MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Conjugate roots : Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs i.e. if one root α + iβ, then other root α – iβ if one root α +

QUADRATIC EQUATION & EXPRESSION
1. Quadratic expression : A polynomial of degree two of the form ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 is called a quadratic expression in x. 2. Quadratic equation : An equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R has two and only two roots, given by α= 3.
−b + b2 − 4ac 2a

β , then other root α –

β

5.

Sum of roots : S=α+β=

and

β=

−b − b2 − 4ac 2a

−Coefficient of x −b = Coefficient of x2 a

Nature of roots : Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon the nature of its discriminant D i.e. b2 – 4ac. Suppose a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0 then (i) (ii) (iii) If D > 0 If D = 0 If D < 0

Product of roots : P = αβ =

cons tant term c = Coefficient of x2 a

⇒ ⇒

roots are real and distinct (unequal) roots are real and equal (Coincident)

6.

.ormation of an equation with given roots : x2 – Sx + P = 0

roots are imaginary and unequal i.e. ⇒ non real complex numbers. Suppose a, b, c ∈ Q a ≠ 0 then 7.

x2 – (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0

(i) (ii)

If D > 0 and D is a perfect square ⇒ roots are rational & unequal If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square ⇒ roots are irrational and unequal.

Roots under particular cases : .or the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0 (i) (ii) (iii) If b = 0 ⇒ roots are of equal magnitude but of opposite sign. If c = 0 ⇒ one root is zero and other is –b/a If b = c = 0 ⇒ both roots are zero

.or a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots real or imaginary. If the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is satisfied for more than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.
PAGE # 1
E D U C A T

(iv) If a = c ⇒ roots are reciprocal to each other.

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
I O N S

PAGE # 2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0 ⇒ roots are of opposite signs (vi) If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0 ⇒ both roots are –ve (vii) If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0 roots are +ve. 8. Symmetric function of the roots : If roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 are α and β, then (i) (α – β ) =

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vi) α4 + β4 = (α2 + β2)2 – 2α2β2

={(α + β)2 –2αβ}2 – 2α2β2

.b =G H

2

− 2ac a2

I J K

2

–

2c2 a2

⇒ both
(vii) α4 – β4 =(α2 + β2) (α2 – β2) =

−b(b2 − 2ac) b2 − 4ac a4 b2 + ac a2

(viii) α2 + αβ + β2 = (α + β)2 – αβ =

(α + β) − 4αβ = ±

2

b2 − 4ac a

(ix)

α α 2 + β2 (α + β)2 − 2αβ β + = = β αβ αβ α

(ii)

α2 + β2 = (α + β)2 – 2αβ =

b2 − 2ac a2 −b b2 − 4ac a2

(x)

.G α IJ H βK

2

+

βI . G K H αJ

2

=

α4 + β4 [(b2 − 2ac)2 − 2a2c2 ] = α 2 β2 a2c 2

(iii)

α2 – β2 = (α + β)

(α + β) − 4αβ =

2

9.

Condition for common roots : The equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 and a2x2 + b2x + c2 = 0 have (i) One common root if

−b(b2 − 3ac) (iv) α3 + β3 = (α + β)3 – 3(α + β) αβ = a3
(v) α 3 – β3 = (α – β) [α2+ β2 – αβ] =

b1c2 − b2c1 c1a2 − c2a1 c1a2 − c2a1 = a1b2 − a2b1

(α + β)2 − 4αβ [α2+ β2 – αβ] (b2 − ac) b2 − 4ac a3
(ii)

a1 b1 c1 Both roots common if a = b = c 2 2 2

=

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

PAGE # 3
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

PAGE # 4

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 10. Maximum and Minimum value of quadratic expression :

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If both the roots lies in the interval (k1, k2) D ≥ 0, a.f(k1) > 0, a.f(k2) > 0, k1 < (vi) If k1, k2 lies between the roots

In a quadratic expression ax Where D = b2 – 4ac (i) If a > 0, quadratic

2

L. x + b I + bx + c = a MG MNH 2aJK

2

D 4a2 ,

OP PQ

−b < k2 2a

expression has minimum value

a.f(k1) < 0, a.f(k2) < 0 (vii) λ will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if f(λ) = 0 and f'(λ) = 0 12. .or cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 : We have α + β + γ =
−b c −d , αβ + βγ + γα = and αβγ = a a a

−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no maximum value. 2a 4a
(ii) If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value
−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no minimum value. 2a 4a

11. Location of roots : Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0 (i) (ii) If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0 (necessary & sufficient) If between k1 & k2 their is exactly one root of k1, k2 themselves are not roots f(k1) . f(k2) < 0 (iii) (necessary & sufficient) If both the roots are less than a number k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,

where α, β, γ are its roots. 13. .or biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 : We have α + β + γ + δ = –

−d b , αβγ + βγδ + γδα + γδβ = a a
c e and αβγδ = a a

αβ + αγ + αδ + βγ + βδ + γδ =

−b <k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

(iv) If both the roots are greater than k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,
−b >k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

PAGE # 5
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

PAGE # 6

0744 . then α = f( z ) Where α = f(z) is a function in a complex variable with real coefficients. Integral Power of lota : i= 2 3 4 −1 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .. θ = amp.) Ph. i = 1 → * * 4. y = Im(z)...e. y = r sinθ.(z) (iii) Vector representation : y . 608-A.6450883.. y ∈ R.. x = Re(z) and y is called an imaginary part i. i = –i . i4n or i4(n+1) = 1 3. 2405510 I O N S . |z| = | z | z + z = 2Re(z) = purely real .. i4n+2 = –1.6450883. |z| ≥ 0 z z = |z|2 = | z |2 z–1 = z is the mirror image of z in the real axis. Complex conjugate of z : If z = x + iy. i = –1. 2405510 PAGE # 7 E D U C A T z |z|2 |z1 ± z2|2 = |z1|2 + |z2|2 ± 2 Re (z1 z2 ) PAGE # 8 .G z IJ Hz K 1 2 = .. z1 + z2 +. where r = |z|. P(x.POCKET BOOK * * * * * z – z = 2i Im(z) = purely imaginary z z = |z|2 COMPLEX NUMBER 1. + z n z1 − z2 = z 1 – z 2 z1z2 = z 1 z 2 Modulus |z| = x2 + y2 .. z + z = 0 or z = – z ⇒ z = 0 or z is purely imaginary z= z ⇒ z is purely real Modulus of a complex number : Magnitude of a complex number z is denoted as |z| and is defined as |z| = (i) (ii) (iii) Hence i4n+1 = i.. amplitude or amp(z) = arg(z) = θ = tan–1 (i) Polar representation : x = r cosθ.. z I G Hz J K 1 2 (provided z2 ≠ 0) ez j n = ( z )n = z x2 + y2 * * c zh If α = f(z). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x * * . r = |z| = (ii) Exponential form : z = reiθ . then z = x – iy is called complex conjugate of z * * * E D U C A T I O N S (Re(z))2 + (Im(z))2 . i = −1 ) is called a complex number.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Complex Number : A number of the form z = x + iy (x. y) then its vector representation is z = OP 2.) Ph. 608-A.e. where x is called a real part i.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 .. i4n+3 = –i.+zn = z 1 + z 2 + .

) = π arg (z – z ) = ± π/2 7.) = 0 arg (any real – ve no. Euler's formulae as z = reiθ. 0744 . ω2 where ω= −1 + i 3 and 1 + ω + ω2 = 0. z ∈ 3rd quad. (i) (ii) (iii) z ∈ 1st quad. ω3 = 1 2 PAGE # 10 .POCKET BOOK (iv) |z1 + z2|2 + |z1 – z2|2 = 2 [|z1|2 + |z2|2] (v) |z1 ± z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2| (vi) |z1 ± z2| ≥ |z1| – |z2| 5.POCKET BOOK 6. . Argument of a complex number : Argument of a complex number z is the ∠ made by its radius vector with +ve direction of real axis. for b < 0 2 2 O P P Q = ± O P P Q = π – θ . = θ – π . if z is non real (i) (ii) L O .. arg (any real + ve no. arg z = θ. Square root of a complex no.) Ph. if z is real (vii) arg (– z) = arg z + π.. a + ib = ± L M M N L M M N |z|+a |z|−a +i . De-Moiver's Theorem : It states that if n is rational number. π ] (viii) arg (zn) = n arg z + 2 k π (ix) arg z + arg z = 0 argument function behaves like log function.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.(n – 1) Sum of all roots of z1/n is always equal to zero Product of all roots of z1/n = (–1)n–1 z 10. z ∈ 2nd quad.z2) = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2 k π (v) arg eiθ + e–iθ = 2cosθ and eiθ – e–iθ = 2 isinθ . 1. z ∈ 4 quad.. 0] = arg z – π. nth roots of complex number z1/n = r1/n cos (vi) arg ( z ) = –arg z = arg .. for b > 0 2 2 |z|+a |z|−a −i .6450883. = –θ. then (cosθ + isinθ)n = cosθ + isin nθ and (cosθ + isinθ)–n = cos nθ – i sin nθ 8. th MATHS FORMULA .G z I Hz J K 1 2 = arg z1 – arg z2 + 2 k π 9. 2. Cube root of unity : cube roots of unity are 1.) Ph. 608-A. 2405510 . arg z ∈ (0. where eiθ = cosθ + isinθ and e–iθ = cosθ – i sinθ ∴ (iv) arg (z1.MATHS FORMULA . where m = 0. ω. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 9 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 . 2mπ + θ I 2mπ + θ I + i sinG G J J M N H n K H n KP Q. . arg z ∈ (– π .6450883. 1I G H zJ K . = arg z. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

z2. 2405510 PAGE # 12 . 13.6450883. |z| = r represents circle with centre at origin. . 2 * Three points z1. 0744 .POCKET BOOK 11. * Parametric form z = tz1 + (1 – t)z2 where t ∈ R * Non parametric form z z1 z2 z 1 z1 1 z2 1 = 0. z2 are end points of diameter and z is any point on circle. 0744 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . Some important result : If z = cosθ + isinθ (i) z+ MATHS FORMULA . then equation of tangent at the point z1 is z z 1 + z z1 = 2r2 diametric form of circle : arg .) Ph. Some important points : (i) (ii) (b) yz + zx + xy = 0 (d) x + y + z = 3xyz 3 3 3 (iv) If x = cosα + isinα . then (a) (c) Distance formula PQ = |z2 – z1| Section formula . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. PAGE # 11 E D U C A T I O N S . Let |z| = r be the given circle. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. z z + a z + a z + b = 0 represents a general circle where a ∈ c and b ∈ R. Equation of Circle : * * * * * * |z – z1| = r represents a circle with centre z1 and radius r. z3 are collinear if z1 z2 z3 z1 1 z2 1 = 0 z3 1 or slope of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC.6450883.POCKET BOOK or z − z1 z − z1 z − z2 + z − z2 = 0 z− z1 + z 2 2 1 = 2cosθ z 1 = 2 isinθ z 1 = 2cosnθ zn or or = |z1 − z 2 | 2 (ii) z– |z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = |z1 – z2|2 (iii) zn + Where z1. y = cos β + i sin β & z = cosγ + isinγ and given x + y + z = 0.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. z−z I G z H −z J K 1 2 π = ± .or external division = (iii) m1z2 − m2 z1 m1 − m2 Equation of straight line. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .P 12.or internal division = 1 1 1 + + =0 y x z x +y +z =0 2 2 2 m1z2 + m2 z1 m1 + m2 MATHS FORMULA . |z – z1| < r and |z – z1| > r represents interior and exterior of circle |z – z1| = r.

z2. 0744 . 2405510 PAGE # 14 . z2.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . z2.) Ph. having the points z1 and z2 as its foci. then z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02. (vi) |z – z1| = |z – z2| = λ . and if |z1 – z2| = λ .MATHS FORMULA . z3. then z lies on the line passing through z1 and z2 excluding the points between z1 & z2..P. z J G K Hz 3 3 − z4 − z2 I J K is purely real.e..) Ph. (viii) If four points z1.. PAGE # 13 E D U C A T I O N S (xi) . z2. then (ix) (x) . 608-A. The triangle whose vertices are the points represented by complex numbers z1. right angled at z2... 608-A. z3 is equilateral if 1 1 1 z2 − z3 + z3 − z1 + z1 − z2 = 0 i. then z12 + z22 + z32 = 2z2 (z1 + z3). represents an ellipse if |z1 – z2| < λ . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . then the triangle is equilateral iff (z1 – z2)2 + (z2 – z3)2 + (z3 – z1)2 = 0. z2.6450883.. z3. then z12 + z22 + ..POCKET BOOK (xii) If z1... having the points z1 and z2 as its foci and if |z1 – z2| = λ .G z Hz 1 1 − z2 − z4 I . If z1. z3 are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 0744 . z3. z3 . then they lie on a straight line in the complex plane.. If z1. z4 are concyclic. + zn2 = nz02. z2. if z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2z3 + z1z3.. z3 be the vertices of an equilateral triangle and z0 be the circumcentre.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. If three complex numbers are in A..6450883. z3 be the vertices of a triangle. (xiv) z1. z4 are vertices of a parallelogram then z1+ z3 = z2 + z4 z − z1 (iv) The complex equation z − z 2 (v) = k represents a circle if k ≠ 1 and a straight line if k = 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then z lies on a line segment connecting z1 & z2 (vii) |z – z1| ~ |z – z2| = λ represents a hyperbola if |z1 – z2| > λ .. zn be the vertices of a regular polygon of n sides & z0 be its centroid.. (xiii) If z1.

