M.A.

M SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
TRICHY – 621 105.






DEPARTMENT OF EEE
LAB MANUAL


CLASS : II YEAR MECHANICAL
SEMESTER : III SEM
SUBJECT CODE : EE1206
SUBJECT :ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY




EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

2
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
S.NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE
NUMBER
1 Load test on DC Shunt & DC Series motor


2 O.C.C & Load characteristics of DC Shunt and DC Series generator
3 Speed control of DC shunt motor (Armature, Field control)


4 Load test on single phase transformer


5 O.C & S.C Test on a single phase transformer
6 Regulation of an alternator by EMF & MMF methods.
7 V curves and inverted V curves of synchronous Motor
8 Load test on three phase squirrel cage Induction motor


9 Speed control of three phase slip ring Induction Motor
10 Load test on single phase Induction Motor.


11 Study of DC & AC Starters

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

3

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

4
Ex.No.1 1.A.LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:
To conduct load test on DC shunt motor and to find efficiency.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0-20)A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostat 1250O, 0.8A Wire Wound 1
4 Tachometer (0-1500) rpm Digital 1
5 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few



PRECAUTIONS:
1. DC shunt motor should be started and stopped under no load condition.
2. Field rheostat should be kept in the minimum position.
3. Brake drum should be cooled with water when it is under load.



EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

5

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No.
Voltage
V
(Volts)
Current
I
(Amps)
Spring Balance Reading
(S1~ S2)Kg
Speed
N
(rpm)
Torque
T
(Nm)
Output
Power
Pm
(Watts)
Input
Power
Pi
(Watts)
Efficiency
q% S1(Kg) S2(Kg)




































Circumference of the Brake drum = cm
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

6

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the no load condition, and minimum field rheostat position, DPST switch is closed and starter resistance is gradually removed.
3. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat.
4. Ammeter, Voltmeter readings, speed and spring balance readings are noted under no load condition.
5. The load is then added to the motor gradually and for each load, voltmeter, ammeter, spring balance readings and speed of the motor are noted.
6. The motor is then brought to no load condition and field rheostat to minimum position, then DPST switch is opened.

FORMULAE:
Circumference
Radius = ------------------- m
100 x2t
Torque T = (S1 ~ S2) x R x 9.81 Nm
Input Power Pi = VI Watts
2tNT
Output Power Pm = ------------ Watts
60
Output Power
Efficiency q % = -------------------- x 100%
Input Power


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

7


MODEL GRAPHS:



















S
p
e
e
d

N

(
r
p
m
)

y
x
Torque T (Nm)
S
p
e
e
d

N

(
r
p
m
)

T
o
r
q
u
e

T

(
N
m
)

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y


%










N
T
q
y
3
y
2
y
1

Output Power (Watts)
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

8


















RESULT:
Thus load test on DC shunt motor is conducted and its efficiency is determined.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

9





EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

10

1.B.LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR

AIM:
To conduct load test on DC Series Motor and to find efficiency.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0-20)A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Tachometer (0-3000) rpm Digital 1
4 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few




PRECAUTIONS:
1. The motor should be started and stopped with load
2. Brake drum should be cooled with water when it is under load.



EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

11

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No.
Voltage
V
(Volts)
Current
I
(Amps)
Spring Balance
Reading
(S1~ S2)Kg
Speed
N
(rpm)
Torque
T
(Nm)
Output
Power
Pm
(Watts)
Input
Power
Pi
(Watts)
Efficiency
q%
S1(Kg) S2(Kg)




































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

12
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the load condition, DPST switch is closed and starter resistance is gradually removed.
3. For various loads, Voltmeter, Ammeter readings, speed and spring balance readings are noted.
4. After bringing the load to initial position, DPST switch is opened.

