CH o5 new | Aircraft Flight Control System | Artificial Neural Network

CHAPTER FIVE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN FLY BY LIGHT

while to implement an Advanced Vehicle management (AVMS) architecture it should be 5-20 mbps. designers prefer a command-response data bus . Because of the unique advantages of optical fiber. the designers found it necessary to increase the mechanical advantage of pilot to overcome the air loads on the control surfaces. the savings relative to a hydromechanical system reach 1400 pounds. The architecture selected must attempt to minimize those losses.1 Introduction Flight control systems have been evolved for many years. . In place of electronic analog sensors. 5. optical transmission losses. This inherent EME immunity also suggests the possibility of certifying an aircraft's flight control system without conducting the expensive vehicle level tests of the flight control. In the evolution of a Fly-By-Wire (FBW) flight control system to Fly-By-Light (FBL) system.5. The solution for this problem is fiber optic command-response data bus. we can use FBL sensors based on fiber optic technologies. As the fiber optic technologies offers the following advantages:  For deterministic and automatically verified communication on Flight control. areas of concern that are specific to an optical architecture need to be addressed. Modern FBW system now accept pilots commands to directly control the flight path of the aircraft rather than the control surface position. For this reason.  Potential weight savings in the flight control system with the introduction of fiber optic technologies can be substantial. so that power is the only electrical interference to an LRU. The FLASH technologies are projected to reduce the weight of the fly-by-wire system for a wide body such as the MD-12 by over 1000 pounds. the importance of development of FBL technology is required by modern aircrafts. in particular. especially for transport aircraft.2 Importance of Development Fiber optic component technologies have been under development by government and industry laboratories for over 20 years. As the aircraft design advanced and airspeeds increased.  FBL means use of fiber optic data interfaces among the flight control Line Replaceable Units (LRUs).  Immune to EMI is another advantage. for example : Wire command/response buses such as MIL-STD-1553 have a throughout of 1 megabit per second (rnbps). Fly-By-Light improvement programme have been launched many years ago which is Fly-By-ight Systems Hardware (FLASH) programme.

this task of the FLASH program also includes the manufacturing and installation methods. aileron. test methods.3 Development through FLASH program For almost 20 years NASA. support equipment. the maturity level of the required components will be raised so that all either exist or are ready for insertion into flight qualified prototype units suitable for flight test. and training systems that are required to produce and maintain aircraft optical cable plants. As small. fixed-wing tactical and rotary wing aircraft. 5. rudder) . That is the reason for starting FLASH program. Fiber optics could meet that need. FLASH programme is for the development of transport. FLASH will integrate the laboratory prototypes into a system so that the [1] system issues associated with the component designs can be addressed. The more recent flight test programs for fly-by-light systems include: 1) the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI). the present state of the art in fiber optic technology produces hardware which is too difficult and unreliable to use. reliable. sensed aircraft motion and the resulting surface commands (elevator. But whenever they have tried to use this technology. 2) The Fly-by-Light Aircraft Closed-Loop Flight Test (FACT) program in which the NASA SRA's left rudder and left stabilizer servo-loops will actively use optical command data links and optical main ram position sensors. DoD. .   First. In addition. The FLASH program will enable two important steps to be taken towards the application of fly-by-light technologies in production systems. Second. and their lower level suppliers have been investigating the potential for improving aircraft by the introduction of optic and fiber optic technologies.. the major aircraft engine and aircraft suppliers. 3) The Fly-By-Light/Power By-Wire (FBL/PBW) program. The FLASH program is started developing the hardware needed for aircraft optical interconnects and will demonstrates that hardware in advanced vehicle managements.The application of fiber optics for flight control systems began in 1974 with the use of a simplex fiber optic data link to transmit pilot commands. interference-free physical medium for the bottom layer (called the Physical Layer) of the ISO hierarchy. Unfortunately. systems for vehicle managements and data processing require a high bandwidth. powerful computers and sensors which could be distributed around aircrafts to form very powerful. it seems that it is so difficult to use.

