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at various prices during a given period of time. Demand is a function of Price (P), Income (Y), Prices of related goods(PR) and tastes (T) and expressed as D=f(P,Y,PR,T). When income, prices of related goods and tastes are given, the demand function is D=f (P). It shows quantities of a commodity purchased at given prices. THE VARIOUS TYPES OF DEMAND i. Price demand: Price demand refers to various quantities of a commodity or service that a consumer would purchase at a given time in a market at various hypothetical prices. It is assumed that other things, such as consumer‘s income, his tastes and prices of inter - related goods, remain unchanged. The demand of the individual consumer is called individual demand and the total demand of the entire consumer combined for the commodity or service is called industry demand. The total demand for the product of an individual firm at various prices is known as firms demand or individual sellers demand. ii. Income demand: Income demand indicates the relationship between income and the quantity of commodity demanded. It relates to the various quantities of a commodity or service that will be bought by the consumer at various level o f income in a given period of time, other things equal. The income demand function for a commodity increases with the rises in income and decreases with fall income. The income demand curve has a positive slope. But this slope is in the case of normal goods. In the case of inferior goods the demand curve id is backward sloping iii. Cross demand: In case of related goods the change in the price of one affects the demand of the other this known as cross demand and its written as d=f(pr). Related goods are of two types, substitutes and complementary. In the case of the substitutes or competitive goods, a rise in the price of one good a raises the demand, arise in the price of one good a raises the demand for the other good b, the price of remaining the same the opposite holds in the case of a fall in the price of a when demand for b falls. INDIVIDUAL DEMAND SCHEDULE AND CURVE AND MARKET DEMAND SCHEDULE Individual’s demand schedule and curve: An individual consumer‘s demand refers to the quantities of a commodity demanded by him at various prices. A demand schedule is a list of prices and quantities and its graphic representation is a demand curve.
X axis-quantity demanded Y axis- price DD- demand curve Explanation: i. The demand schedule reveals that when the price is Rs.P2, quantity demanded is Q2 units. As the price decreases to P, the quantity demanded increases t o Q. ii. The individual demand curve focuses on the effects of a fall or rise in the price of one commodity on the consumer‘s behavior. They are the substation and income effects. Market demand schedule and curve: In a market, there is not one consumer but many consumers of a commodity. The market demand of a commodity is depicted on a demand schedule and demand curve. They show the sum total of various quantities demanded by all the individuals at various prices. Suppose there are three individuals A,B and C in a market who purchase the commodity. The demand schedule for the commodity is depicted in table below.
X axis-quantity demanded Y axis- price DD- demand curve Explanation: Page 2 of 47 Unit-II
i. Suppose there are three individuals A,B and C in a market who buy OA,OB and OC quantities of the commodity at the price OP, as shown in panels (A),(B) and (C) respectively. ii. In the market OQ quantity will be bought which is made up by adding together the quantities OA,OB and OC. iii. The market demand curve DM is obtained by the lateral summation of the individual demand curves DA, DB and Dc DIFFERENCE BETWEEN QUANTITY DEMANDED CHANGES IN DEMAND AND CHANGES IN
Change in Quantity demanded: A demand curve is the graphic representation of the law of demand. Movement along a demand curve is caused by a change in the own price of the commodity. Such as change is called extension and contraction of demand. This means movement on the demand curve resulting in extension of demand. Demand contracts as price of good increases. This movement on a demand curve is known as change in quantity demanded. This is be explained with the help of a diagram
X axis -------Quantity of X Y axis--------- price of X DD ------------ demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that as the price increases the demand decreases & as the price decreases the demand for the commodity increases.
Change in demand: A shift of the demand curve is brought about by change in factors other than the ‗own‘ price eg. It changes in factor like incomes of the consumer prices of substitute products, percentage of women going out to work etc, this is known as change in demand. This is explained with the help of a diagram.
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X axis -------Quantity of X Y axis--------- price of X DD ------------ demand curve DD1 ------------ Shift in Demand curve Explanation: The purchasing power of the consumer increases at each given price he starts buying more of the commodity. This tendency of the consumer leads to shifts in this demand curve. Similar results will emerge if other determinants like price of related goods, tastes, etc, change. All the ‗‗other determinants ―are therefore, called shift factors, which lead t o change in demand. THE NATURE OF THE DEMAND OR THE VARIOUS DEMAND DISTINCTIONS i. Derived de mand and autonomous: Those inputs or commodities which are demanded to help in further production of commodities are said to have in further production of commodities are said to have derived demand. For example, raw material, labour machines etc are demanded not because they serve only direct consumption need of the purchaser but because they are needed for the production of goods having direct demand (say , food , scooter . building ,etc) ii. Demand for producer’s goods and consume r’s goods: The difference in these two types of demand is that consumer‘s goods are needed for producing other goods (consumer‘s goods or further producer‘s goods) iii. Demand for durable goods non durable goods: Durable goods whether producer‘s durable or consumer‘s durable are the ones which can be stored and whose replacement can be postponed. On the other hand, the non durables are needed as a routine and their demand is their fore made largely to meet day– to- day needs. iv. Industry demand and firm or company de mand: The term company demand denotes demand for a particular product of a particular firm Industry demand refers to the total demand for the product of a particular industry. v. Total demand and market segment de mand: Demand for the market segments is to be studied by breaking the total demand into different segments like geographical areas , subproducts, product use, distribution channels, size of customer groups, sensitivity to price etc. Page 4 of 47 Unit-II
The downward sloping demand curve depends upon this group. net profit margins. On the contrary with the rise in the price of the commodity the real income of the consumer falls. ii. vi. seasonal. Short run de mand and long run de mand: Short run demand refers to demand with its immediate reactions to price changes. This is called the income effect. Depression: During a depression. Substitution effect: The other effect of change in the prices of the commodity is the substitution effect. Persons in different income groups: There are person in different income groups in every society but the majority is in low income group. the demand curve slope downward. The rich do not have any some quantity even at a higher price. vi. THE CAUSES FOR THE DOWN WARD SLOPING OF THE DEMAND CURVE i. iii. Further. each of these market segments must differ significantly in terms of delivered prices. patterns and cyclical sensitivity. competition. THE REASON FOR THE EXCEPTIONAL DEMAND CURVE i. iii. This is because of the lack of purchasing power with consumer. War: If a short age is feared in anticipation of war people may start buying for building stocks. when a consumer buys more units of a commodity. Different uses of certain commodities: There are different uses of certain commodities and service that are responsible for the negative slope of the demand curve with the increase in the price of such products they will be used only for more important uses and their demand will fall. With the falls in the price of a commodity the prices of its substitutes remaining the same consumer will buy more of this commodity rather that the substitutes. When less units are available. after enough time is allowed to lat the market adjust itself to the new situation. Whereas long run demand is that which will ultimately exist as a result demand of the change in pricing promotion or products improvement . v. for hoarding even when the price rises. Ordinary people buy more when price falls and less when prices rise. According to this law. Thus to the price effect when consumer consume more or less of the commodity. and number of substitute s. the prices of commodities are very low and demand for them is also less. As a result its demand will increase. Based on the law of diminishing marginal utility: The law of demand is based on the law of diminishing marginal utility. Income fluctuations etc. utility and the consumer will be prepared to pay more for the commodity. Income effect: When the price of a commodity falls the real income o f the consumer increase because he quantity. ii. consumer are forced to curtail the consumption of more expensive foods like meat and Page 5 of 47 Unit-II . the marginal utility of that commodity continues to decline therefore the consumer will buy more units of that commodity only when its price falls. iv. Giffen paradox: If a commodity happens to be necessity of life like wheat a nd its price goes up. Price effect: With the increase in the price as of the product many consumers will either reduce or stop its consumption and the demand will be reduced.The market segments are so demarcated that each segment has its own homogenous demand characteristics.