FORMULAE:

Circumference
R = ------------------- m
100 x2t
Torque T = (S1 ~ S2) x R x 9.81 Nm

Input Power Pi = VI Watts

2tNT
Output Power Pm = ------------ Watts
60

Output Power
Efficiency q % = -------------------- x 100%
Input Power
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

13


MODEL GRAPH:




















T
o
r
q
u
e

T

(
N
m
)

S
p
e
e
d

N

(
r
p
m
)

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y


%










y
3
y
2
y
1

Output Power (Watts)
N
E
T
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

14





















RESULT:
Thus load test on DC series motor is conducted and its efficiency is determined.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

15

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

16

EX.NO : 2 2.A.OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED
DC SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM:
To obtain open circuit characteristics of self excited DC shunt generator and to find its critical resistance.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0-1)A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostats 1250O, 0.8A Wire Wound 2
4 SPST Switch - - 1
5 Tachometer (0-1500)rpm Digital 1
6 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine.
3. SPST switch is kept open during starting and stopping.



EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

17

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No.
Field Current
If (Amps)
Armature Voltage
Eo (Volts)











MODEL GRAPH:










E
o

I
f

Critical Resistance = E
o
/ I
f
Ohms
E
o

(
V
o
l
t
s
)

I
f
(Amps)
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

18

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of generator field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is gradually
removed.
3. By adjusting the field rheostat, the motor is brought to rated speed.
4. Voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken when the SPST switch is kept open.
5. After closing the SPST switch, by varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken.
6. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of motor to minimum position, SPST switch is opened and DPST switch is opened.












RESULT:
Thus open circuit characteristics of self excited DC shunt generator are obtained and its critical resistance is determined.


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

20

2.B.LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED
DC SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM:
To obtain internal and external characteristics of DC shunt generator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter
(0-2)A
(0-20) A
MC
MC
1
1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostats 1200O, 0.8A Wire Wound 2
4 Loading Rheostat 5KW, 230V - 1
5 Tachometer (0-1500)rpm Digital 1
6 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be at minimum position.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be at maximum position.
3. No load should be connected to generator at the time of starting and stopping.

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

21










DETERMINATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE:












S.No.
Field Current
If (Amps)
Load Current
IL (Amps)
Terminal Voltage
(V) Volts
Ia = IL + If
(Amps)

Eg =V + Ia Ra
(Volts)





D
P
S
T

S
W
I
T
C
H
+
-
- +
(0-300)V
MC
(0-20)A
MC
Fuse
Fuse


A
1




A
2

27A
27A
LOAD
5 KW, 230V
G
A
V
220V
DC
Supply
+
-
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

22

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and maximum position of DC shunt generator field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting
resistance is gradually removed.
3. Under no load condition, Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are noted, after bringing the voltage to rated voltage by adjusting the field rheostat of generator.
4. Load is varied gradually and for each load, voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted.
5. Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt generator is brought to maximum position and the field rheostat of DC shunt motor to minimum
position, DPST switch is opened.
FORMULAE:
Eg = V + Ia Ra (Volts)
Ia = IL + If (Amps)
Eg : Generated emf in Volts
V : Terminal Voltage in Volts
Ia : Armature Current in Amps
IL : Line Current in Amps
If : Field Current in Amps
Ra : Armature Resistance in Ohms
PROCEDURE TO FIND ARMATURE RESISTANCE :
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Supply is given by closing the DPST switch.
3. Readings of Ammeter and Voltmeter are noted.
4. Armature resistance in Ohms is calculated as Ra = (Vx1.5) /I
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

23


TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No. Voltage
V (Volts)
Current
I (Amps)
Armature Resistance
Ra (Ohms)









MODEL GRAPH:










V
L
,

E

(
V
o
l
t
s
)

I
f
, I
L
(Amps)
V Vs I
L

(Ext Char)
E Vs I
L

(Int Char)
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

24





















RESULT:
Thus the load characteristics of self excited DC shunt generator is obtained.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

25



















EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

26
Ex.No.2 2.C.OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERIES GENERATOR

AIM:
To obtain open circuit characteristics of separately excited DC shunt generator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0-1)A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostats 1250O, 0.8A Wire Wound 2
4 Tachometer (0-1500)rpm Digital 1
5 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine.







EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

27
E
o

(
V
o
l
t
s
)

I
f
(Amps)

TABULAR COLUMN:
S.No.
Field Current
If (Amps)
Armature Voltage
Eo (Volts)











MODEL GRAPH:








EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

28

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of generator field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is gradually
removed.
3. By adjusting the field rheostat, the motor is brought to rated speed.
4. By varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken.
5. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of motor to minimum position, DPST switch is opened.














