LEARN TO READ LATIN CH.

12

Learn to Read Latin: Ch. 12
§113: Direct Questions
• Nōnne illud carmen lēgistī? • You read that poem, didn’t you? • Num illud carmen lēgistī? • You didn’t read that poem, did you?

§117: Subordinate Clauses: II—The Conjunction cum
Type of Clause Temporal Mood of Verb Indicative Translation of cum (at the time) when (under the circumstances) when

Circumstantial

Causal Concessive

§118: The Irregular Verbs volō, nōlō, mālō
volō, velle, voluī, — Pres. Act. Indic. Pres. Act. Subj.
Sing. 1st 2nd 3rd volō vīs vult Plur. Sing. velim velis̄ velit Plur.

1st 2nd 3rd

Present Active Participle: nōlēns

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Sing. nōlō nōn vīs nōn vult

Indicative (pres. or fut. time) Subjunctive (past time)

nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, — Pres. Act. Indic. Pres. Act. Subj.
Plur. nōlumus nōn vultis nōlunt 1st 2nd 3rd Sing. nōlim nōlīs nōlit Plur. nōlīmus nōlītis nōlint

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Subjunctive Subjunctive volumus vultis volunt

since / because although

Present Active Participle: volēns

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1st 2nd 3rd

velīmus velītis velint

Present Active Imperative: nōlī, nōlīte

LEARN TO READ LATIN CH. 12

mālō, mālle, māluī, — Pres. Act. Indic. Pres. Act. Subj.
Sing. 1st 2nd 3rd mālō māvīs māvult Plur. mālumus māvultis mālunt 1st 2nd 3rd Sing. mālim mālis̄ mālit Plur. mālīmus mālītis mālint

Vocabulary grātia, grātiae f. favor, kindness; gratitude, thanks littera, litterae f. letter (of the alphabet); in pl., letter, epistle memoria, memoriae f. memory dubium, dubiī n. doubt, hesitation gēns, gentis, -ium f. nation, people; clan, family fors, fortis, -ium f. chance, luck mōns, montis, -ium m. mountain rūmor, rūmōris m. rumor

fās (indecl. noun) n. (what is divinely) right; (what is) permitted nefās (indecl. noun) n. (what is divinely) forbidden; sacrilege

dubitō, dubitāre, dubitāvī, dubitātus hesitate; doubt ōrō, ōrāre, ōrāvī, ōrātus pray (for), beg (for) rogō, rogāre, rogāvī, rogātus ask (for) spērō, spērāre, spērāvī, spērātus hope (for) cōnficiō, cōnficere, cōnfēcī, cōnfectus accomplish, complete oblīvīscor, oblīvīscī, oblītus sum forget (+ gen.) praeficiō, praeficere, praefēcī, praefectus put in charge (of) īnferō, īnferre, intulī, illātus carry (into); inflict (on) praeferō, praeferre, praetulī, praelātus prefer praesum, praeesse, praefuī, praefutūrus be in charge (of), be in command (of) volō, velle, voluī, — be willing, want, wish mālō, mālle, māluī, — want more, prefer nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, — be unwilling, not want, not wish

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LEARN TO READ LATIN CH. 12

dignus, -a, -um worthy (of) (+ abl.) indignus, -a, -um unworthy (of) (+ abl.) dubius, -a, -um doubtful an (conj.) [introduces an indirect question] whether cum (conj.) when; since; although modo (adv.) only, just; now, just now necne (conj.) [in indirect question] or not nōnne (interrog. particle) [introduces a direct question expecting the answer "yes"] num (interrog. particle) [introduces a question expecting "no"] praeter (prep. + acc.) beyond, except quīn (conj.) [introduces doubting clause] that quō (interrog. adv.) to where, whither tum / tunc (adv.) then, at that time unde (interrog. adv.) from where, whence utrum (interrog. particle) [introduces the first question of a double direct question or indirect question]

utrum… an… whether… -ne… an… or…

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