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) If out of n objects, 'a' are alike of one kind, 'b' are alike of second kind and 'c' are alike of third kind and the rest distinct, then the number of ways of permuting the n objects is 4.

PERMUTATION & COMBINATION
1. .actorial notation The continuous product of first n natural numbers is called factorial i.e. n or n! = 1. 2. 3........(n – 1).n n! = n(n – 1)! = n(n – 1)(n – 2)! & so on or

n! a! b! c!

Restricted Permutations (i) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time, when m particular things always occupy definite places = n–mpr–m The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time, when m particular things are always to be excluded (included) =
n–m

n! n (n – 1)......... (n – r + 1) = (n − r)!

Here 0! = 1 and (–n)! = meaningless. 2. .undamental principle of counting (i) Addition rule : If there are two operations such that they can be done independently in m and n ways respectively, then either (any one) of these two operations can be done by (m + n) ways. Addition ⇒ OR (or) Option (ii) Multiplication rule : Let there are two tasks of an operation and if these two tasks can be performed in m and n different number of ways respectively, then the two tasks together can be done in m × n ways. Multiplication ⇒ And (or) Condition (iii) Bijection Rule : Number of favourable cases = Total number of cases – Unfavourable number of cases.

(ii)

Pr (n–mCr–m × r!)

5.

Circular Permutations When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as different. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things taken r at a time (ii)
n

Pr r

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken altogether
n

Pn = (n – 1)! n

3.

Permutations (Arrangement of objects) (i) The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time is npr = (ii) (iii)

When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as same. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things
n

n! (n − r)!
(ii)

taken r at a time

Pr 2r
n

The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is npn = n! The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when repetition of objects is allowed is nr.
PAGE # 15
E D U C A T

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all together

1 Pn = (n – 1)! 2 2n
PAGE # 16

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Combination (selection of objects) The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time is denoted by nCr or C (n, r)
n

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) Total number of selections of zero or more objects from n identical objects is n + 1. (v) Total number of selections of zero or more objects out of n different objects =
n

Cr =

n! r !(n − r)!

=

n

Pr r!

C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... +

n

Cn = 2n

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

n n n n n

Cr = nCn–r Cr + nCr–1 = n+1Cr Cr = nCs
n

r = s or r + s = n

(vi) The total number of selections of at least one out of a1 + a2 + ...... + an objects where a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ......... an are alike (of nth kind) is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) + ...... + (an + 1)] – 1 (vii) The number of selections taking atleast one out of a1 + a2 + a3 + ....... + an + k objects when a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ........ an are alike (of kth kind) and k are distinct is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) .......... (an + 1)] 2k – 1 9. Division and distribution (i) The number of ways in which (m + n + p) different objects can be divided into there groups containing m, n, & p different objects respectively is (ii)

C0 = Cn = 1 C1 = nCn–1 = n Cr = Cr =
n r
n–1

n

Cr–1

n

1 (n – r + 1) nCr–1 r

7.

Restricted combinations The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when k particular objects are always to be (i) (ii) (iii) included is n–kCr–k excluded is n–kCr included and s particular things are to be excluded is
n–k–s

(m + n + p)! m! n! p!

Cr–k

The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into r groups of group sizes n1, n2, n3, ............. nr respectively such that size of no two groups

8.

Total number of combinations in different cases (i) (ii) The number of selections of n identical objects, taken at least one = n The number of selections from n different objects, taken at least one = nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + (iii)
n

n! is same is n ! n !............n ! . 1 2 r
(iii) The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into groups such that k1 groups have group size n1, k2 groups have group size n2 and so on, kr groups have group size nr, is given as

Cn = 2n – 1

The number of selections of r objects out of n identical objects is 1.
PAGE # 17
E D U C A T I O N S

n! (n1 !) (n2 !) .............(nr !)k r k1 ! k 2 !............ k r !
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
k1 k2

.

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

PAGE # 18

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) The total number of ways in which n different objects are divided into k groups of fixed group size and are distributed among k persons (one group to each) is given as (number of ways of group formation) × k! 10. Selection of light objects and multinomial theorem (i) (ii) The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 – x–r) is equal to n + r – 1Cr – 1 The number of solution of the equation x1 + x2 + .......... + xr = n, n ∈ N under the condition n1 ≤ x1 ≤ n'1, n2 ≤ x2 ≤ n'2 , ................ nr ≤ xr ≤ n'r where all x'is are integers is given as Coefficient of xn is
n1

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (b) Number of total triangles formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(< n) are collinear is
n

C3 –

m

C3.

(c) (d)

Number of diagonals in a polygon of n sides is
n

C2 – n.

If m parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a family of other n parallel lines. Then total number of parallelogram so formed is mC2 × nC2. Given n points on the circumference of a circle, then number of straight lines nC2 number of triangles nC3 number of quadrilaterals nC4

(e)

(f)

L Mex N

+x

n1 +1

+...+x

n'1

j ex

n2

+x

n2 +1

+...+x

n'2

j...ex

nr

+x

nr +1

+...+ x

n'r

jOQP

If n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines are concurrent. Then the number of part into which these lines divide the plane is = 1 + Σn Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n × n is
n

11. Derangement Theorem (i) If n things are arranged in a row, then the number of ways in which they can be rearranged so that no one of them occupies the place assigned to it is

(g)

r =1

∑ r3

n

and number of squares of any size is

r =1

∑ r2 .

L 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 −....+(−1) 1 OP = n! M1 − n!Q N 1! 2! 3! 4!
n

(h)

Number of rectangles of any size in a rectangle of n × p is

(ii)

If n things are arranged at n places then the number of ways to rearrange exactly r things at right places is
n! = r

np (n + 1) (p + 1) and number of squares 4

LM1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 +....+(−1) N 1! 2! 3! 4!

n− r

1 (n − r)!

OP Q

of any size is

r =1

n

(n + 1 – r) (p + 1 – r).

12. Some Important results (a) Number of total different straight lines formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(<n) are collinear is n C2 – mC2 + 1.
PAGE # 19
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

PAGE # 20

4 Jacks) PAGE # 22 P(AB) P(A/B) = P(B) P(A + B) = P(AB) + P( A B) + P(A B ) P( AB ) = P(B) – P(AB) PAGE # 21 E D U C A T I O N S (iv) A ⊂ B ⇒ P(A) ≤ P(B) . 4 kings.e. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 26 black) . 2n PROBABILITY 1. 4 queens. (52)n (xiv) P(none) = 1 – P (atleast one) (xv) Playing cards : (a) (b) (c) (d) Total cards : 52 (26 red. the probability of each simple event is 1 . 2405510 . Cn and odds in against of A = (xiii) If n cards are drawn one after the other with replacement. of favourable cases to event A Total no. 4 jacks) Honour cards : 16 (4 Aces. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . the probability of each simple event is 52 1 .POCKET BOOK (vi) P(AB) ≤ P(A) P(B) ≤ P(A + B) ≤ P(A) + P(B) (vii) P(Exactly one event) = P(A B ) + P( A B) (viii) P( A + B ) = 1 – P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) – 2P(AB) = P(A + B) – P(AB) (ix) (x) P(neither A nor B) = P ( A B ) = 1 – P(A + B) When a coin is tossed n times or n coins are tossed once. club (13 cards each) Court (face) cards : 12 (4 kings. spade. Set theoretical notation of probability and some important results : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) P(A + B) = 1 – P( A B ) 1 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. P(A) + P(Not A) = 1 i. 6n 2.6450883. 0744 .our suits : Heart.) Ph. P(A) + P( A ) = 1 When a dice is rolled n times or n dice are rolled once. 0744 .) Ph. 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . Mathematical definition of probability : Probability of an event = Note : No. the probability of each simple event is 3. 4 queens. the probability of each simple event is (xi) 1 . of cases (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 Probability of an impossible event is zero Probability of a sure event is one.6450883. Odds for an event : If P(A) = m n−m and P( A ) = n n Then odds in favour of A = P(A) m = P(A) n−m P(A) n−m = P(A) m (xii) When n cards are drawn (1 ≤ n ≤ 52) from well shuffled deck of 52 cards. diamond.

P( A n ) 4. 608-A. 0744 .(1 – Pn)] or P(A1 + A2 + ... ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2) . 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 24 . No........ + An) = 1 – P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) .. n (A ∩ B) = 0 (ii) ⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0 ∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) When events are not mutually exclusive i..... Conditional probability : P(A/B) = Probability of occurrence of A. P(A) ≠ 0 (d) Probability that exactly r letters are in right 1 envelopes = r! L 1 1 1 − + +. then P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ..) Ph. of sample pts.... of pts. Pn are the probabilities of n independent events A.. Probability of at least one of the n Independent events : If P1. then P(A/B) = P(A) and P(B/A) = P(B) Multiplication Theorem : P(A ∩ B) = P(A/B).. 0744 . then (a) Probability that all the letters are in right envelopes = (b) MATHS FORMULA . 1 – [(1 – P1) (1 – P2).. given that A has already happened = Note : Probability that all letters are not in right envelopes = 1 – 1 n! P(A ∩ B) P(A) If the outcomes of the experiment are equally (c) Probability that no letters are in right envelope 1 1 1 1 = – + .POCKET BOOK 5... + (–1)n 2! 3! 4! n! likely.. ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2/E1) P(E3/E1 ∩ E2) P(E4/E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3) ..+(−1) M 2 ! 3 ! 4 ! N n− r 1 (n − r)! OP Q Generalized : P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ..MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S ... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. in B If A and B are independent event. P2. .6450883.. Addition Theorem of Probability : (i) When events are mutually exclusive i.... If events are independent.e... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. given that B has already happened = P(A ∩ B) P(B) 1 n! P(B/A) = Probability of occurrence of B. P(B)..e..6450883.. .. An then the probability of happening of at least one of these event is. 608-A..) Ph.....e....POCKET BOOK (xvi) Probability regarding n letters and their envelopes : If n letters corresponding to n envelopes are placed in the envelopes at random. P(B) ≠ 0 or P(A ∩ B) = P(B/A) P(A)... P(A ∩ B) ≠ 0 ∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(AB) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A) P(B) PAGE # 23 E D U C A T or (iii) ∴ When events are independent i.. in A ∩ B .... P(En) 6..... P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P (B) . then P(A/B) = (i) (ii) No..... A2.