RESULT: Thus open circuit characteristics of separately excited DC shunt generator is obtained.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

29



















EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

30
2.D.LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERIES GENERATOR

AIM:
To obtain internal and external characteristics of DC separately excited DC shunt generator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter
(0-2)A
(0-20) A
MC
MC
1
1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostats 1200O, 0.8A Wire Wound 2
4 Loading Rheostat 5KW, 230V - 1
5 Tachometer (0-1500)rpm Digital 1
6 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be at minimum position.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be at maximum position.
3. No load should be connected to generator at the time of starting and stopping.



EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

31

DETERMINATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE:












TABULAR COLUMN:








S.No. Voltage
V (Volts)
Current
I (Amps)
Armature Resistance
Ra (Ohms)








D
P
S
T

S
W
I
T
C
H
+
-
- +
(0-300)V
MC
(0-20)A
MC
Fuse
Fuse


A
1




A
2

27A
27A
LOAD
5 KW, 230V
G
A
V
220V
DC
Supply
+
-
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

32

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and maximum position of DC shunt generator field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting
resistance is gradually removed.
3. Under no load condition, Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are noted, after bringing the voltage to rated voltage by adjusting the field rheostat of generator.
4. Load is varied gradually and for each load, voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted.
5. Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt generator is brought to maximum position and the field rheostat of DC shunt motor to minimum
position, DPST switch is opened.

PROCEDURE TO FIND ARMATURE RESISTANCE :
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Supply is given by closing the DPST switch.
3. Readings of Ammeter and Voltmeter are noted.
4. Armature resistance in Ohms is calculated as Ra = (Vx1.5) /I








EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

33

TABULAR COLUMN:











MODEL GRAPH:









S.No.
Field Current
If (Amps)
Load Current
IL (Amps)
Terminal Voltage
(V) Volts
Ia = IL + If
(Amps)

Eg =V + Ia Ra
(Volts)





V
L
,

E

(
V
o
l
t
s
)

I
f
, I
L
(Amps)
V Vs I
L

(Ext Char)
E Vs I
L

(Int Char)
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

34

FORMULAE:
Eg = V + Ia Ra (Volts)
Ia = IL + If (Amps)
Eg : Generated emf in Volts
V : Terminal Voltage in Volts
Ia : Armature Current in Amps
IL : Line Current in Amps
If : Field Current in Amps
Ra : Armature Resistance in Ohms












RESULT: Thus load characteristics of separately excited DC shunt generator is obtained.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

35


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

36

Ex.No : 3 SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:
To obtain speed control of DC shunt motor by
- Varying armature voltage with field current constant.
- Varying field current with armature voltage constant

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0-20) A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300) V MC 1
3 Rheostats
1250O, 0.8A
50O, 3.5A
Wire
Wound
Each 1
4 Tachometer (0-3000) rpm Digital 1
5 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Field Rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the motor.
2. Armature Rheostat should be kept in the maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the motor.


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

37
TABULAR COLUMN:
(i) Armature Voltage Control:
S.No.
If1 = If2 = If3 =
Armature
Voltage
Va ( Volts)
Speed
N (rpm)
Armature
Voltage
Va ( Volts)
Speed
N (rpm)
Armature
Voltage
Va ( Volts)
Speed
N (rpm)






(ii) Field Control:
S.No.
Va1 = Va2 = Va3 =
Field
Current
If (A)
Speed
N (rpm)
Field
Current
If (A)
Speed
N (rpm)
Field
Current
If (A)
Speed
N (rpm)







EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

38
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the maximum position of armature rheostat and minimum position of field rheostat, DPST switch is closed
(i) Armature Control:
1. Field current is fixed to various values and for each fixed value, by varying the armature rheostat, speed is noted for various voltages across the armature.
(ii) Field Control:
1.Armature voltage is fixed to various values and for each fixed value, by adjusting
the field rheostat, speed is noted for various field currents.
2.Bringing field rheostat to minimum position and armature rheostat to maximum
position DPST switch is openedRESULT:
Thus the speed control of DC Shunt Motor is obtained using Armature and Field control methods.











EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

39



MODEL GRAPHS:

















S
p
e
e
d

N

(
r
p
m
)

S
p
e
e
d

N

(
r
p
m
)

I
f
(Amps)
V
a
(Volts)
I
f1

I
f3

I
f2

V
a3

V
a1

V
a2

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

40














Result :
Thus the speed control of DC shunt motor by
- Varying armature voltage with field current constant
- Varying field current with armature voltage constant
was done.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

41


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

42
Ex.No.4 LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:
To conduct load test on single phase transformer and to find efficiency and percentage regulation.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter
(0-10)A
(0-5) A
MI
MI
1
1
2 Voltmeter
(0-150)V
(0-300) V
MI
MI
1
1
3 Wattmeter
(300V, 5A)
(150V, 5A)
Upf
Upf
1
1
4 Auto Transformer 1|, (0-260)V - 1
5 Resistive Load 5KW, 230V - 1
6 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm Copper Few

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Auto Transformer should be in minimum position.
2. The AC supply is given and removed from the transformer under no load condition.


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

43
TABULAR COLUMN:


S.No. Load
Primary Secondary Input
Power
W1 x MF
Output
Power
W2 x MF
Efficiency
q
%
%
Regulation
V1
(Volts)
I1
(Amps)
W1
(Watts)
V2
(Volts)
I2
(Amps)
W2
(Watts)









































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

44

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the no load condition, minimum position of auto transformer and DPST switch is closed.
3. Ammeter, Voltmeter and Wattmeter readings on both primary side and secondary side are noted.
4. The load is increased and for each load, Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings on both primary and secondary sides are noted.
5. Again no load condition is obtained and DPST switch is opened.

FORMULAE:
Output Power = W2 x Multiplication factor
Input Power = W1 x Multiplication factor
Output Power
Efficiency q % = -------------------- x 100%
Input Power
VNL - VFL (Secondary)
Regulation R % = ------------------------------ x 100%
VNL






EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

45






MODEL GRAPHS:
















E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

q

%

R
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

R

%

q
R
Output Power (Watts)
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

46




















RESULT:
Thus the load test on single phase transformer is conducted.

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

47

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

48

EX.NO: 5 OPEN CIRCUIT & SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON A
SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
AIM:
To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of a transformer by conducting open circuit test and short circuit test and to draw equivalent circuit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter
(0-2)A
(0-5) A
MI
MI
1
1
2 Voltmeter (0-150)V MI 2
3 Wattmeter
(150V, 5A)
(150V, 5A)
LPF
UPF
1
1
4 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm Copper Few

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Auto Transformer should be in minimum voltage position at the time of closing & opening DPST Switch.

PROCEDURE:
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the minimum position of Autotransformer, DPST switch is closed.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

49


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

50
3. Auto transformer variac is adjusted get the rated primary voltage.
4. Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings on primary side are noted.
5. Auto transformer is again brought to minimum position and DPST switch is opened.
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the minimum position of Autotransformer, DPST switch is closed.
3. Auto transformer variac is adjusted get the rated primary current.
4. Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings on primary side are noted.
5. Auto transformer is again brought to minimum position and DPST switch is opened.




















EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

51
TABULAR COLUMN:

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
Vo
(Volts)
Io
(Amps)
Wo
(Watts)





SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:
Vsc
(Volts)
Isc
(Amps)
Wsc
(Watts)









EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

52
FORMULAE:
Core loss: Wo = VoIo cos |o

Wo Wo
cos |o = ------- |o = cos
-1
-------
Vo Io Vo Io
I
e
= Io cos |o (Amps) I
µ
= Io sin |o (Amps)















V
0

R
o
= ------- O
I
e

V
0

X
o
= ------- O
I
µ

W
sc

R
o2
= ------- O
I
sc
2

V
sc

Z
o2
= ------- O
I
sc


X
o2
= ( Z
o
2
- R
o2
2
)
1/2


R
02

R
o1
= ------- O
K
2


X
02

X
o1
= ------- O
K
2


V
2

K= ------- = 2
V
1


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

53
Percentage Efficiency: for all loads and p.f.

Output Power (X) x KVA rating x 1000 x cos |
Efficiency q% = -------------------- = ------------------------------------------------
Input Power Output power + losses

