Radio Network Planning  Dept. of Huawei  Technologies Co., Ltd.

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Total pages: 17

Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1.0)
(For internal use only)

Drafted by: Checked by: Checked by: Approve d by:

Special Subject Study Team

Date: Date: Date: Date:

2002-04-16 yyyy/mm/dd yyyy/mm/dd yyyy/mm/dd

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 
All rights reserved

00 Description Author Initial draft completed He Qun 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 2 of 17 .Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1.0) Inner disclosure Revision RecordDat e 2002/04/17 Revision version 1.

.......... 5 Interference Source ......................................1 1........................................................... 13 2....................................................................2 Classification ..............................................3 Check Frequency Planning ..................... 16 2 Test Methods for Interference....................1.... 13 2......2 Check OMC Alarm........................................3 Testing Internal Interference............... 11 3.........................2 OMC Alarm and Subscriber Complaint .................................. 14 2..................1.................................................1...........................................1.................................. 16 Testing External Interference........ 15 3.......................................................................... 10 3............................................................................1..................................................................................1 Finding Interference through OMC Traffic Measurement................. 14 2............................................... 12 Drive Test .............................................................................................1 1......................... 10 3.......... 17 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 3 of 17 ..................................................................................................................6 Interference Elimination .....Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1.......................................................... 13 2............................2 Find Potential Interference through Handover Data............ 13 2.... 6 Interference Sources Impacting on Mobile Communication....................................... 14 3 Tools for Interference Test...... 6 2......................................1 Introduction to Spectrum Analyzer ......1 2.........4 Find Potential Interference through Interference Band Items ..............................1 Procedures . 5 1.... 9 3................................................................................. 12 2 Interference Location and Elimination....................................................................................................1 Find Potential Interference through Traffic Conditions...........................5 Drive Test ...........................2 2..........................................................................1.............................1.....................................4 Check Cell Parameter Settings ...........................................1....................... 10 3.................1 2.......... 16 2...................... 15 Directional Antenna ................................................................................................................................1 Confirm Interfered Cell through KPI...........................................1.............1 2 Impact on Network ................................................................................................................................................................................0) Inner disclosure Table of Contents 1 Overview ......................... 16 Searching External Interference Source ....................................... 8 3 Discovery of Interference....................... 14 2...................................3 Find Potential Interference through Call Drop Items ...............1. 11 1....................................................................................

titles. List of references Name Author No. Issue date Way to look up Press (if  the  reference is  not issued  by Huawei,  please fill  this item) China Machine Press Post & Telecom Press 2001.0) Inner disclosure Guide to GSM Interference Analysis Keywords: GSM.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1.1 Www.support. 3 Fang Chao Multiple 4 5 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 4 of 17 .. issue dates and presses of the references quoted by the document. authors. List of references: Please fill the following table with the names. interference band. interference. BaseStation (BTS). depending on previous experiences. order 3 intermodulation Abstract: This document comprehensively describes interference sources. List of abbreviations: This list describes the abbreviations used in the document and provides the meaning of each abbreviation. locations and solutions and presents detailed analysis . Nos.com Interference GSM Principle and Network Optimization Mobile Communication Engineering Analysis of BTS Interference Case Starwiarski Han Binjie 1 2 Lu Er'rui etc.

1 Impact on Network If interference exists in the network. Overview Frequency resource is quite rare. with statistic value greater than 1. Interference is the key factor impacting the quality of network since it greatly impacts quality of conversion. the MS subscriber will feel the following phenomena. the more closely the frequency multiplexing is adopted. ² Difficult handover. handover and congestion ratio etc. Frequency multiplexing refers to that the same frequency is shared by several cells which are far apart from each other. The frequency multiplexing above will cause intra-network interference (also called intra-system interference). ² Conversation is intermittent. How to suppress even eliminate interference is the primary task for network planning and optimization. Besides. call drop ratio. the greater the interference. the higher the network capacity shall be. The shorter the multiplexing distance. frequency multiplexing is required to improve the system capacity. the following problems shall be found out. The distance between the cells sharing the same frequency is called multiplexing distance. the GSM system might suffer the interference from other communication systems. For a frequency resource.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. ² Low handover success rate. ² When a fixed phone calls a MS or a MS calls another MS. ² The MS subscriber in conversation cannot hear the voice and the background noise is quite high. ² High congestion ratio (As SDCCH is interfered. the following phenomena may happen in traffic measurement. locations and solutions. After drive test. This document summarizes the previous experiences and comprehensively describes interference sources. call drop often occurs after beep. 1. 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 5 of 17 . ² Level 4~5 interference band appears. immediate assignment or TCH assignment failure shall occur). If interference exists in a cell. In the GSM system.0) Inner disclosure 1. often accompanied by call drop. . The ratio of multiplexing distance to cell radius is called co-frequency interference factor. ² Call drop rate far higher than other cells.