. Probability distribution : (i) If a random variable x assumes values x1..) Ph. x2.. Given that the probability of A & B speaking truth is p1. An are n mutually exclusive & set of exhaustive events and event A can occur through any one of these events.. 608-A.. P2. A2.. P(B / A i)P(A i ) P(Ai/B) = P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) .6450883... . then probability of occurence of A P(A) = P(A ∩ A1) + P(A ∩ A2) + . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ...POCKET BOOK 7.. Truth of the statement : If two persons A and B speaks truth with the probability p1 & p2 respectively and if they agree on a statement.) Ph. p1p2 p1p2 + (1 − p1 ) (1 − p2 ) . then the probability of r success is nCr Pr qn–r atleast r success is n k =r ∑ n Ck Pk qn–k where p is probability of success in a single trial.MATHS FORMULA ..xn with probabilities P1. + P(A ∩ An) = n MATHS FORMULA .e. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ...POCKET BOOK (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) mean E(x) = np E (x2) = npq + n2 p2 Variance E(x2) – (E(x))2 = npq Standard deviation = npq 10. then the probability that they are speaking truth will be given by r =1 ∑ P(Ar) P(A/Ar) 8....... . Binomial distribution : If an experiment is repeated n times..6450883... Baye's Rule : Let A1. probability of occurrence of which is α then the probability that event has occurred. A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 = sample space & A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 = φ) an sample space S and B is any other event on sample space then.. A2. 1 1 2 2 3 3 i = 1..... 2.... Total Probability : Let A1. the successive trials being independent of one another.. (ii) If A and B both assert that an event has occurred. 0744 . 3 9. 608-A. q = 1 – p . Pn respectively then (a) (b) (c) (ii) mean E(x) = Σ Pixi 2 αp1p2 αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) (iii) If in the second part the probability that their lies (jhuth) coincides is β then from above case required probability will be P1 + P2 + P3 + .. 2405510 PAGE # 26 .. . p2.. 0744 . + Pn = 1 Variance = Σx Pi – (mean) = Σ (x ) – (E(x)) 2 2 2 αp1p2 + − αp1p2 (1 α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) β . A3 be any three mutually exclusive & exhaustive events (i.. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 25 E D U C A T I O N S ..

M. (except first term) is equal to the half of the sum of term equidistant from the term i..r>1 r −1 r −1 Arithmetic mean (A.P..P.d. 0744 .P. A2... an = 2. — Tn = arn–1 If a G.P. a + (n – 1) d where a is the first term and d is the common difference General (nth) term of an A. 1−r |r|<1 . ar. a.) : A..P.MATHS FORMULA .. then A= a . where d = (v) b−a n+1 n (a + b) 2 PROGRESSION AND SERIES 1. Sn is given then Tn = Sn – Sn–1 where Sn–1 is sum of (n – 1) terms.or an A...P. ar3 r3 r a a . a + d.. a + d. a + 2d. . A2 = a + 2d..our terms as a – 3d.... a.M's inserted between a and b is (vi) Any term of an A.... An is defined as A1 + A 2 +.M.e. Arithmetic Progression (A.. An are n A. a + d . If A is the A.P.. of n numbers A1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph. An = a + nd. . — Sn = n n [2a + (n – 1)d] = [a + Tn] 2 2 Sum of n A. — S ∞ = Supposition of terms in G.P. ... 1 (a + an+r). A2.. having m terms.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .e. (d) Supposition of terms in A.M.M. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.P. — (i) (ii) (iii) Three terms as .e..POCKET BOOK (iv) If A1. a + 2d A....P. ar2 r2 r PAGE # 28 a+b i. ar. ar2 .) : (a) (b) General A.. — a....+ A n ΣA i Sum of numbers = = n n n Geometric Progression (G. a – d.. a.6450883. then nth term from end = a + (m – n)d (c) Sum of n terms of an A.. ar r (iii) a a . 2 2A = a + b PAGE # 27 E D U C A T I O N S . r<1 1−r 1−r Tnr − a a(r n − 1) = . of middle term. a.. — a..P. a + d.P. a and b. between two given nos.P. 2405510 .. then A1 = a + d.M.P. — Tn = a + (n – 1)d [nth term from the beginning] If an A.P. of the terms taken symmetrically from the beginning and from the end will always be constant and will be equal to middle term or A.. 0744 . . a – d.ive terms as a .) Ph.. = (ii) Sum of an infinite G.M's between a and b. A.. — (i) (ii) (iii) (e) (i) Three terms as a .6450883. ar.our terms as ...) (a) General G.. r < n 2 n–r Note : If sum of n terms i.M... a + 3d . .. . having m terms then nth term from end = arm–n (c) Sum of n terms of a G. — Sn = = (d) (e) a − Tnr a(1 − r n ) = . 608-A.. 608-A. where a is the first term and r is the common ratio (b) General (nth) term of a G.ive terms as a – 2d..

Gn are n G..'s inserted between a & b is (ab)n/2 1 1 = th n term coresponding to A. xn is defined as G.M..M.... G2 = ar ....POCKET BOOK (f) Geometric Mean (G.MATHS FORMULA ....... bI = ar .....M..M. 608-A.. (2n – 1) = n2 Σ2n = 2 + 4 + 6 + .. between a and b... then H1 = ab(n + 1) ab(n + 1) .M....... H2. = (x1 x2 .P.G....M..6450883.M...P. d(1 − r n−1) a + r.. + n2 = n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 A 2 − G2 .. Gn 2 Harmonic Progression (H.P — Sn = Sum of infinite terms of an A. .Hn are n H.. + n 3 3 3 3 3 Ln(n + 1) O = M N 2 P Q 2 Σa = a + a + .. where r = G J H aK n 1/n+1 General (nth term) of a H.. Hn = bn + a na + b 1 1 & ... then these numbers are A± Σn2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + .M..P.. — Tn = (iii) Product of the n G. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.M's.. Arithmetico .. G2.) — (i) Geometrical mean of n numbers x1. and H... +.... Sum standard results : (a) (b) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .. (i) (ii) (iii) AH = G2 A ≥ G ≥ H If A and G are A. x2. Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .'s between reciprocal will be required H.. + (n times) = na Σ(2n – 1) = 1 + 3 + 5 + . a a + d a + 2d .....G.. .P.6450883. xn)1/n.M... between two given numbers a and b.) Ph. then G2 = ab ⇒ G = (ii) ab MATHS FORMULA . (a + d)r. G...Geometric Progression (A....M's between a and b..P.) Ph.... a + (n − 1)d (c) Harmonic Mean (H. 4.M. (a + 2d) r2..POCKET BOOK (c) (d) (e) (f) 5. (1 − r)2 1−r General (nth) term — Tn = [a + (n – 1) d] rn–1 Sum of n terms of an A. and G.. .. 2405510 PAGE # 30 . then their a b dr a + (1 − r)2 1−r 6.M.M's between a and b..G. respectively between two +ve numbers...P) (a) (b) General H.. S∞ = If H1.. 0744 ..) : (a) (b) (c) (d) General form — a.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 608-A.. + 2n = n (n + 1) If G1.... . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 29 E D U C A T I O N S . + n = Relation Between A.. (i) If G is the G. 0744 . n(n + 1) 2 or first find n A.) (i) (ii) If H is the H. then H = 2ab a+b 3.. . then G1 = ar..M.. — 1 1 1 ....

n C1 .+ (n + 1)Cn = (n + 2)2n–1 C02 + C 12 + C22 + . 0744 .) Ph... To determine a particular term in the given expasion : ....or the sake of convenience the coefficients n n BINOMIAL THEOREM 1......... n Cn are usually denoted by C0. + nCn an = (i) (ii) (iii) C0 .. 0744 .... 2405510 PAGE # 32 . = Binomial coefficient of middle term is the greatest binomial coefficient. n Cr .... if n is odd Cn/2 .... + C n = 0 C0 + C 2 + C4 + .MATHS FORMULA ...POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 608-A..G n + 1IJ H 2K Cn + r = n th c hc h and * * * * * * n Cr + Cr − 1 = n+1 Cr .. = 0 C0 + 2C 1 + 3C2 + ...6450883. + Cn = 2n C0 – C 1 + C2 – C3 + .... (m + 1) term from the end = (n – m + 1) from beginning = Tn–m+1 th middle term Cr = .. * * * * C0 + C1 + C2 + ...) Ph.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ....... 608-A.POCKET BOOK 3.. if n is even ... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Let the given expansion be G x H and for x0... th term * 2n .... = 2n–1 n ∑ r=0 th n n Cr xn–r ar General term .. + nCr xn–r ar + ... Binomial Theorem for any +ve integral index : (x + a) n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn–1 a + nC2 xn–2 a2 + ... = C1 + C 3 + C5 + . + Cn2 = C02 – C 12 + C22 – C32 + ... C2 . Properties of Binomial coefficients : .Tr+1 = nCr xn–r ar is the (r + 1)th term from beginning. C1 ... if xn occurs in Tr+1 (r + 1)th term then r is given by n α – r (α + β) = m R | S |c−1h T n/2 n 0. C r .. Cn respectively..G n + 3I K H 2 J 2..... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 31 E D U C A T I O N S ..6450883.... + nCn = n. th term C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 + . n α – r (α + β) = 0 α ± 1 xβ I J K c2nh! cn!h 2 = 2n Cn n .2n–1 C1 – 2C2 + 3C3 .n I (a) If n is even then middle term = G + 1J H2 K (b) If n is odd then middle term = n n −1 nn−1 Cr −1 = r r r −1 2n! n−r ! n+r ! n−2 Cr −2 and so on ...

xk * C0 + C1 C2 Cn 2n+1 − 1 + + . 2n + 1 C2n + 1 = 2 Generalized (x1 + x2 +.MATHS FORMULA .. 2405510 PAGE # 34 .POCKET BOOK 2n + 1 MATHS FORMULA ...] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x} 5. 0744 . s =n s ! r ! (n − r)! r ! where s = n – r . 0744 .rk ! x1 x2 .... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 33 E D U C A T I O N S . This is (k + 1)th term k = LM(n + 1)aOP .... (ii) If (n + 1)a ∉ Z then the expansion has only one greatx+a est term.) Ph. These are kth and (k + 1)th where x & a are +ve real nos.6450883. xn)m is m+n–1 C n–1 4. 608-A... n ∈N = ∑ r =0 n! n! xn–r ar = r +∑ x s ar .6450883. + = 2 3 n+1 n+1 C1 C2 C3 (−1)n C n + – .. + 2 3 4 n+1 r1 +r2 +. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Greatest term : (i) If (n + 1)a ∈ Z (integer) then the expansion has two x+a greatest terms..POCKET BOOK n! xr ys z t s! r !t ! Note : 2n + 1 2n + 1 C0 + 2n + 1 C1 + ..... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..... xk)n = 1 n+1 ∑ n! r1 r2 rk r1 ! r2 !... + 2n 2n + 1 Cn = Cn + 1 + (ii) (x + y + z)n = r + s + t =n ∑ Cn + 2 + .rk =n * C0 – = 6. Total no. 608-A.. of terms in the expansion (x1 + x2 +...) Ph.. N x+a Q {[... Multinomial Theorem : (i) (x + a)n = ∑ n n n r =0 Cr xn–r ar.