(X) x KVA rating x 1000 x cos |
= -------------------------------------------------------------
(X) x KVA rating x 1000 x cos | + Wo + X
2
Wsc

Percentage Regulation:
(X) x Isc (Ro2 cos | ± Xo2sin |) x 100
R% = --------------------------------------
V2

Where X is the load and it is 1 for full load, ½ for half load, ¾ load, ¼ load etc.. and the power factor is, upf, o.8 p.f lag and 0.8 p.f lead






+ = lagging
- = leading
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

54

EQUIVALENTCIRCUIT:
Z
L
' = Z
L
/K
2

X
o1

R
o1

R
o
X
o

V
o

I
o

I
SCo

R


N


L
O
A
D
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

55
MODEL GRAPHS:






















E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y


q
%

Output power (Watts)
Power factor
% lagging
% leading
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

56





















RESULT:
Thus the efficiency and regulation of a transformer is predetermined by conducting open circuit test and short circuit test and the equivalent circuit is drawn.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

57























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

58

EX.NO : 6.A REGULATION OF THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF METHOD

DATE :

AIM :
To predetermine the regulation of an alternator at full load at different power factor (zero p.f , lag , lead) by EMF method.

NAME PLATE DETAILS :

Three phase Alternator DC shunt motor
1.
2.
3.
4.
APPARATUS REQUIRED :

S.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter (0 - 2.5) A MC 1
2 Ammeter (0 - 10) A MI 1
3 Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MI 1
4 Rheostat 350 Ω,1.5A

Wire wound 1
5 Rheostat 1000 Ω,1.5A

Wire wound 1
6 Tachometer ----- Digital 1
7 Connecting wires ----- ----- As required

FUSE RATING : 125 % of rated current (full load current)

For DC shunt motor:

For Alternator:
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

59

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST :

S.NO Field current (I
f
)
in amps
Open circuit line
Voltage(V
OL
) in volts
Open circuit phase Voltage
(V
OP
= V
OL
/√3) in volts
1
2
3
4
5
6

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST :

S.NO Field current (I
f
)
in amps
Short circuit current (I
sc
)
in amps
1
2
3
4


GRAPH :





EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

60

FORMULAE :

1. Armature resistance (R
a
) = ___________________ (Given data )
2. Synchronous impedance (Z
s
) = (V
ph
/ I
sc
) ---------- ( From the graph)
Where V
ph
– Phase voltage in volts
I
sc
– Short circuit current
3. Synchronous reactance (X
s
) = [ Z
s
2
– R
a
2
]
1/2

Where R
a
- Armature resistance
4. Open circuit voltage (Eo) = [ ( V
rated
cosΦ + I
a
R
a
)
2
+ ( V
rated
sinΦ + I
a
X
s
)
2
]
1/ 2


(For lagging power factor)
5. Open circuit voltage (Eo) = [ ( V
rated
cosΦ + I
a
R
a
)
2
+ ( V
rated
sinΦ - I
a
X
s
)
2
]
1/ 2

(For leading power factor)
6. Open circuit voltage (Eo) = [ ( V
rated
+ I
a
R
a
)
2
+ ( I
a
X
s
)
2
]
1/ 2

(For unity power factor)
7. Percentage regulation = [(Eo - V
rated) /
V
rated
] x 100

PROCEDURE :

1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the DC supply.
3. The motor is started with the help of 3 point starter.
4. The field rheostat in the motor side is adjusted up to the motor attains the rated speed.
5. The field rheostat in the alternator side is varied and note down the field current and voltage readings.
6. After the open circuit readings are noted, the excitation of alternator is reduced.
7. The TPST switch is closed.
8. The field rheostat in the alternator side is gradually increased till the short circuit current reached at the rated current of an alternator and the field current
and short circuit current readings are noted.
9. The supply is switched off and the graph is drawn.


