Contracts & Sales

Approximately 60% of the contracts questions for each MBE will be based on the topics Formation of contracts, Conditions, and Remedies, and approximately 40% will be based on the remaining topics. All of the major topics will be represented in each examination, but not necessarily all of the subtopics. Approximately 25% of the contracts questions for each MBE will be based on provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code, Articles 1 and 2.

Contracts and Sales Overview

Contracts and Sales Overview

e. offer is not required to contain all material terms.I. such as sale of a watch that comes with warranty. then common law applies because general rule is all or nothing. (b) Sale of real estate: Common Law requires price and description. (3) If subject matter is mixed such as labor and products. a) Offer: i) General test: An offer is a manifestation of an intention to contract. some terms are necessary. Formation of Contracts: Contract is an agreement that is legally enforceable. The basic test is whether a reasonable person in the position of the offer would believe that his assent creates a contract. (4) Unless the product is far more important than the service. personal property). Applicable Law a) Common Law b) Article 2 of UCC2: i) Article 2 applies when (1) Type of transaction is sale (not a gift) (2) Subject matter of transaction is goods (not services. Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . however. tangible. ii) Specific Problems to Watch for (1) Content: (a) Generally. UCC2 applies.g. II.

An offer cannot be revoked after it has been accepted. 2.g. Revocation of an offer sent through the mail is not effective until received. d. An offer cannot be revoked for up to 3 months if i. (e) Production contract/output contract/requirements contract: A contract for the sale of goods can state the quantity of goods to be delivered under the contract in terms of the buyer’s requirements or Seller’s output. c. instead it provides that B shall purchase all of its oats from S. How: Unambiguous statement by Offeror to Offeree of unwillingness or inability to contract or that Offeree is aware of (A offers B.g. (ii) Revocation (words or conduct of Offeror): 1. A did not say anything to B but B heard A’s offer to C.g. Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . (2) Context: (a) Generally. A offers to sell his car to B for a “fair price” is not a real offer because offer is too vague). (d) Vague or ambiguous material terms are not an offer under either Common Law or UCC2 (e. (i) Lapse of Time: Stated expiration date or reasonable time (30 days is usually the reasonable time). Contract is for sale of goods ii. written promise specifically to keep the offer open for 3 months is the ceiling even if the written contract says 6 months. (i) Valid example: B agrees to buy oats from S for 5 years. When: a. (e. It is unreasonable for B to buy 1000 pounds per year for 3 years then suddenly ask for 6000 pounds the 4th year). exclusive sale to buyer) (ii) Not unreasonably disproportionate limitation on increases: Buyer can increase requirements so long as the increase is in line with prior demands (10% or less increase is ok for bar purposes) (e. A signed. Because B is aware of A’s unwillingness to sell. “1 black clock. There is not a specific quantity term in the agreement. (b) Exception: (i) Price quotation can be an offer if it is in response to a specific inquiry (ii) An advertisement can be an offer if it is specific as to quantity and indicates who can accept.(c) Sale of goods: UCC2 has no price requirement. revocation is effective). (e.g. then A offers C. (c) Termination of Offers (4 methods) an offer cannot be accepted if it has terminated. and iii. Party is a merchant. advertisement or price quotations are not offers (they are invitations for others to make offers). worth $139 dollars) (iii)“The first girl that comes in the store” is an offer because it is specific as to quantity and indicates who can accept. b. Generally offers can be freely revoked by the Offeror except when the Offeror promised to keep the offer open (option) and this promise is supported by consideration.

(a) I offer to sell you my car for $300.g. You find and return my lost dog. the additional term is merely a proposal that is to be separately accepted or rejected. If one or both parties are not a merchant. Conditional acceptance: A conditional acceptance terminates the offer and becomes a new offer. I post a reward for whoever finds my lost dog. Merchant: An individual who deals in the type of goods involved in a transaction or holds themselves out as having special knowledge in the goods. not knowing of the reward. Offeror offers Purchaser $1. Common law: Mirror image rule.) g.000 if Purchaser paints the house. The start of performance pursuant to an offer to enter into a unilateral contract makes that offer irrevocable for a reasonable time to complete performance. d. (Bargaining does not terminate the offer.) (iii)Rejection (words conduct of the Offeree): 1.g. There was a part performance of offer to enter into a unilateral contract (results from an offer that expressly requires performance as the only possible method of acceptance). e. f. UCC2-207: Still acceptance with seasonal expression of acceptance. i. Is the additional term a part of the contract: c. Unilateral: (e. (iv) Death of a party prior to acceptance: Generally. 3. b) Acceptance of an Offer i) Who can accept: Generally. Purchaser starts painting. An offer cannot be revoked if there has been a detrimental reliance by the Offeree that is reasonably foreseeable.g. ii. options can be assigned. Indirect Rejection: Additional terms 4. he cannot accept because the offer is not assignable Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . not mere preparation: (e. 5. “will you take $400?” = bargaining but offer “I will only take $400” = counteroffer) 2.e. If Purchaser only orders paint and has not started. you tell a third party of the offer. general rule is that the additional term is a part of the contract except 1) the additional term is not a part of the contract if he materially changes the offer or 2) if Offeror objects to the change. If both parties are merchants. death or incapacity of either party terminates offer except 1. an offer can be accepted only by (1) A person who knows about the offer: (e. then Offeror can still revoke. there is no acceptance. an “acceptance” that adds new terms is treated like a counteroffer rather than an acceptance.g. Offeror cannot revoke.) (2) Who is the person to whom offer was made? Offers cannot be assigned. When the offer is about an option (express promise to keep an offer open with consideration) or 2. Performance. A fact pattern in which there is 1) an offer to sell goods and 2) a response with additional terms raises 2 separate questions: a. Is there a contract: Generally yes. Counteroffer: Counteroffer terminates the offer and becomes a new offer. because a response to offer that adds new terms is generally treated as an acceptance with a “seasonal expression of acceptance” b.

