Vocational Training Project Report (5th-25th June `13

At- Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-Operative Limited, Kalol

Solanki Gunjan D.
BE-||| Chemical
Maharaja Sayajirao University, Vadodara

5th – 25th June `13

Kalo Solanki Gunjan D. Vadodara .Vocational Training Project Report (5th-25th June `13) At.Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-Operative Limited. BE-||| Chemical Maharaja Sayajirao University.

These plans have resulted in IFFCO becoming one of the largest producer and marketeer of Chemical fertilisers by expansion of its existing Units. To overcome this lacuna and to bridge the demand supply gap in the country. Through ITGI. The number of Co-operative Societies associated with IFFCO have risen from 57 in 1967 to 39. The expansion projects at Aonla. Kalol.IFFCO . IFFCO commissioned an ammonia .urea complex at Kalol and the NPK/DAP plant at Kandla both in the state of Gujarat in 1975. IFFCO has formulated new services of benefit to farmers. To take the benefits of emerging concepts like agricultural commodity trading. Phulpur and Kandla were completed on schedule. strengthening cooperative movement.824 at present. IFFCO has made strategic investments in several joint ventures. Kisan . As part of this vision.urea complex was set up at Phulpur in the state of Uttar Pradesh in 1981. Cooperative Rural Development Trust (CORDET). a new cooperative society was conceived to specifically cater to the requirements of farmers. Indian Farmers Fertiliser Co-operative Limited (IFFCO) was registered on November 3. IFFCO has now visualized a comprehensive plan titled „Vision-2015‟ which is presently under implementation. essential agro-inputs for crop production are made available to the farmers through a chain of 158 Farmers Service Centre (FSC). It was an unique venture in which the farmers of the country through their own Co-operative Societies created this new institution to safeguard their interests. This Sector had adequate infrastructure to distribute fertilisers but had no production facilities of its own and hence dependent on public/private Sectors for supplies. Another ammonia . IFFCO-Tokio General Insurance Ltd (ITGI) is a foray into general insurance sector. 'Sankat Haran Bima Yojana' provides free insurance cover to farmers along with each bag of IFFCO fertiliser purchased. Oman India Fertiliser Company (OMIFCO) in Oman and Jordan India Fertiliser Company (JIFCO) are important fertiliser joint ventures. IFFCO had drawn up a major expansion programme of all the four plants under overall aegis of IFFCO VISION 2000. As part of strategic diversification. In 1993.KALOL UNIT UNIT PROFILE About IFFCO During mid. Industries Chimiques du Senegal (ICS) in Senegal. The ammonia . IFFCO has entered into several key sectors. All the projects conceived as part of VISION 2000 had been realised without time or cost overruns. IFFCO has taken equity in National Commodity and Derivative Exchange (NCDEX) The distribution of IFFCO's fertiliser is undertaken through over 39824 Co-operative Societies.urea unit at Aonla was commissioned in 1988. 1967 as a Multiunit Co-operative Society. Indian Potash Ltd (IPL) in India. Indian Farm Forestry Development Cooperative Ltd (IFFDC). As a result of these expansion projects and acuisition. IFFCO has promoted several institutions and organisations to work for the welfare of farmers. improve Indian agriculture.69 million tonnes of Urea and NPK/DAP equivalent to 1. In addition. On the enactment of the Multistate Co-operative Societies act 1984 & 2002. All the production units of IFFCO have established a reputation for excellence and quality. The entire activities of Distribution. IFFCO has acquired fertiliser unit at Paradeep in Orissa in September 2005.sixties the Co-operative sector in India was responsible for distribution of 70 per cent of fertilisers consumed in the country. setting up Joint Venture Companies Overseas and Diversification into new Sectors. IFFCO Foundation.71 million tonnes. the Society is deemed to be registered as a Multistate Co-operative Society. Another growth path was chalked out to realise newer dreams and greater heights through Vision 2010. IFFCO's annual capacity has been increased to 3. „Mission 2005‟ and „Vision 2010‟. Sales and Promotion are co-ordinated by Marketing Central Office (MKCO) at New Delhi assisted by the Marketing offices in the field.

IFFCO. to day. An ambitious project 'ICT Initiatives for Farmers and Cooperatives' is launched to promote e-culture in rural India. At IFFCO. the thirst for ever improving the services to farmers and member co-operatives is insatiable. .Sewa Trust belong to this category. IFFCO obsessively nurtures its relations with farmers and undertakes a large number of agricultural extension activities for their benefit every year. All that IFFCO cherishes in exchange is an everlasting smile on the face of Indian Farmer who form the moving spirit behind this mission. is a leading player in India's fertiliser industry and is making substantial contribution to the efforts of Indian Government to increase foodgrain production in the country. commitment to quality is insurmountable and harnessing of mother earths' bounty to drive hunger away from India in an ecologically sustainable manner is the prime mission.