By using a signaling analyzer (MA10/K1205) to trace Abis interface signaling. manual interference Ÿ Ignition interference of motor or other engines Ÿ Communication electronic interference Ÿ Electrical line interference Ÿ Interference of electrical equipment and appliances used for industry. The following figure illustrates the research data of interference/noises above from ITT. medical and household purposes. 2. it shall be found that: ² The BER in this cell is higher than those in other cells. Interference Source 1. Natural noise Ÿ Atmospheric noise Ÿ Galactic noise Ÿ Solar noise (silent period) 1. scientific research.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1.1 Classification The interference sources/noises in the mobile communication system are classified into: 1.0) Inner disclosure ² High level and low quality. 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 6 of 17 .

natural noises (atmospheric noise.0) Inner disclosure Figure1 Ambient noise  In the figure above. While some can be suppressed by means of 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 7 of 17 . 800 MHz. 1800 MHz and 2000 MHz mobile communication systems. 900 MHz. the cosmic noise of Milky Way galaxy is lower than the typical receiver thermal noise. The relationship between them is Fa = 10 log In which.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. Therefore. etc. Ta is noise temperature and Fa is an equivalent noise figure. Ta To From the research data it can be seen that in 30 MHz ~ 100 MHz. it can be known that human oise is one of the interference sources impacting the mobile communication system. electric interference. The impact of the solar macular noise at activity peak hours on mobile communication is not understood at present. ignition interference of motor engine. for 450 MHz. industrial electric equipment interference. the atmospheric noise and solar noise are very low and can be ignored. In these interference/noise sources. some are uncontrollable. e. galactic noise and solar noise) can be disregarded 【3 】. At 100 MHz or higher. but most of scientists believe such noise can badly impact on electrical and communication systems. According to the research outcome of National Bureau of Standards (NBS). so it can also be ignored.g. To = 290 癒.

interference between communication devices and that in the communication equipment.0) Inner disclosure reasonable network planning and system optimization. ² Spurious signal and intermodulation: If the out-band spurious signal of TRX or power amplifier (PA) exceeds the specified range. Intra-network interference: Improper frequency planning may cause: 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 8 of 17 . a BTS may be interfered not only by other communication devices around but also by another BTS or MS in the same system when receiving signals from a MS far away from it 【3 】. antenna. This document will focus on the latter. interference shall be generated to impact the receiving channel.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. Once these amplifiers get faulty. e.g.g. or the receive-transmit isolation of the duplexer in CDU is too low. as shown in the following figure. self-excitation shall occur. the amplification circuit of the TRX might be self-excited. Firgure2 Interference to the mobile communication system   The interference sources include: Hardware fault: ² TRX fault: If the performance of a TRX degrades due to poor manufacturing technique or longtime usage. e. ² CDU or divider fault: Active amplifiers are used in the divider and divider module of CDU. 1. feeder. thus to generate interference. Intermodulation may occur to some passive devices. etc.2 Interference Sources Impacting on Mobile Communication In the mobile communication system.