(b) Unilateral: Offers require performance for acceptance so that start of performance is not acceptance. neither party is bound. if you do not hear from me by Friday. this will amount to acceptance and breach (ii) Except: When goods come with Accommodation (letter with explanation): Counteroffer and no breach (d) If Offeree is silent: Silence is not acceptance except if offer agrees that silence is acceptance (e. (2) Implied promises: Promises made without words such as by boarding a bus or ordering a meal.g. acceptance is effective when posted (mailbox rule) (b) Except: (i) Offer otherwise provides (ii) Rejection. (2) Offeree promises to perform: Most offers can be accepted by a promise to perform. so whichever arrives first controls.(b) You pay me $30 for 10-day option to buy my car for $200. acceptance must be received by that date. doing something not legally obligated to do (2) Forbearance. A saves B’s life. past consideration is not a consideration.g. e. after A saves B. then acceptance. (3) Offeree sends acceptance through the mails: (a) Generally. completion of performance is required.g. ii) Methods of Accepting an Offer (1) Offeree starts to perform: Start of performance is acceptance of an offer to enter into a bilateral contract but is not acceptance of an offer to enter into a unilateral contract. look at each promise separately). past consideration is not consideration) (2) Except: Expressly requested and expectation of payment (e. I accept). the person impliedly promises to pay (3) Disproportionate exchanges: Give up something of nothing is not a valid consideration iv) Past consideration or moral obligation: (1) Generally. asks A to save B. C promises to pay A $3. You can transfer your option to a third party. (1) Mutuality of obligation: Unless both parties to a contract are bound to perform. (E. A sees B in danger. not doing something legally entitled to do (3) Promise to perform: Has to be in good faith (4) Promise to forbear: Has to be in good faith iii) Adequacy of consideration: Look for consideration in modification. then no mailbox rule. A expressly requested performance knowing other person is expecting a payment). c) Consideration or a Consideration Substitute i) Consideration is a bargained-for legal detriment (cannot be a gift.g. C. (iii)Option deadlines: Mailbox rule is inapplicable: When deadline is specified in an option (promise to keep open with consideration). ii) Forms of consideration (1) Performance. no mailbox rule. e.g. C is so grateful that he promises to pay A $3000 dollars: No contract. if an offer is “invited” to accept by mail. (a) Bilateral: Offer is open as method of acceptance so start of performance is acceptance. knowing A would be expecting to be rewarded. (c) If the seller of goods sends the “wrong goods”: (i) Generally. v) Preexisting contractual or statutory duty rule (Common Law different form UCC2) Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts .000: Yes contract.

a written release of all or part of a claim for breach of a contract for sale of goods is enforceable without consideration. D writes C. I will pay you $600”. (2) Written release of claim for breach of sale of goods contract: Under 1-107.g. Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . (3) Seal is not a consideration substitute: Majority rule is that seal is not a consideration substitute (4) Promissory Estoppel (detrimental reliance): Common consideration substitute (a) Element (i) Promise (ii) Reliance that is reasonable.g. (ii) E. or when he has disputed. so 4) new deal is enforceable without consideration. C can collect the new $600 because 1) written promise 2) to satisfy an obligation 3) for which there is a legal defense. an illusory promise (a promise in which the Promisor has not committed herself in any manner) is not a consideration. good faith is the test for changes in an existing sale of goods contract. may constitute a consideration for release. vi) Partial payment as consideration for promise to give balance of debt: (1) Due and undisputed: If payment is due and undisputed.(1) Common law: (a) Generally. viii) Consideration Substitute (1) Written promise to pay debt barred by technical defense such as statute of limitations as consideration substitute: (a) Rule: A written promise to satisfy an obligation for which there is a legal defense is enforceable without consideration. by adding the giving notice by December 1 adds a new illusion). then part payment is not consideration for release (Foakes v. detrimental and foreseeable (iii)Enforcement necessary to avoid injustice (b) Comparison of consideration and promissory estoppels (i) When nothing is in exchange. “I know that I owe you $1000. No detriment. D owes C $1000. vii) Illusory promises (usually the wrong answer) (1) Generally. D then paints his house. (b) E. performance of preexisting contractual or legal duty is not a consideration (b) Except (i) When there is unforeseen difficulty so severe as to excuse performance (ii) When a third party makes the promise because third party wouldn’t have the preexisting contractual/legal duty (2) UCC2: Does not have a pre-existing legal duty rule.g. Is D’s painting the house consideration for M’s promise: Not consideration issue because M’s promise is not in exchange for anything from D. while changed his mind by itself could be an illusory promise. M promises D that M will not foreclose D’s mortgage. Beer) (2) Not yet due or disputed: Agree to take payment when it is not yet due. Legal action to collect this debt is barred by the statute of limitations. (2) Except what appears to be illusion creates a new obligation (e. but statement is relied on and is reasonable and foreseeable. A agrees to sell B a car unless he gives a notice that he changed his mind by December 1.

