# Appendix F.

Flow Rates and Shock Pressures Through Tube Ruptures

Methods to calculate tube rupture flow rates and shock pressures are given here for shell and tube exchangers containing gases, two-phase mixtures, and liquids.

Chevron Corporation

F-1

April 1998

whereas liquid is dragged along by viscous shear and accelerates much more slowly. F-1) Equation F-1. is the equation for isentropic (frictionless) choke flow from both sides of the break. Equation F-2 below is a volume balance: volume flow rate of high-pressure fluid into the low-pressure side equals rate at which volume is made available by the compression waves in the inlet and outlet piping. CF is the ratio of actual flow with friction to the flow rate for choked isentropic flow with a break at one end and is given in Figure F-1. For definitions. The rupture flow may be choked on one side of the break and subsonic on the other side. If it is choked. Two-phase flow through a rupture is similar to all-gas flow.5 · g M R = 2A L1 ⋅ G L ⋅ ρ HFL ⋅ ( P LR – P L ) ----------------------ρ L1 ⋅ K L1 (Eq. Otherwise. The presence of liquid reduces the gas flow area and adds to frictional resistance of the gas flow. Initially. The gas usually accelerates rapidly to near sonic speeds by virtue of its internal energy. the compressibility of the low-pressure fluid and the flow area of the connected piping.5 -------------· 2   k H – 1 M R = 2C F ⋅ A T ρ H ⋅ g ⋅ P H ⋅ k H  -------------- k + 1 H (Eq. the two-phase rupture flow is mostly gas. F-2) April 1998 F-2 Chevron Corporation . Rupture flow rates have been calculated for the usual range of conditions in heat exchangers and are given below in Equation F-1 and Figure F-1. the response of the low-pressure side affects the rupture flow.  k H + 1 0. the flow through the rupture may or may not be choked (limited by the gas reaching sonic velocity).0 High-pressure Gases and Two-phase Mixtures When the high-pressure fluid is part or all gas. Treating liquid-gas mixtures on the high-pressure side as if they were all gas is conservative and is recommended. see the nomenclature section at the end of this appendix. flow through the rupture is independent of the low-pressure side. Rupture flow from both sides of a break is maximum for a break at one end. The pressure rise on the low-pressure side depends on the volume flow rate into the low-pressure side.Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual F1. with CF = 1. 0. The high-pressure fluid on the low-pressure side displaces and compresses the lowpressure fluid. The fluid compressibility and pipe sizes on the low-pressure side are usually the same for inlet and outlet lines for single phase fluids but may be significantly different for liquid-gas mixtures.

Then GL = 1 and Equation F-2 becomes: 0. results in: 2 0. with ρHFL = ρH (PLR/PH) for highpressure gas.--------- G L = -2  A L1  ρ L2 K L2 (Eq. F-6) Equation F-6 is plotted in Figure F-2.Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F where: 0. F-3) For single phase service on the low-pressure side. Chevron Corporation F-3 April 1998 . Figure F-2 applies to any low-pressure fluid. ---------  --------  --------- k H --------------X = -----G L  A L1  ρ H   P H  kH + 1 0.+    + 4 X 2 P H   P H PH  (Eq.5  A L2  ρ L1 K L1 1 .= -----.5 (Eq.5 · g M R = 2A L ⋅ ρ HFL ( P LR – P L ) ----------------ρL ⋅ KL (Eq. gas cases toward the left.1 +  ---------  -------. fluid properties and pipe sizes for inlet and outlet lines are usually equal. and two-phase cases in the middle. Liquid cases are toward the right side of the figure. F-5) where: H + 1 k -------------C F  A T   ρ L1  K L1  kH – 1 2 . F-4)(From Equation F-3) Solving Equations F-1 and F-2 simultaneously.5 P LR  1 P L   PL --------------.

Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Fig. F-1 Factor for Friction and Flow Regime April 1998 F-4 Chevron Corporation .

Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F Fig. F-2 Rupture Pressure on Low-Pressure Side Due to High-Pressure Gas Chevron Corporation F-5 April 1998 .

0 High-Pressure Liquids Tube rupture with high-pressure liquid involves decompression waves in the highpressure system similar to the compression waves in the low-pressure system. Choked liquid flow does not occur at conditions encountered in heat exchangers. F-8) where: 0.1 +  ----------------------------------- C FL = - 3 ⁄ 2 + F ⋅ L ⁄ D 2 (Eq. The rupture flow rate and pressure drop across the break for a tube break at one end (worst case) are related as follows: · M R = 2C FL ⋅ A T ( ( 4 ⁄ 3 ) g ⋅ ρ H ( P HR – P LR ) ) 0. 1 + -. ----------------------------------.-------------------- . F-10) P H – P HR  P LR – P L - ---------------------.= 1 – ( 1 + S H )  --------------------2C FL ⋅ A T [ ( 4 ⁄ 3 ) g ⋅ ρ H ( P H – P L ) ] 0. and F-3 simultaneously results in: 2 0.= -– 1 Z  1 + S H PH – PL 2 S H2   (Eq.Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual F2. F-11) · 0.5 1 3⁄2 . F-8.= S H  --------------------PH – PL  PH – PL  (Eq. F-9) Solving Equations F-7.5 (Eq.5  P LR – P L MR - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.5 (Eq.5  PH – PL  (Eq. F-7) Equal pipe sizes and fluid properties are assumed for the high-pressure inlet and outlet lines. The relationship between rupture flow and decompression is given by:  g ⋅ ρ H · - M R = 2A H ( P H – P HR )  ------------ KH  0. F-12) April 1998 F-6 Chevron Corporation .5 Z ( 1 + SH )  P LR – P L  4  SH  .

F-3 Rupture Pressure on Low-Pressure Side Due to High-Pressure Liquid Chevron Corporation F-7 April 1998 .5  A L1 ρ H  K H  - -------. --------- S H = G L  -------- A H  ρ L1  K L1 (Eq.Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F where: 0. Fig. F-13) and  AT - 3 ) C FL2  ------ A H 2 Z = (4 ⁄  KH  -  ----------------- P H – P L (Eq. F-14) Equations F-10 and F-12 are plotted in Figures F-3 and F-4 respectively.

as well as compression or decompression of fluid. The effective bulk modulus is typically 10% less than the liquid bulk modulus.91 for restrained piping.0 Effective Bulk Modulus Effective bulk modulus is the pressure change per unit of volume change. contribute to the effective bulk modulus. April 1998 F-8 Chevron Corporation . Equation F-16 is appropriate for liquid systems. ∆P K = --------------∆V ⁄ V (Eq. F-15) Expansion or contraction of the pipe. The effective bulk modulus. F-4 Liquid Rupture Flow Rate F3. including pipe flexibility. is: KF K = --------------------------------KF ⋅ D ⋅ C 1 + ----------------------E ⋅ tp (Eq.Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Fig. F-16) where C = 0. Bulk modulus data for liquids are available in various reference books including the Fluid Flow Manual.

Chevron Corporation F-9 April 1998 .– 1  R   PL  KL -----. and fluid pressure all have the same units. Example 1 is for high-pressure gas and low-pressure liquid. Where these variables appear as ratios in the examples.= ------------------------------------------– 1 ⁄ kL PL  P LR - 1 –  -------- PL  (Eq. Example 2 is for high-pressure gas and low-pressure steam generation.--------. otherwise psf units are used. are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters or ratios where practical. Post-rupture pressure on the low-pressure side is insignificant and does not affect design pressure.0 Applications The use of the equations and graphs in this appendix is illustrated in the examples following the nomenclature section below. however. F-17) where: Y  R = ( ρ 1 ⁄ ρ g )  ----------- 1 – Y (Eq. Post-rupture pressure on the low-pressure side is 83% of the initial pressure of the high-pressure fluid and governs the design of the low-pressure side. F-19) F5. Bulk modulus. Liquid phase compressibility and pipe flexibility are insignificant in comparison to gas phase compressibility. Any consistent units may be used in those cases. The units indicated in the nomenclature section are consistent with the equations. psi units are used. The equations. F4.0 Two-Phase Density Two-phase density of low-pressure fluid may be calculated as follows: ρg ρ = ------------------------------------------------Y + ( ρg ⁄ ρ1 ) ( 1 – Y ) (Eq. elastic modulus. F-18) Only gas phase compressibility is included in Equation F-17.Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F Bulk modulus for gases and two-phase flow may be calculated as follows: R + 1  P LR   -----------.