Flight control includes elements like interfaces. test equipments. conventional. harnesses.1:Fly-By-Light system requirements Table states that.By-Light (FBL) into the three major components of cable plant. sensors. air data. smart. splices. flight controls. processes. connectors.The technical approach for the FLASH program is to decompose the vehicle management aspect of Fly. control laws. . back planes. And actuators have electric. [2] and advanced actuators.1: Components Elements Connectors Splices Harnesses Cables Back planes Test equipments Processes Interfaces Air data Processes Sensors Protocol Control laws Connectors Electric Conventional Smart FO position Interfaces Cable plant Co-ordinated Fly-By-Light system requirements Flight controls Actuators Table 5. The relationship among components and elements are given in the table 5. protocol. flight controls. interfaces. actuators. And cable plants have elements like connectors. co-ordained Fly-By-Light system requirements are cable plants. processes. FO position.

test equipment.Replacing the control columns in a transport .1 FLASH Program The Fly-By-Light Advanced Systems Hardware (FLASH) program broadly consists of three tasks. Intelligent Flight Control. [1] FLASH Task 1 FLASH Task 1 will develop and demonstrate a robust. The cable plants will provide interconnections that are EMI immune and very high speed for application to advanced vehicle management systems and mission avionics.  Task 2B. maintainable optical interconnection among opto-electronic devices in aircraft vehicle management and avionic systems. reliable. and  Task 2C. fixed-wing tactical. Secondly. design. Transport Aircraft Cable Plant  Task 1B. Firstly. Task 2A The components to be developed under Task 2A include an Active Hand Controller and the Primary Flight Control Computer (PFCC). connectors. smart and thin wing actuators from developed advanced actuators into complete centralized and distributed flight control systems(FLASH TASK 2). Thirdly. developing the fiber optic cable. and training needed to provide low cost. testers and installation and maintenance procedure(FLASH TASK 1). the cable plants will be a robust integration of the passive optical elements. developing advanced actuators(FLASH TASK 3). focusing on integration of fiber optic sensors and data buses with cable plant components from already developed procedures and Power-By-Wire (PBW). and test optical cable plants for transport. build. Rotary-Wing Aircraft Cable Plant. Task 1 of the FLASH program will specify. Fixed-Wing Tactical Aircraft Cable Plant and  Task 1C. FLASH Task 2 The Task 2 effort is subdivided into three subtasks corresponding to the three system developments:  Task 2A. The Task 1 effort is divided into three subtasks:  Task 1A.3. reliable optical cable plant for commercial and military aircraft applications. manufacturing and installation methods.5. Commercial Fly-By-Light Flight Control. and rotary-wing aircraft. Military Fly-By-Light Flight Control.

and provide two Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU) designs with a common flight control interface. The modularity of the components will enable centralized and various distributed architectures. This Neural Network uses standard data parameters (Mach number M. Angle of Attack. FLASH Task 3 FLASH Task 3 is important because. integrate the air data transducer and total temperature probe electronics into a single LRU. Research conducted at MDA(McDonnell Douglas Aerospace) for NASA the Navy has shown Neural Network Technology has component operation for fault diagnostic monitoring During flight. The resulting outputs are the stability and control parameters. AS-1773A will serve as the flight control system bus. with the capability to perform CCDL functions and grow to a VMS bus. They will install a fiber optic cross channel data link (CCDL) between the flight control computers. It has microprocessor which provides cost effective damage diagnostics. The driving requirements for the next generation of tactical aircraft flight control systems are to: (1) Improve system performance capabilities. (3) Operate in a high electromagnetic environment. x) as inputs to the neural network. They are also integrating an electro-optic interface to the flight control computer to drive and decode optical sensors in the control stick and actuators. Fly-By-Light (FBL) control systems replace the wires of the FBW system with fiber optic cabling.aircraft with side stick controllers reduces weight through the elimination of the mechanical feel system and improves access to valuable cockpit display and control space directly in front of the pilot. as FLASH Task 3 is ‘Developing advanced actuators’ and modem FBW systems now accept pilot commands to directly control the flight path of the aircraft rather than the control surface position. 32-bit 68040 processor. This system will increase safety during situations of damage or failure to the aircraft control system. 2) develop a neural network module and demonstrate its application to actuator maintenance diagnostics and aircraft stability parameter identification and 3) install an AS-1773A data bus for all FCC input and output. Task 2C Under the FLASH program. Task 2B The FLASH Task 2B effort is developing a modular fly-by-light flight control system which can be easily configured to meet the requirements of a variety of prototype aircraft. . (2) Reduce certification costs. The Task 2B design targets the AV-8 aircraft as a candidate near-term application. Task 2C will: 1) upgrade the current flight control computer processor on ACTIVE to a high speed.

(4) Improve cost effectiveness. meet the required 6 db optical margin. A third requirement imposed on the system related to network topology. inserts latency into the [3] system.  First requirement is higher bandwidth. The triplex FBW architecture consists of three Flight Control Computers (FCCs) which communicates with each other by means of a Cross Channel Data Link (CCDL). FBL equivalent to the triplex FBW architecture except for the incorporation of the Cockpit Interface Terminal (CIT). As aircraft become larger and/or more complex. The differences between the two systems are removal of the dedicated RS-485 serial data bus between the FCCs and the IMUs (Inertial Measurement Unit). This is achieved through the use of redundant systems. It was specified that the optical network topology was to support a minimum of eight nodes. 5. 5. the wire run lengths to the centralized Analog/Discrete Input and Output (ADIO) control module become longer and more numerous and overall system weight increases. and (5) Increase aircraft performance and fuel economy. more complexity and cost.5 Requirement for Optical Data bus Optics becomes an enabling technology to achieve the higher performance levels required. A passive transmissive star coupled topology was chosen over an active star coupled topology which in addition to having less reliability.4 FBL Architecture Any FBW or FBL FCS must be able to tolerate component failures.   Second one is to communicate among the various flight control elements of the flight control system. Improvement in reliability now allow designers to use triplex systems which reduce weight and cost. These five key requirements lead to consideration of fiber optic FBL architectures. This system is weight intensive due to the need to run analog and discrete signal wires from each FCC to every system component. . that means four redundant channels. While early FBW architectures are quadruples. an optical data bus required. and have high reliability.

1. Through this process information passes from pilots commands to control surfaces [1] by Neural Network Topology.6 Neural Network Topology Neural Network technology is applied to on-board modeling of aircraft parameters and functional status of control components. All data that comes to fiber optic transmission line from flight control computer goes gives control surface commands through surface actuators. The Intelligent Flight Control System Applies Neural Network Modeling for Advanced Controller Use and Fault Reporting.5. Figure 5.1 we can see that pilots command goes to flight control computer through fiber optic transmission line. In 32 bit processor there is aircraft response specification in which information from fiber optic transmission lines come and advanced controller algorithm(it receive data from neural aircraft parameter model of network hardware processor and also from fiber optic transmission line and sends data to fiber optic transmission line and also to fault diagnostic model ). In Neural Network Hardware Processor data comes from aircraft motion and air data through sensors and then through fiber optic transmission line. . From fig 5. Here the fault diagnostic model do the task of fault reporting. In flight control computer there is 32 bit processor and neural network hardware processor.

5.7 conclusion Neural Network technology offers flight control system design a significant cost advantage to model on-line aircraft parameters and control system components to advance the controllability of flight vehicles and provide more cost-effective in-flight diagnostics. This flight system will increase safety during situations of damage or failure to the aircraft control system. Examples are large earth-moving equipment and ground transportation systems. These systems include similar subcomponents. The user involvement plan pursued under FLASH will increase the likelihood of near term introduction of this technology on new and retrofit aircraft programs. This application of fly-by-light control systems addresses fighter and transport air vehicles. Accurate and timely fault diagnostics will benefit the operational status and support cost of these systems. . sensors. as air vehicles. such as actuators. The technology is installed using cost efficient onboard hardware processors. Upon completion of the FLASH program. and also can be extended to non aerospace products. products and technologies will have been demonstrated and shown to be ready for introduction into both commercial and military aircraft development programs. The fiber optic data transmission provides the on-line information needed by this control system to achieve performance that results in major advances. and interconnect data transmission. The major advances include higher accuracy for subcomponent fault diagnostics that will decrease life cycle maintenance cost & high adaptability of flight control systems that potentially can decrease development cost.

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