T-ratios of allied angles : The signs of trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant.6450883. Trigonometric identities : (i) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 (ii) cosec2θ – cot2θ = 1 (iii) sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 Sign convention : y II quadrant sin & cosec are +ve x' O III quadrant tan & cot are +ve y' 5. 0744 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 35 E D U C A T I O N S .or a regular polygon of side a and number of sides n (a) (b) (c) (d) Internal angle of polygon = (n – 2) Sum of all internal angles = (n – 2) π Radius of incircle of this polygon r = Radius of circumcircle of this polygon R a π = cosec 2 n (e) (f) Area of the polygon = Area of triangle = 1 na2 cot 4 .) Ph. Some important results : (i) Arc length AB = r θ Area of circular sector = (ii) 1 2 r θ 2 π n π a cot 2 n 4.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. a πI cos ec J G H2 nK 2 ±cotθ ±cotθ m tanθ sec θ ±cosecθ secθ m cosecθ –secθ –cosec θ secθ ±cosecθ m cosecθ –sec θ m cot θ m tanθ 2.6450883. 2405510 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . . Allied∠ of (–θ) 900 ± θ 1800 ± θ 2700 ± θ 3600 ± θ T-ratios sinθ cos θ tanθ cot θ sec θ cosec θ 6. –sinθ cos θ –tanθ –cotθ cosθ IV quadrant cos & sec are +ve I quadrant All +ve x TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO AND IDENTITIES 1. Relation between system of measurement of angles : Sum & differences of angles of t-ratios : (i) sin(A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB (ii) cos(A ± B) = cosA cosB ± sinA sinB (iii) tan (A ± B) = D G 2C = = π 90 100 & π radian = 1800 tan A ± tanB 1 m tan A tan B PAGE # 36 . a πI Area of incircle = π G cot J H 2 nK Area of circumcircle = π m sinθ m cotθ m sinθ –cosθ ±tanθ –cosθ ±sinθ ±sinθ cosθ ±tanθ (h) .G π IJ H nK π 1 2 a cos 4 n 2 (g) .POCKET BOOK 3. 608-A. 608-A.

2405510 PAGE # 38 .MATHS FORMULA .) Ph.... C + DI .... 608-A..POCKET BOOK 7. D − CI J G (viii) cosC – cosD = 2sin G sin H 2 K H 2 J K (v) sinC + sinD = 2sin (ix) tanA + tanB = sin(A + B) cos A cos B Σ tan A = Π tan A Σ sin A = Σ sin A cos B cos C 1 + Π cos A = Σ sin A sin B cos C (viii) sin75 = 0 8. C + DI . C + DI . C − DI J G (vi) sinC – sinD = 2cos G sin H 2 K H 2 J K . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..POCKET BOOK (iv) cot (A ± B) = cot A cot B m 1 cot B ± cot A MATHS FORMULA ..... = 1 − S + S − S + S −.6450883.... . 2 4 6 8 Where S1 = Σ tan A S2 = Σ tan A tan B. T-ratios of multiple and submultiple angles : (i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA = 2 tan A 1 + tan2 A 3 +1 2 2 3 −1 2 2 = (sin A + cos A)2 – 1 = 1 – (sin A – cos A)2 = cos15 0 ⇒ sinA = 2sinA/2 cosA/2 = = sin150 0 2 tan A / 2 1 + tan2 A / 2 (ix) (x) (xi) E D U C A T I O N S cos750 = 0 (ii) cos2A = cos2A – sin2A = 2cos2A – 1 = 1 – 2sin2A = tan75 = 2 + cot750 = 2 – 3 = cot15 1 − tan2 A 1 + tan2 A 0 3 = tan15 . ) S1 − S3 + S5 − S7 +. S3 = Σ tan A tan B tan C & so on (viii) sin (A + B + C) = Σ sin A cos B cos C – Π sin A (ix) = Π cos A (Numerator of tan (A + B + C)) cos (A + B + C) = Π cos A – Σ sin A sin B cos C = Π cos A (Denominator of tan (A + B + C)) for a triangle A + B + C = π .6450883.. C − DI (vii) cosC + cosD = 2cos G H 2 J K cos G H 2 J K .ormulaes for product into sum or difference and viceversa : (i) (ii) (iii) 2sinA cosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A – B) 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) – sin(A – B) 2cosA cosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A – B) (v) sin(A + B) sin(A – B) = sin2A – sin2B = cos2 B – cos2 A (vi) cos(A + B) cos (A – B) = cos2A – sin2B = cos2B – sin2A (vii) tan(A + B + C) = (iv) 2sinA sinB = cos(A – B) – cos(A + B) S1 − S3 tan A + tanB + tan C − tan A tan B tan C = 1−S 1 − tan A tan B − tanB tan C − tan C tan A 2 Generalized tan (A + B + C + ... C − DI C + DI G H 2 J K cos G H 2 J K . 0744 . 2405510 PAGE # 37 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A. .

cos22α . A + B + C = π. 608-A.6450883.. 2405510 PAGE # 40 .. α = 2kπ = –1 . Conditional trigonometric identities : If A.e..e.cos(2n–1 α) = 10.MATHS FORMULA . α ≠ nπ 2n sin α cosα .) Ph.. Maximum and minimum value of the expression : acosθ + bsinθ Maximum (greatest) Value = a2 + b2 Minimum (Least) value = – a2 + b2 (iii) cos α + = L . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . C are angles of triangle i.. A ≠ (2n + 1)π sin A 1 + cos A Σ tan A/2 tan B/2 = 1 Σ cot A cot B = 1 Σ cot A/2 = Π cot A/2 11.cos2α . β ≠ 2nπ sin β 2 (ix) tanA/2 = (ii) cosα + cos(α + β) + cos(α + 2β) + .6450883. Some useful series : (i) sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .. 0744 .POCKET BOOK (ii) (iii) (v) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = –1– 4cosA cosB cosC sinA + sinB + sinC = 4cosA/2 cosB/2 cosC/2 sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 1 – 2sinA sinB cosC (iii) 2 tan A / 2 ⇒ tanA = 1 − tan2 A / 2 (iv) sin3θ = 3sinθ – 4sin3θ = 4sin(600 – θ ) sin(600 + θ ) sin θ = sin θ (2 cos θ – 1) (2 cos θ + 1) (v) cos3θ = 4cos3θ – 3cosθ = 4cos(60 – θ ) cos(60 + θ ) cos θ 0 0 (iv) cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + 4 sinA/2 sinB/2 sinC/2 (vi) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 – 2cosA cosB cosC (vii) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC (viii) cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1 (ix) (x) (xi) = cos θ (1 – 2 sin θ ) (1 + 2 sin θ ) 3 tan A − tan3 A (vi) tan3A = 1 − 3 tan2 A = tan(600 – A) tan(600 + A)tanA (vii) sinA/2 = 1 − cos A 2 1 + cos A 2 1 − cos A 1 − cos A = . α = (2k+1)π .. then (i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC i. + to nterms sin α + = (viii) cosA/2 = L .. B.POCKET BOOK 2 tan A tan2A = 1 − tan2 A MATHS FORMULA . + to nterms 9. Lnβ O n − 1I O βP sinM P G J M H K 2 N Q N 2 Q .. Σ sin 2A = 4 Π (sin A) PAGE # 39 E D U C A T I O N S = 1 . n − 1I O nβ βP sin G J M H K 2 N Q 2 β ≠ 2nπ sin β 2 sin 2n α . 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 .

θ = (2n + 1) θ = nπ .) Ph. then the roots found after squaring must be checked wheather they satisfy the original equation or not. General solution of the equations of the form (i) (ii) (iii) sinθ = 0 cosθ = 0 tanθ = 0 = cosβ(say) ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ θ = nπ . .POCKET BOOK Thus the equation reduces to form cos(θ – α) = c a + b2 2 TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS 1.MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b a + b2 2 = sinα. n∈I 2 now solve using above formula 3.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . θ = 2nπ + θ = 2πn θ = 2nπ – n∈I (iv) sinθ = 1 (v) cosθ = 1 π 2 (ii) (vi) sinθ = –1 (vii) cosθ = –1 (viii) sinθ = sinα (ix) (x) (xi) cosθ = cosα π 3π or 2nπ + 2 2 θ = (2n + 1)π θ = nπ + (–1)nα ⇒ θ = 2nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α tanθ = tanα ⇒ sin2θ = sin2α θ = nπ + α ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ (xii) cos2θ = cos2α (xiii) tan2θ = tan2α 2. If two equations are given then find the common values of θ between 0 & 2π and then add 2nπ to this common solution (value). 0744 .6450883. 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . n∈I π . 2405510 PAGE # 42 .) Ph.or general solution of the equation of the form a cosθ + bsinθ = c. where c ≤ a2 + b2 . divide both side by a2 + b2 and put a a +b 2 2 = cosα. 0744 . Some important points : (i) If while solving an equation. 608-A. PAGE # 41 E D U C A T I O N S . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. we have to square it.

x ≥ 1 Range (R) π – 2 x ≤ θ ≤ π 2 tan (tan–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞ cot (cot–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞ sec (sec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞ cosec (cosec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞ cos–1 x tan–1 x cot–1 x sec–1 x cosec–1 x 0 ≤ θ ≤ π – π π < θ < 2 2 (iii) 0 < θ < π 0 ≤ θ ≤ π.MATHS FORMULA . then x = sin–1 y. x ≥ 1 x ≤ – 1. x ∈ (– ∞ . Domain (D) – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 – ∞ < x < ∞ – ∞ < x < ∞ x ≤ – 1. 1] π π < θ < 2 2 tan–1 x + cot–1 x = (cot θ ) = θ provided 0 < θ < π ∀ x ∈ R sec–1 (sec θ ) = θ provided 0 ≤ θ < π π or < θ ≤ π 2 2 sec–1 x + cosec–1 x = π . 2 ∀ x ∈ [– 1.unction sin –1 ≤ θ < 0 π 2 or 0 < θ ≤ (ii) sin (sin–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 cos (cos–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. 608-A. cos–1 (– x) = π – cos–1 x tan–1 (– x) = – tan–1 x cot–1 (– x) = π – cot–1 x cosec–1 (– x) = – cosec–1 x sec–1 (– x) = π – sec–1 x π π – . θ ≠ π 2 sin–1 (– x) = – sin–1 x. 0744 .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .6450883. similarly for other inverse Tfunctions.UNCTIONS 1.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2 π . Properties of Inverse T-functions : (i) sin–1 (sin θ ) = θ provided – π 2 π ≤ θ ≤ 2 cos–1 (cos θ ) = θ provided θ ≤ θ ≤ π tan–1 (tan θ ) = θ provided – cot –1 (iv) sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π .) Ph. If y = sin x. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 44 .POCKET BOOK cosec–1 (cosec θ ) = θ provided – π 2 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC . θ ≠ 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2 2 3. ∞ ) 2 ∀ . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 43 E D U C A T I O N S . Domain and Range of Inverse T-functions : . – 1] ∪ [1.

6450883. xy < 1 . x+y I tan x + tan y = π + tan G H 1 − xy J K . 2405510 PAGE # 46 .G 1 I H xJ K .y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1 (iv) sin–1 .y > 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1 (vi) tan–1 = R cot x S | T− π + cot x −1 −1 for x > 0 for x < 0 2 2 (ix) cos–1x ± cos–1y = π – cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y . 608-A. ∞ ) L M N O P Q if x. if x > 0.6450883. y > 0. x + y + z − xyz I tan x + tan y + tan z = tan G K H 1 − xy − yz − zx J L O sin x ± sin y = sin Mx 1 − y ± y 1 − x P .) Ph. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x (ii) (ii) cos–1 x = sin–1 1 − x2 = tan–1 1 − x2 = cot–1 x . xy > 1 . if xy > –1 . y < 0. x+y I G H 1 − xy J K . 1] ∪ [1. N Q –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 2 2 if x.y > 0 & x2 + y2 > 1 . x−yI tan x – tan y = tan G H 1 + xy J K . if x > 0. y > 0. L M N O P Q if x. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 45 E D U C A T I O N S . ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ .G 1 I H xJ K . x ≥ 0 x .ormulae for sum and difference of inverse trigonometric function : (i) tan–1x + tan–1y = tan–1 1−x 2 x 1 − x2 = cot–1 1 − x2 x 1 1−x 2 = cosec–1 1 . Value of one inverse function in terms of another inverse function : (i) sin–1 x = cos–1 = sec–1 = tan–1 MATHS FORMULA . ∞ ) 2 2 (viii) cos–1x ± cos–1y = cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. = cosec–1 x . if x > 0.y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 > 1 (v) cos–1 = sec–1 x. ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x−yI tan x – tan y = π + tan G H 1 + xy J K . 0744 .MATHS FORMULA .G 1 I H xJ K 2 2 (vii) sin–1x ± sin–1y = π – sin–1 x 1 − y ± y 1 − x .POCKET BOOK 5. L M N O P Q if x.POCKET BOOK 4. 1] ∪ [1. xy < –1 . . 0744 . 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x 1 − x2 (iii) = sec–1 1 = cosec–1 x x 1 + x2 1 1 − x2 (iv) (iii) tan–1 x = sin–1 = cos–1 1 1 + x2 = cot–1 1 x (v) (vi) = sec–1 –1 1 + x2 = cosec 1 + x2 .) Ph.