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

61



RESULTANT TABULATION FOR REGULATION OF 3 PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF METHOD:

S.NO Percentage of regulation
Power factor Lagging Leading Unity
1 0.2 ---
2 0.4 ---
3 0.6 ---
4 0.8 ---
5 1.0 ---


GRAPH :





EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

62
PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE GRAPH FOR EMF METHOD :

1. Draw the open circuit characteristics curve.(Generated voltage per phase Vs Field current)
2. Draw the short circuit characteristics curve.( Short circuit current Vs Field current)
3. From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase for the rated short circuit current.
4. By using respective formulae find the Z
s
, X
s
, E
o
and percentage regulation.

























RESULT :

Thus the regulation of an alternator was predetermined by EMF method.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

63





































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

64
EX.NO : 6.B REGULATION OF THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR BY MMF METHOD
DATE :

AIM :
To predetermine the regulation of an alternator at full load at different power factor ( zero p.f , lag , lead) by MMF method.

NAME PLATE DETAILS :

Three phase Alternator DC shunt motor
1.
2.
3.
4.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

S.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter (0 - 2.5) A MC 1
2 Ammeter (0 - 10) A MI 1
3 Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MI 1
4 Rheostat 350 Ω,1.5A

Wire wound 1
5 Rheostat 1000 Ω,1.5A

Wire wound 1
6 Tachometer ----- Digital 1
7 Connecting wires ----- ----- As required

FUSE RATING : 125 % of rated current (full load current)

For DC shunt motor :

For Alternator :
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

65


OPEN CIRCUIT TEST :

S.NO Field current (I
f
)
in amps
Open circuit line
Voltage(V
OL
) in volts
Open circuit phase Voltage
(V
OP
= V
OL
/√3) in volts
1
2
3
4
5
6

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST :

S.NO Field current (I
f
)
in amps
Short circuit current (I
sc
)
in amps
1
2
3
4


MODEL GRAPH FOR MMF METHOD :






EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

66

PROCEDURE :

1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the DC supply.
3. The motor is started with the help of 3 point starter.
4. The field rheostat in the motor side is adjusted up to the motor attains the rated speed.
5. The field rheostat in the alternator side is varied and note down the field current and voltage readings.
6. After the open circuit readings are noted, the excitation of alternator is reduced.
7. The TPST switch is closed.
8. The field rheostat in the alternator side is gradually increased till the short circuit current reached at the rated current of an alternator and the field current
and short circuit current readings are noted.
9. The supply is switched off and the graph is drawn.



PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE GRAPH FOR MMF METHOD :

1. Draw the open circuit characteristics curve.(Generated voltage per phase Vs Field current)
2. Draw the short circuit characteristics curve.( Short circuit current Vs Field current)
3. From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase for the rated short circuit current.
4. By using respective formulae find the Z
s
,X
s
,E
o
and percentage regulation.








EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

67

RESULTANT TABULATION FOR REGULATION OF 3 PHASE ALTERNATOR BY MMF METHOD:


S.NO Percentage of regulation
Power factor Lagging Leading Unity
1 0.2 ---
2 0.4 ---
3 0.6 ---
4 0.8 ---
5 1.0 ---


GRAPH :













EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

68































RESULT :

Thus the regulation of an alternator was predetermined by MMF method.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

69


































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

70
EX.NO : 7 LOAD TEST ON 3 PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
DATE :

AIM :
To conduct the load test on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor and draw its performance characteristics.

NAME PLATE DETAILS :

INDUCTION MOTOR AUTO TRANSFORMER
1.
2.
3.
4.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

S.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter (0 - 10) A MI 1
2 Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MI 1
3 Watt meter 600V , 10 A UPF
4 Tachometer ----- Digital 1
5 Connecting wires ----- ----- As required


FUSE RATING : 125 % of rated current (full load current)






EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

71

TABULATION FOR LOAD TEST ON 3 PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

Radius of the brake drum : ______________ m Multiplication factor of wattmeter 1 : _______
Multiplication factor of wattmeter 2 : _______



















