LEARN TO READ LATIN CH.

15

Learn to Read Latin: Ch. 15
§137: Fear Clauses
• Subordinate clause expressing the thing feared, introduced by a verb of fearing. • Positive Fear clauses use nē (that), negative Fear clauses use ut (that… not) or nē… nōn (that… not) • Marcus timet nē Marciam Caesar interficiāt. • Marcus is afraid that Caesar will kill Marcia. • Metuī ut Caesar in castrīs maneret. • I feared that Caesar will not remain in the camp. • Fear clauses can also be introduced by expressions of implied fear. • Hāc curā movendus es: nē Caesar in proeliō nōn interficiātur. • You must be moved by this concern: that Caesar not be killed in battle.

• Subordinate clause expressing the action hindered or prevented, introduced by an verb of hindering or preventing. Prevention clauses use quōminus (by which the less, from), nē or quīn. • Quid tē deterret nē / quīn in castrīs maneās? • What deters you from not remaining in the camp? • Quid tē deterret quōminus in castrīs maneās? • What deters you, by which the less you remain in the camp?

• Impersonal Verbs Expressing Emotion • miseret, miserēre, miseruit / miseritum est it moves (one) to pity • paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit it causes (one) to repent / regret • piget, pigēre, piguit it disgusts (one), it irks (one) • pudet, pudēre, puduit / puditum est it makes (one) ashamed • taedet, taedēre, taesum est it makes (one) tired / sick • These impersonal constructions can take: • accusative (person affected) + genitive (cause of that emotion) • Taedat mē puellae. The girl bores me. • accusative + subject infinitive • Taedat mē dē puella legere. It bores me to read about the girl.

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§138: Prevention Clauses

§139: Impersonal Constructions II

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LEARN TO READ LATIN CH. 15

• accusative + quod clause (takes indicative) • Taedat mē quod in omnibus sententiīs puella est. It bores me that the girl is in all the sentences. • Impersonal Verbs Expressing Concern or Interest • interest, interesse, interfuit it is important, it concerns • rēfert, rēferre, rētulit it is important, it concerns • These impersonal constructions can take: • fem. sg. abl. possessive adj. (interested party) + neut. nom. noun • Hoc rēfert meā. This is important to me. • fem. sg. abl. possessive adj. + subject infinitive • Legere rēfert tuā. It bores you to read about the girl. • fem. sg. abl. possessive adj. + substantive ut clause • Ut dē puellā legamus rēfert vostrā. It is important to you that we read about the girl. • fem. sg. abl. possessive adj. + indirect question • Meā rēfert quī puella sit. It concerns me who the girl is. • genitive (for third person) + neut. nom. / subj. inf. / subs. ut / ind. ques. • Legere rēfert tuā. It bores me to read about the girl.

• A direct reflexive refers to the subject of its clause or sentence. • Rēx sēnsit cīvēs suam urbem regere nōn posse. • The king perceived that the citizens were not able to rule their own city. • A indirect reflexive refers to the subject of its clause or sentence. • Rēx sēnsit cīvēs sē odisse. • The king perceived that the citizens hated him.

• Used in clauses that are subordinate to infinitives not in Indirect Statement or to other clauses with verbs in the subjunctive. • Sapientis est fugere ubi perīculum sentiat. • It is characteristic of a wise man to flee when he perceives danger

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§140: Direct and Indirect Reflexives

§141: Subjunctive by Attraction

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LEARN TO READ LATIN CH. 15

§142: Supine
• A verbal noun, appearing only in the accusative singular and the ablative singular. • 4th pp + -um (acc.) / -ū (abl.) • The accusative supine expresses purpose with a verb of implied or stated motion. • Marcus interfectum vēnit. • Marcus came for the purpose of killing. • The ablative supine expresses an Ablative of Respect. • Mirabile vīsū! • How strange with respect to seeing! Vocabulary

caput, capitis n. head nūmen, nūminis n. divine power, divinity, divine spirit, numen orbis, orbis, -ium m. ring circle orbis terrārum world vultus, vultūs m. expression, face circumdō, circumdare, circumdedī, circumdātus place around; surround for, fārī, fātus sum speak, say obstō, obstāre, obstitī, obstātum stand in the way; hinder, block vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitus forbid dēterreō, dēterrēre, dēterruī, dēterritus deter, prevent prohibeō, prohibēre, prohibuī, prohibitus prevent; prohibit, forbid vereor, verērī, veritus sum be in awe of, show respect to; dread, fear cingō, cingere, cīnxī, cīnctus surround; gird (on oneself) cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtus set up, establish; decide rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus seize, tear away, snatch away ēripiō, ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus tear away, snatch away solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus loosen; free, release; dissolve impediō, impedīre, impedīvī/-iī, impedītus hinder, impede interest, interesse, interfuit it is important, it concerns miseret, miserēre, miseruit / miseritum est it moves (one) to pity paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit it causes (one) to repent / regret piget, pigēre, piguit it disgusts (one), it irks (one) pudet, pudēre, puduit / puditum est it makes (one) ashamed rēfert, rēferre, rētulit it is important, it concerns taedet, taedēre, taesum est it makes (one) tired / sick

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LEARN TO READ LATIN CH. 15

celer, celeris, celere swift dulcis, dulce sweet, pleasant turpis, turpe foul, ugly, base, shameful nē [conj.] [introduces positive Fear clause] that quīn [conj.] [introduces Prevention clause] that… not, from quod [conj.] the fact that quōminus [conj.] [introduces Prevention clause] by which the less, from ut [conj.] [introduces negative Fear clauses] that… not

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