self-excitation shall occur. 3. When GSM use the same frequency as an analog BTS. Improper application of repeaters may easily interfere BTS. ² Analog BTS: The band of the analog mobile BTS partly overlaps that of the GSM system. some analog BTSs do not meet the requirement in fact. which may cause interference to the coverage of GSM.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. subscriber complaint. The signaling analyzer and spectrum analyzer 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 9 of 17 . drive test. it will be interfered by this BTS. ² For the repeater with broadband non-linear amplifier. However. ² Other communication devices of the same frequency: Some kinds of communication devices adopt the bands not complying with the present communication standards and occupy the band of GSM. The high transmitting power ranging from decades of kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts and high out-band spurious signals of these radars tend to interfere the BTSs around. OMC alarm. the analog BTS should not use the frequency same as GSM. its intermodulation requirement is far higher than that specified in the protocol. whether the requirement is met is unknown). According to the requirement. Interference caused by other communication devices with high power : ² Radar station: The frequency of some decimeter radars designed in the 70s or 80s of the 20th century is the same as or approximate to that of the GSM system. while in overseas field. the engineer should find the interference first. Discovery of Interference To improve quality of conversation. then locate it adopting proper method and finally suppress or eliminate interference.0) Inner disclosure ² Co-channel interference ² Adjacent-channel interference Repeater interference: Repeaters are often used in the early network construction to effectively expand coverage of BTS. The repeater interferes BTS in two ways: ² If a repeater is installed improperly and the isolation between the donor antenna and service antenna does not meet the requirement. If the power is quite high. The methods used to find interference sources for the GSM system include: OMC traffic measurement. the strength of the harmonic signal will be great. which may cause interference to the BTSs around. thus to impact the normal operation of the BTS to which the repeater is attached. (Now the bands of all the analog BTSs in China do not overlap that of GSM.

and interference location is required. Or. This item is used to measure the mean TCH holding time (unit: second) in a specified period. 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 10 of 17 . it indicates a TRX not containing BCCH and SDCCH in this cell gets faulty. By analyzing cell traffic conditions. such traffic measurement tasks as TCH performance measurement. and the mean receive level during handover origination is greater than or equal to 25. uplink interference might exist in this cell. 1. The handover measurement items that can be used to judge whether there is interference include Number of Handover Attempts (downlink quality).considering these devices are heavy and expensive. Number of Level 0~7 Signals Received in Handover Origination (uplink) and Mean Receive Quality Level in Handover Origination (uplink). such as less than 10s it indicates there might be strong interference in this cell.0) Inner disclosure are often used for interference location . 1. uplink interference might occur to this cell.2 Find Potential Interference through Handover Data Handover data reflects the mobility of subscribers in the cell measured and can be classified into intra-cell handover and inter-cell handover.1 Finding Interference through OMC Traffic Measurement When a network begins to operate. the cells where potential interference exists can be found out. SDCCH performance measurement and handover performance measurement should be registered to find faults in time. If the mean TCH holding time of a cell is quite short. It should be noted that these methods can help to judge whether there is suspect interference. The interference may result in the condition that handover/call drop occurs to a MS due to poor communication quality as soon as the MS seizes TCH. It is usually called TCH Mean Holding Time in the BSCs from other suppliers. If in a cell the mean receive quality (uplink) is greater than or equal to 4 (in case of no frequency hopping) or 5 (in case of frequency hopping). Number of Handover Attempts (uplink quality). If level 5 signals received is more than level 4 ones when a cell originating a handover. To further confirm whether it is real interference.1. ² Inter-cell handover There are multiple reasons resulting in handover occurring to a MS.1.1 Find Potential Interference through Traffic Conditions Check the item Mean TCH Busy Time in TCH Performance Measurement of each cell.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. usually we don't use them at the beginning. 1. handover and traffic measurement items related to quality of cells.

Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1.0) Inner disclosure If the number of handover attempts (uplink quality and downlink quality) originated by a cell is greater than 10 percent of the total number of handover attempts. If in a cell the mean receive level in case of call drop is high (_25) and the mean receive quality level in case of call drop is _6. Too few handovers might not benefit network items and can reduce the handover success rate. The call drop related measurement items include Number of SDCCH/TCH Call Drops. These two measurement items are related to the parameters "poor quality handover threshold" and "interference handover threshold". Mean Uplink/Downlink Quality in SDCCH/TCH Call Drop. Whereas. ² Intra-cell handover The measurement items Number of Intra-cell Handover Requests (uplink quality) and Number of Intra-cell Handover Requests (downlink quality) are related to the degree of interference in the cell. If the handovers in a cell are mainly caused by uplink and downlink quality problem and the ratio of number of intra-cell handovers to the total number of inter-cell handovers is higher than other cells. 87 and 85. interference might occur to this cell.1. a BTS can use the idle timeslots in a frame to scan the uplink frequency of its TRX and classify it into one of 5-level interference bands. 98. interference might exist in this cell. If there are many call drops in a cell and the cause is connection failure. The corresponding interference bands in traffic measurement are as follows: 表1 Interference bands  Interference band Interference band 1 Level range (dBm) -105 ~ -98 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 11 of 17 . 90. 105.1. once handover per conversation is reasonable. 1. increase of the handover decision threshold or P/N duration will reduce the number of handovers. Too frequent handovers may cause call drop due to the hard handover characteristic of GSM. Handover measurement items for a cell are closely relevant to the parameter settings of this cell. interference might exist in this cell.3 Find Potential Interference through Call Drop Items Call drop is one of the intolerable network faults. The default settings for the interference bands in Huawei BSC are 110. Decrease of the handover decision threshold or P/N duration can make handover more sensitive and cause more handovers. According to the data statistic s. 1. with the unit of dBm. interference might exist in this cell.4 Find Potential Interference through Interference Band Items When in its idle state. Number of Radio Link Breaks in SDCCH/TCH Occupation (connection failure).

