# HYDRODYNAMICS AND THEORY OF WAVES

FLUID MECHANICS

CONTENTS

1

1. BASIC MATHEMATICS

2. FLUID PROPRIETIES

2.1 Compressibility

2.2 Thermal dilatation

2.3 Mobility

2.4 Viscosity

3. EQUATIONS OF IDEAL FLUID MOTION

3.1 Euler’s equation

3.2 Equation of continuity

3.3 The equation of state

3.4 Bernoulli’s equation

3.5 Plotting and energetic interpretation of

Bernoulli’s equation for liquids

3.6 Bernoulli’s equations for the relative movement of ideal

non-compressible fluid

4. FLUID STATICS

4.1 The fundamental equation of hydrostatics

4.2 Geometric and physical interpretation

of the fundamental equation of hydrostatics

4.3 Pascal’s principle

4.4 The principle of communicating vessels

4.5 Hydrostatic forces

4.6 Archimedes’ principle

4.7 The floating of bodies

5. POTENTIAL (IRROTATIONAL) MOTION

5.1 Plane potential motion

5.2 Rectilinear and uniform motion

5.3 The source

5.4 The whirl

5.5 The flow with and without circulation

around a circular cylinder

5.6 Kutta – Jukovski’s theorem

6. IMPULSE AND MOMENT IMPULSE

2

THEOREM

7. MOTION EQUATION OF THE REAL FLUID

7.1 Motion regimes of fluids

7.2 Navier – Stokes’ equation

7.3 Bernoulli’s equation under the permanent regime

of a thread of real fluid

7.4 Laminar motion of fluids

7.4.1 Velocities distribution between two plane parallel

boards of infinit length

7.4.2 Velocity distribution in circular conduits

7.5 Turbulent motion of fluids

7.5.1 Coefficient λin turbulent motion

7.5.2 Nikuradze’s diagram

8. FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUITS

9. HYDRODYNAMIC PROFILES

9.1 Geometric characteristics of hydrodynamic profiles

9.2 The flow of fluids around wings

9.3 Forces on the hydrodynamic profiles

9.4 Induced resistances in the case of finite span profiles

9.5 Networks profiles

10. WAVE THEORY

10.1 Basic equations

10.2 Traveling waves planes, with small amplitude

10.3 Groups of waves

10.4 Stationary wave

10.5 Waves in liquid with finite depth

BIBLIOGRAPHY

3

1. Basic mathematics

The scalar product of two vectors

k a j a i a a

z y x

+ + ·

and

k b j b i b b

y x 2

+ + ·

is a scalar.

Its value is:

z z y y x x

b a b a b a b a + + ·

. (1.1)

a b

a · b

( )

∧

b a cos

. (1.2)

The scalar product is commutative:

a · b b a

. (1.3)

The vectorial product of two vectors a and b is a vector

perpendicular on the plane determined by those vectors, directed in such

a manner that the trihedral a , b and b a × should be rectangular.

z y x

z y x

b b b

a a a

k j i

b a · ×

. (1.4)

The modulus of the vectorial product is given by the relation:

4

( )

∧

· × b a b a b a sin . (1.5)

The vectorial product is non-commutative:

a b b a × − · × (1.6)

The mixed product of three vectors a , b and c is a scalar.

( )

z y x

z y x

z y x

c c c

b b b

a a a

c b a · ×

. (1.7)

The double vectorial product of three vectors a , b and c is a

vector situated in the plane ( ) c b, .

The formula of the double vectorial product:

( ) ( ) ( ) c b a c a b c b a − · × × . (1.8)

The operator ∇is defined by:

z

k

y

j

x

i

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· ∇

. (1.9)

∇applied to a scalar is called gradient.

. ϕ ϕ grad · ∇

k

z

j

y

i

x ∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· ∇

ϕ ϕ ϕ

ϕ

. (1.10)

∇scalary applied to a vector is called divarication.

. a div a · ∇

5

z

a

y

a

x

a

a

z

y

x

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· ∇

. (1.11)

∇vectorially applied to a vector is called rotor. . a rot a · × ∇

z y x

a a a

z y x

k j i

a

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

∂

· × ∇

. (1.12)

Operations with ∇:

( ) ψ ϕ ψ ϕ ∇ + ∇ · + ∇

. (1.13)

( ) b a b a ∇ + ∇ · + ∇ . (1.14)

( ) b a b a × ∇ + × ∇ · + × ∇ . (1.15)

When ∇acts upon a product:

- in the first place has differential and only then vectorial

proprieties;

- all the vectors or the scalars upon which it doesn’t act must, in

the end, be placed in front of the operator;

- it mustn’t be placed alone at the end.

( ) ( ) ( ) ϕ ψ ψ ϕ ψ ϕ ψ ϕ ψ ϕ ∇ + ∇ · ∇ + ∇ · ∇

c c

. (1.16)

( ) ( ) ( ) ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ∇ + ∇ · ∇ + ∇ · ∇ a a a a a c

c

. (1.17)

( ) ( ) ( ) ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ∇ × − × ∇ · × ∇ + × ∇ · × ∇ a a a a a c

c

. (1.18)

6

( ) ( ) ( ) c c b a b a b a ∇ + ∇ · ∇ , (1.19)

( ) ( ) ( ) b a b a b a c c ∇ − ∇ · × ∇ × , (1.20)

( ) ( ) b a b rot a b ac ∇ + × · ∇ , (1.21)

( ) ( ) a b a rot b b a c ∇ + × · ∇ , (1.22)

( ) ( ) ( ) a b a rot b b a b rot a b a ∇ + × + ∇ + × · ∇ . (1.23)

c

ϕ

- the scalar

ϕ

considered constant,

c

ψ

- the scalar

ψ

considered constant,

c a - the vector a considered constant,

c b - the vector b considered constant.

If:

, v b a · · (1.24)

then:

( ) v rot v v v

v

× + ∇ ·

,

_

¸

¸

∇

2

2

. (1.25)

The streamline is a curve tangent in each of its points to the

velocity vector of the corresponding point

( ) k v j v i v v

z y x

+ + ·

.

The equation of the streamline is obtained by writing that the

tangent to streamline is parallel to the vector velocity in its corresponding

point:

z y x

v

dz

v

dy

v

dx

· ·

. (1.26)

The whirl line is a curve tangent in each of its points to the whirl

vector of the corresponding point

( ) k j i

z y x

ω ω ω ω + + ·

.

7

v rot

2

1

· ω

. (1.27)

The equation of the whirl line is obtained by writing that the

tangent to whirl line is parallel with the vector whirl in its corresponding

point:

z y x

dz dy dx

ω ω ω

· ·

. (1.28)

Gauss-Ostrogradski’s relation:

τ σ

τ σ

d a d n a

∫ ∫

∇ ·

, (1.29)

where

τ

- volume delimited by surface

σ

.

The circulation of velocity on a curve (C) is defined by:

· Γ

, r d v

C

∫

(1.30)

in which

ds r d τ ·

(1.31)

represents the orientated element of the curve (τ- the

versor of the tangent to the curve (C )).

Fig.1.1

8

( )

∫

+ + · Γ

C

z y x

dz v dy v dx v

(1.32)

The sense of circulation depends on the admitted sense in

covering the curve.

ABMA AMBA

Γ − · Γ

. (1.33)

Also:

BA AMB AMBA

Γ + Γ · Γ

. (1.34)

Stokes’ relation:

( ) σ

σ

∫ ∫

· · Γ

C

d n v rot r d v

(1.35)

in which n represents the versor of the normal to the arbitrary

surface

σ

bordered by the curve (C).

9

2. FLUID PROPRIETIES

As it is known, matter and therefore fluid bodies as well, has a

discrete and discontinuous structure, being made up of micro-particles

(molecules, atoms, etc) that are in reciprocal interaction.

The mechanics of fluids studies phenomena that take place at a

macroscopic scale, the scale at which fluids behave as if matter were

continuously distributed.

At the same time, fluids don’t have their own shape so are easily

deformed.

A continuous medium is homogenous if at a constant temperature

and pressure, its density has only one value in all its points.

Lastly, a continuous homogenous medium is isotropic as well if it

has the same proprieties in any direction around a certain point of its

mass.

In what follows we shall consider the fluid as a continuous,

deforming, homogeneous and isotropic medium.

We shall analyse some of basic physical proprieties of the fluids.

10

2.1. Compressibility

Compressibility represents the property of fluids to modify their

volume under the action of a variation of pressure. To evaluate

quantitatively this property we use a physical value, called isothermal

compressibility coefficient,

β

, that is defined by the relation:

,

1

2

1

]

1

¸

− ·

N

m

dp

dV

V

β

(2.1)

in which dV represents the elementary variation of the initial volume,

under the action of pressure variation dp.

The coefficient

β

is intrinsic positive; the minus sign that

appears in relation (2.1) takes into consideration the fact that the volume

and the pressure have reverse variations, namely dv/ dp < 0.

The reverse of the isothermal compressibility coefficient is called

the elasticity modulus K and is given by the relation:

.

1

2 1

]

1

¸

− · ·

m

N

dV

dp

V K

β

(2.2)

Writing the relation (2.2) in the form:

,

K

dp

V

dV

− ·

(2.3)

we can underline its analogy with Hook’s law:

.

E l

dl σ

·

(2.4)

11

a) The compressibility of liquids

In the case of liquids, it has been experimentally ascertained that

the elasticity modulus K, and implicitly, the coefficient

β

, vary very

little with respect to temperature (with approximately 10% in the interval

C

0

60 0 − ) and they are constant for variations of pressure within enough

wide limits. In table (2.1) there are shown the values of these coefficients

for various liquids at C

0

0 and pressure

200 ≤ p

bars.

Table 2.1.

Liquid

[ ] N m /

2

β

[ ]

2

/ m N

K

Water

10

10 12 , 5

−

⋅

9

10 95 , 1 ⋅

Petrol

10

10 66 , 8

−

⋅

9

10 15 , 1 ⋅

Glycerine

10

10 55 , 2

−

⋅

9

10 92 , 3 ⋅

Mercury

10

10 296 , 0

−

⋅

9

10 7 , 33 ⋅

Therefore, in the case of liquids, coefficient

β

may be

considered constant.

Consequently, we can integrate the differential equation (2.2)

from an initial state, characterised by volume

0

V

, pressure

0

p

and

density

0

ρ

, to a certain final state, where the state parameters will have

the value

p V ,

1

and

ρ

respectively; we shall successively get:

∫ ∫

− ·

V

V

p

p

dp

V

dV

0 0

, β

(2.5)

or

( )

.

0

0

p p

e V V

− −

⋅ ·

β

(2.6)

12

b) The compressibility of gases

For gases the isothermal compressibility coefficient depends very

much on pressure. In the case of a perfect gas, the following relation

describes the isothermal compressibility:

pV = cons.,

which, by subtraction, will be:

.

V

dV

p

dp

− ·

(2.8)

By comparing this relation to (2.3) we may write:

.

1

p K · ·

β

(2.9)

It follows that, in the case of a perfect gas, the elasticity modulus

is equal to pressure.

2.2 Thermal dilatation

Thermal dilatation represents the fluid property to modify its

volume under the action of a variation of temperature. Qualitatively, this

property is characterised by the volumetric coefficient of isobaric

dilatation, defined by the relation:

,

1

dT

dV

V

⋅ · α

(2.10)

where dV represents the elementary variation of the initial volume V

under the action of variation of temperature dT. Coefficient

α

is positive

for all fluids, except for water, which registers maximum density

13

(minimum specific volume) at C

0

4 ; therefore, for water that has

C t

0

4 ≤ we shall have . 0 < α

Generally,

α

varies very little with respect to temperature,

therefore it can be considered constant. Under these circumstances,

integrating the equation (2.10) between the limits

0

V

and V, and

respectively

0

T

and T, we get:

( ), ln

0

0

T T

V

V

− ·α

(2.11)

or else

( )

.

0

0

T T

e V V

−

·

α

(2.12)

By dividing the relation (2.12) to the mass of the fluid

,

0 0

V V m ρ ρ · ·

we get the function of state for an incompressible fluid:

( )

,

0

0

T T

e

− −

·

α

ρ ρ (2.13)

In the case of a perfect gas the value of the coefficient is obtained

by subtracting the equation of isobaric transformation

,

_

¸

¸

· . cons

T

V

; we

get:

, . dT

T

V

dT cons dV · ⋅ ·

(2.14)

which, replaced into (2.10) enables us to write:

.

1

T

· α

(2.15)

14

Thus, for the perfect gas, coefficient

α

is the reverse of the

thermodynamic temperature.

2.3. Mobility

In the case of fluids, the molecular cohesion forces have very low

values, but they aren’t rigorously nil.

At a macroscopic scale, this propriety can be rendered by the fact

that two particles of fluid that are in contact, can be separated under the

action of some very small external forces. At the same time, fluid

particles can slide one near the other and have to overcome some

relatively small tangent efforts.

As a result, from a practical point of view, fluids can develop only

compression efforts.

In the case of a deformation at a constant volume, the

compression efforts are rigorously nil and, as a result, the change in

shape of the fluid requires the overcoming of the tangent efforts, which

are very small. Therefore the mechanical work consumed from the

exterior will be very small, in fact negligible.

We say that fluids have a high mobility, meaning that they have

the property to take the shape of the containers in which they are.

Consequently we should stress that gases, because they don’t have their

own volume, have a higher mobility than liquids (a gas inserted in a

container takes both the shape and the volume of that container).

2.4 Viscosity

Viscosity is the property of the fluid to oppose to the relative

movement of its particles.

As it has been shown, overcoming some small tangent efforts that

aren’t yet rigorously nil makes this movement.

15

To qualitatively stress these efforts, we consider the

unidimenssional flow of a liquid, which takes place in superposed layers,

along a board situated in xOy plane (fig.2.1).

Fig.2.1.

Experimental measurements have shown that velocity increases

as we move away from the board in the direction of axis Oy, and it is nil

in the near vicinity of the board. Graphically, the dependent

( ) y f v ·

is

represented by the curve Γ. This simple experiment stresses on two

aspects, namely:

- the fluid adheres on the surface of the solid body with which

it comes into contact;

- inside the fluid and at its contact with the solid surfaces,

tangent efforts generate which determine variation in velocity.

Thus, considering two layers of fluid, parallel to the plane

xOy and that are at an elementary distance dy one from the

other, we shall register a variation in velocity

dy

dy

dv

, due to

the frictions that arise between the two layers.

To determine the friction stress, Newton used the relation:

dy

dv

η τ ·

, (2.16)

that today bears his name. This relation that has been experimentally

verified by Coulomb, Poisseuille and Petrov shows that the friction stress

τ

is proportional to the gradient of velocity. The proportionality factor

η

is called dynamic viscosity.

16

If we represent graphically the dependent

( ) dy dv f / · τ

we shall

get the line 1 (fig.2.2) where

η θ · ty

.

The fluids that observe the friction

law (2.16) are called Newtonian fluids

(water, air, etc). The dependent of the

tangent effort to the gradient of velocity is

not a straight line (for example curve (2) in

fig. 2.2), for a series of other fluids,

generally those of organic nature. These

fluids are globally called non-Newtonian

fluids.

Fig.2.2

The measures for the dynamic viscosity are:

- in the international standard (SI):

[ ]

s m

Kg

m

s N

⋅

·

⋅

·

2

η

(2.17)

- in the CGS system:

[ ]

s cm

g

cm

s dyn

⋅

·

⋅

·

2

η

. (2.18)

The measure of dynamic viscosity in CGS system is called

“poise”, and has the symbol P. We can notice the existence of relation:

P

s m

Kg

10 1 ·

⋅

. (2.19)

17

We can determine the dynamic viscosity of liquids with the help

of Höppler’s viscometer, whose working principle is based on the

proportionality of dynamic viscosity to the time in which a ball falls

inside a slanting tube that contains the analysed liquid.

The kinematic viscosity of a fluid is the ratio of dynamic viscosity

and its density:

ρ

η

ν ·

. (2.20)

The measures for kinematic viscosity are:

- in the international system:

[ ]

s

m

2

· ν . (2.21)

- in CGS system:

[ ]

s

cm

2

· ν . (2.22)

the latter bearing the name “stokes” (symbol ST):

s

m

s

cm

ST

2

4

2

10 1 1

−

· · . (2.23)

Irrespective of the type of viscometer used (Ubbelohde, Vogel-

Ossag, etc) we can determine the kinematic viscosity by multiplying the

time (expressed in seconds) in which a fixed volume of liquid flows

through a calibrated capillary tube, under normal conditions, constant for

that device.

In actual practice, the conventional viscosity of a fluid is often

used; this value is determined by measuring the time in which a certain

volume of fluids flows through a special device, the conditions being

conventionally chosen. The magnitude of this value thus determined is

expressed in conventional units. There are several conventional

18

viscosities (i.e. Engler, Saybolt, Redwood etc) which differ from one

another both in the measurement conditions and in the measure units.

Thus, Engler conventional viscosity, expressed in Engler degrees

[ ] E

0

is the ratio between the flow time of 200 cubic cm of the analysed

liquid at a given temperature and the flow time of a same volume of

distilled water at a temperature of C

0

20 , through an Engler viscometer

under standard conditions.

The viscosity of a fluid depends to a great extent on its

temperature. Generally, viscosity of liquids diminishes with the increase

in temperature, while for gas the reverse phenomenon takes place.

The dependence of liquids viscosity on temperature can be

determined by using Gutman and Simons’ relation:

0

0

T

B

T C

B

e

−

+

·η η

. (2.24)

where the constants B and C depend on the nature of the analysed liquid

(for water we have B= 511,6 K and C= -149,4 K).

For gases we can use Sutherland’s formula”

T S

T S

T

T

+

+

,

_

¸

¸

·

0

2 / 3

0

0

η η . (2.25)

where S depends on the nature of the gas (for air S=123,6 K).

In relations (2.24) and (2.25),

η

and

0

η

are the dynamic

viscosities of the fluid at the absolute temperature T, and at temperature

) 0 ( 15 , 273

0

0

C K T ·

respectively.

19

In table 2.2 there are shown the dynamic and kinematic

viscosities of air and water at different temperatures and under normal

atmospheric pressures.

Table 2.2

Temperature

[ ] C

0

-10 0 10 20 40 60 80

1

]

1

¸

⋅

−

s m

Kg

3

10

η

Air 0,016 0,017 0,017 0,018 0,019 0,02 0,029

Water - 1,79 1,31 1,01 0,66 0,48 0,37

1

]

1

¸

−

s

m

2

6

10

ν

Air 1,26 13,3 14,1 15,1 16,9 18,9 20,9

Water - 1,79 1,31 1,01 0,66 0,48 0,37

We must underline the fact that viscosity is a property that

becomes manifest only during the movement of liquids.

A fluid for which viscosity is rigorously nil is called a perfect or

ideal fluid.

Fluids may be compressible

( ) [ ] p ρ ρ ·

or incompressible (

ρ

is

constant with respect to pressure).

We should emphasize that the ideal compressible fluid is

analogous to the ideal (or perfect) gas, as defined in thermodynamics.

The movement of fluids may be uniform (velocity is constant),

permanent v = v (x,y,z) or varied v = v (x,y,z,t).

20

3. EQUATIONS OF IDEAL FLUID

MOTION

3.1 Euler’s equation

We shall further study, for the most general case, the movement

state of a fluid through a volume

τ

that is situated in the fluid stream;

we shall not take into consideration the interior frictions(i.e.viscosity), so

we shall analyse the case of perfect (ideal) fluids that are on varied

movement.

The volume

τ

is situated in an accelerated system of axes, joint

with this system. The equations, which describe the movement of the

fluid, will be obtained by applying d’Alembert’s principle for the fluid

that is moving through the volume

τ

.

The three categories of forces that act upon the fluid that is

moving through the volume

τ

,bordered by the surface

σ

(fig.3.1), are:

Fig.3.1

- the mass forces

m

F

;

- the inertia forces

i

F

;

- the pressure forces p

F

(with an equivalent effect; these

forces replace the action of the negligible fluid outside

volume

τ

).

21

According to d’Alembert’s principle, we shall get:

0 · + +

p i m

F F F

. (3.1)

Equation (3.1) represents in fact the general vectorial form of

Euler’s equations.

Let’s establish the mathematical expressions of those three

categories of forces.

If F is the mass unitary force (acceleration) that acts upon the

fluid in the volume

τ

, the mass elementary force that acts upon the mass

τ ρd

, will be:

τ ρ d F F d

m

·

, (3.2)

hence:

∫

·

τ

τ ρ d F F

m

. (3.3)

As the fluid velocity through the volume

τ

is a vectorial function

with respect to point and time: ( ) t r v v , · , upon the mass

τ ρd

that is

moving with velocity v the elementary inertia will act:

τ ρ d

dt

v d

F d

i

− · . (3.4)

So, the inertia will be:

∫

− ·

τ

τ ρ d

dt

v d

F

i . (3.5)

If σ d is a surface element upon which the pressure p acts, and

n - the versor of the exterior normal (Fig.3.1), the elementary force of

pressure is:

σ d n p F d

p

− ·

. (3.6)

22

Having in mind Gauss-Ostrogradski’s theorem, the resultant of

pressure forces will be:

τ σ

τ σ

d p d n p F

p

∫ ∫

∇ − · − ·

. (3.7)

By replacing equations (3.3), (3.5) and (3.7) in the equation (3.1),

we shall get:

0 ·

,

_

¸

¸

− ∇ −

∫

τ

τ ρ ρ d

dt

v d

p F

, (3.8)

Hence:

dt

v d

p F · ∇ −

ρ

1

, (3.9)

Or

( ) v v

t

v

p F ∇ +

∂

∂

· ∇ −

ρ

1

, (3.10)

The equation (3.10) – Euler’s equation in a vectorial form for the

ideal fluid in a non-permanent movement.

23

Projecting this equation on the three axes, we shall obtain:

z

x

y

x

x

x x

x

v

z

v

v

y

v

v

x

v

t

v

x

p

F

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

−

ρ

1

;

z

y

y

y

x

y y

y

v

z

v

v

y

v

v

x

v

t

v

y

p

F

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

−

ρ

1

; (3.11)

z

z

y

z

x

z z

z

v

z

v

v

y

v

v

x

v

t

v

z

p

F

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

−

ρ

1

.

3.2 Equation of continuity

This equation can be obtained by writing in two ways the

variation in the unity of time for the mass of fluid that is in the control

volume

τ

, bordered by the surface

σ

(fig.3.1). By splitting from the

volume

τ

one element τ d , and taking into consideration that the density

is a scalar function of point and time, ( ) t r, ρ ρ· , we can write the total

mass of the volume

τ

:

∫

·

τ

τ ρd m

. (3.12)

The variation of the total mass in the unity of time will be:

∫

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

τ

τ

ρ

d

t t

m

. (3.13)

The second form of writing the variation of mass is obtained by

examining the flow of the mass through surface

σ

that borders volume

τ

.

Denoting by n the versor of the exterior normal to the area

element σ d , and by v the vector of the fluid velocity, the elementary

24

mass of fluid that passes in the unity of time through the area element

σ d is:

σ ρ d v dM

n

− ·

. (3.14)

In the unity of time through the whole surface

σ

will pass, the

mass:

∫

− ·

σ

σ ρ d v M

n

(3.15)

that is the sum of the inlet and outlet mass in volume

τ

, by crossing

surface

σ

.

By equalling equations (3.13) and (3.15), it will result:

∫ ∫

· + ∂

∂

∂

τ σ

σ ρ τ

ρ

0 d v

t

n . (3.16)

According to Gauss-Ostrogradski’s theorem:

( )

∫ ∫

∇ ·

σ τ

τ ρ σ ρ d v d v

n

. (3.17)

Taking into consideration (3.17), the equation (3.16) will take the

form:

( ) 0 ·

1

]

1

¸

∇ +

∂

∂

∫

τ ρ

ρ

τ

d v

t

, (3.18)

hence, successively:

25

( ) , 0 · ∇ +

∂

∂

v

t

ρ

ρ

(3.19)

0 · ∇ + ∇ +

∂

∂

v v

t

ρ ρ

ρ

, (3.20)

0 · ∇ + v

dt

d

ρ

ρ

. (3.21)

The equation (3.21) represents the equation of continuity for

compressible fluids.

In the case of non-compressible fluids (

. cons · ρ

,

0 ·

dt

dρ

), the

equation of continuity takes the form:

0 · ∇v , (3.22)

or

0 ·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

z

v

y

v

x

v

z

y

x

. (3.23)

It follows that the inlet volume of non-compressible liquid is

equal to the outlet one in and from the volume

τ

.

3.3. The equation of state

From a thermodynamically point of view, the state of a system

can be determined by the direct measurement of some characteristic

physical values, that make up the group of state parameters (e.g. pressure,

volume, temperature, density etc.).

26

Among the state parameters of a thermodynamically system

generally there are link relationships, explained by the laws of physics.

In the case of homogenous systems, there is only one implicit

relationship, which carries out the link among the three state parameters,

in the form of:

( ) 0 , , · T p F ρ

. (3.24)

Adding to vectorial equations (3.10) and (3.21) the equation of

state, we get three equations with three unknowns:

( ) ( ) ( ) t r p t r t r v , , , , , ρ , that enable us solve the problems of motion and

repose for the ideal fluids.

3.4. Bernoulli ‘s equation

Bernoulli’s equation is obtained by integrating Euler’s equation

written under a different form (Euler – Lamb), that stresses the rotational

or non-rotational nature of the ideal fluid (see the relation (1.25)).

Euler – Lamb’s equation:

v rot v

v

t

v

p F × −

,

_

¸

¸

∇ +

∂

∂

· ∇ −

2

1

2

ρ

. (3.25)

Considering the case when the mass force derives from a

potential U, thus being a conservative force (the mechanical energy-

kinetic and potential-will be constant):

U F −∇ · . (3.26)

In the case of compressible fluids, when

( ) p ρ ρ ·

, we insert the

function:

27

( )

∫

·

p

dp

P

ρ

. (3.27)

Thus:

( )

p

p

P ∇ · ∇

ρ

1

. (3.28)

The equation (3.25) takes the form:

v rot v

t

v v

P U × −

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ∇ −

2

2

. (3.29)

The equation (3.29) can be easily integrated in certain particular

cases.

In the case of permanent motion 0 ·

∂

∂

t

v

, and:

- along a stream line:

z y x

v

dz

v

dy

v

dx

· ·

, (3.30)

- along a whirl line:

z y x

dz dy dx

ω ω ω

· ·

, (3.31)

- in the case of potential motion

0 · v rot

:

0 · · ·

z y x

ω ω ω

, (3.32)

28

-in the case of helicoid motion (the velocity vector v is parallel

to the whirl vector):

z

z

y

y

x

x

v

v

v

ω ω ω

· ·

. (3.33)

Multiplying by r d the equation (3.29), we shall get under the

conditions of permanent motion ( 0 ·

∂

∂

t

v

):

( ) v rot v r d

v

P U d × − ·

,

_

¸

¸

+ + −

2

2

. (3.34)

Since

ω 2 · v rot

, we shall get:

z y x

z y x

v v v

dz dy dx

v

P U d

ω ω ω

2

2

2

·

,

_

¸

¸

+ +

. (3.35)

The determined is zero for one of the four cases above. By

integrating in these cases we shall get Bernoulli’s equation:

C

v

P U · + +

2

2

. (3.36)

If the fluid is a non-compressible one, then

ρ

p

P ·

.