ft3 = Increment of volume.17 lb/slug = Factor for dissimilar inlet and outlet piping = Ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv) = Effective bulk modulus of fluid and pipe.Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Example 3 is for high-pressure liquid and low-pressure liquid. psfa = Increment of pressure. psf R is defined by Equation F-18. ft · M R = Rupture flow rate. psf = Bulk modulus of fluid. psf = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = 32. ft3 = Weight fraction vapor = density. lb/sec P ∆P = Pressure. ft2 = Pipe restraint factor = Actual tube rupture flow/isentropic choke flow = Inside diameter of pipe. tp V ∆V Y ρ = Pipe wall thickness. Post-rupture pressure on the low-pressure side is about 40% of the initial pressure of the high-pressure liquid and governs the design of the low-pressure side. ft = Modulus of elasticity of pipe. F6. lb/ft3 X is defined by Equation F-6. April 1998 F-10 Chevron Corporation . Z is defined by Equation F-14. psf CFL = Actual tube rupture flow/frictionless liquid flow L = Flow length through broken tube. ft = Volume. SH is defined by Equation F-13.0 Nomenclature A C CF D E F g GL k K KF = Flow area of tube or pipe.

237 in.026 in.000 psi = 45.000 psfa = Density = 0. = Elastic modulus = 29 × 106 psi = 4.Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F Subscripts: 1 2 g H HR l L LR R T .0402 ft Low-Pressure Piping Inside Diameter = 4. rupture conditions .Liquid .Gas. tp E GL = Wall thickness = 0. LPS . normal conditions .000 psf Tube Inside diameter = 0.Rupture conditions . rupture conditions .High-pressure side.482 in. normal conditions . LPS .Low-pressure side.4 Cooling Water PL ρL KF = Pressure = 65 psia = 9360 psfa = Density = 62 lb/ft3 = Bulk modulus = 315.High-pressure side.2 × 109 psf = 1 (similar inlet and outlet) Chevron Corporation F-11 April 1998 .Inlet piping. = 0.Tube HFL .High-pressure fluid on low pressure side Example 1 High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas and Low-pressure Cooling Water Gas PH ρH kH = Pressure = 2000 psia = 288. low pressure side (LPS) .Outlet piping.360.459 lb/ft3 = Ratio of specific heats = 1.Low-pressure side.