S.no Load
Current
(I
L
)
Load
Voltage
(V
L
)
Watt meter
readings
Input
Power
( W )
Speed
of the
motor
( N )
Spring balance readings Torque
( T )
Output
Power

Efficiency
( η )
Slip
( S )
Power
Factor
( cosΦ)
W
1
W
2
W
1 +
W
2
S
1
S
2
S S
2

Amps Volts Watts Watts Watts R.p.m Kg Kg Kg N – m Watts % %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

72

FORMULAE :
Input power (P
in
) = W
1
+ W
2
in watts.
Where, W
1
and W
2
are watt meter readings
Output power (P
out
) = ( 2 Π N T / 60 ) in watts.
Where,
N – Rotor speed in r.p.m.
T (Torque) = [9.81 x ( S
1
– S
2
) x R] in N.m
Where R – Radius of the brake drum
S
1
and S
2
spring balance readings in Kg.
Percentage Slip (%S) = [ (Ns – N) / Ns ] x 100
Where , Ns – Synchronous speed
N - Speed of the motor in r.p.m
Power factor (CosΦ ) = P
in
/ (√3 x V x I )
Where V – Supply voltage in volts
I – Supply current in amps
Percentage efficiency = ( P
out
– P
in
) x 100













EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

73
GRAPH :

(1) Power output Vs Efficiency (2) Power output Vs Torque
(3) Power output Vs Speed (4) Power output Vs Line current
(5) Power output Vs Power factor (6) Power output Vs Slip




















EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

74



















RESULT :

Thus the load test on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

75


















EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

76
EX.NO : 8 LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR(SQUIRREL CAGE)
DATE :

AIM :
To conduct the load test on single phase induction motor (squirrel cage) and draw its performance characteristics.

NAME PLATE DETAILS :

INDUCTION MOTOR AUTO TRANSFORMER

1.

2.

3.

4.
APPARATUS REQUIRED :

S.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter (0 - 10) A MI 1
2 Voltmeter (0 - 300) V MI 1
3 Watt meter 300V , 10 A UPF
4 Tachometer ----- Digital 1
5 Connecting wires ----- ----- As required

FUSE RATING : 125 % of rated current (full load current)




EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

77
TABULATION FOR LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Radius of the brake drum : ______________ m Multiplication factor of wattmeter 1 : _______
Multiplication factor of wattmeter 2 : _______

S.no Load
Current
(I
L
)
Load
Voltage
(V
L
)
Input
Power
( W )
Speed
of the
motor
( N )
Spring balance readings Torque
( T )
Output
Power

Efficiency
( η )
Slip
( S )
Power
Factor
( cosΦ)
W S
1
S
2
S S
2

Amps Volts Watts r.p.m Kg Kg Kg N – m Watts % %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8



EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

78



FORMULAE :
Input power (P
in
) = Watt meter reading (W) in watts.
Output power (P
out
) = ( 2 Π N T / 60 ) in watts.
Where,
N – Rotor speed in r.p.m.
T (Torque) = [9.81 x ( S
1
– S
2
) x R] in N.m
Where R – Radius of the brake drum
S
1
and S
2
spring balance readings in Kg.
Percentage Slip (%S) = [ (Ns – N) / Ns ] x 100
Where , Ns – Synchronous speed
N - Speed of the motor in r.p.m
Power factor (CosΦ ) = P
in
/ ( V x I )
Where V – Supply voltage in volts
I – Supply current in amps
Percentage efficiency (% η ) = ( P
out
– P
in
) x 100
PROCEDURE :

1. The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The A.C supply is given to the motor by closing the DPST switch.
3. Single phase variac is adjusted from zero to rated voltage.
4. Load is applied gradually up to the rated value of the load current and the corresponding meter readings are noted.
5. After note down the reading , load and variac is brought to its initial position.
6. Now switch off the A.C supply which is given to the motor.

RESULT :

Thus the load test on single phase squirrel cage induction motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.



EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

79


































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

80
EX.NO : 9 SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR
DATE :

AIM :
To control the speed of three phase slip ring induction motor and draw its performance characteristics.