If the axis Oz of the system is vertical, upwards directed, the

potential U is:

C gz U + ·

. (3.37)

29

It results the well known Bernoulli’s equation as the load

equation:

C z

p

g

v

· + +

γ 2

2

. (3.38)

The kinetic load

g

v

2

2

represents the height at which it would rise

in vacuum a material point, vertically and upwards thrown, with an initial

velocity v, equal to the velocity of the particle of liquid considered.

The piezometric load

γ

p

is the height of the column of liquid

corresponding to the pressure p of the particle of liquid.

The position load z represents the height at which the particle is

with respect to an arbitrary chosen reference plane.

Bernoulli’s equation, as an equation of loads, may be expressed as

follows: in the permanent regime of an ideal fluid, non-compressible,

subjected to the action of some conservative forces, the sum of the

kinetic, piezometric and position loads remains constant along a

streamline.

Multiplying (3.38) by

γ

we get the equation of pressures:

C z p

v

· + + γ ρ

2

2

, (3.39)

where:

2

2

v

ρ dynamic pressure;

p

piezometric (static) pressure;

z γ

position pressure.

30

Multiplying (3.38) by the weight of the fluid G, we get the

equation of energies:

C z G

p

G

g

v

G · + +

γ 2

2

, (3.40)

where:

g

v

G

2

2

- kinetic energy;

γ

p

G

- pressure energy;

Gz - position energy.

3.5. Plotting and energetic interpretation of Bernoulli’s

equation for liquids

Going back to the relation (3.38) and considering C = H (fig.3.2):

H z

p

g

v

· + +

γ 2

2

. (3.41)

Fig.3.2

31

The sum of all the terms of Bernoulli’s equation represents the

total energy (potential and kinetic) with respect to the unit of weight of

the moving liquid.

This energy measured to a horizontal reference plane N-N,

arbitrarily chosen is called specific energy and it remains constant during

the permanent movement of the ideal non-compressible fluid that is

under the action of gravitational and pressure forces.

3.6. Bernoulli’s equation for the relative movement of

ideal non-compressible fluid

Let’s consider the flow of an ideal non-compressible fluid

through the channel between two concentric pipes that revolve around an

axis Oz with angular velocity

ω

(fig.3.3.).

Fig.3.3

In the equation (3.38) v is replaced by w, which represents the

relative velocity of the liquid to the channel that is revolving with the

velocity

ω r u ·

.

Upon the liquid besides the gravitational acceleration g, the

acceleration r

2

ω acts as well.

32

The unitary mass forces decomposed on the three axes will be:

.

;

;

2

2

g F

y F

x F

z

y

x

− ·

·

·

ω

ω

(3.42)

In this case, the potential U will be:

C

r

gz U + − ·

2

2 2

ω

. (3.43)

By adding (3.43) to Bernoulli’s equation, we get:

C z

p

g

r

g

w

· + + −

γ

ω

2 2

2 2 2

, (3.44)

or

C z

p

g

u w

· + +

−

γ 2

2 2

. (3.45)

In the theory of hydraulic machines we use the following

denotations:

v – absolute velocity;

w – relative velocity;

u – peripheral velocity.

The equation (3.45) written for two particles on the same

streamline is:

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

1

2

1

2 2

z

p

g

u w

z

p

g

u w

+ +

−

· + +

−

γ γ

(3.46)

33

4. FLUID STATICS

The fluid statics – hydrostatics – is that part of the mechanics of

fluid which studies the repose conditions of the fluid as well as their

action, during the repose state, on solid bodies with whom they come into

contact.

Hydrostatics is identical for real and ideal fluids, as viscosity

becomes manifest only during motion. In hydrostatics the notion of time

does no longer exist.

4.1 The fundamental equation of hydrostatics

If in Euler’s equation (3.9) we assume that 0 · v , we get:

0

1

· ∇ − p F

ρ

. (4.1)

We multiply everywhere by r d :

0

1

· ∇ − r d p r d F

ρ

. (4.2)

or

ρ

dp

dz F dy F dx F

z y x

· + +

. (4.3)

If the axis Oz of the system

xOyz

is vertical, upwards directed,

then:

0 · ·

y x

F F

,

, g F

z

− ·

and equation (4.3) becomes:

34

0 · +

ρ

dp

gdz

. (4.4)

In the case of liquids (

ρ

= cons.), by integrating equation (4.4)

we get:

. const

p

gz · +

ρ

(4.5)

or

. const

p

z · +

γ

(4.6)

or

. const z p · +γ

(4.7)

Equation (4.7) is called the fundamental equation of hydrostatics.

If

0

p

is the pressure at the surface of water (in open tank the

atmospheric pressure), pressure p, situated at a distance h from the

surface, will be (fig.4.1):

Fig.4.1

1 0 2

z p z p γ γ + · +

, (4.8)

h p p γ + ·

0

. (4.9)

p is called the absolute pressure in the point 2, and

h γ

is the

relative pressure.

35

4.2 Geometrical and physical interpretation of the

fundamental equation of hydrostatics (fig.4.2)

Fig.4.2

According to (4.6) we can write:

2

2

2

1

1

1

z

p

z

p

+ · +

γ γ

. (4.10)

In fig.4.2 we have:

γ

p

- piezometric height corresponding to the absolute

hydrostatic pressure;

2 , 1

z

- the quotes to an arbitrary plane (position heights).

4.3 Pascal’s principle

We rewrite the fundamental equation of hydrostatics between two

points 1 and 2.

2 2 1 1

z p z p γ γ + · +

. (4.11)

36

Supposing that in point 1, the pressure registers a variation

p ∆

,

it becomes

p p ∆ +

1

. In order that the equilibrium state shouldn’t be

altered, for point 2 the same variation of pressure has to be registered.

2 2 2 1 1 1

z p p z p p γ γ + ∆ + · + ∆ +

. (4.12)

Hence:

2 1

p p ∆ · ∆

. (4.13)

Pascal’s principle:

“Any pressure variation created in a certain point in a non-

compressible liquid in equilibrium, is transmitted with the same intensity

to each point in the mass of this liquid.”

4.4 The principle of communicating vessels

Let us consider two communicating vessels (fig.4.3) that contain

two non-miscible liquids, which have specific weights

1

γ

and

2

γ

,

respectively. Writing the equality of pressure in the points 1 and 2,

situated in the same horizontal plane N – N that also contains the

separation surface between the two liquids, we get:

2 2 0 1 1 0

h p h p γ γ + · +

, (4.14)

or else

1

2

2

1

γ

γ

·

h

h

, (4.15)

where

1

h

and

2

h

are the heights of the two liquid columns that,

according to this relation, are in reverse proportion to the specific

weights of the two liquids.

37

Fig.4.3

If

,

2 1

γ γ ·

then

2 1

h h ·

.

“ In two or more communicating vessels, that contain the same

liquid (homogenous and non-compressible), their free surfaces are on

the same horizontal plane.”

4.5 Hydrostatic forces

The pressure force that acts upon a solid wall is determined by

means of the relation:

∫

·

A

dA n p F

, (4.16)

where dA is a surface element having the versor n , and p is the relative

pressure of the fluid.

Let A be a vertical plane surface that limits a non-compressible

fluid, with specific weight

γ

(fig.4.4).

38

Fig.4.4

Then the hydrostatic pressure force will be:

∫

· · ·

A

y

M A z zdA F γ γ γ

0

, (4.17)

where:

0

z

- the quote of the specific weight for surface A;

y

M

- the static moment of the surface A with respect to the axis

Oy.

The application point of the pressure force F is called pressure

centre. It has the following co-ordinates:

y

y

A

M

I

zdA

dA z

F

zdF

· · ·

∫∫

∫∫

∫

γ

γ

ζ

2

, (4.18)

y

yz

A

M

I

zdA

yzdA

F

ydF

· · ·

∫∫

∫∫

∫

γ

γ

ξ

.

y

I

- the inertia moment of surface A with respect to the axis Oy;

39

yz

I

- the centrifugal moment of surface A with respect to axes Oy

and Oz.

“ The hydrostatic pressure force that acts upon the bottom of a

container does not depend on the quantity of liquid, but on the height of

the liquid and on the section of the bottom of this container”.

The above statement represents the hydrostatic paradox and is

illustrated in fig.4.5. The force that presses on the bottom of the three

different shaped containers, is the same because the level of the liquid in

the container is the same, and the surface of the bottom is the same.

Fig. 4.5

4.6 Archimedes’ principle

Let’s consider a solid body and further to simplify a cylinder,

submerged in a liquid; we intend to compute the resultant of the pressure

forces that act upon it (fig.4.6).

Fig.4.6

40

The resultant of the horizontal forces

'

x

F

and

' '

x

F

is obviously

nil:

.

,

0

' '

0

'

x x

x x

A z F

A z F

γ

γ

− ·

·

(4.19)

The vertical forces will have the value:

.

;

2

' '

1

'

z z

z z

A z F

A z F

γ

γ

− ·

·

(4.20)

Thus their resultant will be:

( ) V h A z z A F F F

z z z z z

γ γ γ − · − · − − · + ·

1 2

' ' '

. (4.21)

This demonstration may easily be extended for a body of any

shape.

“ An object submerged in a liquid is up thrust with an equal force

with the weight of the displaced liquid”.

4.7. The floating of bodies

A free body, partially submerged in a liquid is called a floating

body.

The submerged part is called immerse part or hull.

The weight centre of the hull’s volume is called the hull centre.

The free surface of the liquid is called floating plane.

The crossing between the floating plane and the floating body is

called the floating surface.

41

Its weight centre is called floating centre, and its outline is called

floating line or water line.

In order that the floating body be in equilibrium, it is necessary

that the sum of the forces that act upon it as well as the resultant moment

should be nil.

Upon a floating body there can act two forces: the archimedean

force and the weight force –also called displacement (D = mg) (fig.4.7)

Fig.4.7

As a result, a first condition to achieve the equilibrium is:

V mg D γ · ·

, (4.22)

where m is the mass of the floating body, V is the volume of the hull,

and

γ

is the specific weight of the liquid.

Furthermore, in order that the moment of the resultant should be

nil these two forces must have the same straight line as support or, in

other words, that the weight centre G should be found on the same

vertical with the centre hull.

Equation (4.22) is called the equation of flotability.

Stability is the ability of the floating body to return on the initial

floating of equilibrium after the action of perturbatory forces that drew it

out of that position has ceased.

With respect to a Cartesian system of axes Oxyz, having the plane

xOy in the floating plane and axis Oz upwards directed (fig.4.8), the

floating body has six degrees of freedom: three translations and three

rotations. The rotation around Ox and Oy is most important.

42

These slantings are due to the actions of waves or wind.

By definition, the rotation of the floating body thus produced as

the volume of the hull to remain unchanged as a value – but which can

vary in shape – is called isohull slanting.

Let

0 0

L L −

be the plane of the initial floating. After the slanting

of the isohull around a certain axis, the floating body will be on a floating

1 1

L L −

.

If initially the centre of hull were situated in the point

0

C

after

the isohull slating with an angle

α

, the centre of hull would move

further, in the sense of slanting, to a point

1

C

.

This movement takes place due to the alteration of the shape of

the hull volume.

The locus of the successive positions of the centre of the hull for

different isohull slantings around the same axis is called the curve of the

centre of hull (trajectory C).

The curvature centre of the curve of the hull centres is called

metacentre and its curvature radius is called metacentric radius.

For transversal slantings around the longitudinal axis Ox – we

shall talk about a transversal metacentre M and about a transversal

metacentric radius r (fig.4.8 a).

43

Fig.4.8 a, b

For longitudinal slantings – around the transversal axis Oy – the

longitudinal metacentre will be denoted by

µ

, and the corresponding

metacentric radius will be R (fig. 4.8 b).

Causing a transversal slanting to the floating body, isohull, with a

small angle,

α

, the centre of hull will move to point

1

C

(fig.4.8 a). In

this case, the force of flotability

V γ

, normal on the slanting flotability

1 1

L L −

, having as application point the point

1

C

won’t have the same

support as the weight (displacement) of the floating body.

As a result, the two forces will make up a couple whose moment,

r

M

, will be given by the relation:

α sin h D M

r

·

, (4.23)

where

a r h − · . (4.24)

is called metacentric height, and a is the distance on the vertical between

the weight centre and centre of hull; denoting by

G

z

and

C

z

the quotes

of these points to a horizontal reference plane, we shall have:

C G

z z a − ·

. (4.25)

44

The metacentric height, expressed by the relation (4.24) may be

positive, negative or nil. We shall in turn analyse each of these cases.

a) if h > 0 the metacentre will be above the weight centre, and the

moment

r

M

, given by the relation (4.24) will also be positive. From

fig.4.8.it can be noticed that, in this case, the moment

r

M

will tend

to return the floating body to the initial floating

0

L

; for this reason it

is called restoring moment. In this case the floating of the body will

be stable.

b) if h < 0, the metacentre is below the centre of weight (fig.4.9 a). It

can be noticed that, in this case, the moment

r

M

will be negative

and will slant the floating body even further. As a result, it will be

called moment of force tending to capsize, the floating of the body

being unstable.

c) If h = 0, the metacentre and the centre of hull will superpose (fig.4.9

b). Consequently, the restoring moment will be nil, and the body will

float in equilibrium on the slanting floating.

Fig.4.9 a, b

In this case the floating is also unstable. Thus, the stability

conditions of the floating are: the metacentre should be placed above the

weight centre, namely

45

. 0 > − · a r h (4.26)

According to (4.24) and (4.23), we may write:

( )

g f r

M M a D r D a r D M + · − · − · α α α sin sin sin

, (4.27)

where:

α sin r D M

f

·

, (4.28)

is called stability moment of form, and:

α sin a D M

g

− ·

, (4.29)

is called stability moment of weight.

As a result, on the basis of (4.27) we can consider the restoring

moment as an algebraic sum of these two moments.

In the case of small longitudinal slantings, the above stated

considerations are also valid, the restoring moment being in this case:

( ) α α sin sin a R D H D M

r

− · · , (4.30)

where

a R H − · . (4.31)

represents the longitudinal metacentric height, and R is the longitudinal

metacentric radius.

