drivers and pedestrians the time remaining on the crossing signal. Special markings are often made on the road surface, both to direct pedestrians and to prevent motorists from stopping vehicles in the way of foot traffic. There are many varieties of signal and marking layouts around the world and even within single countries. In the United States, there are many inconsistencies, although the variations are usually minor. There are several distinct types in the United Kingdom, each with their own name. Pedestrian refuges or small islands in the middle of a street may be added when a street is very wide, as these crossings can be too long for some individuals to cross in one cycle. In places where there is very high pedestrian traffic, pedestrian scrambles may be used, which stop vehicular traffic in all directions at the same time. Another relatively widespread variation is the Curb extension (also known as a bulb-out) which narrows the width of the street and is used in combination with crosswalk



STREET LIGHT: A Street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Modern lamps may also have light-sensitive photocells to turn them on at dusk, off at dawn, or activate automatically in dark weather. Also, it is not uncommon for street lights to be on posts which have wires strung between them, such as on telephone poles or utility poles.

HISTORY OF STREET LIGHTING[14]: Before incandescent lamps, gas lighting was employed in cities. The earliest lamps required that a lamplighter tour the town at dusk, lighting each of the lamps, but later designs employed ignition devices that would automatically strike the flame when the gas supply was activated. The earliest of such street lamps were built in the Arab Empire, especially in Crdoba, Spain.[15]

The first electric street lighting employed arc lamps, initially the'Electric candle', developed by the Russians in 1875. This was a carbon arc lamp employing alternating current, which ensured that the electrodes burnt down at the same rate.


Thames Embankment in London had the first electric street lighting in Britain. The United States was swift in adopting arc lighting, and by 1890 over 130,000 were in operation in the US, commonly installed in exceptionally tall moonlight towers. The first street in the UK to be lit by electric light was Mosley Street, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The street was lit by Joseph Swan's incandescent lamp in February, 1879.[16] First in the United States, and second overall, was the Public Square road system in Cleveland, Ohio, on April 29, 1879. Wabash, Indiana holds the title of being the third electrically-lit city in the world, which took place on February 2, 1880. Four 3,000 candlepower Brush arc lamps suspended over the courthouse rendered the town square "as light as midday."

Kimberley, a city in the centre of South Africa, was the first city in Africa to have electric street lights - first lit on 1 September 1882. In Latin America, San Jose, Costa Rica was the first city; the system was launched on August 9, 1884, with 25 lamps powered by a hydroelectric plant.

Timioara, in present-day Romania, was the first city in mainland Europe to have electric public lighting on the 12 of November 1884. 731 lamps were used. In 1888 Tamworth, New South Wales, Australia became the first location in the Southern Hemisphere to have electric street lighting, giving the city the title of "First City of Light".

Arc lights had two major disadvantages. First, they emit an intense and harsh light which, although useful at industrial sites like dockyards, was discomforting in ordinary city streets. Second, they are maintenance-intensive, as carbon electrodes burn away swiftly.


With the development of cheap, reliable and bright incandescent light bulbs at the end of the 19th century, they passed out of use for street lighting, but remained in industrial use longer.

Incandescent lamps were primarily used for street lighting until the advent of highintensity discharge lamps. They were often operated in high-voltage series circuits. Series circuits were popular since the higher voltage in these circuits produced more light per watt consumed. Furthermore, before the invention of photoelectric controls, a single switch or clock could regulate all the lights in an entire district. To avoid having the entire system go dark if a single lamp burned out, each street lamp had to be equipped with a device that ensured that the circuit would remain intact.

Early series street lights were equipped with isolation transformers that would allow current to pass across the transformer whether the bulb worked or not. Later the FILM CUTOUT was invented. The film cutout was a small disk of insulating film that separated two contacts connected to the two wires leading to the lamp. If the lamp failed (an open circuit), the current through the string became zero, causing the entire voltage of the circuit (thousands of volts) to be imposed across the insulating film, penetrating it as described in Ohm's law. In this way, the failed lamp was bypassed and illumination restored to the rest of the street. (This is the same principle used in Christmas tree lights. The street light circuit contained an automatic device to regulate the voltage in the circuit, preventing the current from increasing as additional lamps burned out, preserving the life of the remaining lamps. When the failed lamp was replaced, a new piece of film was installed, once again separating the contacts in the cutout. This style of street lighting was recognizable by the


large porcelain insulator that separated the lamp and reflector from the light's mounting arm. The insulator was necessary because the two contacts in the lamp's base may have operated at several thousands of volts above ground/earth. Today, street lighting commonly uses high-intensity discharge lamps, often HPS high pressure sodium lamps. Such lamps provide the greatest amount of photopic illumination for the least consumption of electricity. However when scotopic/photopic light calculations are used, it can be seen how inappropriate HPS lamps are for night lighting. White light sources have been shown to double driver peripheral vision and increase driver brake reaction time at least 25%. When S/P light calculations are used, HPS lamp performance needs to be reduced by a minimum value of 75%. This is now a standard design criterion for Australian roads. PURPOSES OF STREET LIGHTS: There are three distinct main uses of street lights, each requiring different types of lights and placement. Misuse of the different types of lights can make the situation worse by compromising visibility or safety. BEACON LIGHTS A modest steady light at the intersection of two roads is an aid to navigation because it helps a driver see the location of a side road as he comes closer to it and he can adjust his braking and know exactly where to turn if he intends to leave the main road or see if someone is at the intersection.

A beacon light's function is to say "here I am" and even a dim light provides enough contrast against the dark night to serve the purpose. To prevent the dangers caused by a car driving through a pool of light, a beacon light must never shine onto the main road, and not brightly onto the side road. In residential areas, this is usually the only appropriate lighting, and it has the bonus side effect of providing spill lighting onto any sidewalk there for the benefit of pedestrians. On Interstate highways this purpose is commonly served by simply placing reflectors at the sides of the road to reflect the light coming from people's headlights. ROADWAY LIGHTS: Street lights are not normally intended to illuminate the driving route (headlights are preferred), but to reveal signs and hazards outside of the headlights' beam. Because of the dangers discussed above, roadway lights are properly used sparingly and only when a particular situation justifies increasing the risk. This usually involves an intersection with several turning movements and much signage, situations where drivers must take in much


information quickly that is not in the headlights' beam. In these situations (A freeway junction or exit ramp) the intersection may be lit so that drivers can quickly see all hazards, and a well designed plan will have gradually increasing lighting for approximately a quarter of a minute before the intersection and gradually decreasing lighting after it. The main stretches of highways remain unlighted to preserve the driver's night vision and increase the visibility of oncoming headlights. If there is a sharp curve where headlights will not illuminate the road, a light on the outside of the curve is often justified. If it is desired to light a roadway (perhaps due to heavy and fast multilane traffic), to avoid the dangers of casual placement of street lights it should not be lit intermittently, as this requires repeated eye readjustment which implies eyestrain and temporary blindness when entering and leaving light pools. In this case the system is designed to eliminate the need for headlights. This is usually achieved with bright lights placed on high poles at close regular intervals so that there is consistent light along the route. The lighting goes from curb to curb. Research a few years ago suggested that by comparison to other countries, more pedestrians are hit by motor vehicles at night in Britain. The theory behind this was that Britain almost exclusively, used low pressure sodium street lighting, (LPS); unlike the rest of the world that use mercury vapour gas discharge lighting. This was most noticeable when flying in from Europe at night and seeing a warm orange glow when approaching Britain. LPS lighting, being monochromatic, shows pedestrians as shadowy forms, unlike other forms of street lighting. In recognition of this, pedestrian crossings are now lit by additional "white" lighting, and sodium lighting is being replaced by modern types. SECURITY LIGHTING: Security lighting is similar to high-intensity lighting on a busy major street, with no pools of light and dark, but with the lighted area extending onto people's property, at least to their front door. This requires a different type of fixture and lens. The increased glare experienced by drivers going through the area might be considered a trade-off for increased security. This is what would normally be used along sidewalks in dense areas of cities. Often unappreciated is that the light from a full moon is brighter than most security lighting. DANGERS OF STREET LIGHTS: There are two optical phenomena that need to be recognized in street light installations. The loss of night vision because of the accommodation reflex of drivers' eyes is the greatest danger. As drivers emerge from an unlighted area into a pool of light from a street light their pupils quickly constrict to adjust to the brighter light, but as they leave the pool of light the dilation of their pupils to adjust to the dimmer light is much slower, so they are driving with impaired vision. As a person gets older the eye's recovery speed gets slower, so driving time and distance under impaired vision increases. Oncoming