(Orally) agree to employ X for 3 years. SOF Applies a. but the purpose of B’s obligation to pay was to paint A’s house. then this is outside the SOF (SOF rules do not apply): Ex: A (guarantor) promises to pay X-paint-seller for paint if B does not pay. but rather a promise to pay if someone else does not: A guarantee 2. Specific time period. Not a promise that the money would come out of D’s estate (iii)Promises to “answer for the debts of another” [Guarantee] 1.d) Defenses: i) Capacity to contract: (1) Who lacks capacity to contract (a) Infant. (iv) A service contract not capable of being performed within one year from the time of contracting (comes up in 5 fact patterns) 1. under 18 (b) Mental incompetents. (Orally) agree to employ X for 3 years b. (3) SOF applies when there is 1) marriage 2) promise by an executor to pay obligation of the decedent’s estate 3) guarantee 4) service that cannot be performed within one-year 5) estate’s interest transfer that is more than a year 6) sale of goods for more than $500. (2) Is the contract a type of contract that is within the SOF? (a) If so. Exception: If the purpose of the underlying obligation is to benefit the guarantor. in writing or not. (ii) Promise by an executor/administrator to pay obligation of the decedent’s estate out of the executor/administrator’s own funds 1.g. pre-nuptial) 1. then 4) implied affirmation makes the contract enforceable against the person who was under 18. Not a mere promise to marry: Void anyway under Domestic Relations Law (DRL). Not merely a promise to pay. (b) If SOF is not satisfied. (c) Liability for necessity: 1) even person without capacity is obliged to pay for necessities (rent and utilities) 2) legal base is on quorum meruit not contract law 3) measure of promise is not based on contract but the value of the promise. ii) Statute of Frauds (SOF): Very important (1) When does a contract need to be in writing? SOF is a defense to enforcement of an agreement within the statute and the statute is not satisfied. ask if the SOF is satisfied. terminable on 30 days notice: Note that the termination right is irrelevant (key is ability to perform in one year. ask if there is a SOF defense. not termination for the SOF) 2. Time of performance (date of start: Assume can be done in 1 day) is more than one year from the date of contracting: SOF applies since performance cannot be finished in 1 year Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . (Need writing) (a) Common Law (i) Promise in consideration of marriage (e. more than a year. lack ability to understand agreement (c) Intoxicated persons if other party has reason to know (2) Consequences of incapacity (a) Right to disaffirm by person without capacity (party over 18 is bound by contract but party under 18 is not) (b) Implied affirmation: 1) person made agreement when under 18 2) person has gained capacity (turns 18) and 3) person continues to get benefit from prior agreement.

g. via performance or a writing in the following circumstances (b) 3 Methods for satisfying the SOF (eliminating SOF defenses): (i) Performance: Rules vary depending on the type of contract 1. with unlimited resources any task can be completed within one year. Look to the writing(s) and see if all the material terms are identified: i. Transfer of possession c. regardless of how long he actually takes to complete the task. Payment of (at least part) of purchase price b. but start after date of contracting: SOF applies 4. if the contract is for goods that are “specially manufactured” then the SOF is satisfied as soon as the seller makes a “substantial beginning” in making or obtaining the goods 4. and leases. Party to be charged (D) must have signed the writing Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . 5. Lifetime deal: SOF does not apply (v) Transfer of an interest in real estate for a term of more than 1 year 1. Full performance by either party satisfies the SOF b. Sales of Specialized Goods: As an exception to the above rule. but only as to the extent of the part performance (can sue for payment for what was actually delivered. because the agreement is enforceable on the following satisfaction of the SOF: E. Making improvements to the land (ii) A Written Instrument (e. here. (b) UCC2: SOF applies to sales of goods for $500 or more (4) If SOF is applied. Includes: Permanent (or anything greater than 1 year) sales of land. just agree over a particular task: SOF does not apply. is it satisfied? (a) “Satisfied”. 3. 2. Services contracts a. For any contract other than for UCC2 goods a. Does not include: Houses. 2. Writing must contain the quantity term b. but not on the undelivered remainder of the contract -.3. The party to be charged (the D) signed the writing even if the other party (P) did not sign 2. Who are the parties to be bound ii. fixtures on land.still a SOF defense to that). a writing) that meets the following will satisfy the SOF (will eliminate any SOF defense): 1.g. Real Estate Contacts: Need 2 out of following 3 to satisfy the SOF on performance grounds (completion of just 1 is not enough: Still a defense on SOF grounds): a. No time stated. Part performance does not satisfy the SOF (there still exists a SOF defense against enforcing the contract). What is the extent of their obligation b. means there is no defense on the basis of the SOF. Sales of Ordinary Goods: Part performance of a contract for sale of goods satisfies the SOF. For a UCC2 2 (goods) contract a. Employment for one year. easements.