5  .+   ------------------.000 ) ( 1.5 2 .0402 ) 2 ] = 1.-----.+   -----= -= 0.000  0.4 ------  0.459 ( 32.5 (Eq.----------------- 0.700  -----------. ---------  --------  --------- k H --------------X = -----G L  A L1  ρ H   P H  kH + 1 0.4 ) -----= 2 ( 0.5.4 ------  0.5 0.83  2 P H   P H 2 2000   2000 PH  (Eq.000 K L = --------------------------------. F-20) Assume CF = 0.-----------1 + -------------------------1 + ---------------------- 29.026 2 2 62   269.5 0. F-23) PLR = 0.+ 4 ( 0. therefore assumed value above is okay.459  2000  2.14 ) ( 0. H  --------------  ·  kH – 1  2 M R = 2C F ⋅ A T  ρ H ⋅ g P H ⋅ k H -------------- kH + 1   k +1 0.4 0.5 P LR  65  2 1 PL   PL 1 65 .83 (2000) = 1660 psia CF from Figure F-1 is 0.000    . F-24)  2.482  .1.91 .5 H + 1 k -------------C F  A T   ρ L1  K L1  kH – 1 2 .0.700psi .4 [ ( 3.026 315.4 0.= 269. F-22) 2 0.= -.662 ) . F-21)  2.5 (Eq.Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual KF 315.----------- + 4X .= ----------------------------------------------------------------------KF ⋅ D ⋅ C 4.662 (Eq.4 = 0.79lb/sec Total Flow from Rupture April 1998 F-12 Chevron Corporation .-----------= -----1  4.237 E ⋅ tp (Eq.4 -----.0.5 ) ------------------------------------------4 2.17 ) ( 288.000.

760 psfa Liquid Density = 55 lb/ft3 Vapor density = 0.4 BFW/Steam PL = ρl = ρg = kL = KF = Pressure = 165 psia = 23.000   2.91 .0402 ft BFW Piping Inside diameter = 2.154 Et p (Eq.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------K F DC 183.000 .4 × 107 psf Tube Inside diameter = 0.154 in.067 in.000 psfa Density = 0. = 0. F-25) Y1 = Steam Piping Inside diameter = 7.000.000 psi = 26.981 in.13 Chevron Corporation F-13 April 1998 . Y2 = Weight fraction vapor = 1 (1/R2 = 0) Assume PLR/PL = 1.36 lb/ft3 Ratio of vapor specific heats = 1.2 × 109 psf Weight fraction vapor = 0 (R1 = 0) KF 183.Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F Example 2 High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas and Low-Pressure Steam Generator Gas PH = ρH = kH = Pressure = 2000 psia = 288.= 169.28 Liquid bulk modulus = 183. Elastic modulus = 29 × 106 psi = 4.-----------1 + -------------------------1 + -------------- 29.482 in.459 lb/ft3 Ratio of specific heats = 1.067  .0.000 psi K L1 = ------------------------.000  0. tp E = = Wall thickness = 0.

4 ------  0.----------------- 0. F-26) KL2 = 1. --------.5 (Eq. F-31) April 1998 F-14 Chevron Corporation .-----------------. F-30) PLR = 0.5 0.1 +  -----------.001025 ) = -.4 = 0.13 ) –1 ⁄ 1. therefore assumed value above is okay.1 +  --------. F-29) PL 2 P LR 1 PL .5  A L2  ρ L1 K L1 1 1 7.067 2 2 55   169.675  0.13 – 1 ) --------.= 1. F-28)  2.067 0.= - P H 2 PH PH 0. ---------  --------  --------- k H --------------X = -----G L  A L1  ρ H   P H  kH + 1 0.4 -----.1.675.4 0.5 .675 H + 1 k -------------C F  A T   ρ L1  K L1  k H – 1 2 .5 (Eq.13.900 0.0935 (2000) = 187 psia PLR/PL = 187/165 = 1.-----.----------.28  P LR - 1 –  -------- PL  (Eq.= ---------------------------------------------.= ---------------------------------------. therefore assumed value above is okay.43 (165) = 236 psi 0. F-27) Assume CF = 0.--------- = -= 2472 G L = - 2.001025 (Eq.+ 4 ( 0.900  -----------.5 = 0.459  2000  2.-----------2472  2.– 1  R 2  P L  K L2 ( 1 ) ( 1.0935     2 2000 2000 (Eq.+  ------ + 4X --------.482 -----------.36  236  2 2  A L1  ρ L2 K L2 (Eq.+ ----------= 0.5 1 165   165  2 .43 – 1 ⁄ k PL L 1 – ( 1. H  -------------- ·  kH – 1 2 M R = 2C F ⋅ A T ρ H ⋅ g ⋅ P H k H --------------kH + 1 k +1 0.Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual 1   P LR   1 + ----. CF from Figure F-1 is 0.981 2 55  169.---------  -------.