headlights are more visible against a black background than a grey one. The contrast creates greater awareness of the oncoming vehicle. Stray voltage is also a concern in many cities. Stray voltage can accidentally electrify light poles and has the potential to injure or kill anyone who comes into contact with the pole.[17] Some cities have employed the Electrified Cover Safeguard technology which sounds an alarm and flashes a light, to warn the public, when a pole becomes dangerously electrified. There are also physical dangers. Street light stanchions (poles) pose a collision risk to motorists. This can be reduced by designing them to break away when hit (frangible or collapsible supports), protecting them by guardrails, or both. High winds or accumulated metal fatigue also occasionally topple street lights. REFERENCES: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 vols, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London. F. B. Artz (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages, Third edition revised, University of Chicago Press, pp 148-50. [16] [17] [18] [19] POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 6:42 AM NO COMMENTS: LOCATION OF PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS, CIVIC CENTERS, COMMERCIAL CENTERS, LOCAL SHOPPING CENTERS, PUBLIC SCHOOLS AR-309: ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING (A&TP-B) By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi


LECTURE NO: 23 TOPIC: LOCATION OF PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS, CIVIC CENTERS, COMMERCIAL CENTERS, LOCAL SHOPPING CENTERS, PUBLIC SCHOOLS INTRODUCTION: In order to understand the theme of current lecture i.e. location of public and semi-public buildings, civic centers, commercial centers, local shopping centers and public schools; it is imperative to identify the meaning and interpretation of location, location theory, building, building types, and public property as mentioned above. Whereas; it is also important to clearly spell out, the activity generated via these building types. Afterwards; it will be eminent that where these building types and their activities shall be located within an urban context. In the following all these issues are discussed in details. WHAT IS MEANT BY LOCATION? Location in geography is one of the five geographic themes and a specific position or point in physical space that be exact and relative. In geography, location is a position or point in physical space that something occupies on Earths' surface. An absolute location is the exact spot where something is on the earth. An example would be the longitude and latitude of a place. An absolute location is the coordinates on a grid that leads to an exact spot somewhere on earth. Absolute location can also be the exact spot where something is within a city, such as saying that the Department of Architecture and Planning NED University is at intersection of Burns road and Kachehry road. Relative location is where something is in relation to something else. For example: By the NIPA, two miles from NED University main campus. LOCATION THEORY: In town planning location theory is quite significant theme especially in the context of urban economics. The reason for its significance is quite evident when a town planner place or decide about a particular building type at some particular location in an urban context. Because; location theory is concerned with the geographic location of an economic activity; it has become an integral part of economic geography, regional science, and spatial economics. Location theory addresses the questions of what economic activities are located where and why. Location theory rests like microeconomic theory generally on the assumption that agents act in their own self interest. Thus firms choose locations that maximize their profits and individuals choose locations that maximize their utility. LOCATION OF PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS: A public space refers to an area or place that is open and accessible to all citizens, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic level. The example of public space is the place for commons (or Ghareeb Awam). For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry, nor are the entrants discriminated based on background. Nongovernment-owned private sector malls are examples of 'private space' with the appearance of being 'public space' because; poor people avoid or hesitate in entering into


such malls. The term 'Public Space' is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as 'gathering place' which is an element of the larger concept. Most streets, including the pavement are considered public space, as are town squares or parks. Government buildings, such as public libraries and many other similar buildings are also public space. However, not all state-owned buildings fall under such a definition. Some parks, malls, waiting rooms, etc, are closed at night. As this does not exclude any specific group, it is generally not considered a restriction on public use. Entry to public parks can be restricted based upon a user's residence. In the United States, one's presence in a public space may give him or her certain rights not otherwise vested. In a public space, known as a public forum, the government cannot usually limit one's speech beyond what is reasonable (that is, screaming epithets at passers-by can be stopped; proselytizing one's religion probably cannot). In a private spacethat is, nonpublicforum, the government can control one's speech to a much greater degree; for instance, protesting one's objection to medicare reform will not be tolerated in the Pentagon. This is not to say that the government can control what you say in your own home or to others; it can only control government property in this way. In some cases, privately-owned property can be considered a public forum. England, too, has a tradition of public spaces permitting public speech, at Speakers' Corner, for example. In general, there is no expectation of privacy in a public space. Eating and drinking in an outside public place during Ramadan in an Islamic country is sometimes not appreciated. Public spaces are attractive for budget tourists and homeless people, especially those that are relatively comfortable, e.g. a shopping center that provides shelter and, in a cold climate, is heated (or cooled in a hot climate). Whilst it is generally considered that everyone has a right to access and use public space, as opposed to private space which may have restrictions, there has been some academic interest in how public spaces are managed to exclude certain groups - specifically homeless people and young people. Measures are taken to make the public space less attractive to them, including the removal or design of benches to restrict their use for sleeping and resting, restricting access to certain times, locking indoor/enclosed areas. Police forces are sometimes involved in moving 'unwanted' members of the public from public spaces. In fact, by not being provided suitable access, disabled people are implicitly excluded from some spaces. Further, beginning roughly in the 1960s, the wholesale privatization of public space (especially in urban centers) has become a fact of western society, and has faced criticism from citizen groups such as the Open Spaces Society. Private-public partnerships have taken significant control of public parks and playgrounds through conservancy groups set up to manage what is considered unmanageable by public agencies. Corporate sponsorship of public leisure areas is ubiquitous, giving open space to the public in exchange for higher air rights. This facilitates the construction of taller buildings with private parks; accessible only to those deemed fit. In one of the newer incarnations of the private-public partnership, the business improvement district (BID), private organizations are allowed to tax local businesses and retail establishments so that they might provide special private services such as policing and increased surveillance,