intra-frequency interference might exist in this cell. the operator should check whether there is interference exists in this area. fault information of the calling and the called. or make a call instead of reporting where the interference is.2 Drive Test 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 12 of 17 . interference might occur to this cell. a subscriber may complain high noise or call drop. If the values of interference bands 4 and 5 are _1 in a cell. Once interference exists in the network. Therefore. Hardware fault removal is recommended before any optimization. The information that should be collected for subscriber complaint includes MS number.1 OMC Alarm and Subscriber Complaint The OMC alarm system can report hardware faults of BTS in time. The operator should analyze alarm information before locating interference.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. if only one TRX suffers intra-frequency interference. but it can show whether interference occurs to uplink frequency only. 1. Therefore.g. MS type. the value of the interference band will be less than the actual value. It should be noted that alarm information is not helpful for confirming whether there is potential interference from MS or other BTSs. Whether the complaint information given by a subscriber is specific depends on the subscriber's understanding about the cellular network. The more detailed complaint information is collected. Subscriber complaint is the useful way to find out potential interference. Note: The way used by Huawei to meausre interference bands is based on cell. it is possible no interference exists in this cell. If the measured values are mainly in interference bands 1 and 2.0) Inner disclosure Interference band 2 Interference band 3 Interference band 4 Interference band 5 -97 ~ -90 -89 ~ -87 -86 ~ -85 _ -84 The interference band measurement items can reflect the degree of interference to a cell more directly than other items. 1. If the value of interference band 3 is great. once many subscribers complain such problem in an area. etc. S8/8/8). for a large-scale BTS (e. or that he cannot hear the voice of the opposite one. the more easily the network fault can be found. the called number. specific address where faults happened. Thus it cannot truly reflect the degree of interference.

2 Check OMC Alarm 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 13 of 17 . the subscriber in conversation may feel that the conversation is intermittent. 1. The section above describes how to find potential interference while there are many kinds of interference. handover success rate. 1. Check operation logs of this cell to see whether BTS hardware was added or modified recently. the interference should be caused by the hardware or outside. that is. In actual applications. If FER is _25%. Interference Location and Elimination Interference location is the most important step in the optimization procedure. In case of dedicated model. whether the data was modified and whether the interference accompanies with these operations. If the operations above were not performed. there are two kinds of drive test models. e.g. power control registration and timing advance of the serving cell and its neighboring cells. it can be confirmed that there is interference in this area. the test device is used to measure the signal levels of the serving cell and its neighboring cells and perform sweep check on the specified frequency or band. congestion rate or interference band for a cell means there is interference in this cell. Co-channel or adjacent-channel interference in a system. The target BTS should be available for multiple maximum distance tests during drive test.1 Procedures 1. When high level (_30) and low quality (Rx_Qual_6) frequently occur in an area. idle model and dedicated model.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. If the interference still remains after the removal of the hardware fault. etc. receive qualities. traffic. self-excitation of transmitter. It is recommended to check whether the hardware gets faulty first.1. 4. spurious interference caused by the transmitting device of high power around. check whether there is off-net interference (See the later section for details). In case of idle model. If the operator suspects there is interference in a certain area by analyzing traffic measurement items and subscriber complaint information. Some test devices are able to directly display the frame error rate (FER). (Note: The FER measured by ANT is not accurate).0) Inner disclosure Drive test is the commonest way to find interference.1 Confirm Interfered Cell through KPI Unexpected deterioration of call drop rate.1.e. he should confirm it through drive test (Note: Drive test can be used to find downlink interference only). the test device is used to measure signal levels. there is interference. i.