Cons umer credit facility: Availability of credit to the consumers from to the seller banks relation and friends. Demonstration effect: It consumers are affected by the principle of conspicuous consumption or demonstration effect they will like to buy more of those commodities which confer distinction on the possessor. their demand falls. A group. Cons umer’s exceptions: Consumers‘ exceptions regarding the future prices incomes and supply position of goods. ii. it arranges to sell a great deal quietly and through unaccus tomed channels. Ignorance effect: Consumers buy more at a higher price under goods the influences of the ignorance effect where a commodity may be mistaken for some other commodity. viii. vi. vi. According to him ―the law of the demand does not apply to the demand in a campaign between groups of speculators. the general levels of living of the society and age and sex of the consumers taste and preferences. Cons umer income: Income is the basic determinant of quantity of a product demanded since it determines the purchasing power of the consumer. the demand for maize will fall . Related goods may be substitutes or complementary goods iii. when their prices rise. iv. due to its price. label. increases when its price falls and decreases when its price increases other factors remaining constant. On the other hand. with the fall in the price of an inferior commodity like maize. habit of the people.‖ THE VARIOUS DETERMINATS OF MARKET DEMAND i. as is the case with diamonds. or from other source encourages the consumer to buy more that what Page 6 of 47 Unit-II . vii. deceptive packing. etc play an important role in determining the demand for goods and services in the short run. often begins by buying some of it openly. The marshallion example is applicable to developed economies. with the fall in the prices of such articles. In the case of underdevelopment economy. Cons umer taste and preferences: Taste and preferences generally depend on the life –style social customs religious value attached to a commodity. v. which desire to upload a great quantity of a thing on to the market. Consumers will start consuming more of the superior commodity like wheat. That is why higher current disposable incomes spend a larger amount on consumer goods and services than those with lower income. Speculation: Marshall mentions speculation as one of the important exception to the downward sloping demand curve.this is what Marshall called giffen paradox whic h makes the demand curve to have a positive slope. Demonstration effect: When new commodities or new models of existing one appear in the market rich people buy them first. consumers reduce or give up the consumption of the some goods and add new ones to their consumption pattern v. Adve rtisement expenditure: Advertisement costs are incurred with the objective of promoting sale of the product. Advertisement helps in increasing demand for the product. Price of the product: The law of demand states that the quantity demanded of a product which its consumers users would like to buy per unit of time. As a result. iv. As a result. etc. Price of the related goods: The demand for a commodity is also affected by the changes in the price of its related goods.fish and wheat being still the cheapest they will consume more for it.
Income elasticity of de mand: The income elasticity of demand (Ey) express the responsiveness of a consumer demand or expenditure or consumption) for any good to the change in his income . Page 7 of 47 Unit-II . Thus Ey = percentage change in quantity demanded / percentage change in income iii. Perfectly elastic demand: Where no reduction in price is needed to cause an increase in quantity demanded. With an increase (or decrease) in the size of population and with the employment percentage remaining the same demand for the product tends to increase (or decrease). Credit facility mostly affects the demand for durable goods. x. ix. Ep= Percentage change in amount demanded Percentage change in price TYPES OF ELASTICITY DEMAND i. ELASTICITY OF DEMAND Elasticity of demand may be defined as the ratio of the percentage change in demand to the percentage change in price. the larger the population the larger and demand for a product. A past from its level the distribution pattern of national income is also an important determinant of a product. Population of the country: The total domestic demand for a product of mass consumption depends also on the size of the population. particularly those which requires bulk payment at the time of purchase.they is why consumers who can borrow more can consume more than those who cannot borrow. Ep = percentage change in quantity demanded / percentage change in price ii. the higher the demand for all normal goods and services. This is explained with the help of a diagram. per capita income taste and preference etc. Cross elasticity of demand: The cross elasticity of demand is the relation between percentage change in the quantity demanded of a good to the percentage change in the price of a related good.it may be defined as the ratio of percentage change in the quantity demanded of a commodity to the percentage in income. Price elasticity of de mand: Elasticity of demand may be defined as the ratio of the percentage change in price. The cross elasticity good A and good B is Eba= percentage change in the quantity demanded of B/ percentage change in price of A TYPES OF PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND i. Give n the price. Distribution of National Income: The level of national income is the basic determinant of the market demands for a product— the higher the national income.
It is zero elastic demand [E=0].X axis-quantity demanded Y axis. Unitary elastic: Where a given proportionate change in price causes an equally proportionate change in quantity demand.demand curve Explanation: Price elasticity of demand is infinity when a small change in price leads to an infinitely large change in the amount demanded. This happens in case of necessities like salt. It is perfectly elastic demand. [E=α] ii. Perfectly in elastic demand: Here a large change in price causes no change in quantity demanded.price DD1.demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that even if the price decrease from p to p1 there is no change in the quantity demand. iii. This is explained with the help of a diagram.price DD1. X axis-quantity demanded Y axis. Page 8 of 47 Unit-II . This is explained with the help of a diagram.
iv. The price elasticity of demand is greater than unity [E >1]. Page 9 of 47 Unit-II . Relatively elastic: Where a small change in price causes a more than proportionate change in quantity demanded. It is also known as relatively elastic demand. This is explained with the help of a diagram.price DD1. [E=1]. but it has resulted in a large increase in quantity demanded from Q to Q1.X axis-quantity demanded Y axis.demand curve Explanation: Price elasticity of demand is unity when the change in demand is exactly proportionate to the change in price. X axis –quantity demanded Y axis – price DD –demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that there is a small decrease in price from P to P1.
X axis –quantity demanded Y axis – Income DD.demand curve Page 10 of 47 Unit-II . Positive and elastic income demanded: The value of the coefficient E is greater than unity . This is explained with the help of a diagram.demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that there is a large decrease in price from P to P1. Relatively inelastic demand: Where a change in price causes a less than proportionate change in quantity demanded. but it has resulted in only a small increase in quantity demanded from Q to Q1. TYPES OF INCOME ELASTICITY OF DEMAND i. The price elasticity of demand is lesser than unity [E <1]. X axis –quantity demanded Y axis – price DD.v. It is also known as relatively elastic demand. which means that quantity demanded of good X increases by a larger percentage than the income of the consumer. This is explained with the help of a diagram.
Positive but inelastic income de mand: It is low if the relative change in quantity demanded is less than the relative change in money income. Ey=1. In the case of necessities.demand curve Page 11 of 47 Unit-II . X axis –quantity demanded Y axis – Income DD. This is explained with the help of a diagram. the coefficient of income of income elasticity is positive but low. X axis –quantity demanded Y axis – Income DD. This is explained with the help of a diagram.Explanation: The curve Ey shows a positive and elastic income demanded. Ey<1. Unitary income elasticity of demand: The percentage change in quantity demanded is equal to the percentage change in money income. Ey<1. iii. In the case of necessities.demand curve Explanation: The curve Ey shows a positive but in elastic income demand. Income elasticity of demanded is low when the demand for a commodity rises less than proportionate to the rise in the income. the coefficient of income elasticity is positive but low. ii. Income elasticity of demand is low when the demand for a commodity rises less than proportionate to the rises less than proportionate to the rise income.
X axis –quantity demanded Y axis – Income DD. In the case of an inferior good. v. elasticity demand curve Ey with zero elasticity If with the increases in income. X axis –quantity demanded Y axis – Income DD. This is explained with the help of a diagram. the quantity demanded remains unchanged the coefficient of income elasticity. iv. Page 12 of 47 Unit-II . Infe rior goods: Inferior goods have negative income elasticity of demand. The value of the coefficient Ey is less than zero or negative in this case. The value of the coefficient Ey is equal to zero. Ey=0. It explains that less is bought at higher incomes and more is bought at lower incomes.demand curve Explanation: The curve shows a vertical income. This is explained with the help of a diagram. In the case of comforts.Explanation: The curve Ey shows unitary income elasticity of demand.demand curve Explanation: The coefficient of income elasticity of demand in the case of inferior goods is negative. when his income increases. Ze ro income elasticity: A change in income will have no effect on the quantity demanded. the consumer will reduce his purchases of it. the coefficient of income elasticity is unity (Ey=1) when the demand for a commodity rises in the same proportions as the increases in income.
It is also known as relatively elastic demand. This is explained with the help of a diagram. but it has resulted in a large increase in quantity demanded of B from b to b1.demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that there is a large increase in price of good A from a to a1. i. X axis –quantity demanded of B Y axis – price of A DD –demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that there is a small increase in price of good A from a to a1. as the price of one good increases the demand for the other good also increase at the same time.DIFFERENT TYPES OF CROSS ELASTICITY OF DEMAND A. but it has resulted in only a small increase in quantity demanded of good B from b to b1. Unitary elastic: Here a given proportionate change in price causes an equally proportionate change in quantity demand. The elasticity of substitutes is lesser than unity [E <1]. This is explained with the help of a diagram. iii. It is also known as relatively in elastic demand. The elasticity of substitutes is greater than unity [E >1]. Relatively elastic: Where a small change in price of good A causes a large change in quantity demanded of good B.This is explained with the help of a diagram. ii. Page 13 of 47 Unit-II . X axis –quantity demanded of good B Y axis – price of good A DD. CROSS ELASTICITY OF SUBSTITUTES: In case of substitutes. Relatively inelastic demand: Where a large change in price of good A causes a small change in quantity demanded of good B.