trash removal, or street renovation, all of which once fell under the control of public funds and thus public interests. Clearly these services are necessary; the methods by which they are provided can be debated but not their ultimate utility. Additionally, public areas facilitate public interaction, and their existence can scarcely be questioned in democratic states; we may debate how they are provided, but to question their utility would seem to question our basic rights. Privatization of public amenities should not go unnoticed, whether in this form or the tacit co-opting of sights and sounds known as advertising. A broader meaning of public space or place includes also places where everybody can come if they pay, like a caf, train, movie theater or brothel. A shop is an example of what is intermediate between the two meanings: everybody can enter and look around without obligation to buy, but activities unrelated to the purpose of the shop are not unlimitedly permitted. The halls and streets (including skyways) in a shopping center may be declared a public place and may be open when the shops are closed. Similarly for halls, railway platforms and waiting rooms of public transport; sometimes a travelling ticket is required. A public library is also more or less a public place. A rest stop or truck stop is a public space. For these semi-public spaces stricter rules may apply than outside, e.g. regarding dress code, trading, begging, advertising, propaganda, riding rollerskates, skateboards, a Segway, etc. Typical differences between a public space and a private space are illustrated by comparing sitting on a public bench and sitting on a seat in a sidewalk cafe: In the first case, usage costs nothing, in the second it requires a purchase to be made. In the first case, there is no time limitation (though loitering laws might apply), while in the second, money has to be spent at certain intervals. In the first case, one is allowed to consume brought-along food and drink (alcohol consumption laws may restrict this), in the second case, this is usually prohibited. In the first case, only general laws apply in terms of dress (such as prohibition of public nudity) and other aspects of public decency, in the second, stricter rules (such as a prohibition of being shirtless) may apply. Thus the location of public and semi public buildings in the city can be at any suitable place where accessibility of all citizens and availability of public and private transport can be ensured. LOCATION OF CIVIC CENTERS: A civic center or civic centre is a prominent land area within a community that is constructed to be its focal point or center. It usually contains one or more dominant public buildings, which may also include a government building. Recently, the term "civic center" has been used in reference to an entire central business district of a community or a major shopping center in the middle of a community. In this type of civic center, special attention is paid to the way public structures are grouped and landscaped. In some American cities, a multi-purpose arena is named "Civic Center", for example Columbus Civic Center. Such "Civic Centers" combine venues for sporting events, theaters, concerts and similar events. In most cases civic centers in the UK are a focus for local government offices and public service buildings. With reforms of local government in London in 1965 and across England in anticipation


of the implementation of the Redcliffe-Maud Report in 1974, a number of local authorities commissioned new civic centers sometimes funded by disposing of their 19th Century Town Hall buildings. In case of Karachi the civic center is a building located in the center of the city and contains activities such as municipal institutions, development authority, utility institutions, banks, airline offices, city district government offices to serve the people of Karachi. Thus civic centers must be centrally located in city where they are accessible from all parts of the city at equidistance if possible. LOCATION OF COMMERCIAL CENTERS: Commercial Centers (also called Downtowns, Central Business Districts, and Urban Villages) contain a concentration of business, civic and cultural activities, creating conditions that facilitate interaction and exchange. This increases overall Accessibility. Vibrant commercial centers have the following attributes: DENSITY AND CLUSTERING: Commercial centers should be medium to high density; with multi-story buildings. Densities of 50 employees or more per gross acre are desirable. As much as possible the ground floor of buildings should have activities and services that involve frequent public interaction (such as retail, professional services, civic offices, etc.), with office or residential activities above, which creates an attractive street environment while accommodating dense employment. DIVERSITY: Centers contain a diverse mix of office and retail space, banks and law offices, public institutions (such as city hall, courthouses, and other government offices), entertainment and arts activities, and other suitable industries. Increasingly, commercial centers also have residential buildings, either within or nearby. LOCAL AND REGIONAL IMPORTANCE: Commercial Centers should contain a significant portion of total regional employment and business activity. WALKABILITY: Most Commercial Centers are less than 250 acres in size so all destinations are within about 10-minute walk, with good sidewalks and pathways, pedestrian shortcuts, attractive Streetscapes, pedestrian scale and orientation, relatively narrow streets (4 lanes or less is desirable), relatively slow vehicle traffic (30 miles-perhour or less is desirable), Universal Design, and a high degree of pedestrian Security. Some have Pedways, which are indoor walking networks that connect buildings and transportation terminals. TRANSPORTATION DIVERSITY: The area should be accessible by walking, cycling, taxi, automobile, and public transit. PARKING MANAGEMENT: In order to avoid the need to devote a large portion of land to parking, Commercial Centers require that parking be managed for efficiency (Manfille and Shoup, 2004) It is often appropriate to use structured or underground parking, and to limit the total amount of parking in a commercial center.


TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT: This refers to districts designed with features that facilitate transit accessibility, with maximum developing within convenient walking distance of Attractive Transit Stations. There are many types of Commercial Centers, ranging from Downtowns (also called Central Business Districts or CBDs), which are the primary Commercial Center serving a region, to Secondary Business Districts and Village Centers. A large Central Business District can contain thousands of businesses with tens of thousands of employees, while a local village center may be considered successful if it has a dozen businesses with two or three hundred employees. Some have a particular base or specialty, such as a cluster of medical facilities, a wholesale district, a tourist district, or an adjacent university campus, but such centers include a diverse range of businesses providing support services. Business activities tend to be more efficient in a Commercial Center that contains related industries, because clustering allows convenient interaction between staff, and convenient access to the services they use. A typical business district contains offices for finance, insurance, real estate, law and research companies, government agencies, plus various support services such as stationary retailers, janitorial services and computer supplies. This allows more specialization, for example, lawyers that specialize in a particular subject, translators who support trade and cultural activities with a particular region, and suppliers of specialty equipment for a particular industry. Commercial Centers also contain conference centers, hotels and other types of meeting facilities. As a result, people working in such areas can meet with several colleagues each day (a banker, a lawyer, a translator) with minimal time spent traveling. This high degree of accessibility that occurs when related industries are clustered together tends to increase economic productivity, called Economies of Agglomeration. Strong Commercial Centers are an important component of Smart Growth and New Urbanism. Many central business districts and nearby neighborhoods are experiencing new residential development in the form of high- and medium-density condominiums and apartments, townhouses, and small-lot single-family homes. Urban living is particularly popular among young adults and retirees. Market surveys indicate that about a third of home buyers would prefer to live in mixed-use new urbanist community if available (Hirschhorn, 2001). Some central business districts are still losing business and population, but there are numerous indications that, with proper support, downtowns can be successful and provide numerous economic, social and environmental benefits. Transportation planning decisions have significant impacts on the success of Commercial Centers. Walking, Public Transit and Parking Management are particularly important, and Commute Trip Reduction programs tend to be particularly effective. Public Bike Systems increase the convenience of cycling in downtown areas. People who work, shop and live in a Commercial Center can satisfy many of their daily needs without using an automobile. For example, employees who work in the area will find a diverse range of cafes and restaurants for refreshments and meals, shops that sell


daily items (such as groceries, books and stationary goods) and more specialized items (such as gifts, clothing and hardware). Similarly, a vibrant Commercial Center contains medical and dental services, gyms for exercise, daycare facilities, and other types of services. It is therefore beneficial to locate affordable housing near Commercial Districts, so non-drivers have convenient access to such services, called Location Efficient Development. Commercial Centers are an alternative to more Automobile Dependent commercial land use patterns, such as suburban strips (activities are scattered along major arterials, which requires a car trip between each destination), and private malls or campuses (which have a high degree of internal walkability, but are generally surrounded by large parking facilities, are widely dispersed, and contain a limited range of activities, and so tend to require numerous automobile trips). Residents living in or near Commercial Centers tend to own fewer cars than residents of more dispersed, isolated areas (Land Use Impacts on Transportation). People who work in major centers tend to commute by transit significantly more than those who work in more dispersed locations, and they tend to drive less for errands (Ewing, Pendall and Chen, 2002). While; about 90% of the suburban employees drive to work, but this declines to about 50% among downtown employees (even less in cities with major transit systems). Franks and Pivo (1995) found that automobile commuting declines significantly when workplace densities reach 50 75 employees per gross acre, since this tends to support transit and ridesharing commutes, and improved access to local services, such as nearby coffee shops and stores. Because activities and people are concentrated, road and parking Congestion tend to be relatively intense in major Commercial Centers, but because people use alternative modes and travel shorter distances, particularly for businesses meetings, per capita traffic congestion costs tends to be lower. Commute trips may be somewhat longer if employment is concentrated in a central business district. For this reason, many urban planners believe that the most efficient urban land use pattern is to have a Central Business District that contains the highest level business activities main offices and smaller Commercial Centers with retail and back offices scattered around the city among residential areas. A commercial building is a type of building that is used for commercial use. These can include office buildings, warehouses, or retail (i.e. convenience stores, 'big box' stores, shopping malls, etc.). In urban locations, a commercial building often combines functions, such as an office on levels 2-10, with retail on floor 1. All municipalities / cities / regions maintain strict regulations on commercial type zoning, and have the authority to designate any zoned area as such. A business must be located inside of an area zoned at least partially for commerce to operate a business in (and out of) a commercial building. LOCATION OF LOCAL SHOPPING CENTERS: A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings which contain retail


units, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit. Strip malls have developed since the 1920s, corresponding to the rise of suburban living in the United States after World War II. In the United Kingdom, these are called retail parks, out-of-town shopping centers, or precincts. In most of the world the term shopping centre is used, especially in Europe and Australasia; however shopping mall is also used, predominantly in North America. Shopping precinct and shopping arcade are also used. In North America, the term shopping mall is usually applied to enclosed retail structures (and may be abbreviated to simply mall) while shopping centre usually refers to open-air retail complexes. Malls in Ireland, pronounced "maills", are very small shopping centres placed in the centre of town. They average about twenty years in age, with a mix of local shops and chain stores. These malls do not have shops found in the high street or modern shopping centres. Shopping centres in the United Kingdom can be referred to as "shopping centres", "shopping precincts", or "town centres". A strip mall (also called a shopping plaza or mini-mall) is an open area shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. Strip malls are typically developed as a unit and have large parking lots in front. They face major traffic arterials and tend to be self-contained with few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods. Strip malls vary widely in architecture. Older strip malls tend to have plain architecture with the stores arranged in a straight row; in some cases there are vacant stores. Newer strip malls are often built with elaborate architecture to blend in with the neighborhood and to attract the upscale consumer. In some cases, strip malls are broken up into smaller buildings to establish a more appropriate sense of scale and to create architectural articulation. A current trend with the purpose of screening the parking lot from the street and nearby residences is locating the buildings with little to no setback from the street. Some stores may allow for entrances from both the street sidewalk and the parking lot. Due to land use issues, strip malls in the United Kingdom are typically found on the edges of cities on Greenfield land sites, and are known as "out of town shopping centres". Those in more urban areas (often Brownfield land redeveloped sites) are more typically known as retail parks. LOCATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS: The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite) meanings depending on the location of usage. In the United States, Australia and Canada: A school funded from tax revenue and most commonly administered to some degree by government or local government agencies. This usage is synonymous with its British English equivalent, state school. In the United Kingdom and a few other Commonwealth countries: A traditional privately operated secondary school which usually requires the payment of fees for its pupils, and is often a boarding school. This usage is common in the United Kingdom (although can be ambiguous in Scotland). These schools, wherever located, often follow a British educational tradition and are committed in principle to public accessibility. Originally, many were single-sex boarding schools, but most independent schools are now co-educational with both boarders and day-pupils. This usage is synonymous with preparatory school in American English, though preparatory school in British English has


a different meaning. Public-school education is the most common form of education in the United States and is provided mainly by local governments, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Curricula, funding, teaching, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards by jurisdiction over school districts. The school districts are special-purpose districts authorized by provisions of state law. Generally, state governments can and do set minimum standards relating to almost all activities of primary and secondary schools, as well as funding and authorization to enact local school taxes to support the schools -- primarily through real property taxes. The federal government funds aid to states and school districts that meet minimum federal standards. School accreditation decisions are made by voluntary regional associations. The first tax-supported public school in America was in Dedham, Massachusetts. The vast majority of adults born in the U.S. have attended a U.S. public school. Public school is normally split up into three stages: primary (elementary) school (kindergarten to 4th or 5th or 6th grade), junior high (also "intermediate", or "middle") school (5th or 6th or 7th to 8th or 9th) and high school (9th or 10th to 12th, somewhat archaically also called "secondary school"), with some less populated communities incorporating high school as 7th to 12th. Some Junior High Schools (Intermediate Schools) contain 7th to 9th grades or 7th and 8th, in which case the High School is 10th to 12th or 9th to 12th respectively. The middle school format is increasing in popularity, in which the Elementary School contains kindergarten through 5th grade and the Middle School contains 6th through 8th grade. In addition, some elementary schools are splitting into two levels, sometimes in separate buildings: Primary (usually K-2) and Intermediate (3-4 or 3-5). Some middle schools consist of only 7th and 8th grades. The K-8th format is also an emerging popular concept, in which students may attend only two schools for all of their K-12 education. Many charter schools feature the K-8 format in which all primary grades are housed in one section of the school while the traditional junior high school aged students are housed in another section of the school. Some very small school districts, primarily in rural areas, still maintain a K-12 system in which all students are housed in a single school. In the United States, institutions of higher education that are operated and subsidized by U.S. states are also referred to as "public." However, unlike public secondary schools, public universities charge tuition, though these fees are usually much lower than those charged by private universities, particularly for "in-state" students. Community colleges, state colleges, and state universities are examples of public institutions of higher education. In particular, many state universities are regarded as among the best institutions of higher education in the U.S., though usually they are surpassed in ranking by certain private universities and colleges, such as those of the Ivy League, which are often very expensive and extremely selective in the students they accept. In several states, the administrations of public universities are elected via the general electoral ballot. Thus the location of public school may vary in each context i.e. it may be located within city center in old city down town areas or in the outskirts of the city in more natural environments.


REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Illegal to be Homeless National Coalition for the Homeless (2004) 6. Malone, K. "Children, Youth and Sustainable Cities". Local Environment 6 (1) 7. "Conclusions of the International Seminar on the Planning of Collectively-Used Spaces in Towns", in: Monumentum (Louvain), Vol. 18-19, 1979, pp. 129-135. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Urban Geography: A Global Perspective By Michael Pacione 13. 14. American Planning Association ( has extensive resources for community and transport planning. 15. Constance Beaumont and Leslie Tucker (2002), Big-Box Sprawl (And How to Control It), National Trust for Historic Preservation ( 16. Eugenie L. Birch (2005), Who Lives Downtown?, Metropolitan Policy Program, The Brookings Institution ( 17. Charles C. Bohl (2002), Place Making: Developing Town Centers, Main Streets and Urban Villages, Urban Land Institute ( 18. Michael Carley (2000), Sustainable Transport and Retail Vitality: State of the Art for Towns & Cities, Donaldsons, National Trust for Scotland ( 19. Michael Carley, Karryn Kirk and Sarah McIntosh (2001), Retailing, Sustainability And Neighbourhood Regeneration, (ISBN 1 84263 49 0) Joseph Roundtree Foundation ( 20. Cities For Mobility ( is a global network of cities that promotes the development of sustainable and efficient transportation systems. 21. Congress for New Urbanism ( is a movement centered on intelligent neighborhood planning, and human scale urban communities. 22. CNU (2003), Civilizing Downtown Highways: Putting New Urbanism To Work On Californias Highways, Congress for the New Urbanism ( 23. Eichenfield and Associates (2002), Strategies for Revitalizing Our Downtowns and Neighborhoods: Evaluating California Main Street Programs, Local Government Commission. 24. Reid Ewing, Rolf Pendall and Don Chen (2002), Measuring Sprawl and Its Impacts, Smart Growth America ( 25. Lawrence Frank and Gary Pivo (1995), Impacts of Mixed Use and Density on Utilization of Three Modes of Travel: SOV, Transit and Walking, Transportation Research Record 1466, TRB (, pp. 44-55. 26. Joel Hirschhorn and Paul Souza (2001), New Community Design to the Rescue; Fulfilling Another American Dream, National Governors Association, (