Misrepresentation as to nature of contract is void (A tells B this is a lease agreement when it is a purchase agreement: Void) (3) Common Issues: (a) Fraudulent or Material: Seller truly believes house has no termites. contract provisions requiring that all modifications be in writing are ignored. the party to be charged must respond within 10 days of receipt: If not. is within the SOF. and (3) Neither party knows. Duress i) Illegal Subject Matter/Illegal Purpose: If the subject matter is illegal. even if he becomes unfair later. Then he has a defense to contract. (2) Contract Modification: When does a modification of a contract have to be in writing? If the contract. (If one party knows.g. or concealment of facts. with the modification. If the subject matter is legal but the purpose is illegal. and (2) Each party attaches different meaning to the term. then seller does not have misrepresentation. (A says house does not have termites when it does). such provisions control unless waived. then there is a contract with the interpretation of the i. he has deemed fair) by the court. (2) Misrepresentation as to terms of contract is voidable. discovery iii) SOF related Issue (1) Authorization to enter into contract for someone else: When does a person need a written authorization in order to execute a contract for someone else? The authorization must be in writing if the contract to be signed is within the SOF. E. and one receives a signed writing (by the P) with a quantity term that claims there is a contract. Judicial Admission of Sale of Goods Agreement: This is essentially an admission (by the party to be charged) that there was an agreement: Comes through pleadings. (2) The 2 basic test. (3) Contract Provisions: Under Common Law. iii) Unconscionability: (1) This doctrine. and the 2 parties entered into an agreement.Exception: If both parties are merchants. under the UCC2. the modification must be in writing. are tested as of the time the agreement was made (if he was fair at the time he has made. the SOF defense for the D will be lost (contract enforceable) c. then he has just material but not fraudulent. (c) Duress: Elements include one party (D) with improper threat and one party (P) with no reasonable alternative (in a vulnerable situation). ii) Misrepresentation: (1) Misrepresentation is a false assertion of fact. the agreement is void. (b) Reliance: Relied on inspector and not the seller’s statement. originally only applicable to sales of goods but now a part of contracts law generally empowers a court to refuse to enforce all or part of an agreement. Misrepresentation. Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . e) Illegality. unfair surprise and oppressive terms. the agreement is enforceable only by the person who did not know of the illegal purpose. the authorization must be of “equal dignity”. iv) Ambiguity: There will be no contract if (1) Parties use a material term that is open to at least 2 reasonable interpretations. or has reason to know meaning attached by other.

) Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts .ignorant party.

v) Mistake of Fact: (1) Mutual mistakes of material fact. when there is (i) Palpable mistakes: If the other party knows or should have known the mistake. courts grant relief to the mistaken party (ii) Mistakes discovered before significant reliance by the other. no contract if (a) Both parties mistaken (b) And basic assumption of fact materially affects the agreed exchange (e.g. as to what he has worth = enforceable) (c) No mistake of fact if both parties assumed the risk (2) Unilateral Mistake of Material Fact: (a) Generally. as to what he is = unenforceable. (can get out of contract) Contracts and Sales: Formation of Contracts . courts have been reluctant to allow a party to avoid a contract for a mistake made by only one party (b) Except.

