PROJECT REPORT

Simulation of Partial Mesh Topology using Packet Tracer 5.0

Submitted To: Dr. Ghalib A. Shah

Submitted By: Muhammad Saad Roll No. 2011-MS-EE-61

Contents Chapter No. 1 Introduction of Computer Networks Chapter No. 2 Mesh Networks Chapter No. 3 Virtual LAN Chapter No.4 Introduction to Packet Tracer Chapter No.5 Simulation of Topology in Packet Tracer

Abstract
The project is based on simulation of partial Mesh Topology in Cisco Packet Tracer 5.0.The main task in this project is to create VLAN in a switch which is used to isolate data for different departments in industry. Moreover each switch and Host is configured so that they will communicate with each other. Different routing protocols are available for routing purpose but in this project I use RIP protocol for routers. Moreover the circuit have flexibility and scalability options to enhance optimization.

Chapter No. 1Introduction To Computer Networks
Basic of Networking
A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other. Fig 1 gives an example of a network in a school comprising of a local area network or LAN connecting computers with each other, the internet, and various servers.

Access to: Internet content & learning resources, Scoilnet etc Email communication

File and Print Server CD or Multimedia Servers Printers , Scanners etc

Users computers

Cache, Proxy, Filtering, Firewall Server

Modem or Router

School ‘Local Area Network’ (LAN)
Other users, computers

Fig 1: Representation of Network in a school. Broadly speaking, there are two types of network configuration, peer-to-peer networks and client/server networks. Peer-to-peer networks are more commonly implemented where less then ten computers are involved and where strict security is not necessary. All computers have the same status, hence the term 'peer', and they communicate with each other on an equal footing. Files, such as word processing or spreadsheet documents, can be shared across the network and all the computers on the network can share devices, such as printers or scanners, which are connected to any one computer.

Peer to Peer Network

Fig 2: Peer to Peer Networking Client/server networks are more suitable for larger networks. A central computer, or 'server', acts as the storage location for files and applications shared on the network. Usually the server is a higher than average performance computer. The server also controls the network access of the other computers which are

referred to as the 'client' computers. Typically, teachers and students in a school will use the client computers for their work and only the network administrator (usually a designated staff member) will have access rights to the server.

File Server

Other equipment

Fig 3: Client - Server Networking

Table 1 provides a summary comparison between Peer-to-Peer and Client/Server Networks.

Peer-to-Peer Networks vs Client/Server Networks
Peer-to-Peer Networks  Easy to set up  Less expensive to install  Can be implemented on a wide range of operating systems  More time consuming to maintain the software being used (as computers must be managed individually)  Very low levels of security supported or none at all. These can be very cumbersome to set up, depending on the operating system being used  Ideal for networks with less than 10 computers  Does not require a server  Demands a moderate level of skill to administer the network Client/Server Networks  More difficult to set up  More expensive to install  A variety of operating systems can be supported on the client computers, but the server needs to run an operating system that supports networking  Less time consuming to maintain the software being used (as most of the maintenance is managed from the server)   High levels of security are supported, all of which are controlled from the server. Such measures prevent the deletion of essential system files or the changing of settings  No limit to the number of computers that can be supported by the network  Requires a server running a server operating system  Demands that the network administrator has a high level of IT skills with a good working knowledge of a server operating system

Table 1: Peer-to-Peer Networks vs Client/Server Networks

a strand of cabling is inserted between each computer and a hub.  Network operating system software Structured Cabling The two most popular types of structured network cabling are twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known as 10Base2). Each cable cannot exceed 325 feet in length.Components of a Network A computer network comprises the following components:  A minimum of at least 2 computers  Cables that connect the computers to each other. a 10BaseT network forms a star configuration. you'll need 5 cables. Fig 4c shows a standard Cat5e Patch Panel Wall Outlet socket which is used to terminate the cables from various points in the school bank to a central point. Fig 4a shows a Cat5e cable. 10BaseT cabling looks like ordinary telephone wire. although wireless communication is becoming more common (see Advice Sheet 20 for more information)  A network interface device on each computer (this is called a network interface card or NIC)  A „Switch‟ used to switch the data from one point to another. 10BaseT Cabling When 10BaseT cabling is used. with a standard connector. except that it has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Fig 4b shows a standard Cat5e Wall Outlet socket which the cables are connected to. Fig 4a: Cat5e Cable and a close up of RJ-45 connector Fig 4b: Cat5e Wall Outlets Fig 4c: Cat5e Patch Panel . known as an RJ-45 connector. Fig 4d shows a wall mounted cabinet used to house and protect patch panel cables and connectors. Hubs are outdated and are little used for new installations. Thin coax looks like the copper coaxial cabling that's often used to connect a Video Recorder to a TV. If you have 5 computers. Because the cables from all of the PCs converge at a common point.

Network Interface Card (NIC) A NIC (pronounced 'nick') is also known as a network card. The function of a hub is to direct information around the network. Fig 6a: An 8 port Hub . Switches and hubs are technologies or „boxes‟ to which computers. In contrast. However in new installations switches should be used instead of hubs as they are more effective and provide better performance. All new networks use a minimum of standard unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) Category 5e 10BaseT cabling because it offers a performance advantage over lower grades. or "cats".Fig4d: Wall Mounted Cabinet 10BaseT cabling is available in different grades or categories. Now more affordable than ever. Fig 5: Network Interface Cards (NICs) Hub and Switch A hub is a device used to connect a PC to the network. are required for Fast Ethernet networks. a hub shares bandwidth across multiple connections such that activity from one PC or server can slow down the effective speed of other connections on the hub. A switch. which is often termed a 'smart hub'. facilitating communication between all connected devices. which in turn links all of the computers on the network together. With switching. too. printers. Computers with a wireless connection to a network also use a network card (see Advice Sheet 20 for more information on wireless networking). Dual-speed 10/100 autosensing switches are recommended for all school networks. Switches are the more recent technology and the accepted way of building today's networks. Most modern network cards are 10/100 NICs and can operate at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps. Schools may want to consider upgrading any hub based networks with switches to improve network performance – ie speed of data on the network. It connects the computer to the cabling. and other networking devices are connected. each connection gets "dedicated bandwidth" and can operate at full speed. Some grades. while others are perfectly acceptable for standard 10Mbps networks--and less expensive. Each computer on a network must have a network card. Only NICs supporting a minimum of 100Mbps should be used in new installations schools.

Fig 7b: Desktop PC Wireless LAN card Fig 7c: Laptop PC Wireless LAN card What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Wireless LAN? Wireless LANs have advantages and disadvantages when compared with wired LANs. Wireless networks can be configured to provide the same network functionality as wired networks.Fig 6b: 2 Examples of 24 port Switches Wireless Networks The term 'wireless network' refers to two or more computers communicating using standard network rules or protocols. the computers use wireless radio signals to send information from one to the other. it can also be used to extend an existing wired network to areas where wiring would be too difficult or too expensive to implement. A wireless LAN will make it simple to add or move workstations. When the term 'wireless network' is used today. This will determine the number of base stations you need and the best place(s) to locate them. A site survey will also enable each supplier to provide you with a detailed quote. ranging from simple peer-to-peer configurations to large-scale networks accommodating hundreds of users. A wireless local area network (WLAN) consists of two key components: an access point (also called a base station) and a wireless card. or to areas located away from the main network or main building. A WLAN can be installed as the sole network in a school or building. Fig 7a: Wireless Access point or Wireless Basestation Suppliers would need to visit the schools and conduct a site survey. it usually refers to a wireless local area network or WLAN. However. Instead. Information can be transmitted between these two components as long as they are fairly close together (up to 100 metres indoors or 350 metres outdoors). and to install access points to provide connectivity in . but without the use of cabling to connect the computers together. equipment and opinions may vary. It is important to contact a number of different suppliers as prices.

Where computer labs are used in schools. In a wireless network. with the distance determined by the standard used and buildings and other obstacles between the access point and the user A wired LAN is most likely to be required to provide a backbone to the wireless LAN. it may be necessary to replace wireless cards and/or access points Lower wireless bandwidth means some applications such as video streaming will be more effective on a wired LAN Security is more difficult to guarantee. It is also the point where a wireless network can be connected into an existing wired network. the „computer suite‟ can be moved from classroom to classroom on mobile carts  While the initial investment required for wireless LAN hardware can be similar to the cost of wired LAN hardware. is used to connect notebook computers to a wireless network. installation expenses can be significantly lower  Where a school is located on more than one site (such as on two sides of a road). Usually. Wired network points would be needed for each of the access points. It broadcasts and receives signals to and from the surrounding computers via their adapter card. it is possible with directional antennae. A wireless LAN PC card. to avoid digging trenches under roads to connect the sites  In historic buildings where traditional cabling would compromise the façade. the data transfer rate to each computer will decrease accordingly As standards change. . Desktop computers can also connect to a wireless network if a wireless network card is inserted into one of its internal PCI slots. this is inserted into the relevant slot in the side of the notebook. but some may be internal to the notebook. a wireless LAN should be a supplement to a wired LAN and not a complete solution Long-term cost benefits are harder to achieve in static environments that require few moves and changes It is easier to make a wired network „future proof‟ for high data transfer. an 'access point' has a similar function to the hub in wired networks. Both networks require network interface cards or network adapter cards. Temporary or semi-permanent buildings that are in range of an access point can be wirelessly connected to a LAN to give these buildings connectivity.areas where it is difficult to lay cable. A WLAN has some specific advantages:  It is easier to add or move workstations  It is easier to provide connectivity in areas where it is difficult to lay cable  Installation can be fast and easy and can eliminate the need to pull cable through walls and ceilings  Access to the network can be from anywhere in the school within range of an access point  Portable or semi-permanent buildings can be connected using a wireless LAN  Where laptops are used. Wireless Network Components There are certain parallels between the equipment used to build a WLAN and that used in a traditional wired LAN. a wireless LAN can avoid drilling holes in walls  Long-term cost benefits can be found in dynamic environments requiring frequent moves and changes  They allows the possibility of individual pupil allocation of wireless devices that move around the school with the pupil. which contains an in-built antenna. the computers (laptops) could be put on a mobile cart and wheeled from classroom to classroom. and requires configuration Devices will only operate at a limited distance from an access point. providing they are in range of access points. WLANs also have some disadvantages:         As the number of computers using the network increases.