27. International Downtown Association ( is a world leader and champion for vital and livable urban centers. 28. David Jacobs (2008), Eight is Enough, Business Report, 4 August 2008; at 29. Christopher B. Leinberger (2005), Turning Around Downtown: Twelve Steps to Revitalization, Metropolitan Policy Program, The Brookings Institution ( 30. LGC (2004), Creating Great Neighborhoods: Density in Your Community, Local Government Commission (, US Environmental Protection Agency and the National Association of Realtors; at 31. Todd Litman (2003), Evaluating Criticism of Smart Growth, VTPI (; at 32. Todd Litman (2003), The Value of Downtowns, VTPI (; 33. Todd Litman (2004), Understanding Smart Growth Savings: What We Know About Public Infrastructure and Service Cost Savings, And How They are Misrepresented By Critics, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at 34. Todd Litman (2006), Community Cohesion As A Transport Planning Objective, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; available at 35. Todd Litman (2006), Parking Management: Strategies, Evaluation and Planning, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at 36. Todd Litman (2008), Recommendations for Improving LEED Transportation and Parking Credits, VTPI (; at 37. Livable Centres (, by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD), provides information about the design and benefits of compact urban centers. 38. Main Street Center ( provides information on ways to revitalize traditional commercial areas through historic preservation and grassroots-based economic development. 39. Michael Manfille and Donald Shoup (2004), People, Parking, and Cities, Access 25, (, Fall 2004, pp. 2-8. 40. Hugh McClintock (2004), Urban Regeneration, University of Nottingham Online Planning Resources ( Includes many bibliographies related to urban redevelopment and downtown planning. 41. National Trust for Historic Preservation ( focuses on preserving downtown areas and historic buildings. 42. NRTEE (2003), Environmental Quality in Canadian Cities: The Federal Role, National Round Table on the Environment and Economy ( 43. Oregon Downtown Development Association (2001), Parking Management Made Easy: A Guide to Taming the Downtown Parking Beast, Transportation and Growth Management Program, Oregon DOT and Dept. of Environmental Quality ( 44. Project for Public Spaces ( works to create and sustain public places that build communities. It provides a variety of resources for developing more livable


communities. 45. San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association (SPUR) ( is a leading organization doing research to develop more livable urban areas. 46. SGN (2002 and 2004), Getting To Smart Growth: 100 Policies for Implementation, and Getting to Smart Growth II: 100 More Policies for Implementation, Smart Growth Network ( and International City/County Management Association ( 47. Toolbox for Regional Policy Analysis Website ( by the US Federal Highway Administration, describes analytical methods for evaluating regional economic, social and environmental impacts of various transportation and land use policies. 48. Urban Land Institute ( is a professional organization for developers, which provides practical information on innovative development practices, including infill and sustainable community planning. 49. Urban Renaissance Institute ( works to help cities and their regions flourish by applying innovative market-based policies. 50. USEPA, Smart Growth Policy Database, US Environmental Protection Agency ( 51. USEPA (2002), Smart Growth Index (SGI) Model, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( For technical information see Criterion (2002), Smart Growth Index Indicator Dictionary, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( 52. Kenneth H. Voigt and Jeffrey S. Polenske (2006), Applying New Urbanism Street Principles in Downtown Milwaukee, WI, USA, ITE Journal, Vol. 76, No. 5 (, May 2006, pp. 26-30. TEN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN THESIS QUESTIONS TEN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN THESIS QUESTIONS 1. What is a hypothesis? Write down your own hypothesis and justify it with references to authors whom you reviewed in literature review. 2. Make a list of parameters of your study with variables and their values. Explain how they relate to your hypothesis. 3. What is Research Design? What methodology you developed for data collection and analysis? 4. What is a design concept? Explain your design concept for the thesis project. 5. List and explain the criteria for site zoning. With reference to your own design, explain where you have made trade-offs and why? 6. What are the main considerations for landscape design? Explain how landscape can help create a micro climate. 7. Explain the relation of land use zoning and circulation, while explaining how vehicular and pedestrian circulation shaped the organization of spaces in your design. 8. What is an Architectural Style and how it is established? 9. Give examples of monumental architecture in Karachi and explain the importance of scale to creating of iconic architecture.


10. In Pakistan, since the beginning of the century, architectural styles have become pluralist. Justify your answer by citing the architectural trends in Pakistan. POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 8:31 PM 1 COMMENT: FINAL JURY REQUIREMENTS FINAL JURY REQUIREMENTS All students of final year architecture are advised to read very carefully the following instructions concerning the final jury requirements to follow for their own benefit. 1. Statement of Hypothesis 2. Research Findings 3. Research Conclusions 4. Design Concept i.e. 4.1. Design theme and 4.2. Concise design brief 5. Site Studies i.e. 5.1. Site selection process 5.2. Location map showing the surrounding built environment 5.3. Site Analysis i.e. 5.3.1. Dimensions of Site 5.3.2. Accessibility 5.3.3. Sun path and Wind direction 5.3.4. Existing Site Characteristics 5.4. Zoning Plan showing the allocation of spaces on site 6. Case Studies: 6.1. Graphics i.e. Plans, Elevations, Sections, Views and Elements taken 6.2. Learning from the case examples 7. Master Plan showing: 7.1. Good scale of drawing 7.2. Clearly labeled buildings and spaces 7.3. Clearly visible building form 7.4. Circulation (pedestrian and vehicular) 7.5. Entrances and 7.6. Landscaping 8. Building Plan or Part Plan must consists: 8.1. Blowups on the scale: 1/8=1-0 8.2. 04 Elevations on the scale: 1/8=1-0 8.3. 02 Sections on the scale: 1/8=1-0 8.4. Views 9. Design Development in 5 stages i.e. 9.1. How design started? 9.2. How it is developed?


9.3. How developed the plans elevations and sections? 9.4. How many options developed? 9.5. How came down to details? 10. Compulsory Detailed Model and prepare for Oral Presentation POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 8:24 PM NO COMMENTS: MONDAY, APRIL 19, 2010 RESEARCH IN APPLIED ARCHITECTURAL DISCIPLINES RESEARCH IN APPLIED ARCHITECTURAL DISCIPLINES


RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi 1. RESEARCH IN URBAN DESIGN:

Urban Design consists of making proposals for the form and management of extensive environments. Urban designers also find themselves responsible for carrying out the changes they propose, either directly by serving as the packager, coordinator, or manger of projects or indirectly by establishing and enforcing guidelines for them. Urban Design is practiced by a loose cadre of professionals, some prefer to call themselves urban designers while others insist to be called architects, landscape architects or even city planners. In regrettably smaller number of instances, urban design in initiated to improve the social construction of communities or increase. What differentiates UD from planning, development and management its control focus on experiential and aesthetic quality of the environment. UD is not as commonly supposal, confined to large sale projects only. The scale largely


varies (with the approach off course) from metropolitan region to a single plaza.

In UD exercises there is no single client. One of the attributes is to develop a single client group for the purpose. In majority of the cases the role of urban designer is that of an interventionist nature. Urban designers also help shape the future by proposing new environmental arrangements that are popular and change peoples expectations. For routine problems, there is need for research to develop and test environmental standards, and this is specially critical where the instrument of design is some public regulation. All standards are valuable but can be modified and change as per need. A basic question here is how people structure cities in their minds, how they orient themselves in time and space, and how areas acquire particular environmental meaning.