earlier agreements can be considered to resolve ambiguities in the written contract. same contract (in the beginning of the contract did something. ii) Terms: (1) Partial integration: Written and final.III. A court. (3) Even if the writing is a complete integration. may. a court can still consider evidence of earlier agreements for terms that would “naturally and normally” be in a separate agreement. oral statement made at the time the contract was signed. b) Other Sources of Terms i) Other than words of parties. Time is ordinarily not of the essence in a land-sale contract. or earlier (not later) oral or written statements by the parties to the contract trigger the Parol evidence rule. consider evidence of such terms for the limited purpose of determining whether there was a mistake in integration. (2) If an agreement as to place of delivery is there. (2) Written agreement that court finds is the final agreement. because ads are usually in a separate contract) (4) Regardless of whether the writing is a complete or partial integration. (sale of goods contract mentioning ads. different contract (dealt in another contract before) (3) Custom and usage: What is accepted in the industry? E.g. can use that to establish same performance in the end should not be complained. but not complete (2) Complete integration: Written and final and complete (3) Merger clause: Contract clause such as “This is the complete and final agreement” iii) Interpretation: (1) Despite Parol Evidence Rule. additional terms unless the court finds that the written agreement was only a partial integration.) (2) Course of dealing: Same people. then the question is what does the seller have to do to complete its delivery obligation? (a) Shipment contract: (i) FOB (free on board city) FOB followed by city where the seller is means shipment contract. other sources of contract terms include: (1) Course of performance: Same people. Terms of Contract (Parol Evidence Rule and Interpretation) a) Parol Evidence Rule: i) General Rules: (1) Written contract as the source of contract terms has an exclusionary effect on earlier or contemporaneous agreements as a possible source of terms of the contract. e. a mistake in reducing the agreement to writing.g. however. Contracts and Sales: Terms of Contract . so delay in delivery is not breach c) UCC2 Terms Interpretation: i) Delivery Obligations of Seller of Goods: (1) Absent an agreement as to place of delivery then the place of delivery is the seller’s place of business unless both parties know that the goods are somewhere else in which case that place is the place of delivery. (2) The Parol evidence rule prevents a court from considering earlier agreements as a source of consistent. the Parol evidence rule prevents a court from considering earlier agreements as a source of terms that are inconsistent with the terms in the written contract.

(ii) Seller does not complete its delivery until the goods arrive where the buyer is. the warranties came with sample cannot be disclaimed) (i) Express warranties: Cannot be disclaimed (ii) Implied warranties of merchantability and fitness: 1. “as is” or “with all faults” or 2. machine is made of steel vs. no breach. Seller-Merchant: ROL shifts on buyer’s receipt of the goods. ii) Risk of loss (1) Issues arise when: (a) After contract has been formed. (4) Implied warranty of fitness: (a) Triggering fact: Buyer has particular purpose. a term is automatically added to the contract by operation of law: That the goods are fit for the ordinary purpose for which such goods are used. (b) Warrant: Goods fit for particular purpose. buyer is relying on seller to select suitable goods. Gets the good to a common carrier 2. 2. (d) No agreement. (b) Implied warranty of merchantability: When buying from a merchant. (ii) Warranty: Goods are fit for ordinary purposes. signed contract with disclaimer. (i) Triggering fact: Seller is a merchant who deals in goods of that kind. machine is well-made) (ii) Samples or models: Use of sample or model creates a warranty that the goods the buyer receives will be like the sample or model. (3) Warranties of Quality: Watch for Parol evidence issues in warranty questions. (a) Express: (i) Words: Looks for words that promise. but before the buyer receives the goods (b) The goods are damaged or destroyed and (c) Neither the buyer nor the seller is to blame (2) 4 ROL rules: (a) Agreement: Agreement of the parties controls.(ii) Seller completes its delivery obligation when he 1. mentioning “merchantability” Contracts and Sales: Terms of Contract . 1. Non-Merchant-Seller: ROL shifts to buyer when he tenders the goods (makes the goods available). describe or state facts (not simply puffing. (b) Breach: Breaching party is liable for any uninsured loss even though breach is unrelated to problem. like opinions) (e.g. (c) Delivery by common carrier (not seller): Risk of loss shifts from seller to buyer at the time that the seller completes its delivery obligations. seller has reason to know of purpose and reliance. Notifies the buyer (b) Destination contract (i) FOB followed by city where the buyer is means destination contract. no delivery by a carrier (i) Key Issue: Is seller (not buyer) a merchant. Makes reasonable arrangement for delivery 3. Conspicuous language of disclaimer. (5) Contractual Limitations on Warranty Liability (a) Disclaimer: May eliminate implied warranties (so if sold sample.

(i) Test: Generally. the limit cannot be unconscionable (court standard) (ii) Prima facie unconscionable: If breach of warranty on consumer goods causes personal injury. Contracts and Sales: Terms of Contract .(b) Limitation of remedies: (e. simply limits or sets recovery for any breach of warranty: Possible to limit remedies even for express warranties. warranty liability shall be limited to) does not eliminate warranty.g.

(b) Waiver: Based on a statement by the person protected by the condition after the conditioning event was to occur and does not require a change of position. “so long as”. are keyed to order of performance. Buyer will pay the damages. (1) Estoppel or waiver: (a) Estoppel is based on a statement by the person protected by the condition before the conditioning event was to occur and requires a change of position. (2) Failure to cooperate under a condition coupled with a covenant: (S contracts to sell his house to B for $10. A conditional acceptance is a part of the response to the offer. “subject to” (4) Constructive Condition: Created by operation of law. the seller is obligated to deliver perfect goods. (3) Express Condition: Created by language of contract. Although the words “must be” are included in writing. (a) Substantial performance standard example: Writing says “all pipes must be gold”. (2) Condition Precedent: Must occur precedes performance. (2) Constructive Conditions: Substantial performance standard. ii) Vocabulary of performance conditions (1) True condition: An event beyond the influence of either of the parties to the contract that affects the duty to perform. (b) Divisible contract and the substantial performance rule: If the contract itself divides the performance of each party into the same number of parts with each part performance by one party serving as consideration for the corresponding part performance by the other. agreed to only by the Offeree. For constructive conditions.IV. Therefore. “provided that”. iii) What is the standard for satisfying a condition? (1) Express conditions: Strict compliance with express conditions. S can sue B if B refuses to buy the house) b) UCC2: Sale of Goods Performance Concept i) Perfect tender: Generally. then the contract is a divisible contract and the substantial performance test is applied to each divisible part of the contract. they are no magic words for express condition. it is substantial performance. (words like “if”. ii) Cure: Seller who fails to make a perfect tender will be given a “second chance”. but Seller installs silver pipe. Condition Subsequent: Must not occur during performance. contract provides that the sale needs B to have mortgage. Conditions and Performance a) Conditions of Performance: i) A condition is a part of the contract. B made no effort to obtain a mortgage. the buyer has the option to reject unless it is an installment sales contract. (looks info about prior deals) (3) Rejection of the goods: Rejection of the goods must occur before acceptance of the goods (no contract). agreed to by both parties. when (1) Time for performance has not yet expired (2) Time for performance has expired: The statutory test is whether the seller has a reasonable ground for believing that the improper tender would be acceptable. Contracts and Sales: Conditions and Performance . upon installation. iv) How can an express condition be excused? Identify 1) who benefits from the condition? 2) Statement is made by the person giving up the benefit. If the goods are less than perfect. Condition coupled with a covenant: An event that is to some extent within the influence of one of the parties to the contract that affects the duty to perform. perhaps with a money allowance. an option of curing.

(5) Acceptance of the goods: (a) 3 scenarios (i) Express of acceptance is acceptance (ii) Payment without inspection is not acceptance (iii)Implied acceptance-retention after inspection without objection. (a) Nonconformity substantially impairs the value of the goods.(4) Installment sales of contract: An installment sales contract requires or authorizes 1) delivery in separate lots 2) to be separately accepted. he cannot later reject them. the buyer has the right to reject an installment only where there is a substantial impairment in that installment that cannot be cured. buyer needs to pay cash unless otherwise agreed (b) Buyer can pay by check and (c) Seller does not have to take the check but that gives the buyer an additional reasonable time. In limited circumstances. (7) Other Requirements and Consequence of rejection of the goods and revocation of acceptance of the goods: (a) Requirements (i) Reasonably notify seller (ii) Hold the goods for seller (iii)Follow reasonable seller instructions (b) Consequences (i) Goods back to seller (ii) No buyer payment obligation (8) Buyer’s payment obligation: (a) Generally. buyer cannot later reject them. (6) Revocation of acceptance of the goods: Generally. if a buyer accepts the goods. and (b) Excusable ignorance of grounds for revocation or reasonable reliance on seller’s assurance of satisfaction. generally. and (c) Revocation within a reasonable time after discovery of nonconformity. a buyer can effect a cancellation of the contract by revoking his acceptance of the goods. Contracts and Sales: Conditions and Performance . (30 days or more usually is the magic number that if the buyer kept the good without objection) (b) Effect of acceptance: If the buyer accepts the goods.

the buyer can reject the goods and withhold payment—the buyer is excused from paying. Contracts and Sales: Excuse of Nonperformance . (2) It also generally gives rise to an immediate claim for damages for breach. E. failure of the condition excuses the duty to perform. however. A minor breach. (b) Novation excuses the contracted for performance of the party who is substituted for or replaced. (a) Something that happens after contract formation but before the completion of contract performance. AR by one party excuses the other party’s duty to perform.V. iv) Excuse by Reason of a Later contract: (1) Rescission (cancellation) the key is whether performance is still remaining from each of the contract parties. unforeseen event (1) Performance/Contractual duties (other than a contractual duty to pay money) can be excused under impossibility / impracticability or frustration of purpose. iii) Excuse by anticipatory repudiation or inability to perform: (1) Anticipatory Repudiation (AR) is a statement that 1) the repudiating party will not perform 2) made prior to the time that performance was due. (d) Effect of no satisfaction: If the accord is not performed. same performance. (Usually too late if one party has already completed the work) (2) Accord and Satisfaction: (a) Accord is an agreement by the parties to an already existing contract that the same parties will do something different that will extinguish or “satisfy” that existing obligation (b) Satisfaction is performance of the accord. (c) Effect of Accord and Satisfaction: The accord suspends legal enforcement of the original obligation so to provide time to perform the accord. Therefore. Common Law requires only substantial performance. the other party is required to perform. will not excuse performance by the other party. (3) Novation: (a) Novation is an agreement between both parties to an existing contract to the substitution of a new party. only material breach is an excuse for the other party. (a) AR can be reversed or retracted so long as there has not been a material change in position by the other party. then the other party can sue on either the original obligation or the accord. ii) Excuse in common law: Generally. (c) Novation requires the agreement of both parties to the original contract and excuses the person replaced from any liability for nonperformance. (b) If the repudiation is timely retracted. the duty to perform is reimposed but performance can be delayed until adequate assurance is provided. b) Other Party’s Breach: i) Excuse in sales of goods UCC2–perfect tender: If the tender is less than perfect.g. (b) That was unforeseen (c) That makes performance impossible or commercially impracticable or frustrates the purpose of the performance. If one party to a contract substantially performs. different parties. Delegation does not require the agreement of both parties and does not excuse. Excuse of Nonperformance (Discharge of Contractual Duties) a) Failure of Condition: If a party’s duty to perform is conditional. v) Excuse of performance by reason of a later.

(2) Common fact patterns (a) Common Law: Death of a party (b) UCC2: Damage or destruction of subject matter of contract (a house that one party should paint was burned down) (c) Subsequent law or regulation (e. something after contract formation was ruled illegal) Contracts and Sales: Excuse of Nonperformance .g.

ii) 2 general tests for determining whether a contract provision is a valid liquidated damages clause or an invalid penalty provision (1) At time of contract. ii) Additions and Limitations: (1) Plus foreseeable consequential damages: The injured party can also recover for consequential or special damages that were in reasonable contemplation of both parties at the time of the contract. the amount of possible damages from any later breach of contract is difficult to determine and (2) At time of contract. the contract provision is a reasonable forecast of possible damages. c) Damages Rules for Ordinary Contracts (Common Law): i) Generally. Remedies a) Punitive Damages: Punitive damages are not generally recoverable for breach of contract. (2) Plus incidental damages: The injured party can also recover costs he incurs in dealing with the breach. b) Liquidated Damages: i) Contract can stipulate damages or method of fixing damages.VI. A contract cannot provide for penalty. (3) Minus avoidable damages: No recovery for loss that could have been avoided by appropriate steps. the injured party is entitled to recover an amount that would put him in as good a position as if the contract had been performed. Burden of Proof of avoidability is on the defendant. Contracts and Sales: Remedies .

A party should pay for the benefit and value of service and materials received.fair market value as delivered. A promised gift does not count unless injustice can be avoided only by such enforcement.000 (if perfect deliver): $20. iii) When Buyer breaches and buyer has the goods: Seller can get the contract price.d) Damages Rules for Sales of Goods (UCC2): i) When Seller breaches.000. still worth $20. e) Quasi-Contract and Reliance: i) Unjust enrichment: Not based on contract law. iv) When Buyer breaches and seller has the goods: Seller can get (contract pricemarket price at time and place of delivery) or (contract price-resale price) and.000 (actual delivered) = $14.000 dollars. and seller keeps the goods: Buyer gets the market price at time of discovery of the breach: contract price or replacement price -contract price.000) ii) When Seller breaches. and buyer keeps the goods: Buyer gets fair market value if perfect . B keeps the car and sues for breach of contract. f) Nonmonetary Remedies: When remedy at law is inadequate Contracts and Sales: Remedies . B can recover $34. The jury finds the car as delivered. S sells B an antique car for $30. ii) Reliance damage: Reliance damages are valued by a party's reliance interest for the foreseeable amount. provable lost profits. (E.g. it would have been worth $34. It puts the injured party in the same dollar position as if the contract never happened. the car is defective.000. Had the car been delivered as it should. although defective. in some situations.

and (2) That seller demand return goods within 10 days of receipt (3) Buyer still has goods at time of demand iv) Stopping Goods in Transit or Recovering Goods in Storage if Buyer is Insolvent v) Rights of good faith purchaser in entrustment: (1) If the owner leaves his goods with a person who sells goods of that kind (2) And that person wrongfully sells the goods to a third party (3) Then such a good faith purchaser from dealer cuts off rights of the original owner/entruster. adequacy of remedy at law.g. So car for example. possible injunctive relief. Key elements: (1) The buyer must have been insolvent at the time that he received the goods. 3)custom-made (e. ii) Adequate Assurance of Future Performance. 2)art. etc. Unclean hands. would usually not qualify for specific performance because it is not unique) (3) Contract for services: No specific performance. and (2) A written demand for adequate assurance. (1) Contracts for sale of real estate (2) Contract for sales of unique goods like 1) antiques. iii) Reclamation: Right of an unpaid seller to get its goods back. Contracts and Sales: Remedies .i) Specific Performance/Injunction: Equitable remedy. look for: (1) One party to contract learning something after the contract that gives him reasonable grounds for insecurity about the other party’s performance.

) c) Assignments of Rights: i) Assignment is: Look for (1) Contract between only 2 parties (2) One of the parties’ later transfers of rights (not duty) under that contract to a third party. first 2 parties are still there. b) Third Party Beneficiaries: i) Identify third party beneficiary problem: Look for 2 parties contracting with the intent of benefiting a third party. Intended third party beneficiary will be named in the contract. (c) Obligor: Other party to the contract. his rights have vested and the contract cannot be canceled or modified without his consent unless the contract otherwise provides. (3) Vocabulary: (a) Assignor: Party who transfers right to another (b) Assignee: Not a party to the contract. Third Party Beneficiary Problems a) Steps to approaching Third Party Beneficiary Problems: i) Identify a problem as a third party beneficiary problem ii) Use the vocabulary of third party beneficiary law iii) Deal with efforts to cancel or modify a third party beneficiary contract iv) Figure out who can sue whom and v) Assert any available defenses. rights are hereunder not assignable) takes away the right to assignment but not the power to assign which means that the assignor is liable for breach of contract but an assignee who does not know of the prohibition can still Contracts and Sales: Third Party Beneficiary Problems . (2) Promisor: Look for person who is making the promise that benefits the third party. the Promisor can assert any defense that he would have had if sued by the Promisee. (5) Creditor/Donee: Intended beneficiaries are either Donees. Able to enforce the contract because of the assignment. (c) Donee beneficiary cannot sue promise but creditor beneficiary can: iv) Defenses: If the third party sues the Promisor. Look at whether beneficiary was a creditor of the Promisee. iii) Dealing with Efforts to Cancel or Modify: The test is whether the third party knows of and assents to the contract. (3) Promisee: Look for person who obtains the promise that benefits the third party (4) Intended/Incidental: Only intended third party beneficiary has rights. Usually Donees. or creditors. Able to enforce contract others made for his benefit.VII. (1) Who can sue whom: (a) Beneficiary can sue Promisor: If pass the assents and knows test (b) Promisee can sue Promisor: Third party beneficiaries are not replacement beneficiary. insurance and distributor contract) ii) Vocabulary on exam: (1) Third party beneficiary: Not a party to the contract. (So any defense between the 2 parties can be used by Promisor when sued by third party beneficiary. If the third party beneficiary has assented to or relied on the contract. (b) For Donee: Need a named beneficiary. ii) Limitations on Assignment: (1) Contract Provision: Determine whether contract (a) Prohibits assignments or: Language of prohibition (e. (a) For creditors: Need prove on debt of promise to creditor beneficiary.g. (e.g.

or the making of another assignment. (b) Invalidates assignments: Language of invalidation (e. generally. (2) Common Law: Even if a contract does not in any way limit the right to assign. a judgment. (a) Assignment of right to payment: Permitted (3) Assignments of other performance rights: (a) Not permitted (b) Example: A assigns his right to security services to B so that C will now provide security services to B is not permitted. first assignee for consideration wins. a novation. cannot be I will or I promise to assign (b) Consideration. Mariah Carey cannot just delegate her duty to Contracts and Sales: Third Party Beneficiary Problems . death. Does not know of the earlier assignment and 2.g. last assignee wins.enforce the assignment. without consideration. the assignor makes a warranty that the rights assigned are assignable and enforceable. then P has a duty to paint and a right to payment and O has a duty to pay and a right to the painting of his house) ii) Which Duties Are Delegable: (1) Generally.g. (2) Limitations are 1) contract prohibits delegations or prohibits assignments or 2) contract calls for very special skills or 3) person to perform contract has a very special reputation (e. (d) Modification agreement between obligor and assignor is effective if obligor did not know of assignment. Revocation can be accomplished directly or indirectly by bankruptcy. P contracts to paint O’s house for $1000. (4) Requirements for Assignment: (a) Language has to be present: I assign. is not required (5) Right of Assignee: (a) Assignee can sue the obligor (b) Obligor has same defenses against assignee as he would have against assignor. (c) Payment by obligor to assignor is effective until obligor knows of the assignment. (b) Assignment for Consideration: Generally. Is the first to obtain payment. such a gift assignment can be freely revoked.g. contractual duties are delegable. (6) Multiple Assignments: (a) Gratuitous assignment: Generally. (e. Since the later gift assignment revokes an earlier gift assignment. the assignor taking performance directly from the obligor. d) Delegation of Duties: i) Delegation is: Party to a contract transferring work (not right) under that contract to third party. all assignments are void) takes away both the right to assign and the power to assign so that there is a breach by the assignor and no rights in the assignee. however. or indicia of ownership? (ii) Multiple assignments for consideration as breach of warranty: In an assignment for consideration. last in time rule applies and last assignee wins. Common law bars an assignment that substantially changes the duties of the obligor. except (i) A subsequent assignee takes priority over an earlier assignee for value only if he both 1.

sing at Emmy’s to me). Contracts and Sales: Third Party Beneficiary Problems .

but no legal obligation on Delegatee unless there is consideration. iv) What are the Consequences of Delegation: (1) Delegating party remains liable (2) Delegatee liable to Obligee only if he receives consideration from delegating party. Contracts and Sales: Third Party Beneficiary Problems .iii) Requirements for delegation: Essentially none. (2) Consent of other party to the original contract not required for delegation. (1) Consideration not required.