2405510 . Cosine formula : cos A = b2 + c2 − a2 2bc cos B = c2 + a2 − b2 2ac a2 + b2 − c2 2ab PAGE # 48 cos C = . In any ∆ABC. c + a > b (iii) 3. In ∆ABC : (i) A + B + C = π (ii) a + b > c.) Ph. a > 0.MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK 6. 0744 . we write BC = a. Inverse trigonometric ratios of multiple angles (i) (ii) (iii) 2sin–1x = sin–1(2x MATHS FORMULA . AB = c.) Ph. 3x − x I G H 1 − 3x J K 3 2 and ∠BAC = ∠A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 47 E D U C A T I O N S . ∠ACB = ∠C 2. b > 0.6450883. TRIANGLE Properties of triangle : 1. c > 0 Sine formula : a b c = = = k(say) sin A sinB sin C or sin A sinB sinC = = = k (say) a b c 4. 0744 . AC = b A A c B B a b C C 2 2 1 − x2 ). if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2cos–1x = cos–1(2x2 –1). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. . if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2tan–1x = tan–1 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK PROPERTIES & SOLUTION O. b +c > a.1 − x I . 608-A. 2x I 2x I G J G J GH 1 + x JK = sin = cos H1 − x K H1 + x K 2 –1 2 –1 (iv) 3sin–1x = sin–1(3x – 4x3) (v) 3cos x = cos (4x – 3x) –1 –1 3 (vi) 3tan–1x = tan–1 . ∠ABC = ∠B. A triangle has three sides and three angles. 608-A.

Circumcircle of triangle and its radius : (i) R= a b c = = 2sin A 2sinB 2sin C abc 4∆ Where R is circumradius PAGE # 50 (ii) R= .) Ph. 0744 .POCKET BOOK 5. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. ∆.In any ∆ABC : (a) sin A = 2 ∆ = s(s − a) (s − b) (s − c) (s − b) (s − c) bc (s − c) (s − a) ca (s − a) (s − b) ab sin B = 2 C = 2 9. 2405510 .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Area of triangle : (i) (ii) 1 1 1 ∆ = 2 ab sin C = 2 bc sin A = 2 ca sin B Half angled formula .POCKET BOOK (c) tan A = 2 B = 2 C = 2 (s − b) (s − c) s (s − a) (s − c) (s − a) s (s − b) (s − b) (s − a) s (s − c) 6. 0744 . tan A B s −c tan = 2 2 s B C s −a tan = 2 2 s C tan 2 A s −b = 2 s tan where 2s = a + b + c tan sin (b) cos A = 2 s (s − a) bc s (s − b) ca s (s − c) ab PAGE # 49 E D U C A T I O N S B cos = 2 cos C = 2 10. A −B a−b = cot 2 a+b B−C b−c = cot 2 b+c C−A c−a = cot 2 c+a C 2 A 2 B 2 MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. 608-A.6450883. tan tan 8.6450883. Projection formula : a = b cos C + c cos B b = c cos A + a cos C c = a cos B + b cos A Napier's Analogies : tan tan tan 7.MATHS FORMULA .

POCKET BOOK (iv) r1 + r2 + r3 – r = 4R (v) 1 1 1 1 r1 + r2 + r3 = r 1 2 r1 (iv) r = (s – a) tan (vi) + 1 2 r2 + 1 2 r3 + 1 r2 = a2 + b2 + c2 ∆2 (v) r = 4R sin A B C sin sin 2 2 2 (vii) (vi) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + r R 1 1 1 1 + + = 2Rr bc ca ab (viii) r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = s2 (ix) ∆ = 2R2 sin A sin B sin C = 4Rr cos B C A C B A a sin sin b sin sin c sin sin 2 2 2 2 2 2 (vii) r = = = A B C cos cos cos 2 2 2 12.MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. r3 = s tan 2 2 A B C cos cos . Incircle of a triangle and its radius : (iii) r= ∆ s A B C = (s – b) tan = (s – c) tan 2 2 2 MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 52 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. 608-A. 0744 . 0744 . r3 = s−a s −b s−c A B . The radii of the escribed circles are given by : (i) r1 = ∆ ∆ ∆ . 2 2 2 A B C sin cos . 2 2 2 A B cos sin 2 2 C 2 C 2 A B C cos cos 2 2 2 a cos (x) r1 = B C C A b cos cos cos 2 2 2 2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. A B cos cos 2 2 A B cos 2 2 C cos 2 c cos r3 = (ii) r1 = s tan r1 = 4R sin r2 = 4R cos r3 = 4R cos (iii) .) Ph.6450883.POCKET BOOK 11. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 51 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A. r2 = . r2 = . r2 = s tan .

∠ BCD = β & ∠ BDC = θ then (m + n) cotθ = m cotα – ncot β C α β A A m D θ n B B = ncotA – mcotB [m – n Theorem] . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 53 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph.6450883. then ∠ QPO is called angle of depression of O as seen from P.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2. 608-A. 0744 . 0744 . Some useful result : (i) In any triangle ABC if AD : DB = m : n ∠ ACD = α . 2405510 PAGE # 54 .MATHS FORMULA .) Ph.POCKET BOOK (ii) d = h (cotα – cotβ) HEIGHT AND DISTANCE 1. 608-A. Angle of elevation and depression : If an observer is at O and object is at P then ∠ XOP is called angle of elevation of P as seen from O. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. h α d β If an observer is at P and object is at O. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

(ii) Circumcentre of a right triangle is mid point of the hypotenuse. Here λ > 0 BP n m A(x 1 . y1 ) P n B(x 2 .6450883. AD = BC.G mx − nx H m−n 2 1 . y1) & (x2. 0744 . (i) Circumcentre of an acute angled triangle is inside the triangle. (iii) If AB = BC = CD = AD. 2 2 I J K (iv) The line ax + by + c = 0 divides the line joining the points (ax1 + by + c) (x1. Here points are collinear. 608-A. Here P is circumcentre and PA is radius.POCKET BOOK (C) . PA = PB = PC.G mx + nx H m+n 2 1 . 608-A. y2) in the ratio = – (ax + by + c) 2 2 . my 2 + ny1 m+n I J K m n P Externally : AP m = = λ BP n A(x 1.6450883. (ii) If any two sides are equal then ∆ is isosceles.e. my 2 − ny1 m−n I J K (iii) Coordinates of mid point of PQ are x . AB = BC + CA or BC = AC + AB or AC = AB + BC. y) from origin (0. P) (iv) Distance of a point (x.or circumcentre of a triangle : Circumcentre of a triangle is equidistant from vertices i. (ii) If AB = CD. AD = BC and AC = BD.) Ph. Q) = d(Q. (b) In Parallelogram : Calculate AB. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then ∆ is right triangle. Distance formula : Distance between two points P(x1. Q) ≥ 0 (ii) d(P. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 56 . then ∆ is equilateral. (iii) Circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle is outside the triangle. then ABCD is a rectangle. then ABCD is a square. POINT 1. CA (i) If AB = BC = CA. y1) and Q(x2. then ABCD is a parallelogram.e. Q) = 0 ⇔ P = Q (iii) d(P.) Ph. (iii) If sum of square of any two sides is equal to the third. 0) = 3. Section formula : (i) Internally : x2 + y2 AP m = = λ . y2 ) 2. Q) = PQ = = (x 2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1 )2 (Difference of x coordinate)2 + (Difference of y coordinate)2 Note : (i) d(P. (iv) If AB = BC = CD = AD and AC = BD. CD and AD. y2) is given by d(P. y 1 ) B(x 2. BC.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . G H 1 + x2 y1 + y2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . (i) If AB = CD.ormula : (a) In Triangle : Calculate AB. (iv) Sum of any two equal to left third they do not form a triangle i. PAGE # 55 E D U C A T P (ii) . Use of Distance . y 2 ) P . then ABCD is a rhombus. BC.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .

y') then x x' → cos θ y' → –sinθ ∆= 1 2 x2 x3 (Determinant method) B y sinθ cosθ B x1 = y1 y2 y3 y1 [Stair method] = 7. 0744 . 1 a+b+c I J K (viii) Coordinates of orthocentre are obtained by solving the equation of any two altitudes. (x2.. G H 1 MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. centroid and circumcentre are always collinear and centroid divides the line joining orthocentre and circumcentre in the ratio 2 : 1 (v) Area of triangle formed by coordinate axes & the line ax + by + c = 0 is c2 ..G ax + bx + cx H a+b+c 1 2 3 ay + by 2 + cy 3 .) Ph. C are collinear if area of triangle is zero.. y1). y3) . 4.POCKET BOOK 5. 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 57 E D U C A T I O N S . C are collinear.. y) with reference to new axis will be (x'. (xn. Area of Triangle : The area of triangle ABC with vertices A(x1. B. Some important points : (i) Three pts.) Ph. centroid. A. x2 1 2 x3 x1 1 [x y + x2y3 + x3y1 – x2y1 – x3y2 – x1y3] 2 1 2 Note : (i) Three points A. 2ab .. (ii) If in a triangle point arrange in anticlockwise then value of ∆ be +ve and if in clockwise then ∆ will be –ve. y2).MATHS FORMULA . (iv) Orthocentre.. B. 2405510 PAGE # 58 . Points must be taken in order.POCKET BOOK (v) .6450883. y3). B(x2. if area of triangle is zero (ii) Centroid G of ∆ABC divides the median AD or BE or C. (x3. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. orthocentre. . x1 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 M xn x1 6. in the ratio 2 : 1 (iii) In an equilateral triangle. y2) and C(x3. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Rotational Transformation : If coordinates of any point P(x. yn) is given by area (vi) Coordinates of centroid G (vii) Coordinates of incentre I + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 .or parallelogram – midpoint of diagonal AC = mid point of diagonal BD x . incentre coincide. Area of Polygon : Area of polygon having vertices (x 1. circumcentre..6450883. y1). 3 3 IJ K x1 x2 x3 = 1 2 y1 y2 y3 M yn y1 .