Designers have to deal with specific form of knowledge demanding their own style of research the possibilities of environmental form. Design research of this kind is largely speculative, the product of exscind experiments. Knowledge about effective processes is another area of research which can be grouped in several categories methods of analysis, proposal decafting and ways of organizing design processes in their political and institutional contrast etc. Recent studies have revcaled that public development control and guidance systems are important in framing strategies. In majority of the cases the apprsaithes / proposals / techniques in urban design are situation dependent. RESEARCH, STATUS AND OPPORTUNITIES: Spatial Dynamics: Urban Designer is forced to draw upon a highly elective set of sources to in for the spatial consequences of demographic, social, economic and life style changes occurring in the


cities. Several phenomena have gained importance. Revitalization of inner city, back to the city monument are some examples. Three areas deserve special attention. Long term effect of the massive growth of communication technologies (like the industrial revolution). Combined impact of demography, changing location preferences, changing higher real housing costs, and increased travel costs on the form and character of currently built residential areas. Further of older industrial, and especially warehousing, districts that rim the centers of many cities. Environmental Precedents: Documentation of specific projects is fairly important in the practice of urban design. Each urban designers has a list of projects that according to him are worthy of documentation. UD Standards: The task of improving standard can be aided if researchers explicitly establish the basic norms of such condition where these norms can be applied. Public sentiment is also of great importance here. Use, Meaning and Behavioral Aspects of Urban Environment: Considerable literature & available on matters like social aspects of urban form, environmental cognition, the securities of urban form, perception and meaning of natural environments, activities in public spaces, environmental learning, site design, subdivision design, street design play spaces, neighborhood design etc. For future we need to research upon peoples attitudes and knowledge towards urban settings. Secondly accurate protocols and time budgets of urban residents how different acuities of different people correlate with the and space. Urban Form Possibilities:


Different forms have been presented in different ways by the western designers. Ideal city, good city etc are certain notions existing in this regard. How different events are going to affect the city form are yet to be studied. Procedural Issues (Design Techniques): The field of UD methods has continued too long to espouse the ideal of deductive rationality, assuming that the optional process of designing proceeds smoothly and irreversibly through steps of problem definition analysis, developing and testing options, choosing among these and carrying out the preferred design. Political & Institutional Arrangements: Public sector when design is almost inevitably a political act, one of the key research areas is the coalition building process, which must be an integral component of any design process. Design Guidance Systems: One issue often missing in the research is the pattern of beneficiaries and losers of the system that enforces design intentions and the rules applied. Broader Issues (Intellectual Origins of the Field): - Resin the area of intellectual origins should be guided, first and last, by the strong intellectual curiosity of researchers, rather than by any calculation of immediate relevance. Urban Planning Evolution and Status: Up evolved at a body of knowledge, field of study and profession during early twentieth century in US. This was a direct outcome of the city beautiful movement of late nineteenth century to replace the sooty grimy city of industrial evolution by aesthetically pleasing, attractive and clean cities. Political invest of 1960s in US caused the expansion of the profession. REFERENCES: Synder, james. C. Editor(1984) architectural research new york: van nostrand reinhold company research for urban design, gray hack. Pp. 124-145 Urban planning within architectural design research by anthony james catanese, pp.


146-160: Khan ahmad nabi multan history and architecture islamabad: inst. Of islamic history, culture & civilization 1983 POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 8:22 AM NO COMMENTS: ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING RESEARCH ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING RESEARCH



INTRODUCTION: Discussions of the ethics of research involving human beings usually center on issues regarding research design and approval and how individuals' rights and welfare are protected when they are enrolled in research protocols. The same has been true of the application of the Common Rule, which addresses only tangentially what happens after a research project has ended by requiring that research participants must be informed in advance about what benefits will be provided by the research. In recent years, however, as research sponsored by government agencies, foundations, and private companies in developed countries increasingly has been conducted in developing countries, officials in some of these countriesas well as leaders of international bodies concerned with research ethicshave begun to insist that the ethics of research address what happens when a study ends.




There are several ethical issues that must be considered when designing research that will utilize participants who are human beings. The primary concern of the investigator should be the safety of the research participant. This is accomplished by carefully considering the risk/benefit ratio, using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds. The scientific investigator must obtain informed consent from each research participant. This should be obtained in writing (although oral consents are sometimes acceptable) after the participant has had the opportunity to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions. Informed consent should be seen as an ongoing process, not a singular event or a mere formality. The investigator must enumerate how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached. Researchers must be sensitive to not only how information is protected from unauthorized observation, but also if and how participants are to be notified of any unforeseen findings from the research that they may or may not want to know. The investigator must consider how adverse events will be handled; who will provide care for a participant injured in a study and who will pay for that care are important considerations. In addition, before enrolling participants in an experimental trial, the investigator should be in a state of "equipoise," that is, if a new intervention is being tested against the currently accepted treatment, the investigator should be genuinely uncertain which approach is superior. In other words, a true null hypothesis should exist at the onset regarding the outcome of the trial. WHAT ARE THE MAIN ETHICAL PRINCIPLES THAT GOVERN RESEARCH WITH HUMAN SUBJECTS? There are three primary ethical principles that are traditionally cited when discussing ethical concerns in human subjects research.


The first ethical principle cited as autonomy, which refers to the obligation on the part of the investigator to respect each participant as a person capable of making an informed decision regarding participation in the research study. The investigator must ensure that the participant has received a full disclosure of the nature of the study, the risks, benefits and alternatives, with an extended opportunity to ask questions. The principle of autonomy finds expression in the informed consent document. The second ethical principle is beneficence, which refers to the obligation on the part of the investigator to attempt to maximize benefits for the individual participant and/or society, while minimizing risk of harm to the individual. An honest and thorough risk/benefit calculation must be performed. The third ethical principle invoked in research with human subjects is justice, which demands equitable selection of participants, i.e., avoiding participant populations that may be unfairly coerced into participating, such as prisoners and institutionalized children. The principle of justice also requires equality in distribution of benefits and burdens among the population group(s) likely to benefit from the research.

WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF AN ETHICALLY VALID INFORMED CONSENT FOR RESEARCH? For an informed consent to be ethically valid, the following components must be present: DISCLOSURE: The potential participant must be informed as fully as possible of the nature and purpose of the research, the procedures to be used, the expected benefits to the participant and/or society, the potential of reasonably foreseeable risks, stresses, and discomforts, and alternatives to participating in the research. There should also be a statement that describes procedures in place to ensure the confidentiality or anonymity of the participant. The informed consent document must also disclose what compensation and medical treatment are available in the case of a research-related injury. The document should make it clear whom to contact with questions about the research study, research subjects' rights, and in case of injury. UNDERSTANDING: The participant must understand what has been explained and must be given the opportunity to ask questions and have them answered by one of the investigators. The informed consent document must be written in lay language, avoiding any technical jargon.


VOLUNTARINESS: The participant's consent to participate in the research must be voluntary, free of any coercion or promises of benefits unlikely to result from participation. COMPETENCE: The participant must be competent to give consent. If the participant is not competent due to mental status, disease, or emergency, a designated surrogate may provide consent if it is in the participant's best interest to participate. In certain emergency cases, consent may be waived due to the lack of a competent participant and a surrogate.