46

5. POTENTIAL (IRROTATIONAL)

MOTION

The potential motion is characterised by the fact that the whirl

vector is nil.

0

2

1

· · v rot ω

, (5.1)

hence its name: irrotational.

If ωis nil, its components on the three axes will also be nil:

. 0

2

1

, 0

2

1

, 0

2

1

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

·

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

·

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

·

y

v

x

v

x

v

z

v

z

v

y

v

x

y

z

z x

y

y

z

x

ω

ω

ω

(5.2)

r:

.

,

,

y

v

x

v

x

v

z

v

z

v

y

v

x

y

z x

y

z

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

(5.3)

Relations (5.3) are satisfied only if velocity v derives from a

function

ϕ

:

47

. , ,

z

v

y

v

x

v

z y x

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

ϕ ϕ ϕ

(5.4)

or vectorially:

ϕ ∇ · v

. (5.5)

Indeed:

( ) 0 · · ϕ grad rot v rot . (5.6)

Function

( ) t z y x , , , ϕ

is called the potential of velocities.

If we apply the equation of continuity for liquids,

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

z y x z

v

y

v

x

v

z

y

x

ϕ ϕ ϕ

, (5.7)

we shall notice that function

ϕ

verifies equation of Laplace:

0 · ∆ϕ

, (5.8)

thus being a harmonic function.

5.1 Plane potential motion

The motion of the fluid is called plane or bidimensional if all the

particles that are found on the same perpendicular at an immobile plane,

called director plane, move parallel with this plane, with equal velocities.

If the director plane coincides with xOy, then

0 ·

z

v

.

A plane motion becomes unidimensional if components

x

v

and

y

v

of the velocity of the fluid depend only on a spatial co-ordinate.

For plane motion, the equation of the streamline will be:

48

y x

v

dy

v

dx

·

, (5.9)

or else:

0 · − dx v dy v

y x , (5.10)

and the equation of continuity:

0 ·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

y

v

x

v

y

x

. (5.11)

The left term of the equation (5.10) is an exact total differential of

function

ψ

, called the stream function:

x

v

y

v

y x

∂

∂

− ·

∂

∂

·

ψ ψ

,

, (5.12)

0 · − · dx v dy v d

y x

ψ

. (5.13)

Function

ψ

verifies the equation of continuity (5.11):

0

2 2

·

∂ ∂

∂

−

∂ ∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

x y y x y

v

x

v

y

x

ψ ψ

. (5.14)

Function

ψ

is a harmonic one as well:

0

2

1

2

1

2

2

2

2

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

·

y x y

v

x

v

x

y

z

ψ ψ

ω

, (5.15)

0 · ∆ψ

. (5.16)

The total of the points, in which the potential function

ϕ

is

constant, define the equipotential surfaces.

In the case of a potential plane motion:

ϕ

- constant, equipotential lines of velocity;

ψ

- constant, stream lines.

49

Computing the circulation of velocity along a certain outline, in

the mass of fluid, between points A and B (fig.5.1), we get:

∫ ∫ ∫

− · · ∇ · · Γ

B

A

B

A

A B

B

A

d r d r d v ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ . (5.17)

Thus, the circulation of velocity doesn’t depend on the shape of

the curve AB, but only on the values of the function

ϕ

in A and B. The

circulation of velocity is nil along an equipotential line of velocity (

. const

B A

· ·ϕ ϕ

).

If we compute the flow of liquid through the curve AB in the

plane motion (in fact through the cylindrical surface with an outline AB

and unitary breadth), we get (fig.5.1):

Fig.5.1

( )

∫ ∫

− · · − ·

B

A

B

A

A B y x

d dx v dy v Q ψ ψ ψ 1 1

. (5.18)

Thus, the flow that crosses a curve does not depend on its shape,

but only on the values of function

ψ

in the extreme points. The flow

through a streamline is nil ( ) . const

B A

· ·ψ ψ .

A streamline crosses orthogonal on an equipotential line of

velocity. To demonstrate this propriety we shall take into consideration

that the gradient of a scalar function F is normal on the level surface F =

cons. As a result, vectors

ψ ∇

and

ϕ ∇

are normal on the streamlines

and on the equipotential lines of velocity.

50

Computing their scalar product, we get:

0 · + − ·

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

· ∇ ∇

y x y x

v v v v

y y x x

ψ ϕ ψ ϕ

ψ ϕ

. (5.19)

Since their scalar product is nil, it follows that they are

perpendicular, therefore their streamlines are perpendicular on the lines

of velocity.

Going back to the expressions of

x

v

and y

v

:

.

;

x y

v

y x

v

y

x

∂

∂

− ·

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

ψ ϕ

ψ ϕ

(5.20)

Relations (5.20) represent the Cauchy-Riemann’s monogenic

conditions for a function of complex variable.

Any potential plane motion may always be plotted by means of an

analytic function of complex variable,

( )

θ i

re z iy x z · + · .

The analytic function;

( ) ( ) ( ) y x i y x z W , , ψ ϕ + ·

, (5.21)

is called the complex potential of the plane potential motion.

Deriving (5.21) we get the complex velocity:

y x

v i v

y

i

y x

i

x dz

dW

− ·

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

ϕ ψ ψ ϕ

. (5.22)

51

Fig.5.2

( )

θ

θ θ

i

e v i v

dz

dW

−

· − · sin cos

. (5.23)

Having found the complex potential, let’s establish a few types of

plane potential motions.

5.2 Rectilinear and uniform motion

Let’s consider the complex potential:

( ) z a z W ·

, (5.24)

where a is a complex constant in the form of:

K

v i v a − ·

0

, (5.25)

with

0

v

and

K

v

real and constant positive.

Relation (5.24) can be written in the form:

( ) ( ) ( )i x v y v y v x v i z W

K K

− + + · + ·

0 0

ψ ϕ

, (5.26)

52

where from we can get the expressions of functions

ϕ

and

ψ

:

( )

( ) . ,

, ,

0

0

x v y v y x

y v x v y x

K

K

− ·

+ ·

ψ

ϕ

(5.27)

By equalling these relations with constants we obtain the

equations of equipotential lines and of streamlines.

.

.

2 0

1 0

cons C x v y v

cons C y v x v

K

K

· · −

· · +

(5.28)

From these equations we notice that the streamlines and

equipotential lines are straight, having constant slopes (fig.5.3).

Fig.5.3

53

. 0

, 0

0

2

0

1

> ·

< − ·

v

v

tg

v

v

tg

K

K

θ

θ

(5.29)

We can easily check the orthogonality of the stream and

equipotential lines by writing:

1

2 1

− · θ θ tg tg

. (5.30)

Deriving the complex potential we get the complex velocity:

K

v i v a

dz

dW

− · ·

0

, (5.31)

that enables us to determine the components of velocity in a certain

point:

. 0

, 0

0

> ·

> ·

K y

x

v v

v v

(5.32)

The vector velocity will have the modulus:

2 2

0 K

v v v + · , (5.33)

and will have with axis Ox, the angle

2

θ

, given by the relation (5.29).

We can conclude that the potential vector (5.25) is a rectilinear

and uniform flow on a direction of angle

2

θ

with the abscissa axis.

The components of velocity can be also obtained from relations

(5.20):

54

.

,

0

K y

x

v

x y

v

v

y x

v

·

∂

∂

− ·

∂

∂

·

·

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

ψ ϕ

ψ ϕ

(5.34)

If we particularise (5.25), by assuming

0 ·

k

v

, the potential

(5.24) will take the form:

( ) z v z W

0

·

, (5.35)

that represents a rectilinear and uniform motion on the direction of the

axis Ox.

Analogically, assuming in (5.25)

0

0

· v

, we get:

( ) z v i z W

K

− · , (5.36)

that is the potential vector of a rectilinear and uniform flow, of velocity

K

v

, on the direction of the axis Oy.

The motion described above will have a reverse sense if the

corresponding expressions of the potential vector are taken with a reverse

sign.

5.3 The source

Let’s consider the complex potential:

( ) z

Q

z W ln

2π

·

, (5.37)

55

where Q is a real and positive constant.

Writing the variable

θ i

e r z · , this complex potential becomes:

( ) ( ) θ

π

ψ ϕ i r

Q

i z W + · + · ln

2

, (5.38)

where from we get function

ϕ

and

ψ

:

.

2

, ln

2

θ

π

ψ

π

ϕ

Q

r

Q

·

·

(5.39)

which, equalled with constants, give us the equations of equipotential and

stream lines, in the form:

. .

, .

cons

cons r

·

·

θ

(5.40)

It can be noticed that the equipotential lines are concentric circles

with the centre in the origin of the axes, and the streamlines are

concurrent lines in this point (fig.5.4).

Fig.5.4

56

Knowing that:

θ θ sin cos r y and r x · ·

, (5.41)

in a point

( ) θ , r M

, the components of velocity will be:

. 0

1

,

2

·

∂

∂

·

·

∂

∂

·

θ

ϕ

π

ϕ

r

v

r

Q

r

v

S

r

(5.42)

It can noticed that on the circle of radius r = cons., the fluid

velocity has a constant modulus, being co-linear with the vector radius of

the considered point.

Such a plane potential motion in which the flow takes place

radially, in such a manner that along a circle of given radius velocity is

constant as a modulus, is called a plane source.

Constant Q, which appears in the above - written relations, is

called the flow of the source.

The flow of the source through a circular surface of radius r and

unitary breadth will be:

1 2

r

v r Q π ·

. (5.43)

Analogically, the complex potential of the form:

( ) z

Q

z W ln

2π

− ·

, (5.44)

will represent a suction or a well because, in this case, the sense of the

velocity is reversing, the fluid moving from the exterior to the origin

(where it is being sucked).

57

If the source isn’t placed in the origin of the axes, but in a point

1

O

, of the real axis, of abscissa a t , then:

( ) ( ) a z

Q

z W t · ln

2π

. (5.45)

5.4. The whirl

Let the complex potential be:

( ) z

i

z W ln

2π

Γ

− · . (5.46)

where Γ is a positive and real constant, equal to the circulation of

velocity along a closed outline, which surrounds the origin.

Proceeding in the same manner as for the previous case, we shall

get the functions

ϕ

and

ψ

:

, ln

2

,

2

r

π

ψ

θ

π

ϕ

Γ

− ·

Γ

·

(5.47)

from which we can notice that the equipotential lines, of equation

. const · θ are concurrent lines, in the origin of axes, and the

streamlines, having the equation

. const r ·

, are concentric circles with

their centre in the origin of the axes (fig.5.5).

58

Fig.5.5

The components of velocity are:

0

2

1

0 >

Γ

·

∂

∂

· ·

∂

∂

·

r r

v and

r

v

S r

π θ

ϕ ϕ

. (5.48)

Thus, on a circle of given radius r, the velocity is constant as a

modulus, has the direction of the tangent to this circle in the considered

point and is directed in the sense of angle increase.

If the whirl is placed on the real axis, in a point with abscissa

a t , the complex potential of the motion will be:

( ) ( ) a z

i

z W ln

2π

Γ

− ·

. (5.49)

59

5.5. The flow with and without circulation around a

circular cylinder

The flow with circulation around a circular cylinder is a plane potential

motion that consists of an axial stream (directed along axis Ox), a dipole

of moment

*

2π · M (with a source at the left of suction) and a whirl (in

direct trigonometric sense).

The complex potential of motion will be:

( ) z

i

z

r

z v z W ln

2

2

0

0

π

Γ

−

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

, (5.50)

where we have done the denotation:

0

2

0

1

v

r ·

. (5.51)

By writing the complex variable

θ i

e r z ·

, we shall divide in

(5.50) the real part from the imaginary one, thus obtaining functions

ϕ

and

ψ

:

θ

π

θ ϕ

2

cos

2

0

0

Γ

+

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

r

r

r v

, (5.52)

r

r

r

r v ln

2

sin

2

0

0

π

θ ψ

Γ

−

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

. (5.53)

60

* The dipole or the duplet is a plane potential motion that consists of two equal sources of opposite

senses, placed at an infinite small distance , so that the product , called the moment of the dipole should

be finite and constant. .

The stream and equipotential lines are obtained by taking in

relations (5.52), (5.53),

C C · · ψ ϕ ,

respectively. We notice that if in

(5.53) we assume

0

r r ·

, function

ψ

will become constant; therefore

we can infer that the circle of radius

0

r

with the centre in the origin of

the axes is a streamline (fig.5.8).

Admitting that this streamline is a solid border, we’ll be able to

consider this motion described by the complex potential (5.50) as being

the flow around a straight circular cylinder of radius

0

r

, having the

breadth normal on the motion plane, infinite.

If we plot the other

streamlines we shall get some

asymmetric curves with respect to

axis Ox (fig.5.6). On the inferior

side of the circle of radius

0

r

, the

velocity due to the axial stream is

summed up with the velocity due

to the whirl.

Fig.5.6

As a result, here we shall obtain smaller velocities, and the

streamlines will be more rare.

In polar co-ordinates, the components of velocity in a certain

point

( ) θ , r M

, will be:

θ cos 1

2

2

0

0

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

r

r

v v

r

, (5.54)

If the considered point is placed on the circle of radius

0

r

, we’ll

have:

61

.

2

sin 2

, 0

0

0

r

v v

v

S

r

π

θ

Γ

+ ·

·

(5.55)

The position of stagnant points can be determined provided that

between these points the velocity of the fluid should be nil.

The flow without circulation around a circular cylinder is the

plane potential motion made up of an axial stream (directed along axis

Ox) and a dipole of moment π 2 · M (whose source is at the left of

suction).

Thus, this motion can be obtained particularising the motion

previously described by cancelling the whirl.

By making 0 · Γ , in relations (5.50), (5.52) and (5.53) we get

the complex potential of the motion, the function potential of velocity

and the function of stream, in the form:

( ) ,

2

0

0

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

z

r

z v z W

(5.56)

, cos

2

0

0

θ ϕ

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

r

r

r v

(5.57)

. sin

2

0

0

θ ψ

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

r

r

r v

(5.58)

By writing the equation of streamlines

ψ

= cons. in the form:

.

2 2

2

0

0

const C y

y x

r

y v · ·

+

−

(5.59)

62

we notice that the nil streamline (C = 0) is made up of a part of the real

axis (Ox) and the circle of radius

0

r

(fig.5.7).

The other streamlines are

symmetric curves with respect

to axis Ox. Obviously, if we

consider the circle of radius

0

r

, as a solid border, the motion

can be seen as a flow of an axial

stream around an infinitely long

cylinder, normal on the motion

plane.

Fig.5.7

The components of velocity are:

. sin 1

, cos 1

2

2

0

0

2

2

0

0

θ

θ

,

_

¸

¸

+ − ·

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

r

r

v v

r

r

v v

S

r

(5.60)

which, on the circle of radius

0

r

, become:

. sin 2

, 0

0

θ v v

v

S

r

− ·

·

(5.61)

The position of stagnant points is obtained by making

0 · ·

S

v v

,

which implies 0 sin · θ . Thus the stagnant points are found on the axis

Ox in the points

( ) π ,

0

r A

and

( ) 0 ,

0

r B

.

63

5.6 Kutta – Jukovski’s theorem

Let us consider a cylindrical body normal on the complex plane,

the outline C being the crossing curve between the cylinder and the

complex plane.

Around this outline there flows a stream, potential plane, having

the complex potential

( ) z W

. The velocity in infinite of the stream,

directed in the negative sense of the axis Ox, is ∞

v

.

In this case the resultant of the pressure forces will have the

components:

. 1

, 0

∞

Γ ·

·

v R

R

y

x

ρ

(5.62)

The forces are given with respect to the unit of length of the body.

The second relation (5.62) is the mathematic expression of Kutta-

Jukovski’s theorem, which will be only stated below without

demonstrating it:

“ If a fluid of density

ρ

is draining around a body of circulation

Γ and velocity in infinite ∞

v

, it will act upon the unit of length of the

body with a force equal to the product ∞

Γv ρ

, normal on the direction

of velocity in infinite called lift force (lift)”.

The sense of the lift is obtained by rotating the vector of velocity

from infinite with

0

90 in the reverse sense of circulation.

64

6. IMPULSE AND MOMENT IMPULSE

THEOREM

We take into consideration a volume

τ

of fluid. This fluid is

homogeneous, incompressible, of density

ρ

, bordered by surface

σ

.

The elementary volume τ d has the speed v .

The elementary impulse will be:

τ ρ d v I d ·

. (6.1)

∫

·

τ

τ ρ d v I

. (6.2)

∫

·

τ

τ ρ d

dt

v d

dt

I d

. (6.3)

At the same time

i

F

dt

I d

− · . (6.4)

But:

0 · + +

i p m

F F F

(d’Alembert principle). (6.5)

Therefore:

e p m

F F F

dt

I d

· + · . (6.6)

The total derivative, of the impulse with respect to time, is equal

to the resultant

e

F

of the exterior forces, or

i i e e e

v M v M F ∑ − ∑ · , (6.7)

where

e i

M M ,

are the mass flows through entrance/ exit surfaces.

“ Under permanent flow conditions of ideal fluid, the vectorial

sum of the external forces which act upon the fluid in the volume

τ

, is

65

equal with the impulse flow through the exit surfaces (from the volume

τ

), less the impulse flow through the entrance surfaces (to the volume

τ

) “.

r - the position vector of the centre of volume with respect to

origin of the reference system.

The elementary inertia moment with respect to point O (the

origin) is:

( ) τ ρ τ ρ d v r

dt

d

d

dt

v d

r M d

i

× − ·

,

_

¸

¸

− × ·

, (6.8)

since

( ) .

dt

v d

r

dt

v d

r v v

dt

v d

r v

dt

r d

v r

dt

d

× · × + × · × + × · × (6.9)

then

( )

∫ ∫

× − · ·

τ τ

τ ρ d v r

dt

d

M d M

i i . (6.10)

If:

τ ρd v I d ·

the elementary impulse, (6.11)

τ ρd v r k d × ·

the moment of elementary impulse, (6.12)

∫

× ·

τ

τ ρ , d v r k

(6.13)

( )

i

M d v r

dt

d

dt

k d

− · × ·

∫

τ

τ ρ

. (6.14)

The derivative of the resultant moment of impulse with respect

to time is equal with the resultant moment of inertia forces with

reversible sign.

66

ex p m

M M M

dt

k d

· + · , (6.15)

where

m

M

- the moment of mass forces,

p

M

- the moment pressure forces,

ex

M

- the moment of external forces.

oi oe

r r ,

- the position vector of the centre of gravity for the

exit /entrance surfaces.

( ) ( )

i oi i e oe e ex

v r M v r M M × ∑ − × ∑ · . (6.16)

“ Under permanent flow conditions of ideal fluids, the vectorial

addition of the moments of external forces which act upon the fluid in the

volume

τ

, is equal to the moment of the impulse flow through the exit

surfaces less the moment of the impulse flow through the entrance

surfaces”.

67

7. MOTION EQUATION OF THE REAL

FLUID

7.1 Motion regimes of fluids

The motion of real fluids can be carried out under two regimes of

different quality: laminar and turbulent.

These motion regimes were first emphasised by the English

physicist in mechanics Osborne Reynolds in 1882, who made systematic

experimental studies concerning the flow of water through glass conduits

of diameter mm d 25 5÷ · .

The experimental installation, which was then used, is

schematically shown in fig.7.1.

The transparent conduit 1, with a very accurate processed inlet, is

supplied by tank 2, full of water, at a constant level.

68

Fig.7.1

The flow that passes the transparent conduit can be adjusted by

means of tap 3, and measured with the help of graded pot 6.

In conduit 1, inside the water stream we insert, by means of a thin

tube 4, a coloured liquid of the same density as water. The flow of

coloured liquid, supplied by tank 5 may be adjusted by means of tap 7.

But slightly turning on tap 3, through conduit 1 a stream of water

will pass at a certain flow and velocity.

If we turn on tap 7 as well, the coloured liquid inserted through

the thin tube 4, engages itself in the flow in the shape of a rectilinear

thread, parallel to the walls of conduit, leaving the impression that a

straight line has been drawn inside the transparent conduit 1.

This regime of motion under which the fluid flows in threads that

don’t mix is called a laminar regime.

By slowly continuing to turn on tap 3, we can notice that for a

certain flow velocity of water, the thread of liquid begins to undulate, and

for higher velocities it begins to pulsate, which shows that vector velocity

registers variations in time (pulsations).

For even higher velocities, the pulsations of the coloured thread

of water increase their amplitude and, at a certain moment, it will tear,

the particles of coloured liquid mixing with the mass of water that is

flowing through conduit 1.

The regime of motion in which, due to pulsations of velocity, the

particles of fluid mix is called a turbulent regime.

The shift from a laminar regime to the turbulent one, called a

transition regime is characterised by a certain value of Reynold’s number

*

, called critical value (

cr

Re

).

69

* Number , is the number that defines the

similarity criterion Reynolds.

For circular smooth conduits, the critical value of Reynold’s

number is

2320 Re ·

cr

.

For values of Reynold’s number inferior to the critical value (

cr

Re Re <

), the motion of liquid will be laminar, while for

cr

Re Re >

,

the flow regime will be turbulent.

7.2 Navier – Stokes’ equation

Navier – Stokes’ equation describes the motion of real (viscous)

incompressible fluids in a laminar regime.

Unlike ideal fluids that are capable to develop only unitary

compression efforts that are exclusively due to their pressure, real

(viscous) fluids can develop normal or tangent supplementary viscosity

efforts.

The expression of the tangent viscosity effort, defined by Newton

(see chapter 2) is the following:

y

v

∂

∂

·η τ

. (7.1)

Newtonian liquids are capable to develop, under a laminar

regime, viscosity efforts

σ

and

τ

, that make-up the so-called tensor of

the viscosity efforts,

v

T

(in fig. 7.2, efforts manifest on an elementary

parallelipipedic volume of fluid with the sides

dz and dy dx,

):

70

1

1

1

]

1

¸

·

zz yz xz

zy yy xy

zx yx xx

v

T

σ τ τ

τ σ τ

τ τ σ

. (7.2)

The tensor

v

T

is symmetrical:

yz zy xz zx xy yx

τ τ τ τ τ τ · · · ; ;

. (7.3)

Fig.7.2

The elementary force of viscosity that is exerted upon the

elementary volume of fluid in the direction of axis Ox is:

( ) ( ) ( )

. dz dy dx

z y x

dy dx dz

z

dy dx dy

y

dz dy dx

x

dF

zx

yx

xx

zx

yx

xx

vx

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

τ

τ

σ

τ

τ

σ

(7.4)

71

z

x

y

According to the theory of elasticity:

72

.

;

; 2

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

·

z

v

x

v

y

v

x

v

x

v

x z

zx

x

y

yx

x

xx

η τ

η τ

η σ

(7.5)

Thus:

.

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

dydz dx

z

v

y

v

x

v

z

v

y

v

x

v

x

z x

v

z

v

y

v

y x

v

x

v

dF

x x x z

y

x

z x x

y

x

vx

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

∂ ∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂ ∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

η η

η η η

(7.6)

But

0 ·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

z

v

y

v

x

v

z

y

x

, according to the equation of continuity

for liquids.

Then:

dz dy dx v dF

x x

∆ ·η

ν

. (7.7)

Similarly:

, dz dy dx v dF

y vy

∆ ·η

(7.8)

. dy dy dx v dF

z vz

∆ ·η

(7.9)

Hence:

, τ η d v F d

v

∆ ·

(7.10)

73

.

∫

∆ ·

τ

τ η d v F v

(7.11)

Unlike the ideal fluids, in d’Alembert’s principle the viscosity

force also appears.

. 0 · + + +

i v p m

F F F F

(7.12)

Introducing relations (3.3), (3.5), (3.7) and (7.11) into (7.12), we

get:

∫

·

,

_

¸

¸

− ∆ + ∇ −

τ

τ ρ η ρ 0 d

dt

v d

v p F

, (7.13)

or:

dt

v d

v p F · ∆ + ∇ − υ

ρ

1

. (7.14)

Relation (7.14) is the vectorial form of Navier-Stokes’ equation.

The scalar form of this equation is:

.

1

;

1

;

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

z

z

y

z

x

z z z z z

z

z

y

y

y

x

y y y y y

y

z

x

y

x

x

x x x x x

x

v

z

v

v

y

v

v

x

v

t

v

z

v

y

v

x

v

z

p

F

v

z

v

v

y

v

v

x

v

t

v

z

v

y

v

x

v

y

p

F

v

z

v

v

y

v

v

x

v

t

v

z

v

y

v

x

v

x

p

F

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

−

υ

ρ

υ

ρ

υ

ρ

(7.15)

74

7.3 Bernoulli’s equation under the permanent regime

of a thread of real fluid

Unlike the permanent motion of an ideal fluid, where its specific

energy

*

remains constant along the thread of fluid and where, from one

section to another, there takes place only the conversion of a part from

the potential energy into kinetic energy, or the other way round, in

permanent motion of the real fluid, its specific energy is no longer

constant. It always decreases in the sense of the movement of the fluid.

A part of the fluid’s energy is converted into thermal energy, is

irreversibly spent to overcome the resistance brought about by its

viscosity.

Denoting this specific energy (load) by f

h

, Bernoulli’s equation

becomes:

f

h z

p

g

v

z

p

g

v

+ + + · + +

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

1

2 2 γ γ

. (7.16)

In different points of the same section, only the potential energy

remains constant, the kinetic one is different since the velocity differs in

the section,

( ) z y x v v , , ·

. In this case the term of the kinetic energy

should be corrected by a coefficient

α

, that considers the distribution of

velocities in the section

( ) 1 , 1 05 , 1 ÷ · α

.

f

h z

p

g

v

z

p

g

v

+ + + · + +

2

2

2

2 2

1

1

2

1 1

2 2 γ

α

γ

α

. (7.17)

75

* the weight unit energy

By reporting the loss of load f

h

to the length l of a straight

conduit, we get the hydraulic slope (fig.7.3):

Fig.7.3

l

h

l

z

p

g

v

z

p

g

v

I

f

·

,

_

¸

¸

+ + −

,

_

¸

¸

+ +

·

2

2

2

2 2

1

1

2

1 1

2 2 γ

α

γ

α

. (7.18)

If we refer only to the potential specific energy, we get the

piezometric slope:

l

z

p

z

p

I

p

,

_

¸

¸

+ −

,

_

¸

¸

+

·

2

2

1

1

γ γ . (7.19)

In the case of uniform motion (

ct v ·

):

l

h

tg I I

f

p

· · · θ . (7.20)

Experimental researches have revealed that irrespective of the

regime under which the motion of fluid takes place, the losses of load can

be written in the form:

m

f

v b h ·

, (7.21)

76

where b is a coefficient that considers the nature of the fluid, the

dimensions of the conduit and the state of its wall.

1 · m for laminar regime;

2 75 , 1 ÷ · m

for turbulent regime.

If we logarithm (7.21) we get:

v m b h

f

lg lg lg + ·

. (7.22)

In fig. 7.4 the load variation f

h

with respect to velocity is

plotted in logarithmic co-ordinates.

Fig.7.4

For the laminar regime

0

45 · θ . The shift to the turbulent regime

is made for a velocity corresponding to

2320 Re ·

cr

.

77

7.4 Laminar motion of fluids

7.4.1 Velocities distribution between two plane parallel

boards of infinite length (fig.7.5).

To determine the velocity distribution between two plane parallel

boards of infinite length, we shall integrate the equation (7.15) under the

following conditions:

Fig.7.5

a) velocity has only the direction of the axis Ox:

; 0 , 0 · · ≠

z y x

v v v

(7.23)

from the equation of continuity 0 · ∇v , it results:

, 0 ·

∂

∂

x

v

x

(7.24)

therefore velocity does not vary along the axis Ox.

78

b) the movement is identically reproduced in planes parallel to

xOz:

0 ·

∂

∂

y

v

x

. (7.25)

From (7.24) and (7.25) it results that

( ) z v v

x x

·

.

c) the motion is permanent:

0 ·

∂

∂

t

v

x

. (7.26)

d) we leave out the massic forces (the horizontal conduit).

e) the fluid is incompressible.

The first equation (7.15) becomes:

0

1

2

2

· +

∂

∂

−

dz

v d

x

p

x

υ

ρ

, (7.27)

Integrating twice (7.27):

( )

2 1

2

2

1

C z C z

x

p

z v

x

+ +

∂

∂

·

η

. (7.28)

For the case of fixed boards, we have the conditions at limit:

. 0 ,

; 0 , 0

· ·

· ·

x

x

v h z

v z

(7.29)

79

Subsequently:

. 0

;

2

1

2

1

·

∂

∂

·

C

h

x

p

C

η

(7.30)

Then the law of velocity distribution will be:

( ) ( ) z h z

x

p

z v

x

−

∂

∂

− ·

η 2

1

. (7.31)

It is noticed that the velocity distribution is parabolic, having a

maximum for

2

h

z ·

:

x

p h

v

x

∂

∂

− ·

η 8

2

max

*

. (7.32)

Computing the mean velocity in the section:

( )

∫

∂

∂

− · ·

h

x

x

p h

dz z v

h

u

0

2

12

1

η

, (7.33)

we’ll notice that

max

3

2

v u ·

.

The flow that passes through a section of breadth b will be:

x

p h b

h b v Q

∂

∂

− · ·

η 12

3

. (7.34)

80

* is positive, since (the sense of the flow, the positive

sense of axis Ox, corresponds to a decrease in pressure).

7.4.2 Velocity distribution in circular conduits

Let’s consider a circular conduit, of radius

0

r

and length l,

through which an incompressible fluid of density

ρ

and kinematic

viscosity

υ

(fig.7.6) passes.

We report the conduit to a system of cylindrical co-ordinates (

θ and r x,

), the axis Ox, being the axis of the conduit. The movement

being carried out on the direction of the axis, the velocity components

will be:

0 , 0 · · ≠

θ

v v v

r x

. (7.35)

The equation of continuity 0 · ∇v , written in cylindrical co-

ordinates:

( ) ( )

0

1

·

1

]

1

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· ∇

x

r v v

r

v r

r

v

x r

θ

θ

, (7.36)

becomes:

0 ·

∂

∂

x

v

x

, (7.37)

where from we infer that the velocity of the fluid doesn’t vary on the

length of the conduit.

On the other hand, taking into consideration the axial –

symmetrical character of the motion, velocity will neither depend on

variable θ.

As a result, for a permanent motion, it will only depend on

variable r, that is ( ) r v v · .

81

The distribution of velocities in the section of flow can be

obtained by integrating the Navier-Stokes’ equations (7.14).

Noting by

r

i i, and

θ

i

the versors of the three directions of the

adopted system of cylindrical co-ordinates, we can write vector velocity:

( ) i r v v

x

· . (7.38)

Bearing in mind that in cylindrical co-ordinates, operator " "∇

has the expression:

θ

θ

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· ∇

r

i

r

i

x

i

r

. (7.39)

On the basis of (7.38), we can write:

( ) ( ) 0 ·

∂

∂

· ∇

x x

v i

x

v v v

, (7.40)

since, as we have seen, velocity

x

v

only depends on variable r.

On the other hand, in cylindrical co-ordinates, the term v ∆ may be

rendered in the form:

.

1

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

∂

∂

·

·

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

∂

∂

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

∂

∂

· ∆ · ∆

r

r

v

r r

i

r

x

v

x r

v

r

r

v

r r

i

v i v

x

x x x

x

θ θ

(7.41)

Keeping in mind the permanent character of the motion, relation

(7.40) and (7.41) the projection of equation (7.14) onto the axis Ox may

be written in the form:

82

x

p

r

r

v

r r

x

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

∂

∂

ρ

υ 1

, (7.42)

since, on the hypothesis of a horizontal conduit,

0 · ·

x x

g F

.

Assuming that the gradient of pressure on the direction of axis Ox

is constant (

. / cons x p · ∂ ∂

), and integrating the equation (7.42), we

shall successively get:

,

2

1

1

r

C

r

x

p

r

v

x

+

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

η

(7.43)

, ln

4

1

2 1

2

C r C r

x

p

v

x

+ +

∂

∂

·

η

(7.44)

The integrating constants

1

C

and

2

C

are determined using the

limit conditions:

- in the axis of conduit, at r = 0, velocity should be finite, thus

constant

1

C

should be nil;

- on the wall of conduit, at

0

r r ·

, velocity of fluid should be

nil; consequently:

2

0 2

4

1

r

x

p

C

∂

∂

− ·

η

, (7.45)

and relation (7.44) becomes:

( )

2 2

0

4

1

r r

x

p

v

x

−

∂

∂

− ·

η

. (7.46)

From (7.46) we notice that if the motion takes place in the

positive sense of the axis

( ) 0 >

x

v Ox

, then

0 / < ∂ ∂ x p

; therefore

pressure decreases on the direction of motion if I is the piezometric slope

(equal in this case to the hydraulic slope), we can write:

83

I

l

p

x

p

γ ·

∆

·

∂

∂

−

, (7.47)

where

p ∆

is the fall of pressure on the length l of the conduit.

Subsequently, relation (7.41) becomes:

( )

2 2

0

4

r r

I

v

x

− ·

η

γ

. (7.48)

Fig.7.6

It can be noticed that the distribution of velocities in the section

of flow is parabolic (fig.7.6 a), the maximum velocity being registered in

the axis of conduit (r = 0), therefore we get:

2

0 max

4

1

r

I

v

x

η

γ

·

. (7.49)

Let us now consider an elementary surface d A in the shape of a

circular crown of radius r and breadth d r (fig.7.6 b). The elementary

flow that crosses surface d A is:

rdr v dA v dQ

x x

π 2 · ·

, (7.50)

84

and:

( )

∫

· − ·

0

0

4

0

2 2

0

8 2

r

r

I

dr r r r

I

Q π

η

γ

η

γ

π

. (7.51)

The mean velocity has the expression:

2 8

max ,

2

0

x

v

r

I

A

Q

u · · ·

η

γ

. (7.52)

Further on we can write:

g

v

d d g

d v

d g

v

r

v

l

h

I

f

2

1

Re

64

Re

32

32 8

2

2

2

2 2

0

· · · · ·

υ

γ

η

. (7.53)

Relation (7.53) is Hagen-Ppiseuille’s law, which gives us the

value of load linear losses in the conduits for the laminar motion:

g

v

d

l

g

v

d

l

h

f

2 2 Re

64

2 2

λ · ·

, (7.54)

Re

64

· λ

is the hydraulic resistance coefficient for laminar motion.

7.5 Turbulent motion of fluids

In a point of the turbulent stream, the fluid velocity registered

rapid variation, in one sense or the other, with respect to the mean

velocity in section. The field of velocities has a complex structure, still

unknown, being the object of numerous studies.

The variation of velocity with the time may be plotted as in

fig.7.7.

85

Fig.7.7

A particular case of turbulent motion is the quasipermanent

motion (stationary on average). In this case, velocity, although varies in

time, remains a constant means value.

In the turbulent motion we define the following velocities:

a) instantaneous velocity

( ) t z y x u , , ,

;

b) mean velocity

( ) ( )

∫

·

T

dt t z y x u

T

z y x u

0

, , ,

1

, ,

; (7.55)

c) pulsation velocity

( ) ( ) ( ) z y x u t z y x u t z y x u , , , , , , , ,

'

− · . (7.56)

There are several theories that by simplifying describe the

turbulent motion:

a) Theory of mixing length (Prandtl), which admits that the

impulse is kept constant.

b) Theory of whirl transports (Taylor) where the rotor of

velocity is presumed constant.

86

c) Karaman’s theory of turbulence, which states that, except

for the immediate vicinity of a wall, the mechanism of turbulence is

independent from viscosity.

7.5.1 Coefficient λ in turbulent motion

Determination of load losses in the turbulent motion is an

important problem in practice.

It had been experimentally established that in turbulent motion

the pressure loss

p ∆

depends on the following factors: mean velocity on

section, v , diameter of conduit, d , density

ρ

of the fluid and its

kinematic viscosity

υ

, length l of the conduit and the absolute rugosity

*

∆ of its interior walls; therefore:

( ) ∆ · ∆ , , , , , l d v f p υ ρ

, (7.57)

or:

d

l v

p

2

2

ρ

λ · ∆ , (7.58)

d

l

g

v p

h

f

2

2

λ

γ

·

∆

·

, (7.59)

r

or

d

∆ ∆

- relative rugosity

where:

,

_

¸

¸ ∆

·

d

Re, 2

1

ϕ λ

. (7.60)

87

*mean height of the conduit prominence ; -relative rogosity.

As it can be seen from relation (7.60), in turbulent motion the

coefficient of load loss λ may depend either on Reynolds number or on

the relative rugosity of the conduit walls.

In its turbulent flow through the conduit, the fluid has a turbulent

core, in which the process of mixing is decisive in report to the influence

of viscosity and a laminar sub-layer, situated near the wall, in which the

viscosity forces have a decisive role.

If we note by

l

δ

the thickness of the laminar sub-layer, then we

can classify conduits as follows:

- conduits with smooth walls;

l

δ < ∆

;

- conduits with rugous walls;

l

δ > ∆

.

From (7.60) we notice that, unlike the laminar motion in turbulent

motion λ is a complex function of Re and

d

∆

.

It has been experimentally established that in the case of

hydraulic smooth conduits, coefficient λ depends only on Reynolds’

number. Thus, Blasius, by processing the existent experimental material

(in 1911), established for the smooth hydraulic conduits of circular

section, the following empirical formula:

25 , 0

4 / 1

Re

3164 , 0

3164 , 0 ·

,

_

¸

¸

·

υ

λ

d v

, (7.61)

valid for

5

10 Re 000 , 4 < <

.

Using Blasius’ relation in (7.59) we notice that under this motion

regime the load losses are proportional to velocity to 1,75

th

power.

Also for smooth conduits, but for higher Reynolds’ numbers

( )

7

10 Re 000 , 3 < < we can use Konakov’s relation:

( )

2

5 , 1 Re lg 8 , 1

−

− · λ . (7.62)

In turbulent flow through conduits, coefficient λ no longer

depends on Reynolds number, and it can be determined with the help of

Prandtl – Nikuradse’s relation:

88

2

0

74 , 1 lg 2

−

,

_

¸

¸

+

∆

·

r

λ . (7.63)

Some of the most important formulae for the calculus of

coefficient λ are given in table 7.1, the validity field of each relation

being also shown [7].

Table 7.1

No.

a

I

Relation Regime Field

I III IV V

1 Poisseuill

e

Re

64

· λ

Laminar

2320 Re <

2 Prandtl

( )

2

8 , 0 Re lg 2

−

− · λ λ

Smooth

turbulent

7

10 Re

000 , 3 Re

<

>

3 Blasius

25 , 0

Re 3164 , 0

−

· λ

5

10 Re

000 , 4 Re

<

>

4 Konakov

( )

2

5 , 1 Re lg 8 , 1

−

− · λ

7

10 Re

000 , 3 Re

<

>

5 Nikuradze

237 , 0

Re 221 , 0 0032 , 0

−

+ · λ

6

5

10 2 Re

10 Re

<

>

6

Lees

35 , 0 3

Re 61 , 0 10 714 , 0

− −

+ · λ

6

3

10 3 Re

10 Re

<

>

7 Colebrook

-White

λ λ Re

51 , 2

72 , 3

lg 2

1

+

∆

− ·

d

Demi-

rugous

Universal

8 Prandtl-

Nikurdze

2

0

74 , 1 lg 2

−

,

_

¸

¸

+

∆

·

r

λ

Turbulent

rugous

8 5

10 Re 10 < <

9 Sifrinson

25 , 0

11 , 0

,

_

¸

¸∆

·

d

λ

500 Re >

∆

d

89

II

Auth

or

7.5.2 Nikuradze’s diagram

On the basis of experiments made with conduits of homogeneous

different rugosity, which was achieved by sticking on the interior wall

some grains of sand of the same diameter, Nikuradze has made up a

diagram that represents the way coefficient λvaries, both for laminar

and turbulent fields (fig.7.8).

Fig.7.8

We can notice that in the diagram appear five areas in which

variation of coefficient λ, distinctly differs.

Area I is a straight line which represents in logarithmic co-

ordinates the variation:

Re

64

· λ

, (7.64)

90

corresponding to the laminar regime

( ) 2320 Re <

. On this line all the

doted curves are superposed, which represents variation

( ) Re f · λ

for

different relative rugosities

0

/ r ∆

.

Area II is the shift from laminar regime to the turbulent one

which takes place for

( ) 2300 Re 4 , 3 Re lg ≅ ≅

.

Area III corresponds to the smooth hydraulic conduits. In this

area coefficient λ can be determined with the help of Blasius relation

(7.61), to which the straight line III a corresponds, called Blasius’

straight. Since the validity field of relation (7.61) is limited by

5

10 Re · ,

for higher values of Reynolds’ number, we use Konakov’s formula, to

which curve III b corresponds. It is noticed that the smaller the relative

rugosity is, the greater the variation field of Reynolds number, in which

the smooth turbulent regime is maintained.

In area IV each discontinuous curve, which represents dependent

( ) Re f · λ

for different relative rugosities becomes horizontal, which

emphasises the independence of λ on number Re . Therefore this area

corresponds to the rugous turbulent regime, where λ is determined by

(7.63).

It is noticed that in this case the losses of load (7.59) are

proportional to square velocity.

For this reason the rugous turbulent regime is also called square

regime.

Area V is characterised by the dependence of the coefficient both

on Reynolds’ number and on the relative rugosity of the conduit.

It can be noticed that for areas IV and V, coefficient λ decreases

with the decrease of relative rugosity.

91

8. FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR

CONDUITS

In this chapter we shall present the hydraulic calculus of conduits

under pressure in a permanent regime.

Conduits under pressure are in fact a hydraulic system designed

to transport fluids between two points with different energetic loads.

Conduits can be simple (made up of one or several sections of the

same diameter or different diameters), or with branches, in this case,

setting up networks of distribution.

By the manner in which the out coming of the fluid from the

conduit is made, we distinguish between conduits with a free outcome,

which discharge the fluid in the atmosphere (fig.8.1 a) and conduits with

chocked out coming (fig. 8.1 b).

Fig.8.1a, b

92

If we write Bernoulli’s equation for a stream of real liquid,

between the free side of the liquid from the tank A and the end of the

conduit, taking as a reference plane the horizontal plane N – N, we get:

f

h z

p

g

v

z

p

g

v

+ + + · + +

2

2

2

2 2

1

1

2

1 1

2 2 γ

α

γ

α

, (8.1)

which, for the case presented in fig.8.1 a, when

0

1

≅ v

,

0 2 1

p p p · ·

,

1

2 1

· ·α α

,

h z z + ·

2 1

, becomes:

f

h

g

v

h + ·

2

2

, (8.2)

where

2

v v ·

is the mean velocity in the section of the conduit , and h is

the load of the conduit.

In the analyzed case shown in fig. 8.1 b, by introducing in

equation (8.1) the relations

1 0 2 2 1 1 2 0 1 1

, , , , 0 h p p z h h z v v p p v γ + · + + · · · ≅

and

1

2 1

· ·α α

, we shall get the expression (8.2).

From an energetic point of view, this relation shows that from the

available specific potential energy (h), a part is transformed into specific

kinetic energy ( g v 2 /

2

) of the stream of fluid, which for the given

conduit is lost at the outcoming in the atmosphere or in another volume.

The other part

( )

f

h

is used to overcome the hydraulic resistances (that

arise due to the tangent efforts developed by the fluid in motion) and is

lost because it is irreversibly transformed into heat.

Analysing the losses of load from the conduit we shall divide

them into two categories, writing the relation:

93

' ' '

f f f

h h h + ·

. (8.3)

The losses of load, denoted by f h

'

are brought about by the

tangent efforts that are developed during the motion of the fluid along the

length of the conduit ( l) and, for this reason, they are called losses of

load distributed. These losses of load have been determined in paragraph

7.4.2, getting the relation (7.54) which we may write in the form:

d

l

g

v

h f

2

2

'

λ ·

, (8.4)

where the coefficient of losses of load, λ , called Darcy coefficient is

determined by the relations shown in table 7.1 ; the manner of calculus

being also shown in that paragraph. Generally, in practical cases, the

values of coefficient λ vary in a domain that ranges between

04 , 0 02 , 0 ÷

.

Being proportional to the length of the conduit, the distributed

losses of load are also called linear losses.

The second category of losses of load is represented by the local

losses of load that are brought about by: local perturbation of the normal

flow, the detachment of the stream from the wall, whirl setting up,

intensifying of the turbulent mixture, etc; and arise in the area where the

conduit configuration is modified or at the meeting an obstacle detouring

(inlet of the fluid in the conduit, flaring, contraction, bending and

derivation of the stream, etc.).

The local losses of load are calculated with the help of a general

formula, given by Weissbach:

g

v

h

f

2

2

' '

ζ ·

, (8.5)

where

ζ

is the local loss of load coefficient that is determined for each

local resistance (bends, valves, narrowing or enlargements of the flow

section etc.).

94

Generally, coefficient

ζ

depends mainly on the geometric

parameters of the considered element, as well as on some factors that

characterise the motion, such as: the velocities distribution at the inlet of

the fluid in the examined element, the flow regime, Reynolds’ number

etc.

In practice, coefficient

ζ

is determined with respect to the type

of the respective local resistance, using tables, monograms or empirical

relations that are found in hydraulic books. Therefore, for curved bends

of angle

0

90 ≤ δ , coefficient

ζ

can be determined by using the relation:

0

0

5 , 3

5 , 3

90

16 , 0 13 , 0

δ

ρ

ζ

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

d

, (8.6)

where

ρ and d

are the diameter and curvature radius of the bend,

respectively.

Coefficient

ζ

, corresponding to the loss of load at the inlet in

their conduit, depends mainly on the wall thickness of the conduit with

respect to its diameter and on the way the conduit is attached to the tank.

If the conduit is embedded at the level of the inferior wall of the tank, the

losses of load that arise at the inlet in the conduit are equivalent with the

losses of load in an exterior cylindrical nipple. For this case,

5 . 0 ≅ ζ

.

If on the route of the conduit there are several local resistances,

the total loss of fluid will be given by the arithmetic sum of the losses of

load corresponding to each local resistance in turn, namely:

∑

·

g

v

h

f

2

2

' '

ζ

, (8.7)

Using relations (8.4) and (8.7), we get the total loss of load of the

conduit:

g

v

d

l

h

f

2

2

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

∑

ζ λ

, (8.8)

95

that allows us to write relation (8.2) in the form:

g

v

d

l

h

2

1

2

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

∑

ζ λ

, (8.9)

where from the mean velocity in the flow section will result:

∑

+ +

·

ζ λ

d

l

h g

v

1

2

. (8.10)

The flow of the conduit is determined by:

∑

+ +

· ·

ζ λ

π π

d

l

h g d

v

d

Q

1

2

4 4

2 2

, (8.11)

which allows us to express the load of the conduit, h, and diameter, d,

with respect to flow Q; we get:

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

∑

ζ λ

π d

l

d

Q

g

h 1

8

4

2

2

, (8.12)

and respectively:

( )

∑

+ + · ζ λ

π

d l d

h

Q

g

d

2

2

5

8

. (8.13)

Sometimes in the calculus of enough long conduits, the kinetic

term ( ) g v 2 /

2

and the local losses of load are negligible with respect to

the linear losses of load.

In the case of such conduits, called long conduits, relation (8.2)

takes the form:

d

l

g

v

h h

f

2

2

'

λ · ·

, (8.14)

96

and relations (8.10), (8.11), (8.12) and (8.13) become:

l

gdh

v

λ

2

·

, (8.15)

l

gdh d

Q

λ

π 2

4

2

·

, (8.16)

l

d

Q

g

h λ

π

5

2

2

8

·

, (8.17)

and, respectively:

l

h

Q

g

d λ

π

2

2

5

8

·

. (8.18)

With the help of the above written relations all problems

concerning the computation of conduits under pressure can be solved.

Generally, these problems are divided into three categories:

a) to determine the load of the conduit, when length, rugosity,

flow and rugosity of interior walls of the conduit are known;

b) to determine the optimal diameters when flow, length,

rugosity of the walls of conduit as well as the admitted load are

known;

c) to determine the flow of liquid conveyed through the conduit

when diameter, length, nature of the wall of conduit and its load

are known.

97

9. HYDRODYNAMIC PROFILES

9.1 Geometric characteristics of hydrodynamic profiles

A hydrodynamic profile is a contour with an elongated shape with

respect to the direction of stream, rounded at the front edge-called

leading edge-and having a peak at the back edge, called trailing edge.

In what follows we shall stress on

some of the elements, which

characterise the profile.

a) The chord of the profile is

defined as the straight line which

joins the trailing edge A, with the

point B, in which the circle

Fig.9.1

with the centre in A is tangent to the leading edge; the length of the

chord will be noted by c (fig.9.1).

b) The thickness of the profile is measured on the normal to the chord

and is noted by e. This thickness varies along the chord and reaches a

maximum in a section which is called section of maximum thickness,

situated at the distance

m

l

to the leading edge.

c) Relative thickness,

ε

, and maximum relative thickness,

m

ε

, are

defined by the relations:

c

e

and

c

e

m

m

· · ε ε . (9.1)

98

d) The framework of a profile, or the line of mean curvature, is the

curve that joins the mean thickness points. The shape of the

framework is an important geometric parameter and is linked to the

curvature motion of the profile.

From this point of view, profiles can be with simple curvature

(fig.9.1) or with double curvature (9.2).

e) The arrow of the profile, f, is the maximum distance, measured on the

normal to the chord, between the framework and the chord of the

profile.

f) The extrados and intrados of the

profile represent the upper and lower

part of the profile, respectively.

By the geometric shape of the

trailing edge, which plays an important

part in the theory of profiles, we may

distinguish among three categories of

profiles:

Fig.9.2

- Jukovski profiles, profiles with a sharp edge, for which the

tangents to the trailing edge at extrados and intrados

superpose (fig.9.3 a)

- Karman-Trefftz profiles, or profiles with a dihedral tip, for

which the

tangents to the extrados and the intrados make an angle δ in

the

trailing edge (fig.9.3 b),

- Carafoli profiles, or profiles with the rounded tip, for which the

trailing

edge ends in a rounded contour, with a small curvature radius.

(fig.9.3c).

99

It is generally studied the plane

potential motion around the

hydrodynamic profile, considered as the

intersection of the complex plane of

motion with a cylindrical object (called

wing), normal on this plane and having

an infinite length (called span).

In reality, wings have a finite span

and, from a geometrical point of view,

they are characterised by the section of

the wing, which, generally, alters

Fig.9.3 a, b, c

the length of the wing and the shape of the wing in plane.

By the shape of the wing in plane, there are: rectangular wings

(fig.9.4), trapezoidal wings (9.4 b), elliptical (9.4 c), and triangular wings

(9.4 d).

Fig.9.4 a, b, c, d

An important parameter of the wing is the relative elongation

defined by the relation:

S

l

2

· λ , (9.2)

where l and S represent the span and the surface of the wing,

respectively.

100

In the particular case of rectangular wing, the length of the chord

is constant

0

c c ·

and relation (9.2) becomes:

0

/ c l · λ

,

since:

0

c l S ·

.

We can classify wings by their elongation λ; into:

- wings of infinite span, when 6 > λ ;

- wings of finite span, when 6 < λ .

9.2 The flow of fluids around wings

Kutta-Jukovski’s relation (5.62) can be applied to any solid body

in relative displacement with respect to a fluid.

It indicates that whenever there is a circulation Γaround a body,

there arises a lift force y

R

, whose value is determined, under the same

circumstances of environment ( ∞

v and ρ

), by the intensity of

circulation.

To get a higher circulation around bodies, we can act in two

ways:

- for geometrical symmetric bodies: they are asymmetrically

placed with respect to ∞

v

direction or a rotational motion is

induced (an infinitely long cylinder, sphere-Magnus effect).

- for asymmetrical bodies: study of shapes more proper to

circulation.

On the basis of many theoretical and experimental studies, we

have come to designing wings with a high lift, called hydrodynamic

profiles.

101

Fig.9.5

In fig.9.5, the arising of circulation around the hydrodynamic

profile, alters the spectre of lines of rectilinear stream, of velocity ∞

v

as

follows: on the extrados the sense of circulations coincides with that of

motion and is seen as a supplement of velocity v ∆ , and on the intrados

velocity is decreased with v ∆ .

According to Bernoulli’s law, the velocities asymmetry brings

about the static pressures asymmetry (high pressure on the intrados, low

pressure on the extrados) as well as the arising of lift force.

Applying Bernoulli’s relation between a point at ∞ and a point

on the profile, we get:

2 2

2 2

S

S

v

p

v

p ρ

ρ

+ · +

∞

∞

. (9.3)

The pressure coefficient is defined by the relation:

2

2

2

1

2

∞ ∞

∞

− ·

−

·

v

v

v

p p

C

S S

p

ρ

. (9.4)

102

In fig. 9.6 it is shown the distribution of pressure and of the

pressure coefficient on a hydrodynamic profile at a certain angle of

incidence,

*

α .

Fig.9.6

The alteration of the incidence angle leads to the shift in the

pressures distribution.

* The angle between and the chord of the profile.

103

9.3 Forces on the hydrodynamic profiles

The forces which act upon hydrodynamic or aerodynamic

profiles: lift, shape resistance, friction force or the force due to the

detachment of the limit layer give a resultant R which decomposes by

the direction of velocity in infinite and by a direction which is

perpendicular on it (fig.9.7). Component

x

R

is called resistance at

advancement, and component y

R

, lift force.

They are usually written in the form:

.

2

;

2

2

2

S

v

C R

S

v

C R

y y

x x

∞

∞

·

·

ρ

ρ

(9.5)

where

x

C

is called the coefficient of resistance at advancement, and

y

C

the lift coefficient (

l c S ·

for profiles of constant chord).

Fig.9.7

104

Force R can also decompose by the direction of chord

(component

t

R

) and by a direction perpendicular on the chord

(component

n

R

).

These components may also be expressed with the help of

coefficients:

t

C

- the coefficient of tangent force and

n

C

- the coefficient of normal

force.

For a certain angle

s , α

is the distance between the leading edge

and the pressure centre (the application point of hydrodynamic force).

The relation expresses the moment of the force R with respect to

the leading edge:

α α sin cos s R s R s R M

x y n

+ · ·

. (9.7)

Also, moment M can be expressed by an analytic form similar to

that used for the components of hydrodynamic force:

S

v

c C M

m

2

2

∞

· ρ . (9.8)

Using (9.5), (9.7), and (9.8), we get:

α α sin cos

x y

m

C C

C

c

s

+

·

. (9.9)

In the case of small incidence angles:

y

m

C

C

c

s

≅

. (9.10)

The usage of coefficients

x

C

, y

C

and

n

C

is often met in

actual practice. Their variation is studied in different conditions and

given in the form of tables and graphics of great importance for the

calculus and design of systems, which deal with profiles.

Coefficients

x

C

, y

C

and

n

C

depend on the following main

elements:

105

- the shape of the profile;

- the span of the profile (finite or infinite, finite of small span or

great span);

- the type of the flow (Reynolds’ number);

- rugosity of surfaces;

- the angle of incidence.

For each shape of profile, at certain different relative elongation,

λ, (see paragraph 9.1), in the case of certain flow velocities (numbers

Re variable), there are diagrams experimentally established

( ) ( ) ( ) α α α

m y x

C and C C ,

.

Fig.9.8

In fig. 9.8 there are plotted the diagrams of coefficients for

resistance at advancement and for lift force for a NACA 6412 profile, of

relative elongation 3, at a number Re = 85,000.

Another type of diagram often used is the polar profile, namely

the function

( )

x y

C C

at different slanting angles (fig.9.9). The polar

allows us to define two characteristics of the profile:

- the floating or gliding coefficient:

y

x

C

C

tg · · γ ε

, (9.11)

106

- aerodynamic accuracy:

x

y

C

C

f · ·

ε

1

. (9.12)

Fig.9.9

9.4 Induced resistance in the case of finite span profiles

For wings of great span, considered infinite ∞ · l , the motion

around the profile is plane. Circulation Γ may be replaced by a whirl.

In reality, at the tips

of the wing, because of

the difference in

pressure, there arises a

107

motion of fluid from

intrados to extrados

(9.10). The greater the

weight of this motion,

the smaller the wing

span is.

Fig. 9.10

As a consequence,

circulation Γ is no

longer constant; at the

tips there is a

minimum. (fig.9.11).

This leads to an

alteration of

hydrodynamic

parameters, through the

arising of the so-called

induced resistance.

Fig.9.11

In fig.9.12 the scheme of hydrodynamic forces for the wing of

finite span is plotted.

Due to the arising of an induced velocity

i

v

, created by the free

whirl, perpendicular on the velocity in infinite

∞

v

, the resultant velocity

becomes:

i v v v + · ∞

. (9.13)

108

Fig.9.12

As a consequence there will appear an induced incidence angle

i

α

, which thus decreases the incidence angle

α

.

The alteration of direction and value of velocity bring about the

corresponding alteration of lift, which, as we have already shown, is

perpendicular on the direction of stream velocity.

If y R is the lift of the infinite profile and F is the lift under the

circumstances of an induced velocity (perpendicular on the direction of

velocity v ), then:

. cos

; sin

i y

i i

F R

F R

α

α

·

·

(9.14)

In the conditions of very small values of

i

α

, we may assume that

F R

y

≅

, namely lift does not alter.

Component

i

R

acting on the direction Ox is called induced

resistance and may be written in the form:

S

v

C R

xi i

2

2

∞

·

ρ

. (9.15)

The total resistance of the wing of infinite span is the sum

between the resistance of wing of infinite span

x

R

and the induced

resistance

i

R

.

109

9.5 Network profiles

Several profiles that are in the stream of fluid are in reciprocal

influence, behaving in a different manner within the assembly, rather

than solitary. Networks of profiles are often met in practice in the

hydraulic or pneumatic units, propellers, etc.

To study the behavior of profiles in network, let us consider a

system made up of several identical profiles, of span l and control

contour ABCD (fig.9.13). The pitch of the network is t.

Fig.9.13

Velocities v in points 1 and 2 have the components

x

v

and y

v

,

according to the system of axes shown in the figure. Assuming that the

density of fluid doesn’t alter in a significant way when passing through

the network,

2 1

ρ ρ ·

, then

2 1

x x

v v ·

.

Indeed, applying the equation of continuity:

l t v l t v m

x x

2 1

.

ρ ρ · ·

, (9.16)

it results

x x x

v v v · ·

2 1

.

110

We have denoted by m the massic flow. Applying the theorem of

impulse, we get component y

R

of the lift force in the network:

( ) ( )

2 1 2 1

.

y y x y y y

v v l t v v v m R − · − · ρ

. (9.17)

The circulation of velocity on the control contour will be:

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

+ + + · · Γ

ABCD

C

B

D

C

A

D

y

B

A

y ds v ds v ds v ds v ds v τ τ τ τ τ

2 1 . (9.18)

The integrals on the segments of contour BC and AD cancel

reciprocally. There only remains:

( ) t v v ds v ds v

D

C

y y y

B

A

y

∫ ∫

− · − · Γ

2 1 2 1

. (9.19)

Therefore:

t

v v

y y

Γ

· −

2 1

. (9.20)

Replacing (9.20) into (9.17), we get:

Γ · l v R

x y

ρ

. (9.21)

The axial component

x

R

is due to the difference of pressure:

( ) t l p p R

x 2 1

− ·

. (9.22)

Applying Bernoulli’s equation between the points 1 and 2, we get:

2 2

2

2

2

2

1

1

v

p

v

p

ρ ρ

+ · + , (9.23)

or else:

111

( ) ( )

2 2 2

1 2 2

1

2

2

2

1

2

2 2 1

y y

y y

v v

t

v v v v p p

+

Γ

− · − · − · −

ρ ρ ρ

. (9.24)

Replacing (9.24) into (9.22). we get:

Γ

+

− · l

v v

R

y y

x

2

1 2

ρ . (9.25)

The resultant force will be:

( )

t l

v

C

v v

v l R R R

r

y y

x y x r

2 4

2

2

2 2 2 2 1 ∞

·

+

+ Γ · + · ρ ρ

. (9.26)

In relation (9.26) we have denoted by

r

C

the coefficient of the

network and by ∞

v

the mean velocity in the network (fig.9.14).

( )

4

2

2 2 1

y y

x

v v

v v

+

+ ·

∞

. (9.24)

Fig.9.14

The lift force is perpendicular on ∞

v

. Coefficient

r

C

is

different from the hydro-aerodynamic coefficient corresponding to a

separate profile.

10. WAVE THEORY

112

10.1 Basic equations

Waves are the free surface movements produce by:

- wind;

- Moon attraction;

- earthquakes;

- movements of bodies on the water or nearby;

- movements of frontiers.

Hypothesis: potential movement; unsteady; real liquid.

ϕ ∇ · v

Integrating Euler equation, well have:

( ) ϕ ∇

∂

∂

·

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ∇ −

t

v

P U

2

2

,

(10.1)

( ) t C

t

v

P U ·

∂

∂

+ + +

ϕ

2

2

, Lagrange equation. (10.2)

0

2

2

·

∂

∂

+ + +

t

v p

gz

ϕ

ρ

.

(10.3)

The water surface is at atmospheric pressure, .

In the case of fixed frontiers, we have:

0 ·

∂

∂

n

ϕ

or

n

v

n

∂

∂

·

ϕ

for mobile frontiers.

10.2 Traveling waves planes, with small amplitude

Supplementary hypothesis:

The wave amplitude much more small then his wavelenght.

113

In this situation the Laplace equation has a solution like this:

( ) ( ) t kx z f ω ϕ − · cos

,

where

( )

kz

Ae z f · ( ) t kx Ae

kz

ω ϕ − · ⇒ cos . (10.4)

( )

( ). cos

, sin

t kx Ake

z

v

t kx Ake

x

v

kz

z

kz

x

ω

ϕ

ω

ϕ

− ·

∂

∂

·

− − ·

∂

∂

·

(10.5)

The modulus of total speed will be: .

2 2 kz

z x

Ake v v v · + ·

In the same time:

. ;

dt

dz

v

dt

dx

v

z x

· ·

(10.6)

At time t the particule will be in the point M(x,z), and at the time

1

t

in

the point ( ). ,

1 1 1

z x M

.

;

1

1

1

1

∫

∫

· −

· −

t

t

z

t

t

x

dt v z z

dt v x x

(10.7)

( )

( ). sin

; cos

1 1

1 1

1

1

t kx e

k

A z z

t kx e

k

A x x

kz

kz

ω

ω

ω

ω

− − · −

− − · −

(10.8)

From upper relations results that the wave curves are circles with center

in the point (

1

x ,

1

z ), having radius

1

kz

e

k

A

ω

, decreasing with the depth

(Fig. 10.1). The wave amplitude is made by the relation:

.

0

ω

Ak

a − ·

(10.9)

The wave height (Fig. 10.1):

. 2

0

a h ·

(10.10)

114

Fig. 10.1

In equation (10.3) we neglect the term containing

2

v . The

velocity is consider small enough. Limite condition

0

p p ·

allow us to

introduce the term

ρ

0

p

in

t ∂

∂ϕ

.

It results:

2

2

1

, 0

t g t

z

sau gz

t ∂

∂

− ·

∂

∂

· +

∂

∂ ϕ ϕ

. (10.11)

The vertical velocity of wave has the expression:

t

z

y

z

v

x

z

v

t

z

dt

dz

z

v

y z z

∂

∂

≅

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

· ·

∂

∂

·

ϕ

. (10.12)

We presumed the amplitude of wave much more small then his

wavelenght

. 0 , 0

,

_

¸

¸

≅

∂

∂

≅

∂

∂

y

z

x

z

It results:

2

2

1

t g z ∂

∂

− ·

∂

∂ ϕ ϕ

(10.13)

and

kg ·

2

ω

. (10.14)

The relation (10.11) allow us to establish the surface wave

equation:

115

( ) ( ), sin sin

0

t kx a t kx

g

A

z ω ω

ω

− · − − ·

(10.15)

the wavelenght being:

.

2

k

π

λ ·

(10.16)

ω

represent the angular velocity of the particle in his circular

trajectory.

ω

π 2

· T

is the period of the movement..

(10.17)

Along Ox axis, the apparent propagation velocity of wave is:

.

2 k

c

ω

π

ωλ

· ·

(10.18)

c is called apparent velocity. This is the provenience of traveling

wave.

We chose a potential movement for which

( ) t kx a z ω − · sin

0

is a

current line.

The chosen complex potential is:

( )

( )

. ,

0

iz x y ce a y W

t ky i

+ · − ·

− − ω

(10.19)

In a mobil axis system

ξζ O

which has a velocity c, in respect

with fixed system 0xz, the mivement become steady (Fig. 10.2).

Fig. 10.2

116

The relations between the two systems will be:

.

;

ζ

ξ

·

+ ·

z

ct x

(10.20)

10.3. Groups of waves

Let s consider two traveling waves, with equal amplitudes and ț

near periods:

( )

( ) ( ) [ ]. sin

sin

2

1

t x k k a z

t kx a z

δω ω δ

ω

+ − + ·

− ·

(10.21)

Superposing the effects, it results:

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( )

( ). sin

2

cos 2

2

cos

2

1

sin 2

sin sin

t kx

t k x

a

t k x

t k x t kx a

t x k k a t kx a z

ω

δω δ

δω δ

δω δ ω

δω ω δ ω

−

−

≅

≅

−

1

]

1

¸

− + − ·

· + − + + − ·

(10.22)

The resulting wave is a traveling wave with variable amplitude:

.

2

cos 2

1

δω δ t k x

a a

−

·

(10.23)

The variable amplitude can be consider a traveling wave with

apparent velocity

1

c

:

k

c

δ

δω

·

1

or, at limite:

( )

λ

λ

ω

d

dc

c

dk

kdc cdk

dk

kc d

dk

d

c − ·

−

· · ·

1

. (10.24)

Let’s now consider the general case of many waves, with

different amplitudes, different wavelenght, but very near as value, and

dephsed (

n

ε

- different dephases). This waves superpose. It results::

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

∑

+ + − + + − ·

n

n n n n

t x k k a t kx a z

1

. sin sin ε δω ω δ ω

(10.25)

10.4. The stationary wave

117

The stationar wave is a particular case of wave composition. The

two composed waves have the same characterstics, but going in the

contrary sens. Practicaly, a stationary wave is obtain when traveling

wave beat a vertical wall, the reflected wave superposing the initial wave.

( )

( ) t kx

a

z

t kx

a

z

ω

ω

+ ·

− ·

sin

2

sin

2

2

1

(10.26)

The resulting wave has the equation:

t kx a z ω cos sin · (10.27)

10.5 Waves in liquid with finite depth (Fig. 10.3)

Limite conditions for a traveling wave in liquid with finite depth

are:

. 0 ; ·

∂

∂

· − ·

z

v h z

z

ϕ

h = the liquid depth. (10.28)

The Laplace equation is satified by a solution on the form (10.4)

where:

( ) ( ) ( ). cos ,

1 1 1 1

t kx e B e A deci e B e A z f

kz kz kz kz

ω ϕ − + · + ·

− −

(10.29)

118

Fig. 10.3

Puting the limite conditions (10.13) – on the surface – and (10.28)

– on the bottom, we obtain the system:

0

0

1 1

2

1

2

1

· −

·

,

_

¸

¸

+ −

,

_

¸

¸

−

− kh kh

e B e A

g

k B

g

k A

ω ω

(10.30)

The system (10.30) is homogenous and admits the non null

solution if 0 · ∆ :

( ) ( ).

0

2

2 2

kh kh kh kh

kh kh

e e k e e

g

or

g

k e

g

k e

− −

−

− · +

·

,

_

¸

¸

− −

,

_

¸

¸

+

ω

ω ω

(10.31)

Hence:

( ).

2

kh th

kg

·

ω

(10.32)

119

From the relations (10.18) and (10.32), will have:

( ) .

2

2

2

λ

π

π

λ h

th

g

kh th

k

g

c · ·

(10.33)

Solution (10.29) become:

( ) ( ) t kx z k Achk ω ϕ − + · cos

, (10.34)

and the free surface will have a similar expression with the equation of

the traveling wave with small amplitude:

( ), sin

2

t kx a z ω − · (10.35)

where:

( ) kh ch

g

A

a

2

2

ω

− ·

(10.36)

is the wave amplitude and

. 2

1

kh

e A A

−

· (10.37)

The curve of liquid particle is now ellipses.

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