. 1. without the need for additional infrastructure. students and teachers can use wireless devices to gather and record data outside. This should be considered if multimedia applications are to be delivered over the network to a significant number of users. The advantages of not doing so are apparent: the amount of work required and the time taken to complete it are significantly reduced the network is accessible in places where wiring would have been difficult or impossible with no cables linking computers together. whereas wired networks normally work at 100Mbps (Fast Ethernet). teachers or students can have continuous access to the network. cable-related faults and network downtime are minimised Where a wireless network is in place. They can also be located in areas where group work is taking place. Ad Hoc/Peer-to-Peer Configuration This is the most basic wireless network configuration. Wireless networks work at up top 54Mbps.The most obvious difference between wireless and wired networks. The space over which a wireless network operates is not planar but spherical. and access to the Internet is available. sharing a program on a network allows for easier . e. however. As the range of the wireless network extends outside the building. In a location within a school where network access is required occasionally. A computer within range of the transmitting computer can connect to it. As the range of the network may extend beyond the walls of the building. the distance from the access point and the fabric of the building (metal structures in walls may have an impact). Advantages of Networking schools Speed. enhancing group project work. Besides monetary savings. Even though this configuration has no real administration overhead.1. Networks provide a very rapid method for sharing and transferring files. if a number of computers are networked in this way. This data transmission rate is dependant on the number of users. This method of transferring files in this manner is very time-consuming. However. it should only be a consideration for very small installations. then carrying or sending the disks from one computer to another. even as they move with their equipment from class to class. in a multi-level site. Wireless Network Configurations Wireless networks can be configured in an ad hoc/peer-to-peer arrangement or as a local area network. Therefore. Without a network. as part of a science experiment or individual performance data as part of a PE class. files are shared by copying them to floppy disks. is that the latter uses some form of cable to connect computers together. network access is available in rooms above or below the access point. they must remain within range of each other. It relies on the wireless network adapters installed in the computers that are communicating with each other. The network version of most software programs are available at considerable savings when compared to buying individually licensed copies. documents and files can be shared. A wireless network does not need cable to form a physical connection between computers. A wireless network will be noticeably slow when a group of users are transferring large files. Benefits and Educational Uses The installation of cables is time consuming and expensive. Consideration should be given to what security features the equipment provides to ensure that only valid users have access to the network and that data is protected. As they are connected to the network.g. Cost. desktop computers fitted with wireless network cards can be placed on trolleys and moved from location to location. Technical and Purchasing Considerations Network interface cards for wireless networks are more expensive than their wired counterparts. it can be accessed from outside. The cost of the access points has also to be considered.

Students can also work cooperatively through the network. Although a file server is no more susceptible to failure than any other computer. scanners. This eliminates that need to spend time and energy installing updates and tracking files on independent computers throughout the building. Security. only to find that they did not budget for the necessary administrative support. One of the greatest benefits of installing a network at a school is the fact that all of the software can be loaded on one computer (the file server). when the files server "goes down. fax machines. File Server May Fail. save part of it on a public access area of the network. and the installation may require the services of a technician. Flexible Access. Files and programs on a network can be designated as "copy inhibit. instead of on all the individual workstations. then go to the media center after school to finish their work. Proper maintenance of a network requires considerable time and expertise. Resource Sharing. and CD-ROM players for each computer. School networks allow students to access their files from computers throughout the school. the entire school may lose access to necessary programs and files. on the file server. they can be shared by many users. . passwords can be established for specific directories to restrict access to authorized users. Sharing resources is another area in which a network exceeds stand-alone computers. Also. Main challenges of installing a School Network Costs Although a network will generally save money over time. When this happens. if these or similar peripherals are added to a network. Students can begin an assignment in their classroom. However. Most schools cannot afford enough laser printers. Many schools have installed a network. The changes have to be done only once. modems. the initial costs can be substantial." so that you do not have to worry about illegal copying of programs." the entire network may come to a halt. Requires Administrative Time. Centralized Software Management.upgrading of the program.

2.1. Networking Models: Towards a Networked School This model shows a diagram of a networked school indicating the various types of networking models used. Main School Building School Admin Office Principals Office Staff Room Technology Room Post Primary Science Labs Post Primary Resource Room Standard Classroom General Purpose Room Standar d Classro Standard oms Classroom Standard Classroom ICT Server & Equipment Room Standard Classroom Store Room Standard Classroom Standard Classroom Standard Classroom Specialist Room Post Primary Standard Classroom Computer room with 15-30 computers Wireless link to Building 2 Specialist Room Post Primary Building 2 Temporary Pre-Fab . networked specialist rooms for specific subjects. Note: To improve readability only network points are shown. networked classrooms. These include computer rooms.Wireless Network Building 3 Fig 8: Representation of a Whole School Network Model . the General Purpose room and Building # 2. Refer to Fig 8. Mobile solutions are shown in the Resource room. rather than cabling itself.

standard classroom # of computers computer room # of computers Staff room # of computers Principal/Office # of computers Library # of computers science lab # of computers File & Print Server Access to: Internet content & learning resources. . Internet access is handled via a modem or router. Scoilnet etc Email communication Cache. Filtering/Firewall Server School ‘Local Area Network’ (LAN) resource room # of computers Modem or Router specialist room # of computers Fig 10: Typical Network Model for a Post Primary school. Figure 9 shows a model for a Primary or Special school. Proxy. while internet Filtering . while internet Filtering . Internet access is handled via a modem or router. Scoilnet etc Email communication technology lab # of computers Cache/Proxy. Firewall Server 4th Class # of computers School ‘Local Area Network’ (LAN) Modem or Router 5th Class # of computers 6th Class # of computers Fig 9: Typical Network Model for a Primary or Special school. The network connects to a File and Print Server. Figure 10 shows a model for a Post Primary school. This includes connectivity to all classrooms back to a central network. Proxy and Web Caching are all handled via a dedicated server. This includes connectivity to all classrooms back to a central network. Proxy and Web Caching are all handled via a dedicated server. Filtering.Junior Infants # of computers Senior Infants # of computers 1st Class # of computers 2nd Class # of computers Resource room # of computers Principal/Office Staffroom # of computers 3rd Class # of computers File & Print Server Access to: Internet content & learning resources. The network connects to a File and Print Server.

Video. Model 1a: One computer in a classroom with its own private printer. Proxy and Web Caching are all handled via a dedicated server. Fig 11. there could be a single LAN-connected point for the teacher and an additional LAN connection to allow for a portable switch. Networking will more effectively make use of commonly shared resources such as file servers and school printers. Filtering/Firewall Server Scanner Main Servers & Internet Access Modem or Router Network Fig 11: Server Functionality Model Server Functionality The network connects to a File and Print Server. Refer to diagram 12a Model 1a Fig 12a: From single PC to networked LAN Points . In this scenario. Scoilnet etc Email communication Cache/Proxy. The File server stores common files. It is recommended that schools with computers in this situation would network the classrooms in question as shown. while internet Filtering . Internet access is handled via a modem or router. The Print Server manages the different requests for printing. When a mobile PC or PC with projector is require in a room the network points are already present. A Multimedia or CD server is used to store and distribute Multimedia . applications etc . The following represent some simple models representing classrooms.Sound.File & Print Server Printer Multimedia or CD Server Access to: Internet content & learning resources. internet . Example network configurations: Models for Networking First let‟s review some simple models where no networking exits and computers are used in standalone or ad-hoc mode. email etc. Text .

ICT in Irish secondary schools has been concentrated in dedicated computer rooms. printers. email etc.Model 1b: This scenario is similar to Model 1a. . Refer to diagram 12b Model 1b: Fig 12b: Networking other commonly used equipment Networked Computer Room Model 1c: A non networked computer room or resource area with an ad-hoc and inefficient use of printers. Traditionally. There may be a single LAN-connected presentation point for the teacher and LAN-connected computers throughout the classroom. Primary schools have more varied deployment. Networking computer rooms is essential so that all PCs can access printers. this setup is attractive. avoiding problems of extra teachers for split classes. and with each computer networked to the LAN. scanners etc. It is recommended that schools with computers in this situation would network the classrooms in question . In this scenario there may be a single LAN-connected point for the teacher and a limited number of LAN connection points throughout the room to allow students access to the school LAN. the internet. The connection points may be situated as required around the room depending upon class learning requirements and the availability of existing power outlets. This scenario represents a school computing room which can be timetabled for classes. email etc. scanners are used in ad-hoc and inefficient configuration. Networking will more effectively make use of commonly shared resources such as scanners. An entire class can be timetabled. internet . but where other equipment such as printers. Refer to diagram 12c Model 1c: Fig 12c: Networked computer lab. From an administrative point of view.