y1) is y – y1 = m(x – x1) (viii) Two point form : Equation of a line passing through the points (x1. y1) and and b respectively on x-axis and y-axis is (x) making an angle θ . (vii) Point slope form : Equation of a line with slope m and passing through the point (x1. θ ≠ +ve direction of x-axis is π with the 2 y2 − y1 B(x2. 2405510 PAGE # 60 . y1) & (x2.6450883. (vii) If m1 & m2 are slopes of two ⊥ lines then m1m2 = – 1. y2) is x − x . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. is x cos α + y sin α = p. then θ = tan–1 1 + m m 1 2 .POCKET BOOK (ix) Intercept form : Equation of a line making intercepts a x y + = 1. 0744 . a b (xi) x − x1 y − y1 = = r cos θ sin θ x = x1 + r cos θ . a b Parametric or distance or symmetrical form of the line : Equation of a line passing through (x1. b ≠ 0 is – (vi) Slope of two parallel lines are equal. Standard form of the equation of a line : (i) Equation of x-axis is y = 0 (ii) Equation of y-axis is x = 0 (iii) Equation of a straight line || to x-axis at a distance b from it is y = b (iv) Equation of a straight line || to y-axis at a distance a from it is x = a (v) Slope form : Equation of a line through the origin and having slope m is y = mx. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2. Slope of a Line : The tangent of the angle that a line makes with +ve direction of the x-axis in the anticlockwise sense is called slope or gradient of the line and is generally denoted by m. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 59 E D U C A T I O N S . Thus m = tan θ .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2 1 (v) Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0. 0744 . (vi) Slope Intercept form : Equation of a line with slope m and making an intercept c on the y-axis is y = mx + c. (i) Slope of line || to x-axis is m = 0 (ii) Slope of line || to y-axis is m = ∞ (not defined) (iii) Slope of the line equally inclined with the axes is 1 or – 1 (iv) Slope of the line through the points A(x1. then θ = tan–1 a a − b b 1 2 1 2 Two lines y = m1 x + c and y = m2 x + c are Parallel if m1 = m2 Perpendicular if m1m2 = –1 (d) (ii) (a) (b) (c) y − y1 x − x1 y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 m1 − m2 If not above two. Angle between two lines : (i) Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are (a) (b) (c) a1 b1 c1 Parallel if a = b ≠ c 2 2 2 Perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0 a1 b1 c1 Identical or coincident if a = b = c 2 2 2 a2b1 − a1b2 If not above three.) Ph. y2) is 3.6450883. y1) Normal or perpendicular form : Equation of a line such that the length of the perpendicular from the origin on it is p and the angle which the perpendicular makes with the +ve direction of x-axis is α .) Ph. y1) and STRAIGHT LINE 1.MATHS FORMULA . y = y1 + r sin θ ⇒ Where r is the distance of any point P(x. 608-A. y) on the line from the point (x1. 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . 608-A.

lines through (x1. Equation of a line parallel (or perpendicular) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is ax + by + c' = 0 (or bx – ay + λ = 0) Equation of st. y1) on ax + by + c = 0 is |ax1 + by1 + c| a2 + b2 −2h a . y1) & B (x2. General equation of second degree : ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represent a pair of 5. yi) i = 1.y1) making an angle α with y = mx + c is y – y1 = 7. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 4. y2) lie on same side or on opposite side of L (x. Homogeneous equation : If y = m1x and y = m2x be the two equations represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 . y) respectively. 2 is |c1 − c 2| a2 + b2 14. then m1 + m2 = –2h/b and m1m2 = a/b 13. Combined equation of angle bisector of the angle between the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is x −y a−b 2 2 = xy h PAGE # 61 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph. m1m2 = . b b 8. m ± tan α (x – x1) 1 m m tan α MATHS FORMULA . 2 will be of same sign or of opposite sign according to the point A(x1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . 608-A. 2.POCKET BOOK 12. . Condition of concurrency for three straight lines Li ≡ ai x + bi y + ci = 0. i = 1. 3 is 2 h2 − ab is tanθ = (a + b) (i) The two lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are (a) Parallel and coincident iff h2 – ab = 0 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 The two line given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are (a) Parallel if h2 – ab = 0 & af2 = bg2 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 (c) Coincident iff g2 – ac = 0 a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 c1 c2 = 0 c3 (ii) 10. Distance between two parallel lines ax + by + ci = 0. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S 13. Angle between pair of straight lines : The angle between the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 or ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 9. 0744 .6450883. a h g h b f =0 straight line if ∆ ≡ g f c If y = m1x + c & y = m2x + c represents two straight lines then m1 + m2 = length of perpendicular from (x1. 6.MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 62 . i = 1. 608-A.amily of straight lines : The general equation of family of straight line will be written in one parameter The equation of straight line which passes through point of intersection of two given lines L1 and L2 can be taken as L1 + λ L2 = 0 . Equation of bisectors of angles between two lines : a1x + b1y + c1 a +b 2 1 2 1 =± a2 x + b2 y + c 2 2 a2 2 + b2 11.6450883. Position of a point with respect to a straight line : The line L(xi.) Ph.

(ii) 2. y1) and (x2. 608-A. (ii) x2 + y2 = r2 . equation of chord joining θ 1 & θ 2 is 11. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . then its equation is (x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) = 0 Parametric equations : (i) The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 = r2 are x = rcosθ. a circle : A point (x1. 0) origin is circle centre and r is the radius. y1 ) lies outside. 10.e.e. where (0.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 3. of x.r. −1 coeff. 9.) Ph. 6. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 2 2 2 PAGE # 63 E D U C A T 1 + m2 .t. r sin θ ) (ii) (iii) The parametric equations of the circle (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 are x = h + rcosθ. of a diameter of a circle. k) is circle centre and r is the radius.or circle x2 + y2 = a2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.G − 1 coeff. D a . y2) are end pts. on or inside a circle S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 according as S1 ≡ x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c is +ve. y = –f + g2 + f 2 − c sinθ 8. Length of the intercept made by line : y = mx + c with the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is 2 a2 (1 + m2 ) − c2 1 + m2 or (1 + m2) |x1 – x2| where |x1 – x2| = difference of roots i. –f) i. 0744 . Length of tangent = S1 4. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. f and c are constants (i) Centre of the cirle is (–g. of yI J H 2 K 2 g2 + f 2 − c Radius is Central (Centre radius) form of a circle : (i) (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 . Chord length (length of intercept) = 2 r2 − p2 Intercepts made on coordinate axes by the circle : (i) (ii) x axis = 2 g2 − c y axis = 2 f 2 − c CIRCLE 1. Condition of Tangency : Circle x2 + y2 = a2 will touch the line y = mx + c if c = ±a x cos θ1 + θ2 θ + θ2 θ − θ2 + y sin 1 = r cos 1 .) Ph. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 64 . Concentric circles : Two circles having same centre C(h. . Position of a point w. where (h. 608-A. Diameter form : If (x1. y = r sinθ . General equation of a circle : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 where g.POCKET BOOK 5. where point θ ≡ (r cos θ . k) but different radii r1 & r2 respectively are called concentric circles. y = k + rsinθ The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are x = –g + (iv) g2 + f 2 − c cosθ. zero or –ve 7.6450883.

y1) is 20. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.r. Equation of polar of point (x1. y1) is given as (x – x1)2 + (y – y1)2 + λL = 0. 19. . a sin θ ) to the (iv) Equation of tangent at (a cos circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x cos θ + y sin θ = a. PAGE # 66 14. T = 0 : (i) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point (x1.POCKET BOOK 15.) Ph. is given by T = S1 18.POCKET BOOK 12. θ1 − θ2 cos 2 r sin I J J J K 16. the circle S = 0 is T = 0 13. 0744 .t. of intersection of S = 0 & S' = 0 if λ ≠ –1 S + λ L = 0 represent a family of circles passing through the point of intersection of S = 0 & L = 0 Equation of circle which touches the given straight line L = 0 at the given point (x1. The line y = mx ± a 1 + m2 is a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 and its point of contact is MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 65 E D U C A T I O N S . GH ±am 1 + m2 . r cos θ + θ GG 2 θ −θ GH cos 2 1 1 2 2 θ1 + θ 2 2 . Equation of a chord whose middle pt.r. The point of intersection of tangents drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = r2 at point θ 1 & θ 2 is given as . ±a 1 + m2 I J K θ . Coordinates of pole : Coordinates of pole of the line lx + my + n = 0 w. Equation of the chord of contact of the tangents drawn from point P outside the circle is T = 0 17. y1) is xx1 + yy1 = a2 In slope form : . Equation of normal : (i) Equation of normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point P(x1.t the circle x + y = a 2 2 2 . y1) w. 0744 . 608-A.) Ph. n J H K 2 2 y1 + f y – y1 = x + g (x – x1) 1 (ii) Equation of normal to the circle x + y = a point (x1.MATHS FORMULA .6450883.6450883. 608-A. Equation of pair of tangents SS1 = T2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1) is xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0 (ii) (iii) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at any point (x1. Director circle : Equation of director circle for x2 + y2 = a2 is x2 + y2 = 2a2. 2405510 .amily of Circles : (i) at any (ii) (iii) S + λS' = 0 represents a family of circles passing through the pts. Equation of tangent. −a l −a mI are G n .rom the condition of tangency for every value of m. . y1) is xy1 – x1y = 0 2 2 2 21. Director circle is a concentric circle whose radius is 2 times the radius of the given circle.

y1) & B(x2. 2 common tangents. 608-A. (iv) C1 C2 = |r1 – r2| ⇒ internal touch.POCKET BOOK (iv) Equation of circle passing through two points A(x1. C2 and radii r1. |r1 – r2| < C1 C2 < r1 + r2 ⇒ Intersection at two real points. Radical axis and radical centre : (x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) + λ x1 x2 y1 1 y2 1 = 0.) Ph. Orthogonality condition : If two circles S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and S' = x2 + y2 + 2g'x + 2f'y + c' = 0 intersect each other orthogonally. no tangent. C1 C2 = r1 + r2 ⇒ Circles touch externally. 22. 4 common tangents. 1 common tangent.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. (v) Note : Point of contact divides C1 C2 in the ratio r1 : r2 internally or externally as the case may be .POCKET BOOK 25. The angle θ of intersection of two circles with centres C1 & C2 and radii r1 & r2 is given by 2 2 r1 + r1 − d2 cosθ = . Equation of Common Chord is S – S1 = 0. Equation of tangent at point of contact of circle is S 1 – S2 = 0 26. 23. (i) (ii) Equation of radical axis is S – S1 = 0 The point of concurrency of the three radical axis of three circles taken in pairs is called radical centre of three circles.MATHS FORMULA .6450883.6450883. Then following cases arise as (i) (ii) (iii) C1 C2 > r1 + r2 ⇒ do not intersect or one outside the other. where d = C1C2 2r1r2 27. C1 C2 < |r1 + r2| ⇒ one inside the other. 2405510 PAGE # 68 . 0744 . r2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y2) is given as x y 1 MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 67 E D U C A T I O N S . 24. 0744 . 3 common tangents. Position of two circles : Let two circles with centres C1. then 2gg' + 2ff' = c + c'.

2at) (– at2. at2) (2at.ocal distance Parametric Coordinates Parametric Equations x = at2 y = 2at x = – at2 y = 2at x = 2at y = 2at2 x = 2at y = – at2 (at2.R. 2at) (2at. 0744 . 0) x = a y = 0 4a a – x (0. 0) (a. a) y = –a x = 0 4a y + a x2 = – 4ay (0.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0) (0. Standard Parabola : Imp.ocus (f) Directrix (D) Axis L. –a) y = a x = 0 4a a – y y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay y2 = 4ax x2 = – 4ay .POCKET BOOK PARABOLA 1.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. 608-A. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 70 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 69 E D U C A T I O N S . Terms Vertex (v) . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . – at2) y2 = 4ax y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay (0. 0) (0. .6450883.) Ph. 0) x = –a y = 0 4a x + a (0. 0) (–a.