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Department/Section Fire and Safety Ammonia Urea Offsites Utility B & MH Process Lab.INDEX Sr. Duration 5/6/13 6/6/13 to 10/6/13 11/6/13 to 13/6/13 14/6/13 to 17/6/13 18/6/13 to 19/6/13 20/6/13 21/6/13 24/6/13 to 25/6/13 .

fire tender along with crew takes turnout and proceeds towards the scene of incident. damage to property and serious disruption inside and out side the organization or to environment have been identified as FIRE. automatic Fire & Gas Detection System has been installed. to report individual or cumulative alarms to the central fire and gas panel in Central Control Room and to a Mimic panel in the Fire Station and security main gate house. to handle local detectors and alarms. Explosion • Steam & Power Generation Fire & Explosion • Off Sites Utilities Toxic Release (Ammonia) • Product Handling Jetty Toxic Release Fire & Oil Spill • Response To Emergency To locate the emergency situation in the plant. The emergency situations. either manual or automatic. safety audits. EXPLOSION and TOXIC RELEASE due to bursting of any of the high pressure lines. Public address system. The fire and gas detection system (FGS) is intended to make an early detection of a fire situation and gas release (toxic and flammable) to provide a warning or alarm of the situation in order to allow check actions. . Toxic Release • Urea & Granulation Plant Toxic Release. Intercom and wireless Systems are provided in the plant for fast communication with Emergency Control Center and Fire Station Control Room. located inside the building. Fire.Fire and Safety IFFCO has established procedures to conduct safety meetings. Manual Call Points. Each plant building constitute a subsystem with its own local fire and gas panel and display. or explosion in vessels or pipe lines or catastrophic failure of tanks. On receipt of an alarm or fire/ gas leak message in Emergency Control Room. then ROP civil defense fire service are called under mutual aid scheme and emergency siren is blown as per the established siren tones. Locations and types of emergency • Ammonia Plant Fire. detectors and alarms relevant to a defined process area. The plant shift manager takes charge of the incident and acts as the Incident Controller and Fire crew in charge takes the command to control fire / emergency till the arrival of senior officers. which have the potential to cause serious injuries or loss of lives. Explosion. and Risk assessment to identify potential accidents and emergency situations in the plant. to minimize the probability of degeneration of a dangerous situation. If situation demands outside assistance. Plant personnel are trained to work along side fire services and together provide a useful combination of skill and knowledge. The FGS is an integrated set of FGS subsystems.

Ammonia Synthesis 8. This is accomplished in de-sulphuriser. CO2 Absorption And Removal Of CO2 6. Other materials detrimental to long zinc oxide are: (1) Gum forming substances such as dienes and oxides of nitrogen. CO conversion 5. Methanation 7.Refrigeration 1. natural gas exiting the desulphuriser is expected to contain less than 0. All sulphur in the natural gas is absorbed by zinc oxide. The manufacture of Ammonia involves the following 6 basic steps: 1. (4) Aromatic compounds such as benzene (5) Introduction of alkaline constituents which convert organic sulphur compounds to . Desulphurization 2. Sulphur compounds present in the natural gas feed are assumed of the reactive type. The preheated natural gas enters 102-D from the top and passed through a bed of zinc oxide.AMMONIA This single stream plant is based on the Kellog Process with Reliquified Natural Gas as a raw material. Secondary Reforming 4. (2) Amine solution (3) Admission of air. that is they can be all be removed by hot zinc oxide alone. DESULPHURISATION: Pretreatment of Natural gas feed stock for removal of sulphur. should this ever be required to hydrogenate organic sulphur compounds that might be found in natural gas which might not be eliminated by zinc oxide alone. Provision is made to install a bed of carbon molybadate catalyst in the desulphuriser reactor.25 ppm sulphur. Primary Reforming 3. which is a poison for catalysts used in Ammonia plant.

the transferline directs the reformed gas into the secondary reformer at the following conditions: Pr. These risers lea the gas flow to a water jacketed transfer line located over the top of primary reformer furnace. : 824°C REFORMING REACTIONS: The following reactions take place producing a mixture of H2. Natural gas. Each row of tubes terminates in a manifold placed within the radiant section of furnace. (4) Mercapton sulphur (5) Disulphides (6) Thiophenes 2. The furnace operates with a down firing of natural gas between the rows of tubes to develop a process gas temperature of 818°C at the catalyst tube outlet. There are 234 arch burners arranged in 13 rows of 18 burners each. CH4 and excess H2O when hydrocarbons undergo steam reforming over nickel catalyst: .O. CO. The zinc oxide will absorb sulphur compounds with increasing ease in the following order: (1) Hydrogen sulphide (2) Carbonyl sulphide (3) Carbon disulphide. PRIMARY REFORMER: The primary reformer consists of 504 tubes suspended in 12 rows of 42 parallel tubes each. CO2. As the reforming reaction is endothermic heat is supplied externally to the tubes. purge and flash gases from ammonia synthesis loop and absorber K. : 33. There are twelve centrally located risers on each of these manifolds. REFORMING: Reforming of the desulphurised Natural gas mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon Oxides and addition of air in-between two stages of reforming. in the radiant section. drum are used as fuel for the reformer furnace. Inside the catalyst tunes the natural gas-Steam Reforming reaction takes place.1 Kg/cm² Temp.unregenerated sulphate of elemental sulphur.