X axis-quantity demanded of good B Y axis.demand curve Explanation: Price elasticity of demand is unity when the change in demand is exactly proportionate to the change in price. v. Unrelated goods: If two goods are not at all related then they have negative elasticity of demand.price of good A. It is zero elastic demand [E=0]. Page 14 of 47 Unit-II . DD. [E=1].demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that even if the price increases from a to a1 there is no change in the quantity demand. iv. Perfectly in elastic demand: Here a large change in price causes no change in quantity demanded. X axis-quantity demanded of good B. This is explained with the help of a diagram. Y axis.price of good A DD. This happens in case of necessities like salt. This is explained with the help of a diagram.
X axis –quantity demanded of good B. It is zero elastic demand [E=0].price of good A DD. i. CROSS ELASTICITY OF COMPLIMENTARY GOODS: In case of complimentary goods. Perfectly elastic demand: Where no reduction in price is needed to cause an increase in quantity demanded. Y axis – Price of good A. This is explained with the help of a diagram. DD. Page 15 of 47 Unit-II . then the demand for good B will decrease from b to b1.demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that in case on unrelated goods if the price of good A increase from a to a1. Perfectly in elastic demand: Here a large change in price of good B causes no change in quantity demanded of good B. [E=α] ii. It is perfectly elastic demand. This is explained with the help of a diagram. B. X axis-quantity demanded of good B Y axis.demand curve Explanation: Price elasticity of demand is infinity when a small change or no change in price of good A leads to an infinitely large change in the amount demanded of good B. as the price of one good increases the demand for the other good decreases at the same time.
price of good A DD.price of good A DD. Unitary elastic: Where a given proportionate change in price causes an equally proportionate change in quantity demand. X axis-quantity demanded of good B Y axis. iv. This happens in case of necessities like salt. Page 16 of 47 Unit-II . Relatively elastic: Where a small change in price of good B causes a more than proportionate change in quantity demanded of good A. [E=1]. The price elasticity of demand is greater than unity [E >1]. This is explained with the help of a diagram.demand curve Explanation: Price elasticity of demand is unity when the change in demand is exactly proportionate to the change in price.This is explained with the help of a diagram.demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that even if the price of good B decreases from a to a1 there is no change in the quantity demand of good A.X axis-quantity demanded of good B Y axis. iii.
but it has resulted in a large increase in quantity demanded from b to b1. It is also known as relatively elastic demand. Page 17 of 47 Unit-II . Relatively inelastic demand: Where a change in price causes a less than proportionate change in quantity demanded.demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that there is a large decrease in price from a to a1. The price elasticity of demand is lesser than unity [E <1]. v. This is explained with the help of a diagram. It is also known as relatively elastic demand. X axis –quantity demanded of good B Y axis – price of good A DD.X axis –quantity demanded of good B Y axis – price of good A DD –demand curve Explanation: The figure shows that there is a small decrease in price from a to a1. but it has resulted in only a small increase in quantity demanded from b to b1.
Point elasticity: The concept of price elasticity can be used in comparing the sensitivity of the different types of goods e. If the elasticity is greater than one it is said to be elastic and it is less than it is inelastic curve having same elasticity throughout:- 2.price of X DD -----------. luxuries and necessaries) to changes in their prices. This is explained with the help of a diagram. and therefore will make no change in the total outlay which purchases make for the commodity thus one is the dividing point. Total outlay: According to this method.g. we compare the total outlay of the purchases or total revenue. Page 18 of 47 Unit-II . i.DIFFERENT METHODS OF MEASURING ELASTICITY OF DEMAND 1. The elasticity of demand is always negative because change in quantity demanded is in opposite direction to the change in price that is a fall in price is followed by rise in demanded and vice versa hence elasticity less than zero..e. X axis -------Quantity of X Y axis--------.demand curve Explanation: If the elasticity of demand is equal to unity for all prices of the commodity only fall in price will cause a proportionate increases in the amount bought. total value of sales from the point of view of the seller before and after the variations in price.
price of X DD -----------. P2and P1 respectively. It is seen that elasticity at a lower point on the curve is less than at a higher point.demand curve Page 19 of 47 Unit-II . Thus elasticity of demand is seen on the points P3.X axis -------Quantity of X Y axis--------. 3.price of X DD -----------.demand curve Explanation: Elasticity is represented by fraction distance from d to a point on the curve divided by the distance from the other end to that point. X axis -------Quantity of X Y axis--------. This is explained with the help of a diagram below. Arc elasticity: Arc elasticity is a measure of the average responsiveness to price changes exhibited by a demand curve over some finite stretch of the curve.
The change in the price of wheat may be immaterial for upper classes. Necessaries and conventional necessaries: people buy fixed quantities of such commodity whatever is the price. viii. when the price goes up. we may curtail its purchase and take of coffee. eg. Joint demand: If for instance. Any two points on a demand curve make an arc the area between p and m on the DD curve is an arc which measures elasticity over a certain range of prices and quantities. it may lose the entire market.Explanation:i. Substitutes: The main cause of difference in the responsiveness of the demand for that there are more completing substitutes for some goods than for others‖. The arc elasticity is in fact the elasticity of the midpoint between p and m on the demand curve . If there is no difference between the two points and they merge into each o ther or coincide. If on the other Page 20 of 47 Unit-II . demand for the output of any particular firm is highly elastic. iv. the more accurate will be the measure of elasticity. cooking heating and industrial purposes. it use will be restricted only to very urgent uses and consequently less will be purchased when the prices rises the demand will thus contract when wheat becomes very cheap it can be used even as cattle feed hence demand for a commodity having several uses is elastic vi. In a case like this a change in price will lead to expansion or contraction in demand. If it raises the price a bit. and its demand will increase. iii. But . Thus for the same article the demand may be elastic for some people and inelastic for others elastic in one country and inelastic in another and elastic at one time and inelastic at another. Demand for luxuries is elastic: It stands to reason that lowering of the price of things like radio will lead to more bring bought i. it will be inelastic. In other words the demand for jointly demanded goods is less elastic. We go in for such things in a large measure when they are cheap demand for such goods is elastic. iv. and vice versa.g. arc elasticity becomes point elasticity. v.e. THE FACTORS DETERMING PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND i. building a house. Goods the use of which can be postponed: Most of us during the war postponed our purchases where we could e. but in a competitive market. Level of prices: If a thing is either very experience or very cheap. ii. salt the demand will not be much affected by a change in price hence. carriages become cheap but the prices of horses continue to rule high. buying furniture or having a number of warm suits. the demand is elastic.g. demand for carriage will not extend much. v. vii. If the price is too high. iii. It may be noted that demand for a necessity life as a whole may be inelastic. the demand will be in elastic. On any two points of a demand curve the price elasticity‘s of demand are likely to be different depending upon how we calculate them. Goods having several uses: Coal is such a commodity when it will be used for several purposes e. Proportion of total expenditure: It a consumption good absorbs only a small proportion of total expenditure. The closer the two points‘ p and m are. ii. but its consumption will certainly increase among the poor when the price falls. When the price of tea rises. a fall in it will not increase the demand much.
If. Wages: Easticity of demand also exerts its influence on wages. especially if he is a monopolist. ix. on the other hand. but not otherwise. Poverty in plenty: The concept of elasticity explains the paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty. Output: Elasticity of demand affects industrial output reduction in price will certainly increases the sale in the market as a whole. will have to consider the nature of demand while fixing his price. xi. viii. the businessman. people must continue to buy the same quantity of the commodity. The government can create public utilities where demand is inelastic and monopoly element is present. In other word he is able to increase or decrease his demand for a commodity PRACTICAL APPLICATION (OR) IMPORTANCE (OR) SIGNIFICANCE OF ELASTICITY OF DEMAND i. x. Market imperfections: Owing to ignorance about market trends the demand for a good may not increase hen its price falls for the simple reasons that consumers may not be aware of the fall in price. vi. Joint products: In such cases separate costs are not ascertainable the producers will be guided mostly by demand and its nature fixing his price. This is specially so if produce is perishable. it will pay him to him to change a higher price and sell a smaller quantity. vii. ii. If demand for a particular type of labour is relatively inelastic. It affects the total volume of goods and services produced in the country. Time period: The elasticity of demand is greater in the long run than in the short run for the simple reasons that the consumer has more time to make adjustment in his scheme of consumption. ix. In case I is in elastic. people will have already purchased as much as they wanted: any further fall will not increase the demand. Page 21 of 47 Unit-II . Effect on the economy: The working of the economy in general is affected by the nature of consumer demand. stimulate demand and thus maximize his monopoly net revenue iii. it is easy to raise wages.hand . Technological factors: Low price elasticity may be due o some technical reasons. the demand is elastic he will lower the prices. A rich harvest may actually fetch less money a poor one. Thus the demand will not decrease. Economies policies: Modern governments regulate output and prices. For example lowering of elasticity may be electricity rates may not increase consumption because the consumers are unable to buy the necessary electric appliances. Monopoly prices: In the same manner. Increasing returns: When an industry is subject to increasing returns the manufacturer lowers the price4 to develop the market so that he may be able to produce more and take full advantage of the economies of large scale production. The transport authorities fix their rates according to this principle when we say that they charge what the ‗traffic will bear‘ iv. It also affects producers‘ demand for different factors of production their allocation and remuneration. Taxation: The tax will no doubt raises the prices but the demand being in elastic. v. it is too low.