* The point (x1.t.POCKET BOOK 4. G H I J K 2 .e. parabola y2 = 4ax.r. Special . 0744 . intersect a parabola y2 = 4ax according as c > = < a/m Note : Condition of tangency for parabola y2 = 4ax. where S = y2 – 4ax. − b . –am ) y = mx – am2 y = mx + am c = –am2 c = am2 = – 4ay 5. a(2A. 2a m I J K 2 y = mx – a m 2 c = – a m (2am. k).)) 6. a(t1 + t2)) i. am2) (–2am. y1) and a line w. D = 0.orm / Parametric form Equations of tangent of all other standard parabolas at (x1. = or < 0 * The line y = mx + c does not intersect. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 4ac − b I GH 2a 4a J K and axes parallel to y-axis a . latus rectum l and axis parallel to x-axis is (y – k)2 = l (x – h) MATHS FORMULA . 2at) xx 1=–2a(y+y 1 ) (2at.e.M. touches.Gh. Combined equation of the pair of tangents drawn from a point to a parabola is SS' = T2.POCKET BOOK 2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay x 2 . a − G H m 2 . 0744 . Equations of tangent in different forms : (i) Point . k + l IJ H 4K Tangent at yy 1 =2a(x+x1 ) xx 1 =2a(y+y1 ) Parametric coordinates't' (at2. at ) 2 Tangent of 't' ty=x+at2 ty=–x+at2 tx=y + at2 tx =–y+at2 of parabola (x 1. Point of intersection of tangents at any two points P(at12. y1) lies outside.) Ph. 2a m I J K a m c = a m Note : Parametric equation of parabola (y – k)2 = 4a(x – h) are x = h + at2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. –at2) x 2 =–4ay ⇒ * axis is x = h and focus at (ii) Slope form Equations of tangent of all other parabolas in slope form Equation of parabolas Point of contact in terms of slope(m) y2 = 4ax Equations of tangent in terms of slope (m) y = mx + Condition of Tangency Equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = y represents parabola.M. 608-A. 2at2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (at1t2. Position of a point (x1. 608-A. i. 2at1) and Q(at22.Gh + l . y1) Parabola which has vertex at (h. b 4ac − b2 y – = a x+ 2a 4a 2 . 2405510 PAGE # 72 PAGE # 71 E D U C A T I O N S . kIJ H 4 K .6450883. S' = y12 – 4ax1 and T = yy1 – 2a(x + x1) . k). on or inside the parabola y2 = 4ax according as y12 – 4ax1 >.) Ph. 2at) (2at. we have c = a/m and for other parabolas check disc.6450883. y = k + 2at 3. latus rectum l and axis parallel to y-axis is (x – h)2 = l (y – k) yy 1=–2a(x+x 1 ) (–at2. y1) / at t (parameter) Equation y 2=4ax y 2 =–4ax x =4ay 2 ⇒ * axis is y = k and focus at . (a(G.orm of Parabola * Parabola which has vertex at (h. . G Hm 2 .MATHS FORMULA .)2.with vertex .

m J K 2 y = mx+2a+ a m 2 c = 2a+ a m 2 2 |t2 – t1| 3 x2 = –4ay 2a a I . 2am) y = mx+2am+am3 c = am+am3 (ii) If focal chord of y2 = 4ax cut (intersect) at t1 and t2 then t1t2 = – 1 (t1 must not be zero) Angle formed by focal chord at vertex of parabola is tan θ = x2 = 4ay 2a a I . y1) y–y1 = Point 't' Normals at 't' MATHS FORMULA . of parabola y2 = 4ax y 2 The normals to y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 intersect each other at the same parabola at t3. 608-A. 2405510 . –at2) x–ty = 2at+at3 2 t1 (ii) (ii) Slope form Equations of normal. point of contact. 0744 . 608-A. Equations of normal in different forms (i) Point . (i) x2 = –4ay y–y1 = 2a x1 (x–x1) (2at.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. at2) x+ty = 2at+at3 9. G Hm . of parabola Normal at (x1.) Ph.POCKET BOOK 7. then t1t2 = 2 and t3 = – t1 – t2 Equation of focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 is y = 2 t1 10. then one normal will be x-axis itself. (iii) The centroid of the triangle formed by taking the foot of normals as a vertices of concurrent normals of y2 = 4ax lies on x-axis. – at1t2 (t1 + t2)) PAGE # 74 . (i) 2t1 −1 Point of contact Equations of normal Condition of Normality (x – a) (am2. If point lies on x-axis. − m J K 2 (iii) y = mx–2a– a m 2 c = –2a– a m2 Intersecting point of normals at t1 and t2 on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2). If normal of y2 = 4ax at t1 meet the parabola again at t2 then t2 = – t1 – y2 = 4ax − y1 (x–x1) (at2.orm / Parametric form Equations of normals of all other standard parabolas at (x1. 0744 . and condition of normality in terms of slope (m) Eqn.POCKET BOOK Note : (i) In circle normal is radius itself. 2at) 2a y1 (x–x1) 2a y+tx = 2at+at3 y2 = –4ax y–y1 = (–at2. 0) on x-axis to parabola y2 = 4ax (i) We get 3 normals if h > 2a (ii) (iii) We get one normal if h ≤ 2a. y1) / at t (parameter) Eqn.6450883. Condition for three normals from a point (h. G H− m . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 73 E D U C A T I O N S . –2am) y = mx–2am–am3 c = –2am–am3 = – 4ax (–am2.6450883. (ii) Sum of ordinates (y coordinate) of foot of normals through a point is zero. 2at) y–tx = 2at+at3 x2 = 4ay y–y1 = – 2a x1 (x–x1) (2at. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 8.MATHS FORMULA .

Diameter : It is locus of mid point of set of parallel chords and equation is given by T = S1 15. Equation of polar at the point (x1. . Important results for Tangent : (i) Angle made by focal radius of a point will be twice the angle made by tangent of the point with axis of parabola The locus of foot of perpendicular drop from focus to any tangent will be tangent at vertex. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 75 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 . 13. (vi) Intercepted portion of a tangent between the point of tangency and directrix will make right angle at focus.6450883. (vii) Circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch tangent at vertex. l J K 14.) Ph.t. yy1 = 2a(x + x1) Coordinates of pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w. If tangents drawn at ends point of a focal chord are mutually perpendicular then their point of intersection will lie on directrix.r.POCKET BOOK 11. Equation of chord of parabola y2 = 4ax which is bisected at (x1. 608-A. m MATHS FORMULA . (ii) (iii) (iv) Any light ray travelling parallel to axis of the parabola will pass through focus after reflection through parabola.POCKET BOOK (v) Angle included between focal radius of a point and perpendicular from a point to directrix will be bisected of tangent at that point also the external angle will be bisected by normal. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1) is given by T = S1 12. 608-A.6450883. n −2am I G Hl. (viii) Circle drawn on any focal chord as diameter will touch directrix. 2405510 PAGE # 76 . The locus of the mid point of a system of parallel chords of a parabola is called its diameter. the parabola y2 = 4ax is . y1) with respect to parabola y2 = 4ax is same as chord of contact and is given by T = 0 i.) Ph.e. Its equation is y = 2a .

± beI GH b JK 2 Parametric coordinates (a cos φ .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . then |xp| = p1 . b and e Length of latus rectum R x | S |a T . b sin φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π .oci Equation of directrices Relation in a. 0744 .or a > b (0. 0) (±a.6450883.MATHS FORMULA . 0) (0. x = a SP = b – ey1 S'P = b + ey1 2a 2b 2be 2b/e y = b. 0744 .6450883. 608-A. 0) 2a 2b (±ae. ± b I G aJ H K 2 . ± a .) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 78 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. ±b) 2b 2a (0. ±be) y = ±b/e a2 = b2(1 – e2) 2a2/b a2 + p2 2 b2 = 1 a > b b2 = a2(1 – e2) 2b2/a Ends of latus rectum . |yp| = p2 ⇒ 2 p1 ELLIPSE 1. b sin φ ) (a cos φ .POCKET BOOK Note : If P is any point on ellipse and length of perpendiculars from to minor axis and major axis are p1 & p2.or b > a (0. 0) x = ±a/e 2 2 + y 2 b2 U | = 1V | W .) Ph.ocal radii SP = a – ex1 S'P = a + ex1 SP + S'P = 2ae 2a/e x = –a. terms Centre Vertices Length of major axis Length of minor axis . y = – b Sum of focal radii Distance bt n foci b > a Distance btn directrices Tangents at the vertices . 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 77 E D U C A T I O N S . ±ae. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Standard Ellipse (e < 1) Ellipse Imp.

Note : Ellipse is locus of a point which moves in such a way that it divides the normal of a point on diameter of a point of circle in fixed ratio. intersect. Equation of pair of tangents from (x1. y1) to an ellipse x2 a2 a + b – 1 > . touches. straight line y = mx ± Point of contact : Line y = mx ± x2 a2 y2 b2 a2m2 + b2 always represents the tangents to the ellipse. Equation of tangent in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the ellipse x 2 + y2 b2 = 1 is a2 + y 2 b2 = 1 at the point (x1. Special form of ellipse : If the centre of an ellipse is at point (h. 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .t. PAGE # 79 E D U C A T I O N S a2 x b2x – = a2 – b2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. = 1 is given by SS1 = T2 Equation of normal in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the normal at (x1. G H ±a2m a2m2 + b2 . then c2 = a2m2 + b2. b sin φ ) is x y cos φ + sin φ = 1. ±b2 a2m2 + b2 I J K. on or inside the ellipse if S1 = * 2 x1 2 2 y1 2 Parametric form : The equation of tangent at any point (a cos φ . x2 + y2 = a2. Hence. 608-A. 4. y1 x1 . If x2 a2 + y2 b2 = 1 is an ellipse then its auxillary circle is (iii) + = 1 at .) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 80 .r. k) and the directions of the axes are parallel to the coordinate axes.6450883. the ellipse if a2m2 + b2 < = > c2 7. the 2 + (y − k)2 b2 = 1.POCKET BOOK 2.MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. 0744 . 0744 . = or < 0 + y2 b2 The line y = mx + c does not intersect.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Auxillary Circle : The circle described by taking centre of an ellipse as centre and major axis as a diameter is called an auxillary circle of the ellipse. a2m2 + b2 touches the ellipse 3. y1) is xx1 a2 + yy1 b2 = 1.POCKET BOOK (ii) Slope form : If the line y = mx + c touches the ellipse x2 a2 cx − hh a2 + y2 b2 = 1. y1) to the ellipse x2 a 2 5. a b 6. then its equation is MATHS FORMULA . an ellipse : * The point lies outside. Position of a point and a line w.

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) Parametric form : The equation of the normal to the ellipse
x2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) Sum of square of intercept made by auxillary circle on any two perpendicular tangents of an ellipse will be constant.

+

y2 b2

= 1 at (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is
2 2

ax sec φ – by cosec φ = a – b . (iii) Slope form : If m is the slope of the normal to the ellipse
x2 a2

(vi) If a light ray originates from one of focii, then it will pass through the other focus after reflection from ellipse. 9. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1, y1) to an ellipse is given by

+

y2 b2

= 1, then the equation of normal

is y = mx ±

m (a2 − b2 ) a2 + b2m2

.

xx1 a
2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

The co-ordinates of the point of contact are

. GH

±a2 a2 + b2m2

,

±mb2 a2 + b2m2

I J K.

10. The equation of a chord of an ellipse mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 whose

Note : In general three normals can be drawn from a point (x1, y1) to an ellipse

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1.

11. Equation of chord joining the points (a cos θ , b sin θ ) and (a cos φ , b sin φ ) on the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

8.

Properties of tangents & normals : (i) Product of length of perpendicular from either focii to any tangent to the ellipse will be equal to square of semi minor axis. The locus of foot of perpendicular drawn from either focii to any tangent lies on auxillary circle. The circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch auxillary circle. (ii)

x cos a
(i)

θ+φ y + sin b 2

θ+φ = cos 2

θ−φ 2

(ii) (iii)

Relation between eccentric angles of focal chord

tan

θ1 , tan 2

θ2 ±e − 1 = 2 1±e

(iv) The protion of the tangent intercepted between the point and directrix makes right angle at corresponding focus.
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

Sum of feet of eccentric angles is odd π. i.e.

θ 1 + θ 2 + θ 3 + θ 4 = (2n + 1) π .
PAGE # 82

PAGE # 81
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the ellipse
x2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (c) If CP, CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is given by

xx1 a2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

+

y2 b2

= 1 and S, S' be two foci

The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

. −a l , −b nI G H n n J K.
2 2

of the ellipse, then SP.S'P = CQ2 (d) The tangents at the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse form a parallelogram.