Wireless connections allow a region to be connected to a network by radiowaves. or data suites are clusters of perhaps four desktop computers. a scanner and a printer. to save on extensive cabling work with this option. however. One should remember that the access point itself must be connected by cable to the main network. This is one reason why they would be best sited in public areas around the school. It can be used in conjunction with an existing LAN point in the room for best effect. Though self-sufficient in terms of peripherals. Wireless LAN technology is relatively new and generally more expensive and more limited than cabled LANs. Advantages . Utilise areas of school without losing classrooms Public supervision Disadvantages are Open access means security issues must be addressed . There is the potential. Fig 13b: Movable or mobile Laptop PC with Digital Projector Wireless LAN (Ref Fig 13c) This scenario has the capability to connect multiple computers to the school LAN without providing direct LAN connections. These suites would be used by students in small groups or individually and could accommodate taskoriented activities and self-directed learning. they would be connected to the main school network and have Internet access. instead all computers are radio linked to the LAN. Advantages are easy access to staff and students alike. No LAN cabling is required for the classroom. Fig 13a: Movable or mobile Media Bays Laptop and data-projector (Ref Fig 13b) A combination of laptop and data-projector is a highly effective teaching model where a teacher wants to provide the whole class with visual or multimedia content . which link a wireless card in the computer to a wireless access point.Media Bays (Ref Fig 13a) Media bays.

Ranges of less than 18 metres are not uncommon. While it is unlikely that wireless will replace data cables in the near future they do provide a flexibility that can be harnessed creatively. Thus is unsuitable for high data volumes such as multimedia access by large numbers of machines. Manufacturers stated ranges of 100 . Wireless networking means that large common areas such as canteens or libraries can be easily connected to the network.   Flexibility of machines .300 metres is wildly optimistic. Less unplugging of cables into sockets reduces wear and tear Disadvantages    Wireless networking may prove much more expensive if wiring large numbers of machines close together. Fig 13c: Wireless LAN (WLAN) . Wireless hubs data rates (typically 11Mbps) are considerably less at present than their cable equivalent. Data rates drop off as distance increases.linked even if students break into small workgroups in different parts of room.usually laptops .

as there is often more than one path between a source and a destination in the network. directly to the intended recipient. As a result. but MANET also have to deal with the problems introduced by the mobility of the nodes. To ensure all its paths' availability. this concept is also applicable to wired networks and software interaction. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) and mesh networks are therefore closely related. privacy and security are thus enhanced. by hopping from node to node until the destination is reached.Chapter No. . but also serve as a relay for other nodes. it must collaborate to propagate the data in the network. The self-healing capability enables a routing based network to operate when one node breaks down or a connection goes bad. the message is propagated along a path. Mesh networks can be seen as one type of ad hoc network. Although mostly used in wireless situations. that is. Fig Full Mesh Network Advantages   Point-to-point line configuration makes identification and isolation of faults easy. a routing network must allow for continuous connections and reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths. Messages travel through a dedicated line. A mesh network can be designed using a flooding technique or a routing technique. A mesh network whose nodes are all connected to each other is a fully connected network. 2 Mesh Networks Mesh networking (topology) is a type of networking where each node must not only capture and disseminate its own data. the network is typically quite reliable. When using a routing technique. using self-healing algorithms.

Disadvantage The more extensive the network. most notably the Internet. thereby preventing the sort of traffic problems that may arise in shared-link architectures. Fig Partial Mesh . partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to others. among other considerations. messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. Unlike each of the previous topologies. For this reason. such networks are uncommon. to the amount of cabling and the number of hardware ports it will require. although two cable paths exist. (Recall that even in a ring. only those communications between that specific pair of devices sharing the link will be affected. A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh.) Some WANs. due. Dedicated links ensure that each connection carries its own data load.  Should a fault occur in a given link. employ mesh routing. Partial Mesh Networks Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. messages can only travel in one direction. the greater the investment necessary to build it will be. As shown in the illustration below. in terms of scope or of physical area.

In addition. The shift toward LAN switching as a replacement for local/departmental routers-. organizations were able to divide the network into smaller. segments and broadcast domains correspond on a one-to-one basis. That situation will . VLANs can track workstation movements to new locations without requiring manual reconfiguration of IP addresses. One of the reasons for the attention placed on VLAN functionality now is the rapid deployment of LAN switching that began in 1994/1995. Routers could now focus on providing broadcast containment. the continued deployment of switches. broadcast domains typically remain in the 100 to 500 user range. VLANs represent an alternative solution to routers for broadcast containment. many more ambitious organizations are moving quickly toward networks featuring private port (single user/port) LAN switching architectures. With the introduction of switching. and broadcast domains could now span multiple switched segments. In the early 1990s. Such a desktop switching architecture is ideally suited to VLAN implementation. To understand why private port LAN switching is so well suited to VLAN implementation. switches have yet to be implemented on a large enough scale to necessitate VLANs. easily supporting 500 or more users per broadcast domain. In a network using only routers for segmentation.will only accelerate in the future. Each segment typically contained between 30 and 100 users.and now even shared media devices (hubs)-. most organizations have begun to look for vendors that have a well-articulated VLAN strategy. With the implementation of switches in conjunction with VLANs. since VLANs allow switches to also contain broadcast traffic. 3 Virtual LAN INTRODUCTION Virtual LANs (VLANs) have recently developed into an integral feature of switched LAN solutions from every major LAN equipment vendor. organizations began to replace two-port bridges with multiport. as well as VLAN functionality built into products today. Why haven't more organizations deployed VLANs? For the vast majority of end-user organizations. With the rapid decrease in Ethernet and Token Ring switch prices on a per-port basis. while broadcast domains can be as large as 1. layer 2defined segments. if implemented properly. dividing the network into more and more segments (with fewer and fewer users per segment) does not reduce the need for broadcast containment. Using routers. collapsed backbone routers in order to segment their networks at layer 3 and thus also contain broadcast traffic. enabling increased bandwidth per segment. However. each network segment can contain as few as one user (approaching private port LAN switching). it is useful to review the evolution of segmentation and broadcast containment in the network over the past several years.Chapter No.000 users or perhaps even more. Although end-user enthusiasm for VLAN implementation has yet to take off.

at this point. As the networking industry has shown. However. in most initial implementations. 6. 5. customers realize that VLANs have their own administrative costs. To a certain extent these are tactical issues. VLANs could only be supported on a single switch. 5. and configuration is fairly straightforward. 7. network-layer grouping. proprietary solutions are anathema to the multivendor/open systems policies that have developed in the migration to local area networks and the client server model. Finally. ports 1 and 2 of switch #1 and ports 4. most people would agree that a VLAN can be roughly equated to a broadcast domain. proprietary. There are. Despite the frequently quoted numbers illuminating the hidden costs of networking. Defining VLANs purely by port group does not allow multiple VLANs to include the same physical segment (or switch port). 3. but how they are resolved has important strategic implications. and 6 make up VLAN B). 2. such as administration and moves/adds/ changes. issues such as the extent to which end-stations are not constrained by physical location. VLANs can be seen as analogous to a group of end-stations. 3. We will discuss the issue of manual vs. and are still. and the relationship between VLANs and ATM have been left up to each vendor. and describe techniques by which VLANs may be extended across multiple switches in the network. ports 1. This scenario is depicted in Figure 1. defining precisely what VLANs are has become a contentious issue.soon change. other reasons for the lukewarm reception that VLANs have received from network users up to now:    VLANs have been. 4. while ports 4. Because there are several ways in which VLAN membership can be defined. customers may look at enterprise-wide VLAN implementation and see difficulties in enabling full. that are not constrained by their physical location and can communicate as if they were on a common LAN. and 8 on a switch make up VLAN A. Furthermore. . 6. MEMBERSHIP BY PORT GROUP Many initial VLAN implementations defined VLAN membership by groups of switch ports (for example. MAC-layer grouping. and 7 of switch #2 make up VLAN A. the primary limitation of defining VLANs by port is that the network manager must reconfigure VLAN membership when a user moves from one port to another. Port grouping is still the most common method of defining VLAN membership. perhaps on multiple physical LAN segments. the way VLAN membership is defined. DEFINING VLANS What is a VLAN? With the multitude of vendor-specific VLAN solutions and implementation strategies. automatic VLAN configuration. More specifically. pose for enterprise networks. Nevertheless. the relationship between VLANs and routing. 7. the paper takes a look at the present state of VLAN standards. 5. 2. while ports 3. and 8 of switch #1 combined with ports 1. present and future. both straight-forward and hidden. this paper divides VLAN solutions into four general types: port grouping. Second-generation implementations support VLANs that span multiple switches (for example. and 8 of switch #2 make up VLAN B). high-performance access to centralized servers. and attempts to determine the strategic implications that VLANs. This paper discusses these and other issues in greater detail. Although many analysts have suggested that VLANs enhance the ability to deploy centralized servers. However. however. single-vendor solutions. and IP multicast grouping.

The problem is that the docking station and integrated network adapter (with its hardwired MAC-layer address) usually remain on the desktop. When the user moves to a new desk and docking station. MAC address-based VLANs that are implemented in shared media environments will run into serious performance degradation as members of different VLANs coexist on a single switch port. automatic tracking of users is possible. VLAN membership must be updated constantly as users move around and use different docking stations. a MAC address-based VLAN is created for each subnet. Some vendors have mitigated the onerous task of initially configuring MAC-based VLANs by using tools that create VLANs based on the current state of the network--that is. However. In addition. One of the drawbacks of MAC address-based VLAN solutions is the requirement that all users must initially be configured to be in at least one VLAN. In such an environment. but minor." later in this paper.Figure 1. a VLAN defined by MAC address can be thought of as a user-based VLAN. After that initial manual configuration. making VLAN membership impossible to track. the MAC-layer address changes. while the notebook travels with the user. Another. the primary method of communicating VLAN membership information between switches in a MAC addressdefined VLAN also runs into performance degradation with larger-scale implementations. This is explained in "Communicating VLAN Membership Information. While this problem may not be particularly common. In this way. VLANs based on MAC addresses enable network managers to move a workstation to a different physical location on the network and have that work-station automatically retain its VLAN membership. LAYER 3-BASED VLANS VLANs based on layer 3 information take into account protocol type (if multiple protocols are supported) or network-layer address (for example. Since MAC-layer addresses are hard-wired into the workstation's network interface card (NIC). depending on the specific vendor solution. it does illustrate some of the limitations of MAC address-based VLANs. the disadvantage of having to initially configure VLANs becomes clear in very large networks where thousands of users must each be explicitly assigned to a particular VLAN. VLANs Defined by Port Group MEMBERSHIP BY MAC Address VLAN membership based on MAC-layer address has a different set of advantages and disadvantages. subnet address for TCP/IP networks) in determining VLAN . drawback to VLANs based only on MAC-layer addresses emerges in environments that use significant numbers of notebook PCs with some docking stations.

RIP or OSPF protocols are not employed. users can physically move their workstations without having to reconfigure each workstation's network address--a benefit primarily for TCP/IP users. When an IP packet is sent via multicast. Therefore. and then define VLANs for NetBIOS end-stations by dividing them by groups of MAC-layer addresses. many vendors are planning to include multiple methods of VLAN definition. However. All workstations that join an IP multicast group can be seen as members of the same virtual LAN. Therefore. they are only members of a particular multicast group for a certain period of time. enabling functions normally associated with routing. Nevertheless. the dynamic nature of VLANs defined by IP multicast groups enables a very high degree of flexibility and application sensitivity. For example. VLANs defined at layer 3 are particularly effective in dealing with TCP/IP. and frames traversing the switch are usually bridged according to implementation of the Spanning Tree Algorithm. There are several advantages to defining VLANs at layer 3. IP MULTICAST GROUPS AS VLANS IP multicast groups represent a somewhat different approach to VLAN definition. First. defining VLANs at layer 3 can eliminate the need for frame tagging in order to communicate VLAN membership between switches.or application-based VLAN strategy. Furthermore. "layer 3 aware" or "multi-layer" switches often have the packet-forwarding function of routing built into ASIC chip sets. Having made the distinction between VLANs based on layer 3 information and routing. It should be noted that this performance difference is true for most. One of the disadvantages of defining VLANs at layer 3 (vs. . vendor implementations. from the point of view of a switch employing layer 3-based VLANs. a key point remains: no matter where it is located in a VLAN solution.membership. Third. it is sent to an address that is a proxy for an explicitly defined group of IP addresses that is established dynamically. which signals that group's existence.or port-based VLANs) can be performance. Such a flexible definition of VLAN membership enables network managers to configure their VLANs to best suit their particular network environment. no route calculation is undertaken. MAC. For this reason. End-stations running unroutable protocols cannot be differentiated and thus cannot be defined as part of a network-layer VLAN. Each workstation is given the opportunity to join a particular IP multicast group by responding affirmatively to a broadcast notification. although the fundamental concept of VLANs as broadcast domains still applies. This may be an attractive option for network managers who are dedicated to a service. Second. Inspecting layer 3 addresses in packets is more time consuming than looking at MAC addresses in frames. which do not involve manual configuration at the desktop. COMBINATION VLAN DEFINITIONS Due to the trade-offs between various types of VLANs. DECnet® . Furthermore. Although these VLANs are based on layer 3 information. bridged topology. this does not constitute a "routing" function and should not be confused with network-layer routing. an organization that utilizes both IP and NetBIOS protocols could define IP VLANs corresponding to preexisting IP subnets (convenient for smooth migration). reducing transport overhead. but less effective with protocols such as IPX(TM) . it enables partitioning by protocol type. by using a combination of methods. it should be noted that some vendors are incorporating varying amounts of layer 3 intelligence into their switches. or AppleTalk® . routing is necessary to provide connectivity between distinct VLANs. connectivity within any given VLAN is still seen as a flat. switches that use layer 3 information for VLAN definition are generally slower than those that use layer 2 information. In addition. Even though a switch inspects a packet's IP address to determine VLAN membership. layer 3-defined VLANs have particular difficulty in dealing with "unroutable" protocols such as NetBIOS. but not all. greatly improving performance over CPU-based routers. VLANs defined by IP multicast groups would inherently be able to span routers and thus WAN connections.

Combining both initial and subsequent configuration automation would still imply semi-automated configuration. There are three primary levels of automation in VLAN configuration:  Manual. the constant signaling necessary to update the cached address tables of each switch can cause substantial congestion of the backbone. the specific vendor solution will determine this level of automation. even if that channel is not carrying traffic. This approach cuts out some of the overhead problems inherent in signaling and frame tagging. depending on the specific vendor's VLAN management interface. subsequent reconfigurations (moves/changes). or other criteria or policies that are preset by the administrator. because the network administrator always has the option of manual configuration. but it also wastes bandwidth. manual configuration is often not practical. is time-division multiplexing. with all subsequent moves being tracked automatically. In general. the switch resolves the end-station's MAC address or attached port with its VLAN membership in cached address tables. this method does not scale particularly well. it defeats one of the primary benefits of VLANs: elimination of the time it takes to administer moves and changes--although moving users manually with VLANs may actually be easier than moving users across router subnets. To a certain extent. in larger enterprise networks. and time-division multiplexing (TDM). Semiautomated configuration refers to the option to automate either initial configuration. Semi-automated configuration could also refer to situations where VLANs are initially configured manually. The third. frame tagging. purely manual configuration enables a high degree of control. and least utilized method. communication of VLAN membership may also be implicit in the case of layer 3-based VLANs in a multiprotocol environment. while VLAN membership in IP-based VLANs is implicitly communicated by the IP address. otherwise. outside of implementing an ATM backbone. For this reason. TDM.here. Vendors differ in the way they solve the problem of occasionally exceeding the maximum length of MAC-layer frames as these headers are inserted. but in the end. which stations belong to which VLAN) when network traffic arrives from other switches.   . channels are reserved for each VLAN. layer 2-based VLANs (defined by port or MAC address) must communicate VLAN membership explicitly.   COMMUNICATING VLAN MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION Switches must have a way of understanding VLAN membership (that is. VLANs would be limited to a single switch. these address tables are manually updated by a system administrator at a management console. However. or both.AUTOMATION OF VLAN CONFIGURATION Another issue central to VLAN deployment is the degree to which VLAN configuration is automated. Furthermore. This information is then broadcast continuously to all other switches. To date. With purely manual VLAN configuration. this degree of automation is correlated to how VLANs are defined. because a time slot dedicated to one VLAN cannot be used by another VLAN. These headers also add overhead to network traffic. As the network expands and switches are added. Fully Automatic. Of course. both the initial setup and all subsequent moves and changes are controlled by the network administrator. This type of VLAN configuration is discussed in greater detail toward the end of this paper. a header is typically inserted into each frame on interswitch trunks to uniquely identify which VLAN a particular MAC-layer frame belongs to. Frame Tagging.  Table Maintenance via Signaling. In the frame-tagging approach. user ID. This method operates as follows: When an end-station broadcasts its first frame. Semiautomated. Depending on the particular vendor's solution. A system that fully automates VLAN configuration implies that workstations automatically and dynamically join VLANs depending on application. TDM works the same way on the interswitch backbone to support VLANs as it does in the WAN environment to support multiple traffic types-. Initial configuration automation is normally accomplished with a set of tools that map VLANs to existing subnets or other criteria. As VLAN membership changes. three methods have been implemented for interswitch communication of VLAN information across a backbone: table maintenance via signaling.

 However. which make implementation of ASIC-based frame processing more difficult and thus slower and/or more expensive. and IBM voted in favor of this proposal. the LANE standard provides for a nonproprietary method of communicating VLAN membership across a backbone. Bay Networks. Department-level procurement for LAN equipment. and will be key in encouraging more rapid deployment of VLANs.1 Internetworking Subcommittee. However. changes. 1996. most members of the 802 committee have been strongly opposed to using one standard for two discrete purposes. The fact that switches from one vendor will not interoperate entirely with VLANs from other vendors may force customers to buy from a single vendor for VLAN deployment across the enterprise. and passed resolutions concerning three issues: the architectural approach to VLANs. the IEEE 802. VLAN IMPLEMENTATION BENEFITS Why are vendors paying so much attention to VLAN implementation? Will VLANs solve all of the network manager's problems with respect to moves. Alantec/ FORE. represents a major milestone in enabling VLANs to be implemented using equipment from several vendors. a standardized format for frame tagging to communicate VLAN membership information across multiple. known as 802.10 frame header format and "reuse" it to convey VLAN frame tagging instead of security information. In March. and performance? . including 3Com. VLANs will. An exception to this rule arises when VLANs are implemented in conjunction with an ATM backbone and LANE. Purchasing decisions and standardization on a particular vendor's solution throughout the enterprise will become the norm. VLANs should be considered as elements of a strategic approach. due to the lag time necessary for some vendors to incorporate the frame format specification and the desire on the part of most organizations to have a unified VLAN management platform. Cisco attempted to take the optional 802. establishment of a frame format specification will allow vendors to immediately begin incorporating this standard into their switches. The following two VLAN standards have been proposed:  802.1Q. Cisco.1 Internet-working Subcommittee completed the initial phase of investigation for developing a VLAN standard. this solution would be based on variable-length fields. The structure of the industry itself may also shift in favor of the larger networking vendors that can furnish a complete solution across a wide range of components. This has significant ramifications for deployment and procurement of VLANs.10. Thus. Cisco Systems proposed the use of IEEE 802. continue to retain characteristics of a single-vendor solution for some time. 802." later in this paper. Furthermore. particularly in the backbone. which was originally established to address LAN security for VLANs. in particular. The dynamic nature of VLANs defined by IP multicast groups enables a very high degree of flexibility and application sensitivity. STANDARDS AND THE PROPRIETARY NATURE OF VLANS Given the variety of types of VLAN definitions and the variety of ways that switches can communicate VLAN information. The fact that single-vendor VLAN solutions in the LAN backbone will be the rule for the foreseeable future contributes to the recommendation that VLANs should not be deployed indiscriminately throughout the enterprise. Although this can be made to work technically. broadcasts.10 "VLAN Standard. from both a procurement and a technological perspective. it should not be surprising that each vendor has developed its own unique and proprietary VLAN solutions and products. for the time being. is not practical for organizations deploying VLANs. It also implies that purchase decisions should be more highly centralized or coordinated than they may traditionally have been. All major switch vendors. and the future direction of VLAN standardization. in practice.Deploying an ATM backbone also enables the communication of VLAN information between switches. In addition. ATM is discussed in detail in a separate section of this paper. The standardized format for frame tagging. but it introduces a new set of issues with regard to LAN Emulation (LANE). it should be remembered that with port groupdefined VLANs. This is discussed further in "VLANs and ATM. and price-based product competition will decrease. multivendor devices." In 1995.

pose problems for the virtual workgroup model:  Managing Virtual Workgroups. allowing moved work-stations to retain their original IP addresses and subnet membership. VIRTUAL WORKGROUPS One of the more ambitious VLAN objectives is the establishment of the virtual workgroup model. rather than to reduce traffic across a collapsed backbone. a user would not have to change his or her physical location when changing departments--the network manager would simply change the user's VLAN membership. at this point. Conversely. and they must make sure that the solution does not generate more network administration than it saves. they will. In theory. However. because VLAN membership is not tied to a workstation's location in the network. It is certainly true that the phenomenon of increasingly dynamic networks absorbs a substantial portion of the budgets of most IS departments. VLANs themselves add another layer of virtual connectivity that must be managed in conjunction with physical connectivity. these workgroups would be dynamic: VLANs corresponding to these cross-functional project teams could be set up for the duration of the project and torn down when the project was completed. Virtual LAN support for virtual workgroups is often tied to support of the "80/20 rule. improving performance for the 80 percent of the traffic that is within the workgroup. Since these costs are quite substantial. Someone moving to a new physical location but remaining in the same department could move without having workstations reconfigured. However. members of the same department or section can all appear to share the same "LAN." that is. the reality is that VLANs alone cannot pave the way for full utilization of the virtual workgroup model. Additionally.REDUCING THE COST OF MOVES AND CHANGES The reason most often given for VLAN implementation is a reduction in the cost of handling user moves and changes. Moreover. 80 percent of the traffic is "local" to the workgroup while 20 percent is remote or outside of the workgroup. this argument for VLAN implementation can be compelling. The logic of the virtual work-group model goes like this: teams formed on a temporary. Although this scenario seems attractive. the transitory nature of these virtual workgroups may grow to the point where updating VLAN membership becomes as onerous as updating routing tables to keep up with adds. and changes--if properly implemented. The concept is that. there are still cultural hurdles to overcome in the virtual workgroup model: people usually move to be physically close to those with whom they work. Normally. This is not to say that VLANs cannot reduce the costs of moves. enhancing the recent trend toward cross-functional teams. From a network management perspective. when a user moves to a different subnet. all the while allowing users to remain in the same physical locations. moves. However. by properly configuring VLANs to match workgroups. This functionality promises to enable a more dynamic organizational environment. This updating process can consume a substantial amount of time that could be used for more productive endeavors such as developing new network services. VLANs eliminate that hassle. Many vendors are promising that VLAN implementation will result in a vastly increased ability to manage dynamic networks and realize substantial cost savings. not just any VLAN implementation will reduce these costs. many believe that the applicability of the 80/20 rule is waning due to the deployment of servers and/or  . only the 20 percent of the traffic that is nonlocal will need to pass through a router and out of the workgroup. with full VLAN implementation across the campus network environment. project basis could be virtually connected to the same LAN without requiring people to physically move in order to minimize traffic across a collapsed backbone." with most of the network traffic staying within the same VLAN broadcast domain. organizations must be careful not to simply throw VLANs at the network. There are several managerial and architectural issues that. This value proposition is most valid for IP networks. IP addresses must be manually updated in the workstation. Maintaining the 80/20 Rule. and changes today (although it may save on the time and effort involved in physically moving the user's workstation).

  network applications such as e-mail and Lotus Notes ® that users throughout the enterprise access on an equal basis. While workgroup VLANs may be extended to centralized server farms (for example. this is not always possible. As the number of routers increase. This problem can be avoided by making that printer a member of both VLANs. Centralized server farms raise problems for the virtual workgroup model when vendor solutions do not provide the ability for a server to belong to more than one VLAN simultaneously. As a result. only inter-VLAN packets would need to be routed-." Hence. route when you must. Server farms refer to the placement of departmental servers in a data center. If overlapping VLANs are not possible. Centralized Server Farms. and a proper operating environment. users have traditionally been forced to partition their networks with routers that act as broadcast "firewalls. In . For example. this scenario would require that routing functionality be built into the backbone switch. There are multiple reasons for utilizing VLANs to reduce the need for routing in the network:  Higher Performance and Reduced Latency. In some networks. most switching products will not support VLANs that extend across routers (the exception to this would be "VLANs" that equate to IP multicast groups). Several vendors support integrated routing as an alternative to over-lapping VLANs." Although switches certainly provide substantial performance enhancements over layer 3 packet forwarding (routing). the example print file would be routed by the switch rather than having to go through an external router. where they can be provided with consolidated backup. switches normally do not filter LAN broadcast traffic. Every time this Accounting VLAN member prints to the local printer. as users learned years ago with bridges. A high degree of latency in the network is a problem now for many legacy applications. but is physically located in an area populated by members of the Sales VLAN. in effect creating the same type of broadcast firewall that a router provides. The local network printer is also in the Sales VLAN. If overlapping VLANs are not possible. latency begins to degrade network performance. Remember. It should be kept in mind that cordoning off servers with external routers conflicts with one of the reasons for utilizing switches and VLANs in the first place--to avoid the delay introduced by routers. the MIS people who control the servers may want to place routers between the server farms and the rest of the network in order to create a separate administrative domain or to enhance network security via router access control lists. but it is particularly troublesome for newer applications that feature delaysensitive multimedia and interactivity. a user is in the Accounting VLAN. traffic between a centralized server and clients not belonging to that server's VLAN must traverse a router. Then. Only packets that are destined for addresses outside the VLAN need to proceed to a router for forwarding. discussed later. his print file must traverse a router connecting the two VLANs. One of the primary benefits of VLANs is that LAN switches supporting VLANs can be used to effectively control broadcast traffic. simple switches alone do not allow users to phase out routers completely. The virtual workgroup concept may run into the simple problem that users must sometimes be physically close to certain resources such as printers. This clearly favors VLAN solutions that enable overlapping VLANs. reducing the need for routing. but can do so at latencies much lower than those of routers. more and more routers are required to divide the network into broadcast domains.not all packets. in general. Depending on the vendor implementation. This not only can cause large switched LAN environments to become flooded with broadcasts. Access to Local Network Resources. Broadcast traffic from servers and end-stations in a particular VLAN is replicated only on those switch ports connected to end-stations belonging to that VLAN. they replicate it on all ports. if the switch incorporates built-in routing and is able to route inter-VLAN packets at wire speed. including a particular file server in a particular workgroup's VLAN). As the network expands. Switches that employ VLANs can accomplish the same division of the network into broadcast domains. Broadcast traffic is blocked from ports with no end-stations belonging to that VLAN. uninterrupted power supply. REDUCTION OF ROUTING FOR BROADCAST CONTAINMENT Even the most router-centric networking vendors have come to embrace the philosophy of "switch when you can. there is no performance advantage for overlapping VLANs over routing between VLANs to allow universal access to a centralized server. However. it is also wasteful of precious wide area network bandwidth. The trend toward server farm architecture has accelerated recently and is expected to continue in order to ease administrative costs.

As mentioned earlier. performance. Therefore. if WAN bandwidth is free for a particular organization (for example. this is generally not advised. then the user organization may want to forgo VLANs and continue deploying a multivendor network backbone. Minimizing this traffic reduces the chance of the router developing into a bottleneck. Also. because such traffic does not physically traverse that segment. As a result. VLANs can be extended across the WAN. is usually much higher for switches than for traditional routers. it would be impossible to "listen" to broadcast or unicast traffic not intended for that user (even by putting the workstation's network adapter in promiscuous mode). However. to date. The most significant weakness is that VLANs have been. Conversely." Reducing the number of routers in the network saves time spent on network management. VLANs Over the WAN. VLANs have their disadvantages as well. an electric utility with dark fiber installed in its right of way). route when you must" in a VLAN environment becomes "routing is used only to connect VLANs. Theoretically. depending on how the they are constructed. Routers require much more complex configuration than switches. without wasting WAN bandwidth. segmented by a mix of a few routers and a relatively large number of simple switches. The primary benefits of VLANs over routing are the creation of broadcast domains without the disadvantages of routing and a reduction in the cost of moves and changes in the network. Security The ability of VLANs to create firewalls can also satisfy more stringent security requirements and thus replace much of the functionality of routers in this area. however.  addition. it should be noted that there are some switches supporting network layerdefined VLANs that may not perform substantially faster than routers. Because routers filter broadcast traffic. what is the role of routers in a network? Routers have two remaining responsibilities: to provide connectivity between VLANs. they are "administratively rich. VLANs and ATM . VLANs can be used to establish broadcast domains within the network as routers do. Cost." Having said this. and to provide broadcast filtering capabilities for WAN links. if neither of these is a problem. measured in packets per second. In comparing VLANs with routing. Routing is still required for interVLAN traffic. the corollary to "switch when you can. no matter what internetworking device (switch or router) is located at each hop. Optimal VLAN deployment is predicated on keeping as much traffic from traversing the router as possible. Finally. This is primarily true when VLANs are implemented in conjunction with private port switching. but they cannot forward traffic from one VLAN to another. Ease of Administration. traffic intended for that user). keep in mind that in some cases routing may not prove to be much of a bottleneck. Routing Between VLANs. IP multicast groups (functioning as "VLANs") can be effectively extended across the WAN. switching and VLANs allow networks to be segmented at a lower cost than would be the case if routers alone were used for segmentation. The only broadcast traffic on a single-user segment would be from that user's VLAN (that is. where VLANs are generally not appropriate. Additionally. integrating routing functionality into the backbone switch eliminates this bottleneck if this routing is accomplished at high speed for inter-VLAN packets. as well as the routers providing the WAN connections. by utilizing cheaper switch ports. However. single-vendor solutions and therefore may lead to switch vendor lock-in. However. they neatly solve this problem. since VLANs defined over the WAN will permit LAN broadcast traffic to consume expensive WAN bandwidth. latency is also highly correlated to the number of hops a packet must traverse. then extending VLANs over a WAN can be considered. Assuming a major implementation of VLANs. Router ports are more expensive than switch ports.