NAME PLATE DETAILS :
INDUCTION MOTOR AUTO TRANSFORMER
1.
2.
3.
4.
APPARATUS REQUIRED :

S.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter (0 - 10) A MI 1
2 Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MI 1
3 Watt meter 600V , 10 A UPF
4 Tachometer ----- Digital 1
5 Connecting wires ----- ----- As required

FUSE RATING : 10 % of rated current (full load current)



PROCEDURE :

1. The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The A.C supply is given to the motor by closing the TPST switch.
3. Initially resistance of the rotor resistance starter is kept at maximum resistance position.
4. Now gradually reduce the resistance of the rotor resistance starter and note down the corresponding meter readings.


EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

81
GRAPH :























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

82


































RESULT :

Thus the speed of three phase slip ring induction motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.
EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

83

































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

84
EX.NO : 10 ‘V’ CURVES AND ‘INVERTED V’ CURVES OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
DATE :

AIM :
To control the speed of three phase slip ring induction motor and draw its performance characteristics.

NAME PLATE DETAILS :

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
1.
2.
3.
4.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

S.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter (0 - 10) A MI 1
2 Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MI 1
3 Watt meter 600V , 10 A UPF
4 Tachometer ----- Digital 1
5 Connecting wires ----- ----- As required


FUSE RATING : 125 % of rated current (full load current)





EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

85























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

86


































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

87


































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

88

EX: NO: 11 STUDY OF DC AND INDUCTION (AC) MOTOR STARTERS
DATE :

AIM:
To study the DC an Induction (AC) motor starters.

Theory:

Induction motors take about 1.5 to 2 times its rated full load current at the time of starting. This heavy current although may not be dangerous for the
motor. Therefore if normal supply is applied to the stationary motor, as in the case of a transformer, very large initial current is taken up by the primary, at
least for a short while. At the starting time there is no back emf to oppose the initial rush current.
The excessive current is objectionable. Because it will produce large line voltage drop that will affect the operation of the electrical equipment
connected in the same line. Hence it is not advisable to start motors of rating about 25 KW to 40 KW.

Direct on-line starter:

In the circuit additionally thermal overload relays have been used to protect the motor winding against over heating. When the ON button is pressed,
the conductor coil becomes energized and its gets closed. The motor gets connected to the supply mains. The motor continuously get the supply through the
contacts even when push button is released. The when the OFF button is pressed, the coil is de energized, the motor is disconnect from the supply. In case of
an over load, the relay opens simultaneously the motor will stop.

Star Delta starters:

This types of starter is used in Squirrel cage Induction motor. The stator phase windings are first connected in star and full voltage is applied across the
terminals. As the motor picks up speed, the windings are connected with Delta position by using change over switch. In star compared with Delta.Thereby
connecting the motor windings first in star then in Delta.

Rotor resistance starter:

This type of starter is used in slip ring Induction motor. In this type, for reducing the starting current during starting period, some extra resistance is
included in rotor circuit. Then the external resistance provided in rotor circuit is increases gradually. The starting torque also increases proportionally. When
the motor attains the full speed the external resistance in Rotor circuit is fully cutout and the slip ring terminals are short circuited.

EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

89


































EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

90

AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTER:
This starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch. When the switch is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied across the motor
terminals. When the motor picks up the sapeed, say to 80% of its normal speed, the switch is put on RUN position. Then the auto transformer starter is cut of
the current and full rated voltage gets applied across the motor terminals. The manual auto transformer starter can be made push button automatic controlled
starter so that the control switches over from start to run position as the motor picks up 80%of its speed.

THREE POINT STARTER:

the three terminals of the starting box are marked A,B and C. Only line is directly connected to one armature terminal and one field terminal which are
tied together. the other line is connected to point A which is further connected to the starting arm L, through the over current release M.

To start the motor, the main switch is first closed and then the starting arm is slowly moved to the right. as soon as the arm makes contact with stud
no.1, the field circuit is directly connected across the line and at the same time full staring resistance RSis placed in series with the armature. The starting
current drawn by the armature V/(Ra+Rs). As the arm is further moved, the starting resistance is gradually cutoput till,













EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

91























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

92























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

93























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

94























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

95























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

96























EE 1206 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

97

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful