Business Strategy and the Environment Bus. Strat. Env.

18, 223–239 (2009) Published online 2 April 2007 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/bse.571

Characteristics of Research on Green Marketing
Antonio Chamorro,1* Sergio Rubio2 and Francisco J. Miranda1
1

Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, University of Extremadura, Spain 2 Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, University of Extremadura, Spain

ABSTRACT This paper aims to describe and analyze the main characteristics of articles on green marketing published in the most relevant journals within the period 1993–2003, in order to determine the evolution of this current issue of research over recent years and improve our understanding of this subject. We built up a database with 112 articles on green marketing and we have explored the topic, the methodology and the techniques of analysis, as well as other relevant aspects of the research. In order to complete this analysis, we made a review of articles published in two journals specializing in environmental management: BSE and CSREM. In this way, this paper offers practical help to those who are beginning research on this topic because the results will help us to determine what still needs to be investigated in this topic and hence propose a research agenda for the coming years. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Received 14 February 2006; revised 27 December 2006; accepted 15 January 2007 Keywords: green marketing; environmental marketing; ecological marketing; green consumer; green communication; recycling behaviors; macromarketing

Introduction
deteriorating environment that has developed in recent decades. Marketing researchers have found a new line of research that has been given various labels, such as ecological marketing (Fisk, 1974; Henion and Kinnear, 1976), green marketing (Ottman, 1993; Smith, 1998), greener marketing (Charter, 1992), environmental marketing (Coddington, 1992; Peattie, 1995), enviropreneurial marketing (Menon and Menon, 1997) or sustainable marketing (van Dam and Apeldoorn, 1996; Fuller, 1999). Although some authors distinguish these labels conceptually (see, for example, Van Dam and Apeldoorn, 1996) they are normally considered synonymous terms referring to the same field of study: the analysis of how marketing activities impact on the environment and how the environmental variable can be incorporated into the various decisions of corporate marketing. In the present article we employ the most commonly used of these terms: green marketing. From the 1970s some researchers – mainly in the US – began to develop marketing with an environmental perspective (Kassarjian, 1971; Zikmund and Stanton, 1971; Henion, 1972; Fisk, 1974; Kinnear and Taylor, 1973; Kangun, 1974; Kinnear et al., 1974; Henion and Kinnear, 1976; Perry, 1976; Shapiro, 1978, among others). The starting point can perhaps be traced to the monographic edition of the Journal of Marketing of 1971. The majority
* Correspondence to: Antonio Chamorro, Facultad Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avd. Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz, Spain. E-mail: chamorro@unex.es
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment

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However. researchers focused on a range of issues wider than those considered previously (Kilbourne and Beckmann. We believe that this will be of great value to academics starting to research the topic. observing what work has been done. The aim of this article is to analyze the main characteristics of research on green marketing in the period 1993–2003. For this reason. of these early works centered on the study of the relations between environmental concern and behavior (mainly consumers’ participation in recycling systems) and on the characterization of the green consumer. which spread to other Anglo-Saxon countries and the rest of continental Europe. as this category includes journals specializing in marketing. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Chamorro et al. Laroche et al.224 A. research on green marketing has mirrored the various waves of social concern about the environment (Banerjee and Mckeage. corporate social responsibility. to which we added others classified as internationally prestigious by Cerviño et al. where and by whom it has been carried out. 2000). we referred to the list of journals of the Journal Citation Reports Social Sciences Edition (JCR). (2001) and the journals used by Kilbourne and Beckmann (1998). in order to reduce the likelihood of omitting a significant number of articles on the topic. socially responsible investing. Stanley et al. In this new period. Research Methodology The idea of tackling a bibliographical analysis of this size is ambitious and had to be limited if the objectives we had set ourselves were not to be compromised by the amount and diversity of the data available. 1998). Second. Crane. as well as the specific results for each research subtopic. ethics of consumption. we had to extend the process in two dimensions. 1996. green communication. green consumer and ecological consumer. economic and political implications. under the second perspective it is understood as the study of the environmental effects of the traditional marketing activities and their social. due to the existence of related areas investigating issues of interest to the researcher on green marketing but from other orientations: operations management. then we make an additional analysis of articles on green marketing published in BSE and CSREM and we end the work with our conclusions and final reflections. 1995. In the first case. such as the Journal of Public Policy and Marketing in 1991. 1996. sustainable marketing. Ltd and ERP Environment Bus. and how. consumer economics and policy. Polonsky and Mintu-Winsatt. as well as monographic editions of various academic journals.. The rest of the article is structured as follows: first. marketing ethics. we examined the bibliography of each of the articles identified in the initial search. delimiting both concepts and deciding which articles can be considered to focus on green marketing is extremely difficult. we included the search ‘consumer AND recycling’. 1992. it will also allow us to determine what still needs to be done in terms of research in the area and hence formulate a research agenda for the coming years. Given the large number of journals available. First. The second step was to identify the articles whose main topic was related to green marketing. in the category ‘Business’. green product. As this concern began to waver in the late 1970s – largely as a result of the economic crisis. 1999). 1994. second. Coddington. we describe the methodology that we have followed to build the database of articles to be analyzed. The eruption of a second ecological movement in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to another boom in research. 18. we made a bibliographic search using the following keywords: green marketing. In this respect. the first step was to choose a group of scientific journals likely to include work in the field of green marketing. since we became aware of the existence of articles analyzing consumers’ behavior with regard to recycling and waste that had not shown up with the initial keywords. environmental marketing. sustainable consumption. as well as indeed to marketing professionals who wish to incorporate environmental aspects into their work. 1993. ecological marketing.. In contrast. To carry out this identification. materialism etc.1002/bse . Since then. Strat. we were interested in articles analyzing green marketing from both the micromarketing and the macromarketing perspectives. In total. 2003. Answering these questions will not only help us better to understand the current situation. This situation is reflected in the publication of various books specializing in the topic (Peattie. Mintu-Winsatt and Lozada. 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. we created a database of 72 journals. Charter and Polonsky. The JCR list resulted in 57 publications. 1992. Ottman. 1996. we present the main general results of the study. Subsequently. academic contributions to this new branch of marketing similarly declined. green marketing is understood as a management function that analyses how to incorporate the environmental factor into the firm’s commercial decisions and policies. Env.

keywords and main body of the article. It is also interesting that.7% of them were either considered doubtful or alternatively the team members disagreed about their classification. 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. In these cases. To determine the main research topics currently of interest in the field of green marketing. with a drastic and significant decline in the number of articles published. such as Volume 20 of Advances in Consumer Research (1993). the type of study.1002/bse . In these cases. the methodology followed. while 72. We excluded work analyzing individuals’ behaviors and attitudes with respect to waste and recycling from this topic. This analysis was carried out separately by each author. each of the articles obtained was carefully analyzed to confirm that it did indeed focus on green marketing. some 10. Ltd and ERP Environment Bus. editorials and book reviews from the selection of articles – these are common in some of the journals analyzed and cannot be classed as published articles. abstract. The most commonly used data collection technique is the survey.10%). Some of these identify the demographic. General Results of Research Analysis of the years the articles were published shows that research on green marketing has gone through two clearly distinct stages in the period under analysis (Figure 1). ‘green communication’. Strat. intentions or attitudes. although a majority of the empirical studies have as geographical scope the national level or lower. A total of 26. The first is mainly of interest for corporate marketing. this initial interest appears to drop off after the year 2000. among other questions. the analytical techniques employed and the number of authors and their origin. resulting in disagreements in about 7. consumerism etc. Volume 24/2 of Journal of Advertising (1995) and Volume 14/6 of Journal of Marketing Management (1998). including the social dimension in addition to the ecological dimension. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons.26%) or personal interviews (6. They deal with issues such as the dominant social paradigm (DSP) of western industrial societies. The topic ‘green consumer’ includes articles that investigate environmentally friendly consumer behaviors. ‘green consumer’. employed in 62. Fewer studies make use of a ‘laboratory experiment’ to analyze individuals’ reactions to different stimulus materials (14. we considered it advisable to adopt the following procedure: each author separately identified the main theme of each article as a function of previously agreed criteria.83% of the studies working with primary data. The majority of articles were unequivocally classified into one of these five topics. 4. In this way. so we grouped them into five subtopics of green marketing: ‘concept and strategies’. which were included instead in a separate topic labeled ‘recycling behaviors’. individuals’ materialistic and ecological values. However. by analyzing the title. However.41%). we eventually obtained 112 published articles from 22 general journals (Table 1 and appendix). while the second is also important for the design of public policy. why or what are the consequences of introducing environmental aspects into the firm’s general marketing strategy or into the different strategies of the marketing mix. concerns. with an average of 13 articles per year and the publication of various specific volumes dedicated to the topic. The third step was to analyze each article using a data collection sheet in order to gather information relating to the topic of research within which the article was framed. we have created a specific topic (‘green communication’) for articles analyzing the environmental factor in communication policy. in view of its growing importance. We then analyzed the various topics together and observed a certain homogeneity among some of them. ‘recycling behaviors’ and ‘macromarketing’. analyzing the implications of the relations between marketing and its environmental impacts. We also eliminated introductions. The topic ‘macromarketing’ includes papers that address green marketing from a macro perspective. We can see that it reached its peak during the 1990s. the morality of marketing. we debated the various options and then came to an agreement. Env.98% obtain data from two or more countries. we analyzed the articles again and discussed and then agreed their most appropriate classification. observation by means of content analysis (10. psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. and how.96% are empirical research. This fact can be justified by the growing importance of the most general research on social corporate responsibility.57% of the cases. This separation is justified by the different utility of the two types of research. In the topic ‘concept and strategies’ we include articles that define green marketing. However.13% of the articles under analysis are exclusively theoretical in content. 18.Research on Green Marketing 225 Next.

00% 14.67% 6.00% 0.00% 6.00% 0.00% 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 19 0.76% 0.00% 0.67% 0.45% 0.00% 17.00% 0.00% 100.45% 3. List of journals and research topic A.00% 0.00% 0.52% 4.00% 23.00% 0.05% 0.76% 4. 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10.00% 23.00% 5 0 2 0 0 0 16.00% 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 6.00% 0.76% 0.32% 0.53% 0.24% 0. Env.00% 0.00% 3.00% 0.90% 0.69% 6.08% 0.00% 16.90% 6.90% 6. .67% 0.81% 0.45% 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.69% 0.00% 0.52% 0.00% 6.00% 26.76% 4.00% 0.29% 0.00% 0.69% 0.67% 0.00% 0.00% 4.00% 0.00% 4.32% 0.90% 3.00% 0. Strat.52% 4.00% 5.226 Total Green communication 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 6 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 29 3.33% 10.00% 20.33% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 30 0.00% 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 1 1 5 0 2 1 2 0 21 Green consumer Recycling behaviors Macromarketing Concept and 0strategies 0.26% 0.90% 6.67% 6.08% 0.00% Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons.00% 0.45% 1 1 0 5 0 7 3 0 3.00% 9.00% 0.53% 10.69% 4 0 0 0 0 0 21.76% 9.00% 0.77% 0.00% 4 0 0 0 0 1 30.00% 0.00% 0.76% 23.00% 0.00% 6.00% 100.00% 0.67% 0. Chamorro et al.00% 100.00% 4.00% 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 13 7. Ltd and ERP Environment 18 1 4 1 2 1 1 7 4 9 2 12 13 1 8 3 11 7 2 1 3 1 112 Advances in Consumer Research British Journal of Management European Journal of Marketing Industrial Marketing Management International Journal of Advertising International Journal of Research in Marketing International Marketing Review Journal of Advertising Journal of Business Ethics Journal of Business Research Journal of Consumer Affairs Journal of Consumer Marketing Journal of Consumer Policy Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising Journal of Macromarketing Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Management Journal of Public Policy and Marketing Journal of Strategic Marketing Journal of the Market Research Society Long Range Planning Public Relations Review Total Bus.90% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00% 0.00% 7. 18.00% 0.00% 0.00% 7.90% 6.33% 3.00% 26.00% 23.1002/bse Table 1.76% 9.00% 10.

we observe that collaboration between researchers is predominant.00% – – Macromarketing – – – 20. 18.07%.20% 17.71% Concept and strategies – – – 20.00% 33.07%). Among continental European countries.57% – – 10.51 and 17. When studying the origin of the authors. factor analysis is the most widely used technique (35. 33.00% – Total 2003 7. followed by regression and structural equation models (19.25% 28. research on green marketing has been of most interest in Denmark (with 7.33% Green communication – 28. Bus. the origin of the authors is the country of the university or research centre that appears in the affiliation. Ltd and ERP Environment .63% 3. Evolution of number of articles over time % of articles using each statistical technique Green consumer Analysis of co-variance Analysis of variance Conjoint analysis Correlations Qualitative analysis Descriptive analysis Discriminant analysis Factor analysis Regression models Structural equation models 9.33% 58.71% 35. Even so.07% 3.00% – 20.00% 40.32% 14.07% Table 2. we find that the empirical studies on green marketing have made use of very diverse statistical techniques (Table 2).37%). Strat.1 we find a predominance of authors from Anglo-Saxon countries. Specifically.13% 12.32% by three and 12. respectively) and descriptive analyses (17. As far as the number of authors of each work is concerned.00% 20.37% 19.51% 17.40% from Canada. while 8.38% 56.41% 12.66% 35.71% – 10. 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10.00% 40.00% 20. A total of 47.74% of the articles are signed exclusively by one or various researchers from the US.1002/bse Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons.10% are from the United Kingdom and 5.20% of the articles).Research on Green Marketing 227 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1993 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Figure 1.66% 13. Main statistical techniques used in empirical studies Some articles use two or more statistical techniques. 1 For this study.38% 21.61% by four or more authors.50% Recycling behaviors – – – – – – – 50.38% 9.38% 9.23% of the articles are authored by two or more researchers.33% of the articles are signed by two authors.00% – 20.00% 20.88% – – 9. 24. especially the United States. With regard to the data treatment techniques. Env. insofar as 70.71% – 10.

19% of the articles are signed exclusively by members of the academic community. Results by Research Topic We find that the topics of most interest are ‘green consumer’ (27. Andrew Kilbourne.66% of these cases one of the authors is from the US.01% are collaborations between representatives of universities and firms.71%). (a) ‘Anatomy of green ads’. which we shall now discuss. which we have discussed in the previous section. we note that 27. while 28. The articles included here have the main aim of evaluating firms’ use of green claims. studies classified under the topic ‘green communication’ have been published in 13 different journals. In this respect. All other articles have the end consumer as their unit of analysis.86% of the studies are empirical and a more detailed analysis of their content reveals that a large majority of them (85. The remaining 9. ‘macromarketing’ (17. the geographical scope most used to obtain the sample of individuals is a single city.66%) and they are mainly the result of collaboration between various authors. to Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Stephen J. John A. 18.21% of the articles are authored by researchers from two or more countries. J.1002/bse .71% work with samples obtained from two countries. 1994) analyses firms’ purchasing behavior. 16. On the other hand.86% of the studies that indicate where the sample is obtained.12%) and ‘recycling behaviors’ (11. Main authors in green marketing Germany (3. Norman Grove. With this objective. We find that 89. Env. In addition. Moreover. Michael J. Ltd and ERP Environment Bus.80% is the work of researchers with no university links. either exclusively or in addition to another technique (Table 2). but with a preference for Advances in Consumer Research and Journal of Advertising (Table 1). according to the results of our research. Advances in Consumer Research and Journal of Business Research (Table 1). Shrum. George Mason University and American University (USA) Rutgers University (USA) Table 3. Chamorro et al. the number of authors that have published on this topic is very diverse. The articles published on this topic are overwhelmingly empirical (96. while only 1. the authors classify the claims and obtain their data by means of content analysis. Banerjee. William E. Strat. Author Thogersen.60%) and Holland (2. In these cases.71%) can be classified into two subtopics. The most prolific authors in green marketing are reported in Table 3.92%). In Table 4. It is also interesting to note that only one article (Drumwright.70%). John Kangun.228 A. Analysis of each topic separately provides some results of interest. This occurs in 42. we can say that interest in the topic ‘green consumer’ has remained constant throughout the period analyzed. Polonsky.59% use regression models and that in more than half of the empirical studies factor analysis is employed. 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. We should note that 92. Taking into account the general trend of the research on green marketing. and in 66. With regard to the statistical techniques used. Articles 7 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 University Aarhus School of Business (Denmark) University of Texas (USA) and Clemson University (USA) Clemson University (USA) University of Newcastle (Australia) University of Massachusetts (USA) and University of Wollongong (Australia) Cardiff University (UK) Sam Houston State University (USA) University of Illinois. McCarty.57% of the studies are at the national level and 10.03% of the total) and ‘green communication’ (25. L. Fewer articles have been published on the other three topics: ‘concept and strategies’ (18. only about 20% of the articles are signed by a single author. we classify the 111 articles by topic and type of research.22%). although more than 56% of these articles appear in only three journals: Journal of Consumer Marketing. Bobby Crane.

Polonskyt al. Walker and Hanson (1998). Pujari et al. Miles and Covin (2000). Carlson et al. (1998).1002/bse . (1998). (1997). (1996a). (1996). Stafford et al. Thogersen (1994). Biswas et al. Dolan (2002). Ellen (1994). Golden et al. Ölander and Thogersen (1995). Kilbourne et al. Polonsky and Ottman (1998). (1993). (2003). Joy and Auchinachie (1994). Lord and Putrevu (1998). McCarty and Shrum (2001). 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. Tilson (1996). Osterhus (1997). Peattie (1999). Carlson et al. (1995). Mayer et al. (1995). Vlosky et al. Scammon and Mayer (1995). (1995). (1993). Banerjee and Mckeage (1994). Iyer et al. (1996). Pickett et al. (1995). Grove et al. Squires et al. Langerak et al. Concept and strategies Wong et al. Crane (1997). (1999). Roberts and Bacon (1997). Hansen and Schrader (1997). GrunertBeckmann et al. Scherhorn (1993). Thogersen and Grunert-Beckmann (1997). Pelton et al. Stern (1999). Kilbourne (1998). Dahab et al. Bech-Larsen (1996). (2003). Stanley et al. Drumwright (1994). McDonagh (1998). (1997). Ilinitch and Schaltegger (1995). (1994). Kalafatis et al. Roberts (1996). (1997). Carlson et al. Mathur and Mathur (2000). Mohr et al. Aberg et al. Kilbourne (1995). McCarty and Shrum (1993). (1999). Minton and Rose (1997). (2001). (1993). Miles et al. (1996). Bei and Simpson (1995). Sriram and Forman (1993). Ltd and ERP Environment Bus. Crane (1998). Thorson et al. Thogersen (2003). Zimmer et al. (1994). (1993). Madrigal (2000). McCarty and Shrum (1994). (2001). Table 4. Davis (1993). (1996b). Fitchett and Prothero (1999). Kangun and Polonsky (1995). Karna et al. Iyer and Banerjee (1993). Rowlands et al. (1993). Classification of articles by type of research and topic Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Thogersen (2000). (1993). van Dam and Apeldoorn (1996). 18. Morris et al. (2002). Neuner (2000). Crane (2009. Laroche et al. Shamdasani et al. Dobscha (1993). Davis (1994). (1996). Martinsons et al. (1998). Crane (2000). Davis (1994b). (1995). Straughan and Roberts (1999). Laroche et al. Fisk (1998). (1997). Obermiller (1995).Research on Green Marketing 229 Topic Empirical work Green consumer Type of research Theoretical work Dembkowki and Hanmer-Lloyd (1994). Banerjee et al. Schuhwork and Lefkoff (1995). Chan (2000). (1996). Ewing and Sarigöllü (2000). Johri and Sahasakmontri (1998). Dobscha and Ozanne (2001). Oyewole (2001). Azzone et al. (2000). Imkamp (2000). Thogersen (1994). Pieters et al. (1997). (1998). Chan and Lau (2000). Kilbourne and Beckmann (1998). (1996). Schlegelmilch et al. Mendleson and Polonsky (1995). (1993). Menon and Menon (1997). (1996). Recycling behaviors Green communication Macromarketing Bohlen et al. Shrum et al. Jackson et al. Fuller et al. Taylor and Todd (1995). Prothero and Fitchett (2000). Thogersen (1999). (1996). Env. (1993). Follows and Jobber (2000). Strat. McDaniel and Rylander (1993).

we note that there are very few articles that analyze green product policy or distribution channels for green products.57% of the topic ‘green communication’ and are all empirical in nature. we should remember that the issues studied in macromarketing tend to be interdisciplinary. Env. Mayer et al. 2003). (b) ‘Consumers’ response to green ads’. (1997). we should note that researchers interested in this topic can find additional relevant articles in the journals analyzed that have not however been included in our study. Carlson et al. (1996). as their principal focus was considered to be related disciplines rather than marketing.68% of the articles were published from 1997 onwards. Specifically. (1993).68%). Kangun and Polonsky (1995). Anatomy of green ads Carlson et al. Moreover. They represent 53. all the studies in this topic are empirical: the authors test statistical models using structural equations or regressions. Schuhwork and Lefkoff (1995). Iyer et al. Azzone et al. Only six of the selected journals published articles on this topic: the Journal of Macromarketing. Polonsky et al. Half of the latter carry out commercial research using surveys or personal interviews and the other half use case studies. We also note that this topic has been gaining in importance over time: 73.. Polonsky and Ottman. the articles on the topic ‘concept and strategies’ are spread evenly throughout the period studied. Strat. Mathur and Mathur (2000). with one author being responsible in almost half the cases. Pujari et al. (1993). although the most commonly used techniques are analysis of variance and structural equation modeling (Table 2). We should note. Carlson et al. Stafford et al. The articles are very diverse in terms of both their object of study and their methodological characteristics. (1996a). Tilson (1996). however. (1994). with a preference for Advances in Consumer Research.14% of the articles dedicated to ‘green communication’ (Table 5). Chamorro et al. 1996) and three that study environmental new product development processes (Ilinitch and Schaltegger. Davis (1994a). Finally. (1995). we find many differences between the studies. Ltd and ERP Environment Bus. Lord and Putrevu (1998). Imkamp (2000). With regard to the specific themes studied. but disappeared from the research agenda of green marketing after 1998. 1995. (1995). Madrigal (2000). However. Journal of Consumer Policy and Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. Journal of Consumer Policy and Advances in Consumer Research were the most assiduous. This finding confirms the trend already observed by Kilbourne and Beckmann in 1998. This was an attractive research topic in the first half of the period under analysis. Consumers’ response to green ads Davis (1993). Davis (1994b). Mohr et al. As far as the statistical treatment of the data is concerned. two-thirds use experiments to collect data and the other one-third use surveys. (1995). the articles were published in very few journals. Half of the studies are theoretical and half empirical.230 A. Moreover. (1998). 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. McDonagh (1998). 1998. Morris et al. More than 60% of the articles on this topic were published in the first three years analyzed (1993–1995). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Table 5.. (1998). although three new studies did appear from the year 2000. 18. Banerjee et al.1002/bse . we find only one article analyzing distribution problems in detail (Fuller et al. that this latter topic is on the borderline between marketing and operations management. Chan (2000). comprehension. With one exception. Iyer and Banerjee (1993). These studies analyze the efficacy of different green advertising appeals and consumers’ attitudes. In 50% of these cases the authors also employ factor analysis. The articles included in the topic ‘macromarketing’ are mainly theoretical studies (73. In this respect. (1996b). Thogersen (2000). Others Kilbourne (1995). skepticism or credibility in their regard. Scammon and Mayer (1995). Thorson et al. Research subtopics in ‘green communication’ subsequently carry out a series of descriptive analyses of the situation. Obermiller (1995). This subtopic represents 32. so the interested researcher can find other relevant articles in journals focusing more on management. We note that the importance of ‘recycling behaviors’ to researchers has declined over time.

the percentage of empirical articles is just 62. basically descriptive analysis (72. Collaboration between researchers is predominant. the analysis techniques employed are very simple. and second because this tendency seems to be maintained to the present time. we find a significant percentage of papers authored by professionals in the business and industrial world (18. particularly in BSE. because of the publication of a monograph on green marketing in 2006 in BSE. 29 in BSE and 19 in CSREM (see Figure 2 and appendix). a subject that has not been considered in our earlier analysis. previously Eco-Management and Auditing). Env. In this case the period of analysis has been 1996–2003 and we have obtained 48 articles. describe the current state in this area and provide ideas about where it may proceed in the future. first because the number of articles published is increasing during this period.75%).69%). Our main objective has been to analyze the evolution of the research on this topic and its methodological characteristics in order to allow us to observe the path followed up to the present time. since 56. Evolution of number of articles over time (BSE and CSREM) Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Conclusions and Future Research Agenda In this work we have examined the evolution of the research on green marketing in the past decade by analyzing the articles published in the main international journals. around 73% of articles on green marketing published in BSE and CSREM can be included in the topic ‘green communication’ (Table 6). With regard to the type of study.5% (72. The results reflect significant differences with respect to our previous analysis. Moreover. and are basically focused on environmental or sustainability reporting through a content analysis. greater than in our previous analysis (10. we observe that European authors are a majority.25% of the works have two or more authors.96% in the previous analysis). 18. As far as the origin of authors is concerned.Research on Green Marketing 231 An Analysis of Articles Published in BSE and CSREM In order to complete our study we have considered it necessary to include an analysis of the research on green marketing in specialized journals in environmental management such as Business Strategy and the Environment (BSE) and Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management (CSREM.81%). especially the authors affiliated to institutions of the United Kingdom (35.42%). Strat. Ltd and ERP Environment Bus. 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 BSE CSREM Figure 2.1002/bse . Finally. In addition.41%) and qualitative analysis (20.

Herremans et al.68 and 50%. • With regard to the characteristics of the studies analyzed. In turn. Work on macromarketing has remained steady throughout much of the period under analysis. Env. Synnestvedt (2001). • We find that researchers’ interest in green marketing has declined over the past decade. (2002). (1997). on average. with more than 52% of the total number of articles. • In any case. Isenmann and Lenz (2002).1002/bse . (2003). Hedberg and von Malmborg (2003). we can say that approximately 75% of these articles contain some type of empirical analysis. Chamorro et al. Andersen (2003). 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. Marshall and Brown (2003). Prothero et al. (1998). (1999). This conclusion holds for the subtopics within green marketing. Solomon and Lewis (2002). Meyer (2001) Macromarketing Concept and strategies Welford et al. ‘recycling behaviors’ and ‘green communication’. Palmer and van der Vorst (1997). Campbell (2003). Classification of articles by type of research and topic in BS&E and CSR&EM The findings of our general study allow us to draw the following conclusions related to the works published in our database (Table 1). Isenmann and Lenz (2001). insofar as ‘the research was predominantly managerialist in perspective’. Sancassiani (1996). O’Dwyer (2003). as only five articles have been published on this topic since then.232 A. respectively. the results of this study are similar to the findings of Kilbourne and Beckmann (1998). Kolk et al. Wheeler and Elkington (2001). Peck and Sinding (2003). Melton and Tinsley (1999). which have seen about three times as many articles published since that year. which are fundamentally descriptive. Rikhardsson (1996). followed by uneven behavior since then. (2000). we find that works on green marketing published in BSE and CSREM are mainly focused on environmental and sustainability reporting. we note that factor analysis is the main analytical tool in the empirical studies. a subject that has not attracted the attention of the rest of the journals included in this paper. This proportion grows to over 90% for the topics ‘green consumer’. Cerin (2002). Stray and Ballantine (2000). in coherence with the characteristics of the themes analyzed in each of these topics. since we note a similar decline in the number of articles published for all but two of the topics. • The topics ‘green consumer’ and ‘green communication’ have the largest number of articles published during the period of analysis. Collison et al. ‘recycling behaviors’ has been of least interest to researchers (11. conceptual and strategic. (1996). Kolk (1999). (1997). Strachan (1999). Douglas et al. Rikhardsson et al. Strat. Belal (2000). Niskanen and Nieminen (2001). 18. de Boer (2003) Meijkamp (1998). Noci (2000). Meriläinen et al. Rowlands et al. Walley et al. Although the analytical techniques employed for the data treatment are very varied. and there was an increase in the number of articles on the topic ‘concept and strategies’ until 1998. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. However. Kolk (2003). Prakash (2002) Table 6. (2003) Azzone et al. if we go by the evolution in the number of articles on this topic published in the journals under analysis. Peattie (2001) Clausen (1996). (2000). Topic Empirical work Green consumer Green communication Type of research Theoretical work Dembkowski (1998). mainly from 1995. (2001). (2000) Gärling and Thøgersen (2001). Morhardt et al. Maltby (1997). (1996). Ltd and ERP Environment Bus. Sinclair and Walton (2003) Tinsley and Melton (1997). while for the remaining two topics (‘macromarketing’ and ‘concept and strategies’) the proportion of mainly theoretical work is 73. Burritt (2002). Ball et al. This contrasts with the other topics.7%).

J. Appendix 1.. New research on this topic should aim to identify possible developments in consumers’ attitudes. we should stress again that our initial intention was to analyze the state of research on green marketing. W. Chon-Lin. Env. E. & Moore.: How green is my value: exploring the relationship between environment and materialism • Iyer.: Women and the environment: applying ecofeminism to environmentally-related consumption • Iyer. R. intentions and behaviors. & Su W. D: Exploring green consumers in an oriental culture: role of personal and marketing mix factor N° 21 (1994) • Barnerjee. & Simpson. Page. & Barnerjee.: An investigation of determinants of recycling consumer behavior • Mayer. • It would be interesting to undertake studies evaluating the keys to success in the process of design for environment and launch strategies.N. sociology. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by European Regional Development Fund and Consejería de Infraestructuras y Desarrollo Tecnológico de la Junta de Extremadura in the framework of the Research Project 2PR04C006.. L. Th. K.. K. P. J.1002/bse . E... B. A. Barnerjee. an ambitious aim interacting with many other fields of research such as business organization. B. Scammon. All of these will have to be analyzed in future work. The problems have extensive ramifications. psychology and environmental sciences.D. – ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH N° 20 (1993) • Dobscha S. & Mckeage.. we might mention the following theme as a possible line of future research: analysis of the value of environmental certification and eco-labels. Olsen. Ltd and ERP Environment Bus. We would like to thank the referees for their constructive comments and suggestions. and there are various ways of approaching them as well as many aspects to resolve. Gentry. J.: The determinants of consumers’ purchase decisions for recycled products: an application of acquisition transaction utility theory • Dahab.: Poisoning the well: do environmental claims strain consumer credulity? • Shamdasani. in the light of the gaps detected here and the current trends in the topic. • Within the topic ‘green communication’. de los Santos G. To conclude. C. we can make some suggestions about where research on green marketing is likely to lead in the coming years.: An expose on green television ads • Joy.. E. we agree with Kilbourne and Beckmann (1998) that this is a topic that may develop more in the near future. E. based on previous studies applied to traditional new product development processes. & Auchinachie. • Studies analyzing the green consumer will continue to be attractive as environmental consciousness evolves over time.D. 18. M. especially if interdisciplinary research grows. B.: Paradigms of the self and the environment in consumer behavior and marketing N° 22 (1995) • Bei. • With regard to the topic ‘macromarketing’. L.: Consumer response to four categories of green television commercials N° 23 (1996) • Golden LL. D. Frels JK. L. L. Ch. A. G. Strat.. & Zick. C. 223–239 (2009) DOI: 10. Granzin. The findings of studies from previous years will not necessarily be valid in the future.: New ways to reach non-recyclers: an extension of the model of reasoned action to recycling behaviors • Thorson.L.: Ecological information receptivity of hispanic and anglo americans Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. & Burns A.Research on Green Marketing 233 On the basis of these conclusions. J. Vincent VC.: Anatomy of green advertising • Jackson. Richmond. E. & Gulas.

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