then draw a topological diagram and give BCCH/TCH frequency and BSIC.g. e. etc. Too frequent handovers increase the call drop rate and aggravate the system payload and even bring about catastrophic consequence.g. 1.1. no relevant alarm information will be reported. MS will be induced to a idle cell whose level is lower than neighboring cells'. It is more difficult to locate the faults in analog devices than in digital devices. e. may cause interference. If the value of CRO is too great.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. etc. the consequence will be more serious. i.6 Interference Elimination 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 14 of 17 . The method is similar to that described in Section 3.e.5 Drive Test Drive test is often used for interference location. handover between cells will become more difficult. neighborhood. which will cause interference. Then compare the planned frequency with the actually configured frequency in BSC to check whether they are consistent. only the cell where interference exists needs to be tested. For most of implicit faults in the optimization.1. no power output due to complete wastage of TRX.3 Check Frequency Planning Check the frequency planning of the cell where interference might exist and its neighboring cells. handover duration (PN criteria). Whereas. interference will be brought about. whether there is Co-channel or adjacent-channel interference can be confirmed according to the accurate frequency planning topologic diagram.g. Make the distribution of the corresponding BTS and azimuths of these cells clear first. Checking and analyzing OMC alarm records can save time and help to find out the time correlation between alarm records and item deterioration. 1. If the values of handover threshold and P/N criteria are too great. 1. e. more handovers occur due to poor quality).4 Check Cell Parameter Settings Improper setting of some cell parameters. However.0) Inner disclosure Sometimes high call drop rate. BSC breakdown. MS will not be able to hand over to the cell with better signal level and quality. degrade of TRX/CDU receive performance. 1. handover threshold. When MS is in conversation and C/I is not greater than 12dB (threshold). Usually..3. for interference location.1.1. Most of OMC alarms are caused by hardware fault. CRO. which may cause slight interference (e.g.. If a neighboring cell is not configured in the parameter neighborhood. if the values are too little. TRX/CDU self-excitation. low handover success rate and high congestion rate are related to equipment fault.

Otherwise. the smoother the curve. 4. After the elimination. the lower the noise of this device. for convenient lookup. The receive sensitivity of HP85 spectrum analyzer can be _-142 dBm. 3. evaluate the effects as per KPI and drive test results.1 Introduction to Spectrum Analyzer At present the spectrum analyzer is often used by Huawei to test interference s ignals. Sensitivity: The minimum receive level of the signal with bandwidth of 1 Hz is defined as the receive sensitivity. 2. The receive sensitivity of the signal with bandwidth of xHz = the receive sensitivity of 1 Hz signal + 10logx.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. 5. Spectrum analyzers of different types are characterized by different receive bands and sensitivities. The less the value of this parameter. 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 15 of 17 .0) Inner disclosure According to the location result to eliminate interference. Bandwidth (SPAN): Bandwidth of the spectrum that can be tested by the spectrum analyzer. the spectrum analyzer might generate large quantities of intermodulation components. that is. The following gives several key indices of the spectrum analyzer. 5. 1. 2. See the section below for details. The following presents the methods of locating and eliminating interference in the form of case and gives case Nos. Proper usage of these spectrum analyzers is required. This index decides the range of interference signal frequencies that can be tested. the higher the receive sensitivity of the spectrum analyzer. Input signal attenuation (ATT): When there are large signals input. Video filtering bandwidth (VBW): Bandwidth of the intermediate-frequency filter after frequency mixing of the spectrum analyzer. Tools for Interference Test 1. For example. these signals should be properly attenuated. 1. Received signal resolution bandwidth (RBW): Minimum signal bandwidth that can be resolved by the spectrum analyzer. which will influence the accuracy of test results. the receive sensitivity of 200 kHz GSM signal = -142 dBm + 10log(200*1000) = -89 dBm. Central frequency (FO): Central frequency of the spectrum that can be tested by the spectrum analyzer. It is a highperformance broadband signal receiver and can display the spectrums of received signals. The narrower the bandwidth. Input frequency: Frequency that can be received by the spectrum analyzer.