CONSENT: The potential human subject must authorize his/her participation in the research study, preferably in writing, although at times an oral consent or assent may be more appropriate. USING DECEPTION WHEN DOING RESEARCH? As a general rule, deception is not acceptable when doing research with humans. Using deception jeopardizes the integrity of the informed consent process and can potentially harm your participants. Occasionally exploring your area of interest fully may require misleading your participants about the subject of your study. For example, if you want to learn about decision-making practices of physicians without influencing their practice-style, you may consider telling them you are studying "communication behaviors" more broadly. The research supervisor will review any proposal that suggests using deception or misrepresentation very carefully. They will require an in-depth justification of why the deception is necessary for the study and the steps you will take to safeguard your participants. POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 7:57 AM NO COMMENTS: TUESDAY, MARCH 23, 2010 TIMELINE / THESIS PROGRESS DEADLINES


POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 7:45 AM NO COMMENTS: THURSDAY, MARCH 18, 2010 A BROAD BASED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AR 501: ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IV By RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi TOPIC: A BROAD BASED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL: The first and foremost step of any research initiative is writing a research proposal. In this regard a researcher is required to have some theoretical knowledge regarding contents of the research study undertaken. After carrying out the basic preparatory work i.e. identification of the area of interest and an initial literature review for the research the researcher put together all the contents of proposed research. It includes the topic on which research would be conducted, the objectives and methodology of work and the expected outcomes of the research. This can also be termed as an overall plan which tells the reader regarding research problem and how the researcher has planned to investigate it? Or It is the detailed practical plan of obtaining the answers to research questions in which the reader would be assured about the validity of the methodology to obtain accurate answers. It is necessary to mention that each institution, discipline & supervisor has different requirements regarding the contents of a research proposal however majority of the institutions or supervisors requires checking three items within a research proposal. i) First what the researcher has proposed to do? ii) Second how the researcher has planned to proceed? iii) Third why the researcher has selected his / her proposed strategy?


Therefore for every researcher it is highly recommended that the research proposal must contain ten basic ingredients. I. First, what are the objectives of proposed study? II. Second, the statements of hypothesis if the researcher intends to test any. III. Third research design or study design proposed for research. IV. Fourth the study area physical setting or the context of study. V. Fifth the research instrument to be used i.e. questionnaire, interview or any other. VI. Sixth the selected sample size or sampling design. VII. Seventh the method of analysis or data processing procedures. VIII. Eighth table of contents or proposed chapters for the report. IX. Ninth scope & parameters or the problems & limitations of the study. X. Tenth the work schedule or time table or time frames for the research. If any research proposal contains all these contents there is a better chance for approval of the research project because this information would satisfy an evaluator or supervisor of the research regarding the research whereas for a researcher this proposal would be a detailed guide line for proceeding on his / her research endeavor. 2. A BROAD BASED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: It is a grave reality that research is taught as a supporting subject in many academic disciplines and in each discipline there are specific spheres of influence on which research is conducted. These specific spheres of influence give birth to different paradigms of research. However; there are quite similar activities in each research process. For instance the substance & contents of each research would be different however the broad approach of researcher in making inquiries about the research and incorporating his or her opinion in a research are the commonalities of all researches. Thus there is a need to understand a broad research methodology followed by each researcher in his or her research. This generic process of research can be outlined as a broad based research methodology. 2.1: RESEARCH PROBLEM FORMULATION: The initial thought behind every research process is to know that, what the problem is? Why this research? What is the issue on which research is to be done? Thus formulating a research problem is based on the intensions of an author & prevailing situation. Basically the research problem develops with two basic determinants. One is the area of interest of researcher & other is the initiator of research or client of researcher. For the formulation of research problem of any research the basic issue is the understanding of the subject matter & that emerges from the review of the literature or physical observation of any context. Then there are various constrains which compel the researcher to formulate the research problem for instance, financial resources, availability of time, expertise of the supervisor, and knowledge of the allied subjects, i.e. computer, statistics etc. Basically formulating a research problem means to answer the question what?


2.2: CONCEPTUALIZING A RESEARCH DESIGN: The research design is again a very significant issue which develops on the basic of chosen research method. Therefore conceptualizing a research design means develop the concept that how the research would be conducted. The research design would describe that, what are the parameters of research, what its indicators are? And how the process of data collection & analysis would be comprehended & practically applied? It is the detailed method of research variable analysis and conducting the practical steps of research. The research design is again based on some ground realities of the researcher. For example, what type of research method is intended by a researcher? How this research method would be valued? What is the level of knowledge & skills of analysis possessed by a researcher? It again requires a literature review and number of measurement procedures known, by a researcher on the basis of which analysis & evaluation would be done & conclusions would be drawn. Or more appropriately it can be said that, research design permits a researcher to predict accurate outcomes of research in any given set of conditions. Secondly it identifies all the gaps in knowledge of a researcher. Another important aspect in research is that, the validity of what one finds out as an answer of research question is mainly based upon how it was found. Therefore basically a research design defines about this how of all the findings or answers of research questions. Conclusively a research design consists of six basic ingredients, i.e. a) Study design per se b) Logistical arrangements c) Measurement procedures d) Sampling strategy e) Framework of analysis f) Timeframe 2.3: CONSTRUCTING A DATA COLLECT INSTRUMENT: The third operational step of any research is the construction of an instrument for data collection. At this step the required theoretical knowledge is about methods & tools of data collection where as the required intermediary knowledge is about the validity and reliability of the research tool. Thus the basic issue which needs explanation here is that, what is meant by a research tool or research instrument. The research tool or instrument can be anything which becomes the means of collecting information for the study undertaken by a researcher. These include: i) Note Book ii) Sketch Book iii) Camera / Audio Visual Recorder iv) Observation Form v) Map of the Area vi) Plans of the Building vii) Interview Schedules


viii) Questionnaires ix) Interview guides x) Checklist of issues Thus constructing a data collection instrument is the first practical step of carrying out a research / study. However before constructing a data collecting instrument a researcher needs to decide about the process of collecting data for proposed study and then construct that tool. Basically there are various methods of data collection. Broadly they are categorized as primary and secondary data collection process. For primary data collection a researcher either construct an instrument or select from already constructed tool. However if the researcher wants use secondary data which is already obtained for other purposes; then an analytical form is developed to extract the required data from secondary data. One of the integral parts of constructing an instrument for data collection is the Field Testing which is a prerequisite for constructing an appropriate data collection tool. However if the researcher is using computer for data analysis then the coding space is provided on the research instrument. 2.4: SELECTING A SAMPLE: Another significant aspect of any research is selecting a sample. Because; it in not possible to study a whole universe due to constraints of time and money. For selecting and designing a sample the required intermediary knowledge is of sampling theory and sampling designs. Basically the selection of sample determines the accuracy of the estimates made by a researcher. The main reason of sampling design is to minimize the limitation of cost and obtain those values which are prevalent in the larger population. The good sampling design is that which reduces the gap between the value obtained through sample and actual characteristics of total population. Secondly the basic premise of sampling is to select those minor units of community which can provide a sufficiently high degree of probability or a true reflection of complete community. As discussed earlier that, a researcher must have intermediary knowledge about sampling theory and sampling design. So what does it mean? Basically sampling theory gives us two basic principles i.e. avoid any bias in sample selection and attain the maximum precision in given layout of resources or in other words the researcher must clearly think about his / her available resources and select sample without any preconceived assumption. As far as sample design is concerned there are various options of sampling design available to a researcher. However, there are three basic categories of sampling design i.e. Random probability sampling designs, or random sampling, Non random probability sampling design or non random sampling and Mixed sampling design. The details of sampling shall be discussed later however it is necessary to mansion here that, a researcher must acquaint him / herself with maximum no. of sampling designs, the strengths & weaknesses of sampling and selection of most appropriate sampling design for the research study undertaken. Because the type of sampling strategy that a researcher use in a research and the type of statistical tests performed on the data determines the ability of researcher regarding generalizing from a sample to total population. 2.5: DATA COLLECTION: The sixth operational step of any research is the collection of data. Once a research


proposal is approved the next step for researcher is data collection through designed research instrument. At this operational step the researcher requires five types of intermediary knowledge. I. First the field test of the research tool. II. Second the process of editing the data. III. Third, the development of a code book. IV. Fourth, the process of encoding. V. Fifth the ethical issues in data collection. At this operational step the researcher actually collect the data from the context through his / her devised data collection tool i.e. mail survey, questionnaire, interview, focus group discussion, physical observation, photographic visual survey, map making etc. 2.6: DATA PROCESSING (ANALYSIS, EVALUATION & CONCLUSIONS): The seventh operational step of any research is the processing of data. At this step a researcher requires a theoretical knowledge of data processing methods computer application and statistics. The process of data analysis or data processing in a research mainly depends upon two basic premises. I. One the type of collected information II. Two the way a researcher intends to write his / her research report. As far as the type of collected information is concerned it may be descriptive, qualitative or attitudinal and quantitative. Whereas the way of writing a report varies as per researchers writing skills and intellect. Another skill which is required in the processing of data is displaying techniques or presentation skills. Because the best presented data is also necessary for the audience to understand the research. This presentation & display of data is the final step for data processing. Thus for a researcher it is necessary to make data analysis with qualitative & quantitative distinction i.e. manual or computer analysis. For example in order to analyse qualitative data a researcher review his / her field notes and manually analyse his / her observations. Whereas for quantitative analysis use of computer is must. Where, a researcher decides about required type of statistical analysis. Such as: frequency distribution, cross tabulations or statistical procedures such as regression analysis, factor analysis or analysis of variance. 2.7: REPORT WRITING: The final & most difficult aspect of any research is the writing of a research report. At this step the required theoretical knowledge is of scientific writing principles. The basic considerations for report writing are those, where a researcher inform the world what is being done? What is discovered and what conclusions are drawn from the research findings. If a researcher is clear about the whole research process he / she will also be clear about the way of writing a report. Its like a buffet party with eight tables each with different dishes but the dishes are made with similar ingredients and the researcher would select the dish which he / she like the most from each table. And fill his / her plate & present it to others. As mentioned earlier that a researcher must have the theoretical knowledge of scientific writing so what is that scientific writing? Basically science depends upon logical hierarchy. Similarly a research report follows a logical sequence with different sections & chapters based upon different themes of study. Where chapter to


chapter, topic to topic, paragraph to paragraph and sentence to sentence there shall be complete hierarchy or logical sequence. Conclusively a research report consist six basic chapters i.e. I. Introduction II. Literature review, III. Research design, IV. Data Presentation and Analysis i.e. Contextual realities / Case Studies V. Research Findings i.e. Design Brief or Problem Statement VI. Conclusions and Recommendations VII. Research Appraisal. PERSONAL NOTE: THIS GENERIC PROCESS OF RESEARCH OUTLINED ABOVE IS INTENDED TO ENHANCE THE UNDERSTANDING OF MY DEAR STUDENTS CONCERNING RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. ESPECIALLY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO ARE BEGINNERS AND ATTEMPTING THE RESEARCH FOR THE FIRST TIME. THIS BRIEF WOULD CLARIFY THEIR CONFUSIONS REGARDING RESEARCH. POSTED BY TOWN PLANNING AT 10:07 AM NO COMMENTS: SUNDAY, MARCH 14, 2010 ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH REPORT WRITING FORMAT AR-501: ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IV by RAVINDAR KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Architecture and Planning NED University of Engineering and Technology Karachi


i. Abstract ii. Acknowledgements iii. Table of Contents iv.List of Maps, Charts, Graphs & Tables v. List of Abbreviations and Acronyms Chapter # 1 - Introduction


1.1: Background Problem statement; Research questions 1.2: Objective Sub-objectives 1.3: Methodology 1.4: Scope and Parameters 1.5: Rationale and Justification 1.6: Expected results 1.7: Use of Study Chapter # 2 Literature Review 2.1: Definitions and descriptions (background of literature review) 2.2: Different Authors and their books, articles etc. (Summary of whatever literature reviewed) 2.3: Architects perspective 2.4: Research Arguments ( view points of different authors both for and against) 2.5: Theoretical Framework (Identification of the gaps in arguments where you want to work) 2.6: Conceptual Framework (Hypothesis development) Chapter # 3 Research Design 3.1: Lessons learned through literature review 3.2: Breakup of Hypothesis in Parameters / Variables; Indicators/Values and Sources. 3.3: What data shall be collected (Based on Hypothesis breakup) 3.4: What shall be the method to collect the data 3.4.1: Observations 3.4.2: Interviews 3.4.3: More literature review 3.4.4: Questionnaire Survey 3.4.5: Photographic Survey 3.4.6: Map making (GIS/Remote Sensing) 3.4.7: Retrospective Prospective Study or Before and After study 3.4.8: Case studies method etc. Comparison of Local as well as International cases 3.4.9: Experimentation (Practical Modeling) 3.5: Method of data presentation 3.6: Method of analysis Chapter # 4 Architectural Research 4.1: Factual data presentation (Local and International Case Studies/Contextual Information) 4.2: Data analysis as per selected method of Analysis 4.3: Synthesis (Summary of Arguments) CHAPTER # 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1: Summary of Research Findings 5.2: Interpretation of Research Findings into Design Brief 5.3: Justification of Design Brief 5.4: Site Selection Criteria; Site Selection and Analysis


5.5: Design Philosophy, Concepts and its Justification Chapter # 6: Design Proposal 6.1: Design Development Process 6.2: Master Planning Process and Alternatives Development 6.3: Detailed Design Process and Alternative development 6.4: Proposed Master Plan 6.5: Proposed Detailed Design (Floor Plans, Elevations, Sections, Views, Details below ups, Block Models and Detailed Models Chapter # 07 Research Appraisal 7.1: Brief Presented to the Jury 7.2: Questions asked by Jury Members 7.3: Answers given to Jury Members 7.4: Jurys Final Remarks (Unanswered questions) 7.5: Avenues for further research in future 8: REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 9: ANNEXURES HOW TO GIVE THE REFERENCES? BOTH IN FOOT NOTES AND IN BIBLIOGRAPHY: Following is the style of references that may be followed in the thesis report. Book (Elements of the citation) Author(s) of book family name and initials Year of publication, Title of book italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication. Chapter in a book (Elements of the citation) Author(s) of chapter family name and initials Year of publication, Title of chapter in single quotation marks, in Editor(s) of book (eds), Title of book italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers. Conference paper (Elements of the citation) Author(s) of paper family name and initials Year of publication, Title of paper in single quotation marks, Title of published proceedings which may include place held and date(s) italicised, Publisher, Place of Publication, Page number(s), (viewed date-in-full, URL if accessed electronically). Journal Article (Elements of the citation) Author(s) of journal article family name and initials Year of publication, Title of journal article in single quotation marks, Title of journal italicised, Volume, Issue or number, Page number(s), (viewed date-in-full, URL if accessed electronically). Thesis (Elements of the citation) Author of thesis family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis, Title of thesis


in single quotation marks, Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution. Report (Elements of the citation) Author(s) of report (person or organisation) Year of Publication, Title of report italicised, Report number (if available), Publisher/ Institution, Place of publication, (viewed date-in-full, URL - if accessed electronically). Newspaper and magazine article (Elements of the citation) Author(s) of article family name and initials Year of publication, Title of article in single quotation marks, Title of newspaper italicised, Day month, Page number(s). Web page (Elements of the citation) Author(s) of page (person or organisation) Year (page created or revised), Title of page - italicised, description of document (if applicable), name of the sponsor of the page (if applicable), viewed date-in-full, URL. Patent (Elements of the citation)Author(s) of patent family name and initials Year of issue, Title of patent- italicised, Number of patent including country of issue. Standard (Elements of the citation) Corporate body issuing standard Year of publication, Title of standard- italicised, Number of standard including identifier of issuing country or body, Publisher of standard, Place of publication. Map (Elements of the citation) Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map italicised, Series (if available), Publisher, Place of publication. Personal communication (Elements of the citation) Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References.