Once it enters the secondary reformer the flow is downward around a centrally located Air inlet pipe of an air burner and passes through a diffuser to enter a mixing zone where the gas and air are mixed before entering a catalyst bed of secondary reform. The shallow layer of chromia has a high fusion temperature and protects the lower layer of nickel catalyst against excessive temperature.8 N2 = CO2 + CO + H2O + N2 + heat After combustion the gas mixture flows through a bed of secondary reforming catalyst. Instantaneous mixing and rapid combustion of the air reformed gas take place at the burner tip as per the following equation at a temperature of 1238°C. loss of catalyst activity. SECONDARY REFORMING: Partially reformed gases from the water jacketed transfer line (107-D) are directed to refractory lined and water jacketed secondary reformer (103-D) tangentially.8 N2 = 2H2O + 3. The catalyst in the secondary reforming comprises of a layer of high temperature chromia at the op and nickel reforming catalyst at bottom. A layer of alumina target bricks is laid over the chromia catalyst for protection of catalyst and also proper distribution of gas in the catalyst bed Methane reforming reaction in secondary reformer is as follows: 2CH4 + 3H2O + heat = CO + CO2 + 7H2 The reformed gas leaves the reactor at 996°C. . Carbon formation also causes disintegration of catalyst resulting in higher pressure drop in reformer tubes. 2H2 + O2 +Air 3.CnH2n + 2nH2O = nCO + (2n+1) H2 CH2 + H2O + heat=CO + 3H2 CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 + heat Carbon formation is a serious problem in catalyst tubes when higher hydrocarbons are used as a feed stock.8N2 + heat CH4 + O2 + air3. Carbon deposition will hinder reforming and reduce heat transfer so that the tube wall temperature will rise in that zone producing “hot bands” and “hot tubes”. Precautions should be taken to prevent carbon formation on reforming catalyst for successful performance of reformer operations. Preheated air steam mixture from the coil enters the secondary reformer vertically through the centrally located Air burner. low steam/ carbon ratio contribute to carbon formation.

Above reaction is reversible one. The catalyst provided in the LTS section is Copper-zinc which is highly for sulphur and chloride poisoning and high temperature.3 Kg/cm² pressure and flows through the catalyst bed.3% content of the gas is reduced to appr. 0. However. CO SHIFT CONVERTER: Conversion of Carbon monoxide to Carbon dioxide. In passing through the LTS section the 3. Hence extreme care is to be exercised while operating with LTS. we are converting most of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide gaining an additional mole of hydrogen per 1 mole of carbon monoxide. with “shifting” carbon monoxide favored by low temperature. the rate of reaction is favored by high temperature.3% CO it will be around 27°C. . The reformed gas flow enters the HT shift converter (104D1) at 371°C temperature and about 31. high and low temperature. Shift conversion is actually a two-converter system.3%.3. The catalyst here is iron chromia catalyst. the amount of CO converted to CO2 in LTS section is about 30% of that of HTS section the temperature rise will be small with an inlet of 3. The gas leaves the HT shift converter at 437°C temperature and 31 Kg/cm² pressure. The following reaction takes place: CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 + heat As indicated by this equation.

MDEA Process: The main advantages of activated MDEA process as against other processes are summarized below: 1. UCAR Amine Guard -II system was installed in 1979. frequent failures in the CO2 removal section was eliminated.13 Gcal/t of ammonia. Reduction in energy consumption was 0. due to use of naphtha as part of feed stock. system. Low CO2 slip with product gas has further advantages such as less consumption of H2 in methanator. it was possible to reduce the reboiler steam in the CO2 stripper reboiler by 25 t/hr.8 % while in case of other processes. Low inerts make-up in synthesis gas due to low CO2 slip. This does not include the gain realized by uninterrupted running of the plant. 5 %. Please refer figure -1. UCAR Amine guard II CO2 removal system was major limitation for plant capacity increase to 1100 tpd. This was desired because of the existing synthesis section is designed for low inerts.4. loss of production and higher energy consumption. higher conversion per pass in synthesis converter due to less inerts and reduction in purge gas from synthesis loop. Mononethanol amine solution is highly corrosive and problems of corrosion in CO2 removal section were experienced resulting in frequent shutdown. To reduce the corrosion rate and for energy saving. CO2 ABSORPTION AND REMOVAL OF CARBON DIOXIDE: During the selection of Technology. The hydrogen content in CO2 in case of activated MDEA is less. Purity of CO2 in case of activated MDEA process is 99. Higher hydrogen also has an influence on corrosion in urea process because it contributes to hydrogen penetration and consequent . 3. Advantages of a. Revamp of CO2 removal section was carried out for:- Increasing CO2 removal capacity To reduce specific energy consumption To reduce corrosion rate To adopt environment friendly and biodegradable chemicals. 2. Later while attempting to uprate the plant in 1994 from 910 tpd to 1100 tpd. As a result of this change. CO2 removal section was also one of the bottlenecks. Monoethanol amine (MEA) solution with sieve tray tower design were selected for CO2 removal section of ammonia plant at IFFCO Kalol. it is about 98. The hydrogen content in CO2 makes explosion mixture in urea plant and higher hydrogen increases the ammonia losses. CO2 production was increased by 27 %. With the adoption of UAGII. Higher CO2 removal in activated MDEA process with same equipments and lower circulation rate. Various CO2 removal processes were studied to suit our requirement and it was found that a-MDEA process is the most suitable.

extreme care is to be taken while operating methanator. Revamping at IFFCO Kalol After detailed study.destruction of oxide film. and hence. MDEA (Methyl diethanol amine) is environment friendly and biodegradable chemical. 3) Two stage MDEA process. Following three modules for revamping the existing CO2 removal section were available. while MDEA is non-corrosive. Considering the steam network of the plant and utilisation of all the existing equipments i. Additional refrigeration system was required for Selexol process. METHANATION: -Final purification of the gas in a methanator to give a pure synthesis gas of H2:N2 in a volumetric ratio of 3:1. Hence MDEA system does not require any corrosion inhibitor. MEA solution is a corrosive solution. 1) Straight solution swap. The design temperature of the methanator (vessel) is 454°C which provides a large . 5. 6. it was decided to go for straight solution swap. it was found that BASF's activated MDEA process is most suitable to our requirement. Utilisation of all the existing equipments i. not making any changes in the system. 9.e. Methanation reactions are given below: CO + 3H2 = CH4 + H2O + HEAT CO2 + 4H2 = CH4 + 2H2O + HEAT Both these reactions are highly exothermic. 7. 4. Lower energy requirement.e. 2) Single stage MDEA process. no addition of new equipments. Lower MDEA make up requirement. 8. Following benefits are achieved with a-MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) straight solution swap system : 1) Low energy requirement 2) No capital cost 3) Lower MDEA make up 4) Environment friendly and biodegradable chemical 5) Lower operating cost and Non corrosive chemical 5.

.6 vol% a portion of the recycle gas is continuously purged. to condense and recover liquid ammonia from purge gas and flash gases. Condensate collected from bottom of the stripper is polished in mixed bed polisher and is used as make up BFW. In order to limit their concentration in synthesis loop to 13. filled with a single bed of nickel catalyst operates at a temp of around 315°C inlet. and to cool the product run down to -33°C and degassing inerts. Approximately 45m3 of liquid effluent is generated per regeneration and is sent to DM plant neutralization pit. Sulfuric acid and caustic soda are used to regenerate this bed once a day. and synthesis gas compressor 1st and 2nd stage separators is steam tripped in process condensate stripper to remove bulk of ammonia carbon dioxide and methanol. The unit is properly protected with high temperature alarms and shut off systems.6°C in tube side of make up gas chiller (140C) by means of refrigerant ammonia from 110-F.Process condensate from raw gas separator. The primary purpose of this system is to condense product ammonia for separating it from the converter feed. Gas compressor after cooler (156-C) it cools to 40°C by cooling water. 8. Gas and synthesis of H2 &N2 in Ammonia converter to form Ammonia. Methanator vessel. PROCESS CONDENSATE POLISHING :. It is further cooled to 5. In the ammonia converter synthesis reaction takes place at a temperature of 480°C. synthesis gas compressor suction drum.margin of safety in the event carbon oxides in feed gas to methanator are momentarily above normal conditions.67 m3 of cation resins and 3. Synthesis gas from the 103-J second case discharge at a pressure of 210 Kg/cm² and 119°C flows through the shell side of syn. 6. Further it is applied (a) to cool make up gas for separation at water (at the interstage of compression). AMMONIA SYNTHESIS: -Compression of pure syn. Stripped gasses along with the steam are vented to atmosphere through primary reformer stack.12 m3 of anion resin. 7. They tend to increase to high values as the process goes on. Mixed bed polisher contains 1. N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3 + HEAT There is also a purge gas system working where argon and methane are inerts. REFRIGERATION: Separation and purification of Ammonia to get the final Ammonia product.