) and connection-oriented ATM. their use may need to be extended to environments where ATM networks and ATM-attached devices are also present.related issues.While the concept of VLANs originated with LAN switches. the network becomes a truly "mixed" environment. FDDI. LAN EMULATION With the introduction of ATM-connected end-stations. As soon as any logical end-station is connected via ATM. standardized in 1995 by the ATM Forum. frame tagging. specifies how this emulation is accomplished in a multivendor environment. and TDM). ATM backbone switches could be selected without regard for VLAN functionality. which can be incorporated into one or more switches or a separate workstation to provide the MAC-toATM address resolution in conjunction with LAN Emulation clients (LECs). In this environment. it does not reflect reality for many network environments. LAN Emulation must be introduced into the network to enable ATM-connected end-stations and non-ATM-connected end-stations to communicate. ATM switches do not have to be VLAN "aware. The LAN Emulation (LANE) specification." This means that ATM backbone switches could be from a different vendor than the LAN switches. This environment puts the responsibility on the ATM side of the network to "emulate" the characteristics of broadcast LANs and provide MAC-toATM address resolution. VLANs Transparent to ATM In a LAN backbone with VLANs spanning more than one LAN switch. . there are no ATM-connected end-stations). allowing network managers to focus more on performance. a new level of complexity arises. more likely. As convenient as this situation sounds. servers directly to those backbones. with two types of networks operating under fundamentally different technologies: connectionless LANs (Ethernet. ATM permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) may be set up in a logical mesh to carry intra-VLAN traffic between these multiple LAN switches. In an environment where ATM exists only in the backbone (that is. organizations that implement ATM backbones would also like to connect workstations or. switches determine where frames have originated by the techniques discussed earlier in "Communicating VLAN Membership Information" (VLAN tables. and determining where to place the routing function. any proprietary technique the vendor has employed is transparent to the ATM backbone. etc. which are incorporated into ATM edge switches and ATM NICs. such as relating VLANs to ATM emulated LANs (ELANs). Token Ring. LANE specifies a LAN Emulation server (LES). Combining VLANs with ATM networks creates a new set of issues for network managers. Complexity Arising with ATM-Attached Devices Usually.

which governs segmentation and reassembly. LANE can also allow for multiple ELANs by establishing more than one LEC in the ATM interfaces of participating devices (as well as a separate LES for each ELAN). Therefore. frames pass directly between them just as if they were connected by a non-ATM backbone.Figure 2. This frame is destined for another Ethernet end-station across the ATM backbone. However. 4. . In this way. and all ATM-attached devices would then be members of that VLAN. allowing these VLANs to overlap at ATM-attached devices. In looking at the path of traffic between an Ethernet-attached client and an ATM-attached server. 2. multiple LECs in a single ATM-attached device can be members of different VLANs. Only the LEC that has the destination (MAC) address in its tables responds to the LES. The LEC (which in this situation resides in the LAN switch) sends a MAC-to-ATM address resolution request to the LES (which in this case resides in an ATM switch). 3. VLANs can be seen as supersets of ELANs (Figure 3). and sets up a switched virtual circuit (SVC) to transport the frame via ATM cells as per AAL5. Lan Emulation Figure 2 briefly illustrates how LANE operates: 1. and each LEC in a single ATM-attached device is seen as a separate Ethernet-attached end-station. 5. The LES sends a multicast to all other LECs in the network. with each LEC acting as a proxy MAC address. The LES then broadcasts this response to all other LECs. the section that is governed by LANE extends from the LEC in the ATM interface of the LAN switch to the LEC residing in the server's ATM NIC. while VLANs are defined for both ATM and non-ATM network devices. The LAN switch receives a frame from an Ethernet-connected end-station. The original LEC recognizes this response. learns the ATM address of the destination switch. Since LANE supports only ATM-attached devices. many organizations may not want to employ separate management software for the ATM backbone and may prefer to source both edge devices (LAN switches) and backbone devices (ATM switches) from the same vendor. from an administrative point of view. From the standpoint of either MAC driver. VLANs could be deployed without regard to whether the ATM switches in the backbone are from the same vendor (so long as they support LANE). VLANs defined by port group would treat the ATM interface on the LAN switch as just another Ethernet port. Each LEC in the ATM interface of the LAN switch is treated as a separate logical Ethernet port.

Figure 4 depicts this type of structure. VLANs as Supersets of ELANs With this structure. Of course.Figure 3. Since most traffic in a network is between client and server. therefore. <Bild> Figure 4. there is still likely to be a small amount of inter-VLAN traffic remaining. a router is still required for traffic to pass from one VLAN to another (and. an ATM backbone can enable all end-stations from multiple VLANs to access a centralized server or servers without passing through a router by establishing a separate ELAN for each VLAN. establishing VLANs that overlap at ATM-attached servers greatly reduces the number of packets that must be routed between VLANs. Router Connecting Overlapping VLANs/ELANs . Therefore. from one ELAN to another).

several solutions featuring edge routing are available today. The concept of the so-called "one-armed router" has become particularly attractive because it removes the more processing-intensive. First. A one-armed router sits off the side of an ATM backbone switch with a single ATM link.ROUTING BETWEEN EMULATED LANS AND/OR VLANS Since routing remains necessary in any mixed ATM/shared media environment to forward inter-VLAN traffic. relative to other configurations. By structuring VLANs to support the 80/20 rule (so that 80 percent of the traffic remains within each VLAN). perhaps the most significant drawback of the one-armed router is that its one arm can develop into a bottleneck if VLAN traffic does not support the 80/20 rule. less-expensive edge switches. Basically. the route server. the "one-armed" router. allowing packets that do not need to traverse the router to pass through the ATM backbone unimpeded. there is no single point of failure with edge routing architectures. For this reason. an inter-VLAN packet does not have to make a special trip to an external router. The One-Armed Router. One-Armed Router LAN switch . Traffic within VLANs can be switched across the ATM backbone with minimal delay. This can occur particularly in networks with large amounts of peer-to-peer traffic. edge routing will function in multivendor environments if each vendor's equipment supports LAN Emulation. The primary disadvantage of edge routing is the difficulty of managing multiple physical devices relative to having centralized management of a consolidated router/routing function. two or more redundant one-armed routers are generally preferred. One of the disadvantages of the one-armed router is that it represents a single point of failure in the network. unlike solutions that have centralized routing. Figure 5. is to keep as much traffic as possible out of the one-armed router. optimal configuration of VLANs to minimize inter-VLAN traffic (traffic passing through the one-armed router) is critical. There are three other major advantages to this architecture. The following are four architectural solutions to the problem of where to locate the routing functionality: edge routing. eliminating a time-consuming extra hop. However. For this to work well. There are several vendors presently shipping one-armed router solutions. edge routing solutions may be more expensive than centralized routing solutions made up of a centralized router and multiple. it is less complex to configure and administer. and MPOA. Additionally. Another advantage of the one-armed router is that. The key to the one-armed router structure. In this way. network designers are faced with the question of where to locate the router functionality. shown in Figure 5. Third. higher-latency routing function from the primary data path. Second. Edge Routing. while inter-VLAN packets are processed by the routing function built into the switch. the router is not required to handle most traffic. edge routing dictates that the routing function across the ATM backbone be incorporated into each LAN switch at the "edge" of the ATM backbone.

MPOA holds the promise of enabling an ATM backbone to connect VLANs without the need for an external router. path calculation. There is at least one development that may eventually standardize the route server approach. MPOA can be considered an enhancement beyond LANE that integrates routing functionality into the LAN-ATM edge switch. the route server shares one of the one-armed router's drawbacks in that it can be a single point of failure. Route Server LAN switch There are. and the initial implementation will most likely support only TCP/IP. Finally. the same packet waits in the cache of the LAN switch at the edge of the ATM backbone before transmission. this problem can be mitigated through redundancy. transmission. MPOA. An MPOA standard is not expected to be finalized until at least 1997. MPOA is expected to provide direct virtual circuit connectivity between ATM-network-attached devices that may belong to different routing subnets. at this point available route servers only support IP. It should be noted that some of the disadvantages of the route server approach. often reducing the number of hops required through the backbone. as with the one-armed router. While a variety of models have been proposed. and network latency would be reduced. a packet from VLAN A heading to VLAN B is sent to the one-armed router. In this process. because a route server architecture requires LAN switches to have a certain level of routing functionality. would remain in MPOA solutions. Since ELANs are subsets of VLANs.The Route Server. the packet itself never traverses a router. but logically very different in that it breaks up the routing function into distributed parts. In other words. MPOA can let logical end-stations that are part of different ELANs communicate directly across an ATM network without requiring an intervening router. initial vendor implementations are strictly proprietary and do not support standard routing protocols. disadvantages to the route server approach as well. The route server model (see Figure 6) is physically similar to the one-armed router model. such as cost and management complexity. and. of course. where it waits for address resolution. finally. All inter-VLAN traffic would be able to leverage this capability. In a onearmed router configuration. First. but. The advantage is that less routed traffic must be diverted to the route server. The only traffic to and from the route server is the signaling required to set up a connection between LAN switches across the ATM backbone. Secondly. route server solutions tend to be more expensive and more complex to configure than the relatively simple LAN switches deployed in the one-armed router architecture. Figure 6. The Multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA) standards working group of the ATM Forum is currently working out the details of an implementation model for MPOA service. establishment of a connection across the ATM backbone. In a route server scheme. Of course. . Also. overall traffic across the route server's one arm is reduced.

These logical groups are termed "scopes" in the Microsoft lexicon. the DHCP server will allocate a new IP address for that workstation. IP-based VLANs. for smaller. DHCP enables workstations to be moved from subnet to subnet without the network administrator having to manually configure the workstation's IP address or update host table information. VLANs are a better solution. In environments where the containment of broadcast traffic without having to resort to routers is a major requirement. In particular. the network administrator would have to manually update the client's IP address in the switch's VLAN tables. The element of DHCP that equates most closely to VLAN functionality is the network administrator's ability to specify a range of IP addresses available for a particular logical workgroup. DHCP alone may suffice. . OVERLAP BETWEEN DHCP AND VLANS It what ways can DHCP and VLANs work together. However. for medium-sized organizations that. scopes should not be equated with VLANs. do not support location-independent work-groups. If a client workstation physically moves to a new subnet. By simply having fewer total network nodes and fewer physical subnets. but DHCP alone does not control network broadcasts in the same way that VLANs do. By doing so. Consequently. DHCP dynamically allocates IP addresses to logical end-stations for fixed periods of time. Yet. network environments where non-TCP/IP protocols are required for mission-critical applications may benefit more from VLAN implementation. purely TCP/IP network environments (under 500 nodes). Microsoft has developed DHCP. Additionally. Unfortunately.VLANS AND DHCP: OVERLAPPING SOLUTIONS With Microsoft's recent introduction of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP has no impact on an organization's need for routing in the network. IP-based VLANs clearly represent competitive solutions because of addressing problems that stem from implementing layer 3-based VLANs in conjunction with DHCP. and in what types of network environments does DHCP make the most sense? Since DHCP is solely an IP-based solution. for whatever reason. it simply allocates that end-station a new address. and changes occurs in IP networks. this workstation's VLAN membership is based on the old IP address. BEST USE FOR EACH In what types of network environments should VLANs be implemented. moves. Rather than establishing location-independent broadcast domains as VLANs do. When the DHCP server detects a workstation whose physical location no longer corresponds to its allocated IP address. DHCP can actually conflict with VLAN implementation. it should be remembered that most of the difficulty in supporting adds. However. because members of a single scope are still bound by their physical subnet. VLANs lose much of their appeal when compared to DHCP. Therefore. they lack routing functionality and cannot create broadcast domains. a TCP/IP-based solution incorporated into the Windows NT (TM) server and most Windows® clients. although there can be multiple scopes residing in each subnet. and in what situations do they represent competitive solutions? DHCP and layer-3. Although DHCP servers dynamically maintain address tables. it has little appeal in environments where IP users are a minority. DHCP implementation may reduce the labor-intensive administration of TCP/IP networks. Therefore. the need to establish fully location-independent logical groups is greatly reduced. DHCP FUNCTIONALITY When considering the ability of VLANs to deal with ever-changing networks. There is one area in which VLANs and DHCP do not compete: reducing the necessity for routing in the network. since VLANs can be used to contain multi-protocol broadcast traffic. since all non-TCP/ IP clients would be excluded from scope membership. In order to deal with the problem of reconfiguring IP addresses. users now have another alternative for reducing the workload associated with administration of workstation IP address. especially with layer-3.

and may even affect the management structure and business model of the organization. INFRASTRUCTURAL VLANS An infrastructural approach to VLANs is based on the functional groups (that is. this approach does not require network administrators to alter how they view the network. when users in VLANs based purely on port groups move from one port group to another. discrete organizational boundaries. either through overlapping VLANs (in which network-attached end-stations simultaneously belong to more than one VLAN) or via integrated routing that can process inter-VLAN packets at wire speed. of course. and engineering. The infra-structural model is also the approach most easily enabled by presently available solutions and fits more easily with networks deployed today. Moreover. and entails a lower cost of deployment.making VLAN administration relatively straightforward. but could also include printers. The port group-based VLANs. users who move from one port group to another would still need to have their workstation reconfigured to reflect their new IP subnet. Each functional group. these organizations have two ways to deploy VLANs: an "infrastructural" VLAN implementation or a "servicebased" VLAN implementation. in conjunction with deployment of architectures that reduce the need for external routing of inter-VLAN traffic (such as multiple VLAN memberhip or integrating routing into the switch). These resources are normally servers. From a strategic standpoint. In this way. and changes unnecessarily difficult and might entail more labor-intensive network administration than if neither solution was implemented. The choice of approach will have a substantial impact on the overall network architecture. Port group-based VLANs and DHCP can coexist. the majority of network traffic is assumed to be within these functional groups. these two solutions represent an either/or proposition for most network environments. . As stated earlier. redundant matrix of logical groups (MAC address-based VLANs and DHCP scopes). and so forth. and their joint implementation can even be complementary. Implementing VLANs defined by MAC-layer address in conjunction with DHCP is a somewhat more plausible solution. routers providing WAN access. this approach fits well in those organizations that maintain clean. Organizations that implement VLANs recognize the need for certain logical end-stations (for example. is assigned to its own uniquely defined VLAN. Implementing DHCP would make this reconfiguration automatic. this access should be provided without most user traffic having to traverse a router. various network resources will need to be made available to users regardless of their VLAN membership.to medium-term solution. their VLAN membership changes. The amount of VLAN overlap in the infrastructural model is minimal. In general. VLAN overlap occurs at network resources that must be shared by multiple workgroups. which will alleviate the most pressing problems faced in many network environments. "drag-and-drop" moves. and thus within each VLAN. such as accounting. centralized servers) to communicate with multiple VLANs on a regular basis. For these reasons. Ideally. However. sales. most organizations should begin with an infrastructural approach to VLAN implementation. provide the broadcast containment that DHCP implementation alone does not. adds. In summary. In this model. Port group-based VLANs and DHCP. workgroups. Based on the 80/20 rule. sections. enterprise-wide e-mail. DHCP and port-group-based VLANs can work together to accomplish both broadcast containment and automation of moves and changes. involving only servers rather than user workstations-. represent a fairly complete short.This would eliminate the primary benefit of DHCP and one of the primary benefits of IP-based VLANs.) that make up the organization. the departments. In a non-DHCP environment where IP subnets correspond one-to-one with VLANs. VLAN ARCHITECTURES GOING FORWARD Due to the trends toward server centralization. etc. and collaborative applications. DHCP together with MAC-based VLANs would create a two-tiered. workstations functioning as gateways. Having two tiers of logical groups would make otherwise easy-to-manage.

but at individual user access to servers and applications--that is. Infrastructural VLANs SERVICE-BASED VLANS A service-based approach to VLAN implementation looks. Therefore. all users would belong to the e-mail server's VLAN. the e-mail server is a member of all of the departments' VLANs. the service-based approach creates a much more complex set of VLAN membership relationships to be managed. By its nature. Servers do not belong to multiple VLANs-. Figure 8 depicts the service-based VLAN model. in response to the types of applications organizations want to deploy in the future. However. as well as the shift away from traditional. while only a specified group such as the accounting department plus top-level executives would be members of the accounting database server's VLAN. service-based VLAN solutions must include a high level of automatic configuration features. each VLAN corresponds to a server or service on the network. to be practical. the trend in VLAN implementation will be toward the service-based approach. Given the level of most VLAN visualization tools presently available.As can be seen in the example in Figure 7. .groups of users do. In this model. while the accounting database server is only a member of the accounting VLAN. Figure 7. In a typical organization. not at organizational or functional groups. network resources. a large number of overlapping VLANs using the service-based approach could generate incomprehensible multilevel network diagrams at a management console. more rigid organizational structures.

Taking that concept a step further.Figure 8. architectural. may want to forgo implementing VLANs for the time being. However. In fact. at this stage. the number of these groups becomes larger and larger. only where and when it is needed. Application use could be accounted for. VLAN MIGRATION STRATEGIES As this paper has demonstrated. to the point where each individual could have a customized mix of services delivered to his or her workstation. In organizations that are rapidly replacing routers with switches and may soon face broadcast traffic containment issues. At that point. it is difficult to deploy VLAN technology solely as a tactical solution. the size of the groups that belong to a particular set of VLANs may become smaller and smaller. and even the business model of some organizations. In such a future environment. Users simply sign up for the applications they need delivered to them at a particular time. there are many factors to be considered in VLAN implementation: technological. enabling precise and automated chargeback for network services. and organizational. At the same time. the network structure begins to take on the multiple-channel characteristics of a cable TV (CATV) network. control over what services are delivered at a given time could be left up to each individual user. this model finds the greatest degree of similarity in VLANs defined by IP multicast group--each workstation has the choice of which IP multicast or "channel" it wants to belong to. Network managers could also retain control in order to block access to specific channels by certain users for security purposes. VLANs should be seen as a solution to at least one of two problems:   Containment of broadcast traffic to minimize dependence on routers Reduction in the cost of network moves and changes An organization where broadcast traffic is not yet a problem. VLANs lose the characteristics of static or semistatic broadcast domains defined by the network manager. organizational structure. What steps are necessary before applying VLANs to an enterprise network? Initially. However. and become channels to which users subscribe. another element of the network architecture should be considered: the degree to which . the majority of large enterprise networks are now experiencing one or both of these problems. Given the effects of VLANs on network architecture. or where the cost of network moves and changes is tolerable. this does not imply an all-or-nothing strategy in which the network architecture is transformed overnight from one based on physical subnets and router-based segmentation to one of service-based VLANs. Service-Based VLANs As bandwidth to the desktop increases and as vendor solutions become available to better manage greater VLAN overlap.

