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**Solutions to exercise class 2
**

Veriﬁcation of regular linear time properties

Prof. Dr. Joost-Pieter Katoen, Dr. Taolue Chen, and Ir. Mark Timmer

September, 21, 2012

Problem 1

1. An NFA that accepts the set of minimal bad preﬁxes:

q

0

q

1

q

2

q

3

(a ∨ b) ∧ c

(a ∧ b ∧ c) ∨ (a ∧ c)

a

b ∧ c

(b ∧ c)

a

c ∧ a

2. First we apply the TS ⊗/ construction, which yields:

¸s

0

, q

1

¸

¸s

3

, q

2

¸

α

¸s

1

, q

2

¸

γ

¸s

4

, q

2

¸

γ

¸s

5

, q

3

¸

β

α

β

1

A counterexample to TS [= P

safe

is given by the following initial path

fragment in TS ⊗/:

π

⊗

= ¸s

0

, q

1

¸ ¸s

3

, q

2

¸ ¸s

1

, q

2

¸ ¸s

4

, q

2

¸ ¸s

5

, q

3

¸

By projection on the state component, we get a path in the underlying

transition system TS:

π = s

0

s

3

s

1

s

4

s

5

with trace (π) = ¦a, b¦¦a, c¦¦a, b, c¦¦a, c¦¦a, b¦

Since π

⊗

reaches q

3

(a ﬁnal state of /), trace (π) ∈ BadPref(P

safe

).

Hence, Traces

ﬁn

(TS) ∩ BadPref(P

safe

) ,= ∅. By Lemma 3.25, this is

equivalent to TS ,[= P

safe

.

Problem 2

1. L

1

= ¦σ ∈ ¦A, B¦

ω

[ σ contains ABA inﬁnitely often, but AA only ﬁnitely often¦

q

0

q

1

q

2

q

3

q

4

A, B

A B

A

B

A, B

B

B

2. L

2

= /((AB + C)

∗

((AA + B)C)

ω

+ (A

∗

C)

ω

)

q

0

q

4

q

1

q

2

q

3

A C A

B

B

A

A B

C

q

5

q

6

A C

C

A

Note: We allow more than one initial state! Formally, the automaton

outlined above is given by

/

2

= (¦q

0

, . . . , q

6

¦, ¦A, B, C¦, δ, ¦q

0

, q

5

¦, ¦q

3

, q

6

¦)

where δ is deﬁned as shown in the picture.

2

Problem 3

Proof sketch: Use a product construction and distinguish three phases which

have to be repeated in an inﬁnite successful run inﬁnitely often:

1. Wait for the ﬁrst component to visit a ﬁnal state;

2. Wait for the second component to a visit ﬁnal state;

3. Signal that phase 1 and phase 2 have been completed.

Let /

i

= (Q

i

, Σ, δ

i

, Q

0,i

, F

i

) for i = 1, 2. Then, we deﬁne / = (Q, Σ, δ, Q

0

, F),

where

• Q = Q

1

Q

2

¦1, 2, 3¦

• δ : QΣ → 2

Q

such that

δ ((q

1

, q

2

, 1), A) =

(δ

1

(q

1

, A) ¸ F

1

) δ

2

(q

2

, A) ¦1¦

∪

(δ

1

(q

1

, A) ∩ F

1

) δ

2

(q

2

, A) ¦2¦

δ ((q

1

, q

2

, 2), A) =

δ

1

(q

1

, A) (δ

2

(q

2

, A) ¸ F

2

) ¦2¦

∪

δ

1

(q

1

, A) (δ

2

(q

2

, A) ∩ F

2

) ¦3¦

δ ((q

1

, q

2

, 3), A) = δ

1

(q

1

, A) δ

2

(q

2

, A) ¦1¦

• Q

0

= Q

0,1

Q

0,2

¦3¦

• F = Q

1

Q

2

¦3¦

We have to prove that /

ω

(/) = /

ω

(/

1

) ∩ /

ω

(/

2

):

• Let σ = A

1

A

2

A

3

. . . ∈ /

ω

(/). Then, there exists an accepting run

of / of the form

(p

0

, q

0

, i

0

)

A

1

−−→ (p

1

, q

1

, i

1

)

A

2

−−→

such that i

k

= 3 for inﬁnitely many k ≥ 0. But then, p

i

∈ F

1

and

q

j

∈ F

2

for inﬁnitely many i, j by construction. Hence, the runs p

0

A

1

−−→

p

1

A

2

−−→ p

2

. . . and q

0

A

1

−−→ q

1

A

2

−−→ q

2

. . . are accepting runs for σ in /

1

and /

2

, respectively. Therefore σ ∈ /

ω

(/

1

) ∩ /

ω

(/

2

).

3

• Let σ = A

1

A

2

A

3

. . . ∈ /

ω

(/

1

) ∩ /

ω

(/

2

). Then, there exist accepting

runs p

0

A

1

−−→ p

1

A

2

−−→ p

2

. . . and q

0

A

1

−−→ q

1

A

2

−−→ q

2

. . . of σ in /

1

and /

2

,

such that p

i

∈ F

1

and q

j

∈ F

2

for inﬁnitely many i, j. We obtain the

induced run of / on σ as follows:

(p

0

, q

0

, i

0

)

A

1

−−→ (p

1

, q

1

, i

1

)

A

2

−−→ (p

2

, q

2

, i

2

)

We need to prove that i

k

= 3 for inﬁnitely many k ≥ 0.

Therefore, let i

k

= 3 for some k ≥ 0 (this happens at least once, as

it happens in every initial state). We prove that there exists a k

′

> k

such that i

k

′ = 3:

As p

n

∈ F

1

inﬁnitely often, there exists a fragment p

k

, p

k+1

, . . . , p

k+l

such that p

k+l

∈ F

1

, l > 0 and p

j

/ ∈ F

1

for j = k+1, . . . , k+l−1. By

construction, i

k+l

= 2.

Analogously, q

n

∈ F

2

for inﬁnitely many n. Thus there exists a

fragment q

k+l

, q

k+l+1

, q

k+l+2

, . . . , q

k+l+o

with o > 0 such that q

j

/ ∈ F

2

for j = k+l+1, . . . , k+l+o−1 and q

k+l+o

∈ F

2

. Then, by construction,

i

k+l+o

= 3. To conclude the proof, set k

′

= k+l+o.

4

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