91 .459 ( 32.-----------1 + -------------------------1 + ------------------ 29.000  0.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------K FH DC 200.000 psi = 28.000 .42 lb/sec Total Flow from Rupture Example 3 High-Pressure Liquid and Low-Pressure Cooling Water High-Pressure Liquid PH ρH = = Pressure = 400 psia = 57.4 [ ( 3.56 in.800.237 in.4 ------  0.000 psi = 45.17 ) ( 288.000 psf KFH = Viscosity = 0.237 Et p (Eq.4 ) -----= 2 ( 0. = 40 ft High-Pressure Piping Inside diameter = 4.600 psfa Density = 50 lb/ft3 Bulk modulus = 200. Length = 480 in.2 × 109 psf K FH 200. F-32) = 2.000 psf Tube D L = = Inside Diameter = 0.360 psfa Density = 62 lb/ft3 Bulk modulus = 315. F-33) Chevron Corporation F-15 April 1998 . tp E = = Wall thickness = 0.0.026  .000672 lb/ft⋅sec = 1 CP Cooling Water PL ρL KFL = = = Pressure = 65 psia = 9.000 ) ( 1.360.675 ) ------------------------------------------4 2.= 180.14 ) ( 0.4 0.0.000   4.0402 ) 2 ]  2.5 (Eq.700 psi K H = ----------------------------.000.Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F 2 . Elastic modulus = 29 × 106 psi = 4.026 in.

026  400 – 65  P H – P L Z = (4 ⁄ T - 3 ) C FL2 ------A  H (Eq.026 2 50  180.= 0. tp E = = Wall thickness = 0.----- -------.65) = 172 psia · MR --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.675 ) 2  -----------.-----------1 + -------------------------1 + ----------------- 29.318 from Equation F-10) PH – PL 65 + 0.56 2 2 (Eq. F-35) Assume Friction Factor F = 0.5 from Figure F-4 (0.000 K H = ---------------------------.000  0.700 psi .237 in.123  ----------------- 4.= 0.2 × 109 psf 1 (Similar Inlet and Outlet) GL = K FL 315.700 0.91 .669 from Equation F-12) (Eq.Appendix F Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Low-Pressure Piping Inside Diameter = 4.1 +  ------------------------------------------------------------ C FL = -= -= 0.= 0.67 2C FL A T [ ( 4 ⁄ 3 ) g ⋅ ρ H ( P H – P L ) ] 0.000   4.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------K FL DC 315.237 Et p (Eq. F-34) 0.026  .5 1 3⁄2 1 3⁄2 .700  A H  ρ L1  K L1 (Eq.000.5  A L1 ρ H  K H  4.5 0.0126 ( 480 ) ⁄ 0.0. F-36) 2  A   KH  0.1 +  ------------------------------- .026 in.32 from Figure F-3 (0.735 S H = G L  -------- 4.56  4  180.026 62  269.700  - = ( 4 ⁄ 3 ) ( 0. F-37) PLR = P LR – P L --------------------.-----------------.0126 0.5 .-------------------.675  3 ⁄ 2 + FL ⁄ D  3 ⁄ 2 + 0. --------- = 1  -----------= 0. Elastic modulus = 29 × 106 psi = 4.32 (400 . F-38) April 1998 F-16 Chevron Corporation .= 269.

14  -------- 12  · M R = 0. F-39) = 15.5 4 (Eq.[ ( 4 ⁄ 3 ) ( 32.56 2 3.675 ) ----------------------------.7 lb/sec Total Flow from Rupture Check assumed friction factor (above value is okay). Chevron Corporation F-17 April 1998 .Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Manual Appendix F 0.17 ) ( 50 ) ( 400 – 65 ) 144 ] 0.67 ( 2 ) ( 0.