2. replace the TRX.9GHz 30Hz-6. Since the output power of BTS is high. SPAN=10MHz. ATT=0. VBW=30kHz. confirm whether it occurs to CDU or TRX. input signals should be attenuated. If the level of the spurious spectrum is less than -80 dBm. it indicates the CDU or TRX in the BTS is interfered or suffers self-excitation. Disconnect the TRX from the divider and use the spectrum analyzer to check the TRX main/diversity connector. Set ATT to 40 dB and connect the tx_test signal of CDU to the spectrum analyzer. it means the TRX is normal. To do it.5GHz 30Hz-6. Set the parameters of a spectrum analyzer 900 M BTS: f0=902MHz. If it is greater than -80 dBm. please follow the steps below. 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 16 of 17 . Unscrew the connector in the output port of the divider of CDU and connect the output signal of the divider to the spectrum analyzer for test. high gain and explicit directionality.8GHz 30Hz-2.2 Testing External Interference If interference is from outside. 1800 M BTS: f0=1715MHz. Set the frequency of the spectrum analyzer to the one in the transmit band of B TS first. Working band 30Hz-1. 1. Test Methods for Interference 1.1 Directional Antenna Directional antenna is used to search interference source.0) Inner disclosure Technical indices of the common spectrum analyzers for interference test: Type HP8591E HP8594E HP8595E HP8561E 1. VBW=30kHz. Then observe whether there are interference signals generated. More explicit directionality and higher gain of the antenna will bring about greater search capability. 1. first make the position and spectrum distribution of the interference source clear. it means there is no internal interference.5GHz Sensitivity (1Hz) -145dBm -142dBm -142dBm -145dBm Minimum resolution bandwidth 30Hz 30Hz 30Hz 1Hz 6. To measure the interference in downlink band. The three steps above is for measurement of interference in uplink band. If the level of the spurious spectrum is less than -80 dBm.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. If there is internal interference.1 Testing Internal Interference 1. RBW=30kHz. Check whether there is interference in the transmit band. SPAN=30MHz. Otherwise. RBW=30kHz. use the low-noise amplifier in front of the antenna & feeder system and RF system of BTS to test. ATT=0. The log-periodical antenna with wide band is recommended due to its wide band. 1.

use the directional antenna mentioned previously.7 dB (divider gain) For example. 4. If no rotating table is available. 2) In order not to impact the system.15 dB (TTA gain) + 3 dB (cable loss) . 4. 5. Select a test point not obstructed by buildings around in the interfered cell. Unscrew the selected connector and use a coaxial cable to lead the output signals of the divider into the spectrum analyzer. 3. put the antenna on the table and make the beam of the antenna face ahead. find out interference signals and record the signal strength and the azimuth and pitch angle of the directional antenna beam. stop rotating the antenna and slowly change its pitch angle until the maximum received signal strength is obtained. The level of interference signal is calculated as follows: Interference level of antenna port = interference level actually tested by the spectrum analyzer . 2. Properly set the spectrum analyzer. Repeat Steps 2~4 until the interference source is found. To further search the specific position. Correctly set the spectrum analyzer and properly assemble the directional antenna. it is recommended to select an idle main/diversity output port (loaded). 1.65 dBm-15+3-7 = -84 dBm Note: Cable loss varies with the length of the cable.3 Searching External Interference Source The approximate position of the interference source can be confirmed according to the output port of the divider of BTS. See the previous section. raise the antenna above your head. 2. interference level of antenna port = . Select a output port of the divider of the cell interfered.Guide to GSM Interference Analysis (V1. the sensitivity is -9 dBm and the intra-frequency interference is -117 dBm. 3.0) Inner disclosure 1. In order not to impact the normal operation of BTS. Select a new test point in the direction of the antenna beam. Then rotate it slowly and observe the spectrum analyzer. Once abnormal signals appear. Observe the spectrum distribution of the spectrum analyzer and find interference signals. Analyze the spectrum distribution carefully. 2003-09-07 All rights reserved Page 17 of 17 . If there is a rotating table. Whether interference level impacts system is judged as follows: 1) In order not to impact the system. the maximum interference level of the output port of the divider is 117 dBm +15-3+7= -98 dBm. the maximum interference level of the antenna port is -108 dBm. The search procedure is as follows: 1.