xii. xx. xvi. Boundary between industries: Cross elasticity of demand is also useful in indicating boundaries between industries. Thus is how it determines the terms of trade. where as goods with lower elasticity constitute different industries. its share in the national dividend is higher. and vice versa. Rate of foreign exchange: With fixing the rate of exchange.x. In case of inelastic demand the consumer have to buy the commodity and must bear the tax. Relation between price elasticity average revenue and marginal revenue: This relationship enables us to understand and compare the conditions of equilibrium under different market conditions. Page 22 of 47 Unit-II . If elasticity of substitution is high the share will be low. xvii. Two commodities may be considered as substitutes if cross elasticity is positive and complements when elasticity is negative. xi. less is the elasticity of demand higher the incidence. SUPPLY The supply of a commodity means the amount of that commodity which producers are able and willing to offer for sale at a given price. Market forms: The concept of cross elasticity help[s to understand different market forms infinite cross elasticity indicates perfect market forms infinite cross elasticity indicates perfect competitions. and vice versa. xiv. the government has to consider the elasticity or otherwise of its imports and exports. and vice versa. xiii. Price determination: Price determination is forced to be profitable if elasticity of demand in another. xviii. Inte rnational trade: The nature of demand for the internationally traded goods is helpful in determining the quantum of again of gain accruing to the respective countries. Goods with high cross elasticity‘s constitute one industry. Classification of goods as substitutes and complements: Goods are classified as substitutes on the basis of cross elasticity. Theory of distribution: Elasticity of demand is useful in the determination of relative shares of the various factors determination of relative shares of the various factors of production is loss elastic. Measuring degree of monopoly powe r: The less is the elasticity of demand higher will be the price and wider the difference between the marginal cost and greater the monopoly power. The monopolist can charge a higher price in the market where elasticity of demand is less and a lower price where elasticity of demand is greater xv. where as zero or hear zero elasticity indicates pure monopoly and high elasticity indicates imperfect competition xix. Incidence of taxes: The concept of elasticity of demand is used in explaining the incidence of indirect taxes like sales tax and excise duty. Price determination: The concept of elasticity of demand is used in explaining the determination of price under various market conditions. The supply curve is explained with the help of a diagram.
PR. E. The price below which the seller will refuse to sell is called Reserve Price. supply will decline as the seller will be induced to withhold supplies so as to sell later and earn larger profits then. Factor prices(FP). its supply declines. strikes and other short. FP. sales and the sate of economy in general(E). the supply also increases from Q to Q1. iv. Reserve Price If the price falls too much. costs. Subsistence Farme rs: In underdeveloped countries where agriculture is characterised with subsistence farmers. law of supply may not apply. Firm‘s expectations about future prospects for prices. Number (N) Limitations of Law of Supply i. Page 23 of 47 Unit-II . Future Prices: When the price rises and the seller expects the future price to rise further. Agricultural Output: Law of supply may not apply in case of agricultural commodities as their production cannot be increased at once following price increase. Law of Supply ―Other things remaining the same.‖ Supply function Supply function of a firm or an industry (a group of firms) is an algebrate expression relating the quantity of a commodity which a seller is willing and able to supply. Weather. Factors other than Price not Remaining Constant: The law of supply is stated on the assumption that factors other than the price of the commodity remain constant. supply may dry up altogether. its supply increases. and as the price falls. as the price of a commodity rises. It means that price & supply are directly related. N) Where certain important determinants of supply are: Product price (Px). FE. ii.run forces(W). Factor productivities or State of Technology(FE).X axis-----Quantity Supplied Y axis------Price Explanation: The figure shows that as the price of a commodity increases from P to P1. iii. At this price. The supply function can be written as: ∫x=f (Px. rises of other products related in production(PR). the seller is said to buy his own stock. W.
FACTORS INFLUENCING SUPPLY i. v. x. Generally. labor. Page 24 of 47 Unit-II .. Government may also restrict production of certain commodities on grounds of health (e. Price of the commodity: The supply of a commodity depends upon the price of that commodity. iii. ii.material. opium in India). This is explained with the help of a diagram. Agreement among the producers: Supply may be consciously decreased by agreement among the producers.. and only a small increase in the cost of producing those commodities which use a small amount of the factor. CHANGE IN SUPPLY AND SHIFT IN SUPPLY Change in supply means increase or decrease in quantity supplied at the same price. therefore. ix. One expects. Time can be broadly classified into three categories: Market period is the one where supply is fixed as no factor of production can be altered. xi. and Long period where supply can be changed at will because all the factors can be changed. Prices of all other commodities: The supply of a commodity depends upon the prices of all other commodities. Political disturbances or war may also create scarcity of certain goods. We thus expect that ceteris paribus. iv. Goals of firms: The supply of a commodity depends upon the goals of firms. that the higher the price. the supply of one commodity would fall as the price of other commodities rises. Short period is the time period when it is possible to adjust supply only by changing the variable factors like raw. Prices of factors of production: The supply of a commodity depends upon the prices of factors of production. viii. vi. To raise price: Supply may also be destroyed to raise price. A rise in the price of one factor of production will cause a large increase in the costs of making those goods which use a great deal of that factor. Ceteris paribus the higher the price of the commodity the more profitable it will be to make that commodity. the greater will be the supply. State of technology: The supply of a commodity depends upon the state of technology. etc. vii.g. Time factor: Time factor can also determine elasticity of supply. an increase in the price of other commodities will make production of the commodity whose price does not rise relatively less attractive than it was previously. Taxation on output or imports: Supply may also be affected by taxation on output or imports.
This is explained with the help of a diagram. SHIFT IN SUPPLY CURVE Shift in supply means shifting the entire supply curve due to various reasons other than price like changes in technology. gover nment policies etc.Supply Curve Explanation: The figure shows that as the price of a commodity increases from P to P1. the supply also increases from Q to Q1. government policies etc. The movement of the supply is along the same curve. It means that price & supply are directly related. X axis-----Quantity Supplied Y axis------Price Explanation: The figure shows that as the price of a commodity does not change but still the supply curve shifts from SS TO S1S1 OR S2S2. It means shifting the entire supply curve is due to various reasons other than price like changes in technology. Page 25 of 47 Unit-II .X axis-----Quantity Supplied Y axis------Price SS. In other words increase in supply is known as extension of supply & decrease in supply is known as contraction of supply.
[E=α] ii. The formula to find out the elasticity of supply is: Es = percentage change in quantity supplied / percentage change in price TYPES OF ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY i.ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY It can be defined as the ―degree of responsiveness of supply to a given change in price‖. This is explained with the help of a diagram. Perfectly in elastic supply: Here a large change in price causes no change in quantity supplied. Perfectly elastic supply: Where no change in price is needed to cause an increase in quantity supplied.supply curve Explanation: The elasticity of supply is infinity when a small change in price leads to an infinitely large change in the quantity supplied.price SS. This is explained with the help of a diagram. Page 26 of 47 Unit-II . X axis-quantity supplied Y axis. It is perfectly elastic supply. It is zero elastic supply [E=0].
X axis-quantity supplied Y axis.price SS.price SS. iv. Unitary elastic: Where a given proportionate change in price causes an equally proportionate change in quantity supplied.supply curve Explanation: The figure shows that even if the price increases from p to p1 there is no change in the quantity supplied.supply curve Page 27 of 47 Unit-II . [E=1]. X axis-quantity supplied Y axis.This is explained with the help of a diagram. This is explained with the help of a diagram.supply curve Explanation: Elasticity of supply is unity when the change in supply is exactly proportionate to the change in price. X axis-quantity supplied Y axis.price SS. iii. Relatively elastic: Where a small change in price causes a more than proportionate change in quantity supplied. The price elasticity of supply is greater than unity [E >1].
He possesses perfect knowledge of the choices of commodities open to him and his choices are certain. THE LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY The law of diminishing marginal utility states that as the quantity consumed of a commodity increases. but it has resulted in only a small increase in quantity supplied from Q to Q1. Page 28 of 47 Unit-II . v. It is also known as relatively elastic supply.price SS. consumption of all other commodities remaining the same. The marginal utility of money is assumed to be constant. vi. The consumer is rational who measures. ii. calculates. v. Utility is measurable in terms of money. He has full knowledge of the availability of commodities and their technical qualities. iii. iv. X axis-quantity supplied Y axis. The utility analysis is based on the cardinal concept which assumes that utility is measurable and additive like weights and lengths of goods. chooses and compares the utilities of different units of the various commodities and aims at the maximization of utility.supply curve Explanation: The figure shows that there is a large increase in price from P to P1. Assumptions of diminishing marginal utility i. This is explained with the help of a diagram.Explanation: The figure shows that there is a small increase in price from P to P1. The elasticity of supply is lesser than unity [E <1]. It is also known as relatively inelastic supply. but it has resulted in a large increase in quantity supplied from Q to Q1. Relatively inelastic Supply: Where a large change in price causes a less than proportionate change in quantity supplied. the utility derived from each successive unit decreases.
With the increases in the number of units consumed per unit of time. Since one knows that a larger purchase will mean lower marginal utility. viii. iii. ii. imposing a heavier burden on the rich people. Household expenditure: The law of diminishing marginal utility governs our daily expenditure. iii. the TU reaches its maximum level the point of saturation and mu becomes zero. The downward sloping Mu curve shows that marginal utility goes on decreasing as consumption increases. This is explained with the help of a diagram. IMPORTANCE OF THE LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY i. It thus forms a basis of the theory of value. Price determination: The law explains why with increase in its supply. is a practical application of this principle in the field of public finance. one will restrict their purchase of a particular commodity. Richer a person the higher is the rate of the tax he has to pay since to him the marginal utility of money is less. ii. Page 29 of 47 Unit-II . There are no substitutes.vii. TU increases but at a diminishing rate. At 4 units consumed. He knows the exact prices of various commodities and their utilities are not influenced by variations in their price. beyond this MU become negative and TU begins to decline . because they cannot afford to waste our limited resources. Taxation: Progressive system of taxation. X axis –Quantity demanded Y axis – Utility TU-Total Utility DMU-Diminishing Marginal Utility Explanation: i. the value of a commodity must fall.
iii.use and value. that they might lose. it can be measured ordinally. Marshall considered substitutes and complementary as one commodity. he buys them under the influence of his desires. This makes the utility analysis unrealistic and impracticable.e. This is the substitution effect which the utility analysis fails to discuss. Value-in-use and value-in-exchange: It also explains the divergence between value-in. Socialis m: The marginal utility to the rich of the wealth.in-exchange. etc. Utility analysis fails to clarify the study of inferior and giffen goods: Marshall‘s utility analysis of demand does not clarify the fact as to why a fall in the price of inferior and giffen goods leads to a decline in its demand.. X-axis. substitution effect and price effect: The utility analysis does not explain the effect of a rise or fall in the income of the consumer on the demand for the commodities. Utility cannot be measured cardinally: The basis of the utility analysis. Single commodity model is unrealistic: The utility analysis is a single commodity model in which the utility of one commodity is regarded independent of the other. is not so great as the marginal utility of the wealth which is transferred to the poor. tastes or habits. consumer‘s income and p rices of commodities also influence his purchases. Basis if some economic laws: Some very important laws of economics are based on the law of diminishing marginal utility. the concept of elasticity of demand. but money is an incorrect and imperfect measure of utility because the value of money often changes. In really. vii. i. the law of substitution.iv. Utility analysis does not study income effect. Marginal utility of money is not constant: The fact is that a consumer does not buy only one commodity but a number of commodities at a time. Page 30 of 47 Unit-II . LIMITATIONS OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY i. the marginal utility of the remaining stock of money increases. the concept of consumer‘s surplus.that it is measurable. Money is an imperfect measure of utility: Marshall measures utility in terms of money. Again when with the change in the price of one commodity there is a relative change in the price of the other commodity. It thus neglects the income effect. ex. the consumer substitutes one for the other. v. Downward sloping demand curve: It is this law which tells us why demand curve slope downwards. but it makes the utility analysis unrealistic. vi.is defective because utility is a subjective and psychological concept which cannot be measured cardinally. Moreover. v. vi. Man is not rational: This assumption is also unrealistic because no consumer compares the utility and disutility from each unit of a commodity while buying it. Rather. vii. These laws and concepts have ultimately been derived from the law of diminishing marginal utility. It is due to this law that smaller utility lines cut larger portions of the commodity line. In this way when a major part of his income is spent on buying commodities. iv. Thus the consumer does not buy commodities rationally. ii. Law of demand.
because they are indivisible. transistors. Hence the utility analysis is not applicable to indivisible goods. ii. bananas. He knows the exact prices of various commodities and their utilities are not influenced by variations in their prices. through the process of substitution. Assumptions of law of equi. iii. It fails to explain the demand for Indivisible goods: The utility analysis breaks down in the case of durable consumer goods like scooters. calculates. The consumer buys only one unit of such commodities at a time so the it is neither possible to calculate the marginal utility of one unit nor can the demand schedule and the demand curve for that good be drawn. It is called the law of substitution because when we substitute the more useful one.marginal utility. X axis –Quantity demanded Y axis – Income Ua-Total Utility of a Ub-Total Utility of b Page 31 of 47 Unit-II . iv. etc. The utility analysis is bases on the cardinal concept which assumes that utility is measurable and additive like weights and length of goods.marginal utility i. ix. THE LAW OF EQUI. The assumption that the consume r buys more units of a commodity whe n its price falls is unrealistic: It may be true in the case of food products like oranges. The consumer is rational who measures. This is explained with the help of a diagram. He possesses perfect knowledge of the choices of commodities open to him and his choices are certain.MARGINAL UTILITY It is also called as the law of substitution. According to the law of equi. v. He has full knowledge of the availability of commodities and their technical qualities. viii.viii. but not in the case of durable goods. apples. That one gets maximum satisfaction. or the law of indifference. chooses and compares the utilities of different units of the various commodities and aims at the maximization of utility. vi. vii. because through its application we are able to maximize our satisfaction. It is known as the law of maximum satisfaction. radio. it is only when marginal utilities have been equalized. Utility is measurable in terms of money. The marginal utility of money is assumed to be constant. or the law of maximum satisfaction. There are no substitutes. etc.
ii. iv. In case he finds that marginal productivity of one factor. determination of rent wages interest and profit these shares are determined-.1 less on the good b. vi. We commodity. In this case the gain in utility is less than before.1 more on the goods a and consequently Re. scarce goods for the more scarce ones.i. For this purpose it must cut down all wasteful expenditure. Explanation: The curve Ua slopes downwards from left to right. vii. This curve shows the marginal utility of the money spent on commodity A. he will substitute one factor for another till their marginal productivities are made the same. the law substitution comes to our help. ii. if he is wise wants to get maximum satisfaction out of his limited resource. v. The scarcity of the latter is thus relived and its price comes down. the consumer‘s satisfaction is maximized. In this way. The substitutional character of our exchange is sufficient to basic economic principle. It applies to consumption: Every consumer.6 on a good and rs. iii. Its application to exchange: In all our exchanger this principle work for exchange is nothing else but substitution of one thing for another. he will derive maximum satisfaction and any other arrangement will only reduce the aggregate satisfaction Suppose the consumer spends Re.4 on b good . In arranging his expenditure to that end he must substitute the thing till marginal utilities are equalized. iv. Suppose our hypothetical consumer has rs. IMPORTANCE OF THE LAW OF EQUI-MARGINAL UTILITY i. Public finance: Public expenditure of the government conforms to this law even a government is under the necessity of deriving maximum amount of the benefit from its public expenditure it must try to maximize welfare of the commodity. Page 32 of 47 Unit-II . Its application to production: To the business man the manufactures the law is of special importance. The curve Ub which slopes downwards from right to the left. the marginal utilities of both goods are equal (cd=ef) In this way . the marginal utilities will become unequal (gh is greater than qr). We start substituting the less. say labour is greater than that of capital it will pay him to substitute the former for the latter in this way he will be able to maximize his profit.according to the principle of marginal productivity. Its application to distribution: In distribution we are concerned with the determination of the rewards of the various agents of production‘s. vi. The use of each agent of producing is pushed by the entrepreneur to the margin of profitableness till the marginal product in each case in the same in case it is not the same the law of substitution will come into play to equalize their marginal p roductivity this is how the law of substitution proves useful in the field of distribution of the national dividend among the various agents of production. Price determination: This principle has an important bearing on the determination of value. This curve shows the marginal utility of the money spent on the good B.10 to spend on the two goods a and b it will be clear from the diagram that if he spend rs. He works towards the most economical combination of the factors of production employed by him for this purpose. v. as a result. iii. the gain in utility and loss thereof are shown in the shaded area Hence we may conclude that the consumer will get maximum satisfaction and will be in equilibrium if the marginal utilities of money spent on the various goods that he rays equal. When there is scarcity of a commodity the law of substitution to our help.
Hence. Hence. the consumer is indifferent as to the combinations lying on an indifference curve. Ignorance of cons umer: The consumer may not be aware of other more useful alternatives. vii.LIMITATION OF THE LAW OF EQUI MARGINAL UTILITY i. INDIFFERENCE MAP A set of indifference curves is called an indifference map. a consumer cannot substitute one thing for another. No definite budget period: There is no definite budget period in the case of individuals ix. ii. v. It rest on same questionable assumptions: The difference curve approach to the theory of consumer‘s equilibrium is based on this basic criticism of the marshallian analysis. no substitution does not operate. iv. viii. Page 33 of 47 Unit-II . The law of equi marginal utility involves very careful calculation of the excepted satisfaction: The fact is that most of our expenditure is governed by habit . Not applicable in case of small purchases: Only in the case of big expenditure a prudent persons goes through a certain amount of thinking here we may take it that this expenditure does roughly conforms to the law of maximum satisfaction but not applicable in case of small purchases iii. THE CONCEPT OF INDIFFERENCE CURVE TECHNIQUE (OR) THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL RATE OF SUBSTITUTION An indifference curve represents satisfaction of a consumer from tow commodities. This is explained with the help of a diagram. Incapable of rational consumption: People are sometimes slaves of customs or fashion and are incapable of rational consumption. Resource are unlimited: The law of substitution has no place when the resource are unlimited as in the case of free goods in such cases there is no need to re-arrange expenditure because no price is to be paid whatever the quantity used. Without being rational and calculating. It is drawn on the assumptions that for all possible points or combinations of the tow commodities on indifference curve the total satisfaction or utility remains the same. Law will not hold good in irrational purchases: All the rational and prudent persons are excepted to act upon this law consciously or un consciously. It is an iso utility curve. Goods are not divisible into small bits: Another limitation arises from the fact that goods are not divisible into small bots to enable consumers to equalize marginal utilities cannot be equalisied. vi. there is not much of conscious calculation and careful weighing of the utilities.
X axis – Good X Y axis – Good Y IC—Indifference Curve Explanation: The figure shows that the consumer sacrifices of Good Y in every step in order to consume more of Good X which is otherwise called as Marginal rate of substitution.X axis – Good X Y axis – Good Y IC1-IC5—Indifference Curves MARGINAL RATE OF SUBSTITUTION The marginal rate of substitution shows at what rate a consumer is willing to substitute one commodity for another in his consumption pattern. Assumptions of Indifference Curve i. Page 34 of 47 Unit-II . Non-satiation: A consumer prefers more to less. Completeness: We assume that the consumer‘s scale of preferences is so complete that he is able to choose any one of the two combinations o commodities presented to him or is indifferent between them. ii. This is explained with the help of a diagram.
Page 35 of 47 Unit-II . This is an indifference curve. he will have to reduce the number of the units of the other good. Continuity or Substitutability: Unless one combination can be substituted for another. It is because when the consumer decides to have more units of one of the two goods. iv. Convexity: The indifference curve is convex to the origin and shows the diminishing rate of marginal rate of substitution to be explained presently. Downward sloping (or) negatively sloped: To begin with. an indifference curve slopes downwards from left to right. D and E we get a continuous curve IC.i. This can be explained with the help of diagram.indifference curve Explanation: i. if level of his satisfaction is to remain the same.price IC.iii. obviously he will prefer Q to S. B. the consumer‘s preference will not be possible. v. if this choice is open. Consumer‘s choice has to be consistent. PROPERTIES OF INDIFFERENCE CURVE i. iii. Consistency or Transitivity: If a consumer regards Q better than R and R better than S. each point on it showing equal satisfaction or the indifference of the consumer towards the various combinations.. ii. If the consumer were a point A on the curve IC. These combinations give him the same satisfaction. he would be just as satisfied as at point B or at point C or at point D and so on.if he is to remain on the same indifferences curve. If we join the points A. C. Each point on it shows a combination of apples and mangoes which yields the same total satisfaction to our consumer. X axis-quantity demanded Y axis.e.
National income is produced by the members of the community and so also it is consumed by them. ii. Effect of Taxation on willingness to work: A tax may induce a man to work more or work less. and rise in the wage rate will not lead to a reduction in working time. Cost of living index: If the combinations of good purchased in two successive years are allotted on the indifference curve. APPLICATIONS OF INDIFFERENCE CURVE TECHNIQUE i. it will only result in larger income which will be utilized in purchasing more goods. Measure ment of National Income: The indifference curve technique also lends itself for measuring national income. The implication of this convexity rule is that as we have more and more of good x and less and less of y. Most welfare states like to help poor citizens in this manner. Each individual attaches the same relative importance to the commodities as their price ratio. ix. vii. Price discrimination: It can be shown with the help of indifference curves that two individuals will derive greater satisfaction from the purchase of two commodities on a single price system instead of under price discrimination. vi. lower prices). a position in which he derives maximum satisfaction from his scheme of purchases. Effect of a subsidiary: Suppose the low.ii. some necessaries (say.income groups are supplied by the govt. Suppose in rationed commodity is allotted to each individual. viii. x. National income is the aggregate value of the net output of an economy. iv. (i. housing accommodation) at subsidized rates.. A consumer endeavors to reach an equilibrium position. Non. Convexity: The third property of indifference curve is that they are normally convex to the origin. it can be shown whether the standard of living has risen of fallen. Other uses of Indifference curve: The use of indifference curve technique is not merely confined to the cases mentioned above.e. the marginal rate of substitution of x and y goes on falling. iii. This technique is how being very widely used in almost the entire economic theory.e.intersecting: The second property or characteristic of indifference is that no two such curves will never cut each other. Effect of increase in wages on supply or labour: In the case of poorly-paid workers. Taxation: Direct Vs Indirect Taxes: In the field of taxation too the indifference curve technique can be usefully employed. iii. Application in consumption: The indifference curve technique can be used by the householder in setting his purchase plan. i. Page 36 of 47 Unit-II . v. Rationing: Rationing is another field in which the indifferent curve technique can be applied..
affords no guarantee that it is nearer to the truth. Cardinal Measurement implicit in I. Fails to explain consume r’s behavior in choices involving risk or uncertainty: Another serious criticism leveled against the preference hypothesis is that it fails to explain consumer behavior when the individual is faced with choices involving risk of uncertainty of expectations. the assumption that the consumer buys more units of the same good when its price falls is unwarranted.C Technique: The cardinal measurement of utility is implicit in the difference hypothesis when we analyze substitutes and complements. like the utility theory. xii. xiii. viii. ix. assumes that the consumer acts rationally. Veblen and Band wagon effects. Indifference curves are non-transitive: The consumer is indifferent not because he has complete knowledge of the various combinations available to him but because of his inability to judge the difference between alternative combinations.CRITICISM (OR) DRAWBACKS OF INDIFFERENCE CURVE ANALYSIS i. vii. Limited analysis of consume r’s behavior: Further. happens to be more economical logically. Two-goods Model Unrealistic: Again the two-goods model on which the indifference analysis is based makes the theory unrealistic because a consumer buys not two but a large number of commodities to satisfy his innumerable wants. Page 37 of 47 Unit-II . ii. iv. The consume r is not rational: The indifference analysis. iii. etc. the effects of advertising of stocks. vi. Based on unrealistic assumption of perfect competition: The indifference curve technique is based on the unrealistic assumptions of perfect competition and homogeneity of goods where as in reality the consumer is confronted with differentiated products and monopolistic competition. Fails to explain the observed behavior of the consume r: Knight argues that the observed market behavior of the consumer cannot be explained objectively with the help of the indifference analysis. interdependence of the preferences of consumers in the form of Snob. Old wine in ne w bottles: It substitutes the concept of preference for utility. x. Combinations are not based on any principle: Since the combinations are made irrespective of the nature of goods. Failure to consider some othe r factors concerning customer behavior: The indifference curve analysis does not consider speculative demand. v. Away from Reality: The fact that the indifference hypothesis. Midway house: Indifference curves are hypothetical because they are not subject to direct measurements. the more complication of the two psychologically. It replaces introspective cardinalism by introspective ordinalism. xi. they often become absurd.
how much the people are willing to pay for a thing and how they will be affected by a rise in price resulting from the imposition of a tax. It may be the called ―consumer‘s surplus‖. but sometimes the consumer is also willing to buy even less commodity i. X axis-Units of commodity Y axis. This is explained with the help of a diagram. Conjectural Importance: It enables is to compare and advantages of environment and opportunities. Public Finance: The finance minister considers while proposing fresh taxation.e OM1 at a high price of OA1 rather than going without buying that commodity & this is called as consumer surplus. Monopoly Value: Similarly. Thus the consumer cannot get maximum satisfaction from the use of individual goods.xiv. CONSUMER SURPLUS The excess of the price which he would be willing to pay rather than go without thing. IMPORTANCE OF PRACTICAL UTILITY OF CONSUMER’S SURPLUS i. is the economic measure of this surplus satisfaction.price that the consumer is willing to pay Explanation: The figure shows that at OA price OM units of commodity is sold. iii. All commodities are not divisible: When indivisible goods are taken in a combination they cannot be substituted without dividing them. over that which he actually does pay. ii. will find that he can easily raise price of his product if the commodity is yielding surplus of satisfaction to the consumers. or conjunctural benefits. Page 38 of 47 Unit-II . especially a monopolist. a businessman.
Cons umer’s sensibilities: Every consumer has his own tastes and sensibilities. Hence. To measure consumer‘s surplus precisely.e. Some desire a commodity more ardently than others.use is large even though the value-in-exchange may be small. the marginal utility of each unit of money increases. iii. Cons umer’s circumstances: Some consumers are rich while others are poor. This decrease in the utility of earlier units is not taken into account when calculating the consumer‘s surplus. iv. A complete list of demand prices is not available: As we do not know what prices we are prepared to pay for every one of the units. therefore.in-exchange. Hence. clearly brings out the distinction between value.iv. DIFFICULTIES OF CONSUMER SURPLUS MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER SURPLUS (OR) DIFFICULTIES OF i. A rich man is prepared to pay much more for a thing than go without it. that with every increase in the purchase of a commodity.. may fall off. THE EFFECT OF PRICES ON CONSUMER EQUILIBRIUM (OR) DERIVE PRICE CONSUMPTION CURVE Price cons umption curve: Now we shall describe how a consumer‘s equilibrium shifts as a result of a change in the price of one of the goods. vi. viz.in-use and value. as in the above case. while his income and the price of the other good remain the same (i. This difficulty is also met. therefore prepared to offer more. v. the fall in price will not lead to increase in demand. But.. Substitutes: Then. It is large where the value-in. the urgency of the need for the earlier purchase is diminished and their utility decreases. Commodities used for distinction: In such cases. This can be explained with the help of a diagram Page 39 of 47 Unit-II . and are. Benefits from International trade: The larger this surplus. ex: diamonds. the more beneficial is international trade. Change in earlier units: There is the further difficulty. when we measure consumer‘s surplus. Cost-Benefit Analysis: The concept of consumer‘s surplus is found useful in working out cost-benefit analysis of an investment. it is suggested that the earlier parts of the list of demand prices should be continually redrawn. therefore. Necessaries: Consumer‘s surplus in the case of necessaries of life and conventional necessaries is indefinite and immeasurable. less and less amount of money is left with us. by the idea of average. there is the difficulty arising out of the presence of substitutes. we do not make any allowance for this change in the marginal utility of money. a fa ll in price in such cases will not increase consumer‘s surplus. The demand for them. vi. the price effect). viii. This difference in the consumer‘s circumstances makes the measurement of consumer‘s surplus difficult and in exact. v. ii. Change in marginal utility of money: As we o on buying a commodity. vii. Value-in-use and Value-in-exchange: The doctrine of consumer‘s surplus. the whole of the consumer‘s surplus cannot be ascertained.
the consumer will be in equilibrium a point P2 on the higher indifference curve C2. iv. the consumer will be in equilibrium at point P3 and will be buying OH3 of commodity X. When all the points such as P1. If the price of X falls further. This is be explained with the help of diagram. With a certain fixed income and given market prices of the two goods X and Y represented by the price-income line ML1. the consumer is in equilibrium at point P1. iii. ii. money income remaining constant. so that the relevant price line is ML3. so that new priceincome line becomes ML2.X axis-Good X Y axis.P2. the consumer‘s income and price of Y remaining the same.P4 are joined together we have the price consumption curve shows how the consumption of commodity X changes as its price changes. income and price of Y remaining unchanged. In this position. Suppose the price of X falls.P3.Money PCC---Price Consumption curve Explanation: i. Page 40 of 47 Unit-II . THE SUBSTITUTION EFFECT ON CONSUMER’S EQUILIBRIUM Substitution effect: Substitution effect means he changes in the quantity of a good purchased which is due only to the change in relative prices. he will be buying OH2 of commodity X.
To find out the substitution effect. we draw a hypothetical price line AB parallel to the price line PH so that it (i. v.Good Y Explanation: i. At the point T.e. With price line AB. the consumer buys MK more (at q he bought OM but at T h b uys OK) of X than at Q as X is now relatively cheaper. because both Q and T are situated as on the same indifference curve C1.. AB) should touch the indifference curve C1. where the new price line PH touches the indifference curve C2. vii. This MK is the substitution effect which involves movement from Q to T. When the price of X falls while the price of Y remains the same. iii. Page 41 of 47 Unit-II . At the point T. Movement from Q to T on the same indifference curve C1 is due only to the relative fall in the price of X. he gets the same satisfaction as at Q. the consumer is in equilibrium at T on indifference curve C1.X axis-Good X Y axis. vi. iv. viii. the price line will shift to PH (because now more of X is purchased) and the consumer will be in equilibrium at R. ii. The consumer is in equilibrium at point Q where the given price line PL is tangent to indifference curve C1.
all prices remaining constant. the consumer is in equilibrium at point P1. Page 42 of 47 Unit-II .. on a higher indifference curve C 2 and will be buying OH2 of commodity X and OQ 2 of commodity Y. etc. ii. he must spent it on the other.THE EFFECT OF INCOME ON CONSUMER’S EQUILIBRIUM (OR) DERIVE THE INCOME CONSUMPTION CURVE Income Consumption curve: Income effect is the effect on the quantity demanded exclusively as a result of change in money income. P2 .Money ICC---Income Consumption curve Explanation: i. Our consumer has an indifference map showing his scale of preferences for various combinations of the two goods. P4 . CONSUMERS EQUILIBRIUM (OR) MAXIMISING SATISFACTION The consumer is said to be in equilibrium when he obtains the maximum possible satisfaction from his purchase. As a result of this increase in income. X axis-Good X Y axis. gives the prices in the market and the amount of money he has for making purchases. With price. Now suppose the income of the consumer increases so that his new price. This is be explained with the help of diagram. If the points P1 . P2 . the consumer will move to a new equilibrium position.income line is L2 M2 . P3 . ii. are joined together by a line passing from the origin. P3 for different levels of income.income line L1 M1 . at the point P2 . He has a given and constant amount of money to spend on the goods and if he does not spend it on one good. what is called Income consumption curve (ICC). Thus we get various points of equilibrium such as P 1 . prices of the commodities remaining the same. Assumption: i. iii. we get.
The consumer will be in equilibrium at the point p. Each of the goods is homogeneous and divisible and v. for all other points on the price line must lie on indifference curves of a lower order than that on which p lies. that is. iv.IC3. X axis – Good x Yaxis – Good y IC1.IC4. At the point of equilibrium an indifference curve must be convex to the origin. Its aim is to provide information for planning and decision making. based on the analysis of their past and present behaviour. Any combination other than p on the given price line can be shown to give less satisfaction to the consumer. Page 43 of 47 Unit-II . ii.iii. Prices of the goods in the market are given and constant. he tries to maximize his satisfaction. This can be explained by the diagram. The consumer acts rationally. ii.IC2. TWO CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM: i. The price line should be tangent to an indifference curve or MRS of one commodity for another should be equal to their relative prices. . A forecast tries to define wheat one believers will happen in the future.Indifference curve Explanation: i. the consumer will maximize his satisfaction and be in equilibrium at a point where the price line touches (or its tangent to) an indifference curve. FORECASTING Forecasting is the process of estimating the future.
Helps to unity and coordinate plans: Forecasting.Take account of discontinuities: The further away the forecast the less accurate it is likely to be. ii. v. iv. share prices. In all forecasts. the price of gold. There will be errors involved. it is important to take account of discontinuities. especially when there is participation throughout the organization. exchange rates.Statistical tools and techniques: The analysis of various factors may require the use of various statistical tools and techniques. etc is vital both to government and business in planning for the future. iii. vii.Disclose the areas where necessary control is lacking: Preparation of the forecast may disclose the areas where necessary control is lacking in the organization for its future course of action.Feedback mechanism: All forecasting system should include a feedback mechanism where the actual results are compared with the forecast values and the forecasting system is modified to make it more accurate in future. which can affect the data trend. vi. plan the production schedule. helps to unity and coordinate plans. Page 44 of 47 Unit-II .FEATURES OF FORECASTING i. so that all forecasts should state a plus or minus margin of error.Economic policy: forecasting economic information such as the growth in economy.Key to planning process: Forecasting is the essential step in planning process. it is a key to planning process. looking to the future. iv.Helps in promotion of organization: Forecasting certainly helps in promotion of organization by achieving its objectives in best possible way. viii.Relates to future events: Forecasting relates to future events which are needed for planning process. Planning decides the future course of action but forecasting to decide it.Compel to think ahead: The process of making forecast and their review by authorities compel them to think ahead. Therefore.Inventory control/production planning: forecasting the demand for a product enables us to control the stock of raw materials and finished goods. v. unemployment. since forecasting of future events is of direct relevance in achieving an objective. IMPORTANCE OR FORECASTING NEED OF FORECASTING WITHIN OR APPLICATIONS OF INDUSTRY i. etc ii. This is an area in which no one has yet developed a reliable (consistently accurate) forecasting technique (at least if they have or they haven‘t told anybody) iii. So. and providing for it. the inflation rate. forecasting generates the planning process.Investment policy: forecasting financial information such as interest rates.Best use of available data: Forecasting uses the best available data and makes the best informed guess. etc.
and capital expenditures.Time and cost factor: Another important of forecasting is time and cost factor.range forecast usually covers a time period from three months to three years and finds applications in many areas including sales planning. it requires lot of calculations and selection of proper calculation method which requires lot of manpower and money. It assumes that events do not change rapidly or haphazardly but change on a regular pattern.range forecast: The short.Determine the objective: Determine the forecast applications and objective.Implement results: Implement the appropriate results. job assignments and scheduling. iii. These assumptions may not hold good for all conditions or situations.e.Collect data: Collect the appropriate data required to make the forecasting under consideration.. ii.Time horizon: Determine the forecast time horizon (i. VARIOUS STEPS IN FORECASTING i.Forecasting models: Chose appropriate forecasting models. and production planning. long. These factors are affected by human who are highly unpredictable.Based on wrong assumptions: Forecasting is based on some assumptions.LIMITATIONS OF FORECASTING i. It is used in areas such as purchasing. but often it is less than three months.Indicate the trend of future happening: they are not always true: Forecasts merely indicate the trend of future happening: they are not always true. This is so because of the factors taken into account for making the forecast. research and development.range forecast covers a time span of up to one year. Degree of error increases with increases in period of forecast. Therefore. or medium) iv. Period of forecasting is also one of the factors affecting the forecast. planning. v. iii. and levels of work force. VARIOUS TYPES OF FORECASTING i.Long-range forecast: The long-range forecast usually covers a period of three to more years and is used in areas such as planning for new products. budgeting.Validate forecasting model: Validate the forecasting model with care. ii. vi. most of the smaller organization does not go for formal system forecasting. facility location or expectation. iii. Moreover. viii. The co llection and proper arrangement of such information and data requires lot of time and money. vii.Relevant forecasts: Make all relevant forecasts. forecasting requires past data and information.Medium-range forecast: The medium.Short. Page 45 of 47 Unit-II .Choose the items: Choose with care the items to be forecasted. ii. short.
iii. there will be no historic or past data available to forecast. using methods appropriate to each part.Delphi Method: The Delphi method makes use of a panel of experts. members of the sales force estimate sales in their own territory. and the general sales mangers ―massages‖ the figures to account for new products or factors of which individual salesman are unaware. Delphi method. for computing the average of the most recent N periods. For a new product.VARIOUS METHODS OF FORECASTING A.Scenario Building: In this method. Finally.Jury of Executive Opinion: This is the simplest method. One then forecasts the parts individually.Judgment Decomposition: The idea behind judgmental decomposition is to divide the forecasting problem into parts that are easier to forecast than the whole.Quantitative Method: The quantitative methods provide forecasts that were obtained by employing various mathematical models that use past data or causal variables to forecast demand.Time series Methods/Analysis: Methods of this type are concerned with variable that changes with time and which can be said to depend only upon the current time and the previous values that it took.Sales Force Opinion Composite: In this method.Weighted Moving Average: In the weighted moving average method. Some examples of the qualitative methods are jury of executive opinions. field surveys are conducted to gather information on the intentions of the concerned people. ii. the parts are combined to obtain a forecast. consumer market survey. B. i. and the president provides a considered average of these estimates. personal experiences. Page 46 of 47 Unit-II . in that the executive of the organization each provides an estimate of future volume. iv. vi. the recent observations are typically given more weight than older observations. The Delphi method is an exercise in group communication among a panel of geographically dispersed experts.Simple Moving Average: This method uses the average of the previous ‗N‘ periods to estimate the demand in any future period. iii. A number of assumptions are then followed through on how these parameters may change. v. regional sales managers adjust these estimates for their opinion or permission of individual sales people.Cons umer Market Survey: This method is mainly useful for predicting the sales forecast when it is introduced in the market. Several scenarios are developed based on the assumptions. In this method. the parameters of importance to the company are first recorded.Qualitative Method: The qualitative methods provide forecasts that incorporate factors such as the decision maker‘s emotions. The technique allows experts to deal systematically with a complex problem or task. and i ntuition. ii. and sales force opinion composite i. selected based on the areas of expertise required.
some desired future goal is selected. Economic theory gives some insight into the basic structural relationship between variables. designed to achieve this goal. predicting the market. based on confidence that certain developments can occur within a specified time period with a given level or resource allocation. and establishing trend. This activity also provides database information for trending and predicting future responses.Econometric Forecasting: In this method of forecasting. D. It is a prediction. f Page 47 of 47 Unit-II . the analyst finds the cause-andeffect relationship between the demand and some other phenomena that are related to the demand.Exploratory forecast: An exploratory forecast begins with the present stage of technology and explicates into the future assuming some expected rate of technical pro gress.g.Technology S-curve: Another useful model for technological forecasting is the technology S-curve. and then raise almost exponentially as many scientists and engineers begin applying themselves to product improvement. which has become a powerful tool at a company‘s disposal for evaluating the composition. and performance approaches some natural limit.Technological forecasting: Technological forecasting may be defined as the forecasting the future technology may affect the operations of the enterprise. This process is called economic forecasting. as the technology becomes mature. There are many dependent variables that interact with each other via series of equations. iv. The performance gained from a new technology te nds to start slowly. The precise numeric relationship between variables must often be deduced by examining data. correlation coefficient is measures of the extension to which variables (e. number of trucks sold and clutch plates sold) are associated.Correlation Analysis: In this method. Ultimately.Regression Analysis: Regression models assume that a linear relationship exists between a variable designated the dependent (unknown) variable and one or more dependent (known) variable. working backward from the future to the present. Delphi method is one such a technique which is already discussed elaborately in topic ―Delphi Method‖. i. iii. Two types of technological forecasting should be considered: normative and exploratory. performance gains become more and more difficult to attain. one method is that company web pages may be equipped with counters to keep track of visitors and even set feedback forms to gather additional information.Exponential Smoothing: This is frequently used and sophisticated weighted moving-average forecasting method. C.Normative forecasting: In normative forecasting. i. The method is fairly easy to use and requires very little record keeping of past data. and a process is developed. ii. ii. This information allows a company to evaluate their customer‘s habits and determine the most appropriate and beneficial way to deal with each one.iv. the form of which is given by economic theory.Inte rnet: Another tool for forecasting is the internet. Econometric analysis utilizes correlation and regression techniques.
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