which typically asks the user for a password anyway to allow or deny access to network resources. The analysis of network traffic. initial VLANs are likely to employ an infrastructural approach. without regard to which workstation or protocol is being used. The network administrator must be able to establish policies that define which users have access to what resources and what class of service each user is entitled to. Authentication servers define VLAN membership by user ID (password or other authentication device) rather than by MAC address or IP address.the network has evolved toward a single user/port switched LAN architecture. One solution to the security problem may come in the form of an authentication server. if migration is undertaken with a holistic view of the capabilities of VLAN technology. . Because of the limitations of present VLAN technology. server location. However. that segment would receive broadcasts from each VLAN--defeating the goal of broadcast containment. as vendor solutions develop. This concept of user-controlled subscribership. If the majority of users are still on shared LAN segments. One of the primary advantages of authentication servers is that they allow the user to take his or her VLAN anywhere. This capability facilitates the automated chargeback for network services described earlier for service-based VLANs. this type of distributed VLAN control leverages the increasing processing power of the desktop and enables a higher degree of other. server access. and the network designers ask the question. "Who should talk to whom?" rather than "Who is talking to whom?. and application utilization must all be thoroughly analyzed to determine the nature of traffic flow in the network. In addition. what role ATM needs to play. Many organizations are making such changes: trends such as flatter hierarchies. may simply produce VLANs that correspond to functional teams or departments. If individual users control VLAN membership. and which will be greatly furthered by the implementation of RMON2. what about security? Clearly. many organizations will want to consider migration toward a more service-based model. agents residing in each NIC will enable the workstation to collect and report information on specific application usage (rather than just simple layer 2 traffic statistics in the case of RMON1). These servers may well develop into the primary method by which the VLANs of the future are defined. revamped workflows. On the other hand. is augmented by NICs with built-in VLAN functionality operating in environments with a single user per switch port. which will more easily let users subscribe to various network services. the ability of VLANs to contain broadcasts is greatly reduced." it may become apparent that fundamental process and organizational changes are needed. Having determined that VLANs need to be a part of network planning in the immediate future. and innovative business models are helping to fully leverage the possibilities of emerging applications. applications usage. users cannot be allowed to simply subscribe to any network service they wish. If multiple users belonged to different VLANs on the same shared LAN segment. and so on that is necessary in the VLAN migration process. and where the routing function should to be placed. as opposed to administrator-controlled membership. In this scheme. the NIC driver dynamically tells the switch which multicast groups or VLANs it wants to belong to. Defining VLANs in this way greatly increases flexibility and also implies a certain level of integration of VLANs with the network operating system. Certainly. related functionality such as automatic VLAN configuration and traffic monitoring. server access. This analysis should answer the remaining questions about where VLAN broadcast domains should be deployed.

Packet Tracer provides simulation. and layer 4 protocols such as TCP and UDP.0 . and collaboration capabilities and facilitates the teaching and learning of complex technology concepts. and ARP. This includes layer 2 protocols such as Ethernet and PPP. Packet Tracer is a protocol simulator developed by Dennis Frezzo and his team at Cisco Systems. Fig Pakcet Trace Version 5.Chapter No 4 Introduction to Packet Tracer Cisco Packet Tracer is a powerful network simulation program that allows students to experiment with network behavior and ask “what if” questions. As an integral part of the Networking Academy comprehensive learning experience. ICMP. Routing protocols can also be traced. layer 3 protocols such as IP. visualization. Packet Tracer (PT) is a powerful and dynamic tool that displays the various protocols used in networking. authoring. assessment. in either Real Time or Simulation mode.

Start Packet Tracer .

Hubs. and Connections. For this lab we will keep it simple by using End Devices. The devices you see may differ slightly. Single click on each group of devices and connections to display the various choices. . Several types of devices and network connections can be used. Switches.Step 2: Choosing Devices and Connections We will begin building our network topology by selecting devices and the media in which to connect them.

You will notice it turns into a plus “+” sign. Single click in the topology area and it copies the device. Single click on the Generic host. Move the cursor into topology area.Step 3: Building the Topology – Adding Hosts Single click on the End Devices. . Add three more hosts.

Add the hub by moving the plus sign “+” below PC0 and PC1 and click once. Connect PC0 to Hub0 by first choosing Connections. Click once on the Copper Straight-through cable.Step 4: Building the Topology – Connecting the Hosts to Hubs and Switches Adding a Hub Select a hub. . by clicking once on Hubs and once on a Generic hub.

Perform the following steps to connect PC0 to Hub0: 1. Notice the green link lights on both the PC0 Ethernet NIC and the Hub0 Port 0 showing that the link is active.) . Click once on PC0 2. Drag the cursor to Hub0 4. 1 2 3 4 5 Repeat the steps above for PC1 connecting it to Port 1 on Hub0. Choose FastEthernet 3. (The actual hub port you choose does not matter. Click once on Hub0 and choose Port 0 5.

Add the switch by moving the plus sign “+” below PC2 and PC3 and click once. . by clicking once on Switches and once on a 2950-24 switch. Connect PC2 to Hub0 by first choosing Connections. Click once on the Copper Straight-through cable.Adding a Switch Select a switch.

Perform the following steps to connect PC2 to Switch0: 1.) Move the cursor over the link light to view the port number. Frames can now forwarded out the switch port. while it goes through the stages for the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) process. The switch port is temporarily not forwarding frames. Click once on Switch0 and choose FastEthernet0/1 5. After a about 30 seconds the amber light will change to green indicating that the port has entered the forwarding stage. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Repeat the steps above for PC3 connecting it to Port 3 on Switch0 on port FastEtherent0/2. . Drag the cursor to Switch0 4. (The actual switch port you choose does not matter. Click once on PC2 2. Fa means FastEthernet. 100 Mbps Ethernet. Notice the green link lights on PC2 Ethernet NIC and amber light Switch0 FastEthernet0/1 port. 6. Choose FastEthernet 3. Note: Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is discussed later.

you can enter the Gateway IP Address 172. Choose the Config tab and click on Settings. If you want. although it will not be used in this lab.16. It is also here where you would enter a Gateway IP Address.16. but this would be the IP address of the local router.1 and DNS Server IP Address 172.1. also known as the default gateway and the DNS Server IP Address.1. We will discuss this later.Step 5: Configuring IP Addresses and Subnet Masks on the Hosts Before we can communicate between the hosts we need to configure IP Addresses and Subnet Masks on the devices. It is here that you can change the name of PC0. Click once on PC0.100. .

Click on Interface and then FastEthernet. (Full Duplex is a much more efficient option. Also.) The information is automatically saved when entered. then the Ethernet NIC on the host will choose 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet). and the switch port is configured as Full Duplex (or Autonegotiation). Click once in the Subnet Mask field to enter the default Subnet Mask.Auto If the host is connected to a hub or switch port which can do 100 Mbps.Auto Hub: If the host is connected to a hub. Duplex . Switch: If the host is connected to a switch. We will discuss this later. notice this is where you can change the Bandwidth (speed) and Duplex of the Ethernet NIC (Network Interface Card). then the Ethernet NIC on the host will choose Full Duplex. If the switch port is configured as Half Duplex. . then the Ethernet NIC on the host will choose Half Duplex. which means the NIC will negotiate with the hub or switch. add the IP Address to 172.16. The default is Auto (autonegotiation). Bandwidth . The bandwidth and/or duplex can be manually set by removing the check from the Auto box and choosing the specific option. if the hub or switch port can only do 10 Mbps.1.0. Although we have not yet discussed IP Addresses.0.10. You can leave this at 255. then the Ethernet NIC on the host will choose 10 Mbps (Ethernet).255. Otherwise. then the Ethernet NIC on the host will choose Half Duplex.

Use the information below for IP Addresses and Subnet Masks.16.16.11 172. .255.1.16.16. Repeat these steps for the other hosts.255. Deleting a Device or Link To delete a device or link.0.0.13 Subnet Mask 255. Host PC0 PC1 PC2 PC3 IP Address 172.0 255.12 172.1.1. move the Select tool (arrow) over each host.To close this dialog box. choose the Delete tool and click on the item you wish to delete. click the “X” in the upper right.0.255.0 255.1.0 Verify the information To verify the information that you entered.255.10 172.0.0 255.

. we will use a Cross-over cable. Click once the Crossover Cable from the Connections options. Select Port 5 (actual port does not matter). Move the Connections cursor over Hub0 and click once. like a Hub and a Switch.Step 6: Connecting Hub0 to Switch0 To connect like-devices.

The link light for switch port FastEthernet0/4 will begin as amber and eventually change to green as the Spanning Tree Protocol transitions the port to forwarding. Click once on Switch0 and choose FastEthernet0/4 (actual port does not matter). .Move the Connections cursor to Switch0.

Step 7: Verifying Connectivity in Realtime Mode Be sure you are in Realtime mode.. . Click once on PC0. then once on PC3. The PDU Last Status should show as Successful. Select the Add Simple PDU tool used to ping devices.

Whenever you want to reset the network and begin the simulation again. perform the following tasks: Click Delete in the PDU area.Resetting the Network At this point we will want to reset the network. Now. . Power Cycle Devices and confirm the action.

Simulation of Topology in Packet Tracer 5.0 Fig Represents Partial Mesh Topology .Chapter No 5.

com/web/learning/netacad/course_catalog/PacketTracer.oreillynet.html http://wireless.asp?id=223 http://www.%E2%80%8E .com/pub/a/wireless/2004/01/22/wirelessmesh..com http://www.ncte.ie/documents/networking/Introduction_Computer_Networkin.References: https://en.html http://mesh.org/wiki/Mesh_networking http://www.com/articles/ articledisplay.infoworld.wikipedia.cisco..nowwireless.industrial-networking.html www.com/article/ 05/07/20/HNmeshnetworks_1.