LEARN TO READ LATIN CH.

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Learn to Read Latin: Ch. 14
§131: Result Clauses
• Subordinate clause reporting the result of an action. A result may be: • an event likely to follow upon the action of a main verb • an event actually occurring or actually having occurred • Result clauses are introduced by ut and take verbs in the subjunctive based on the rules of sequence. • Result clauses are usually signaled by adverbs or adjectives of degree, including: • adeō, ita, sīc, tam, tālis, tāle, tantus, -a, -um, tot

• A result clause combined with the Relative Clause of Characteristic. • Uses quī / quīn.

• Certain verbs and verb phrases appear with noun clauses called Substantive Ut clauses. These clauses function as either subjects or direct objects. • Common expressions that introduce these clauses: • accidit or fit it happens… • fierī potest it is able to happen… / it is possible… • efficere or facere to bring it about… / to see to it… • Negated by ut… nōn, ut… nēmō, etc. Nē may be used in a command or exhortation.

• To make an Indirect Statement containing a future passive verb, Latin uses • fore the future active infinitive of sum, esse, fuī, futūrus • substantive ut clause with a subjunctive verb in sequence

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§132: Relative Clauses of Result §133: Substantive Ut Clauses §134: Fore ut Construction

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LEARN TO READ LATIN CH. 14

§135: Impersonal Constructions
• Common regular impersonal verbs: • licet, licēre, licuit / licitum est it is allowed, it is permitted • necesse est it is necessary • oportet, oportēre, oportuit it is proper, it is right • Impersonal constructions can take: • subject infinitive + subject accusative • Necesse est hominēs ēsse cibum. It is necessary for men to eat food. • subject infinitive + dative of Reference • Licet Domina Gaga canat. Lady Gaga singing is permitted. • subjunctive (without ut) • Oportet omnēs dē morte timeant. All fearing death is proper.

• Genitive of Possession, extended to describe characteristics. Vocabulary

lūna, lūnae f. moon aetās, aetātis f. age; lifetime; time agmen, agminis n. line (of march), column; army; multitude, throng auctōritās, auctōritātis f. authority; influence nōmen, nōminis n. name ōs, ōris n. [in sing. or pl.] mouth; face sōl, sōlis m. sun aliquis, aliquid or quis, quid or quisquam, quicquam [indef. pron.] someone, something; anyone, anything aliquī, aliqua, aliquod or quī, qua, quod [indef. adj.] some, any quisque, quidque / quicque [indef. pron.] each/every man/woman, each/every thing quīque, quaeque, quodque [indef. adj.] each, every spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus to look (at), observe accidō, accidere, accidī, — to happen efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus to make; bring about

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§136: Genitive of Characteristic

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LEARN TO READ LATIN CH. 14

metuō, metuere, metuī, — to fear, dread occidō, occidere, occidī, occāsūrus to fall, set; die premō, premere, pressī, pressus to press (hard); overpower; check opprimō, opprimere, oppressī, oppressus to press on; close, overwhelm, oppress orior, orīrī, ortus sum to rise, arise absum, abesse, āfuī, āfutūrus to be absent, be distant adsum, adesse, adfuī, adfutūrus to be present, be near cōnferō, cōnferre, contulī, collātus to bring together, collect; compare; direct; confer licet, licēre, licuit / licitum est it is permitted oportet, oportēre, oportuit it is proper, it is right cūnctus, -a, -um all reliquus, -a, -um remaining, rest (of) absēns, absentis absent vetus, veteris old necesse [indecl. adj.] necessary adeō [adv.] to such/so great an extent, (so) very haud [adv.] not at all, by no means quodsī [conj.] but if vel [conj.] or; [adv.] even vel… vel… either… or… vix [adv.] scarcely, hardly

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