13. Eccentric angles of the extremities of latus rectum of the ellipse 14. (i)

x2 a
2

+

y2 b
2

= 1 are tan–1

bI . ± J. G H aeK

15. The area of the parallelogram formed by the tangents at the ends of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is constant and is equal to the product of the axis i.e. 4ab. 16. Length of subtangent and subnormal at p(x1, y1) to the ellipse
x2 a2

Equation of the diameter bisecting the chords of slope in the ellipse
b2 a2m x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

+

y2 b2

a2 = 1 is – x1 & (1 – e2) x1 x1

y = – (ii)

x

Conjugate Diameters : The straight lines y = m1x, y = m2x are conjugate diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 if m1m2 = –

b2 a2

.

(iii)

Properties of conjugate diameters : (a) If CP and CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1, then

CP2 + CQ2 = a2 + b2 (b) If θ and φ are the eccentric angles of the extremities of two conjugate diameters, then

θ – φ = ±

π 2
PAGE # 83
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

PAGE # 84

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

HYPERBOLA
1. Standard Hyperbola : Hyperbola
x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1

–

x2 a2 x2 a2

+

y2 b2 y2 b2

= 1

Imp. terms Centre Length of transverse axis Length of conjugate axis .oci Equation of directrices Eccentricity Length of L.R. Parametric co-ordinates .ocal radii (0, 0) 2a 2b (±ae, 0) x = ±a/e e = 2b2/a (a sec φ , b tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ex1 – a S'P = ex1 + a 2a

or

–

= – 1

(0, 0) 2b 2a (0, ±be) y = ± b/e
2

Hyperbola

.a + b I G H a J K
2 2 2

e = 2a2/b

.a + b I GH b JK
2 2

(b sec φ , a tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ey1 – b S'P = ey1 + b 2b y = – b, y = b x = 0 y = 0 Conjugate Hyperbola

S'P – SP Tangents at the vertices x = – a, x = a Equation of the y = 0 transverse axis Equation of the x = 0 conjugate axis

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S

PAGE # 85
E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

PAGE # 86

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . b a (c) Slope form : The equations of tangents of slope m to the hyperbola x2 a 2 – y2 b 2 = 1 x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 are y = mx ± a2m2 − b2 and the 4. intersect the hyperbola according as c2 <. 608-A. = 1 is given by SS1 = T2 The line y = mx + c does not intersect. 608-A.r. y1 x1 – = 1 (b) Parametric form : The equation of normal at (a sec θ . Equations of normals in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of normal to the hyperbola x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 at (x1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 2.) Ph.± GH 6. y1) is xx1 a 2 – yy1 b 2 = 1. x2 a2 a2m a2m2 − b2 . Position of a point and a line w. =. y1) lies inside. y1) is a2 x b2y + = a2 + b2. Parametric equations of hyperbola : The equations x = a sec φ and y = b tan φ are known as the parametric equations of hyperbola x y sec φ – tan φ = 1. 0744 . > a2m2 – b2. x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is ax cos θ + by cot θ = a2 + b2 . b tan θ ) to the hyperbola at (x1. Equation of pair of tangents from (x1. a hyperbola : The point (x1. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 87 E D U C A T I O N S . y1) to the hyperbola – y2 b2 according as a2 – b2 – 1 is +ve. b tan φ ) is 3.t. 2405510 PAGE # 88 .POCKET BOOK (b) Parametric form : The equation of tangent to the hyperbola x2 a2 – (y − k)2 b2 = 1. k) and axes are parallel to the co-ordinate axes. touches.6450883. Special form of hyperbola : If the centre of hyperbola is (h. then its equation is (x − h)2 a2 MATHS FORMULA . Equations of tangents in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 7. 5. 0744 .± b2 a2m2 − b2 I J K.6450883. – y2 b2 = 1 at (a sec φ . on or outside the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 co-ordinates of points of contacts are – = 1 2 x1 2 y1 .) Ph. zero or –ve.

y1) w. a 10. 0744 . . The diameters y = m1x and y = m2x are conjugate if m1m2 = b2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is x + y = a – b . − a l . b tan φ 1) and Q(a sec – y2 b 2 = 1 in terms of the slope m of m (a + b ) a2 − b2m2 2 2 φ 2. G H 1 + φ2 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S x2 a2 – y2 b2 Asymptote to a curve touches the curve at infinity.t. 2 2 2 2 9. 13. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. which a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is . Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1. Equation of polar of the point (x1. b tan φ 2) is φ . 8.6450883. 0744 .r. = 1.) Ph. G H 1 + φ2 2 I J K = cos φ . Points of contact : Co-ordinates of points of contact are . m (a2 + b2 ) a2 − b2m2 then c = m (e) or c2 = m(a2 + b2 )2 (a2 − m2b2) x2 . 2 I J K Condition for normality : If y = mx + c is the normal of x2 a2 – y2 b2 12. 608-A.m mb2 a2 − b2m2 I JK . The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w. 2405510 .) Ph.r. Equation of chord joining the points P(a sec φ 1. G H 1 the normal is y = mx m (d) x cos a − φ2 2 I J K – y sin b φ .MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. – y2 b2 = 1 are y = ± b x. y1) to the hyperbola is given by 15. The equation of director circle of hyperbola x2 a2 14.t. = 1 * The asymptote of a hyperbola passes through the centre of the hyperbola. the hyperbola is given by T = 0.± GH a2 a2 − b2m2 . PAGE # 90 PAGE # 89 E D U C A T I O N S . The equation of a diameter of the hyperbola x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is y = b2 a2m x.POCKET BOOK 11.POCKET BOOK (c) Slope form : The equation of the normal to the hyperbola x2 a 2 MATHS FORMULA .6450883. y1) is T = S1. b mI G K H n nJ 2 2 is condition of normality. The equation of chord of the hyperbola whose mid point is (x1. Asymptotes of a hyperbola : * The equations of asymptotes of the hyperbola x2 a2 xx1 a2 – yy1 b2 = 1.

608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. Equation of hyperbola – Equation of asymptotes = Equation of asymptotes – Equation of conjugate hyperbola = constant. t2 on xy = c2 is x + y t1t2 = c(t1 + t2) . y1) to xy x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 0. * Equation of normal at t on xy = c2 is xt3 – yt – ct4 + c = 0. 0744 . 1 1 Equation of tangent at t is x + yt2 = 2ct x * * * 2 a 2 – y b 2 2 = 1 is 2 tan–1 y 2 b2 or 2 sec–1 e.POCKET BOOK * Equation of tangent at (x1. y = 0. where t is a parameter. The angle between the asymptotes of x y = c2 is x + y = 2.6450883. y1) to xy = c2 is xx1 – yy1 = x12 – y12 A hyperbola and its conjugate hyperbola have the same asymptotes. 2c t1 + t 2 I J K * Parametric equation of the hyperbola xy = c2 are x = ct. 0744 . t * Equation of chord joining t1. The bisector of the angles between the asymptotes are the coordinate axes.POCKET BOOK * The combined equation of the asymptotes of the hyperbola * MATHS FORMULA . Eccentricity of rectangular hyperbola is 2 and angle between asymptotes of rectangular hyperbola is 90º. If a triangle is inscribed in a rectangular hyperbola then its orthocentre lies on the hyperbola. Rectangular or Equilateral Hyperbola : * * A hyperbola for which a = b is said to be rectangular hyperbola. 2c t t G Ht +t 1 1 2 2 . y = c . 608-A. * Equation of normal at (x1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 91 E D U C A T I O N S . its equation is x2 – y2 = a2 xy = c2 represents a rectangular hyperbola with asymptotes x = 0.) Ph. (This results shows that four normal can be drawn from a point to the hyperbola xy = c2) * * * 16.MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 92 . Equation of chord of the hyperbola xy = c2 whose middle point is given is T = S1 Point of intersection of tangents at t1 & t2 to the hyperbola xy = c2 is * .6450883.

it is x effected by any change in origin.or ungrouped data H. where N = ∑f i= 1 n i (a) Direct method x = i =1 n Σ fixi i=1 n Σ fi . Relation between A. then their mean is doubled If x is the mean of x1.. . xn. xn e j n 1 N .e.6450883.M.axn is a x where a is any number different from zero. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.M.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .M. di = xi – A = deviation for each term 4. i where A = assumed mean.M.+ xn Σ xi = i=1 n(no. ≥ H.f I 5. If each of the n given observation be doubled.or ungrouped data (individual series) x = (ii) or .. f log x I ∑ G J G J J = antilog G f G J ∑ H K i i i =1 n i i= 1 Σfidi short cut method : x = A + Σf .M. the sum of the deviation of items from A. Geometric Mean : (i) .. = n ∑x i=1 n 1 i 2. . 608-A.M.or grouped data (continuous series) n .POCKET BOOK 3.MATHS FORMULA . = antilog G n ∑ log x J H K i i =1 x1 + x2 +.1 I G.. where xi .. 608-A... Equality holds only when all the observations in the series are same. A.. (i) .xn)1/n n MEASURES O. i = 1 . ax2 .. .) Ph. Arithmetic mean : (i) . = ∑f n i= 1 i =1 n i ∑G K Hx J i i ..M...M.M... x2. 0744 .M. Properties of A.. The mean of ax1.. (ii) ...M. (i) (ii) (iii) In a statistical data.) Ph.6450883. G. is always zero.... n be n observations and fi be their corresponding frequencies (b) .. ≥ G.M.Harmonic Mean is reciprocal of arithmetic mean of reciprocals..or grouped data f1 f2 fn G.or grouped data H.M and H.or ungrouped data G. CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION 1. Harmonic Mean . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . of terms) n (ii) .. = x1 x2 . = (x1 x2 x3 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 93 E D U C A T I O N S . 2405510 PAGE # 94 (iv) Arithmetic mean is independent of origin i..

Continuous distribution (grouped data) (i) . mode is the value of the variate corresponding to the maximum frequency.requency of the class succeeding model i = Size of the model class.requency of the median class.6450883. Median = [Value of 2 .) Ph. i = The width of the median class C = Cumulative frequency of the class preceding to median class.requency of the model class. f0 = .) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 95 E D U C A T I O N S . arrange in ascending or descending order and n be the no. where n is cumulative (c) frequency. Median = Value of MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA . 608-A.e.or series in ascending order L O f −f M P − − 2 f f f N Q 1 0 1 0 2 × i Where l 1 = Lower limit of the model class. Median : (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) : If data is raw. . Mode : (i) . Relation between Mean.or individual series : In the case of individual series.requency of the class preceding model f2 = . n + 1I G H 2 J K th observation. l = Lower limit of the median class. the class which has maximum frequency.or continuous series Mode = l 1 + 1 If n is even. 7. Mode & Median : (i) (ii) In symmetrical distribution : Mean = Mode = Median In Moderately symmetrical distribution : Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean PAGE # 96 Median = l + Where .POCKET BOOK (ii) . G H2 K th (ii) (b) Discrete series : . f1 = . 0744 . class.or continuous frequency distribution : first find the model class i. + 1J ] observation. f = . N = Sum of all frequencies. of observations. I N G H 2 − CJ K f × i class. the value which is repeated maximum number of times is the mode of the series. . 8. If n is odd. .or discrete frequency distribution series : In the case of discrete frequency distribution. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 .POCKET BOOK 6. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.or series in descending order N I .G nIJ + value of H 2K n I . G K H 2 − CJ f . 608-A.irst find cumulative frequencies of the variables arranged in ascending or descending order and Median = (iii) . 0744 .6450883. .G n + 1IJ H 2 K Median = u - × i th observation th where u = upper limit of median class.

D.) Ph.POCKET BOOK fi = . Continuous series (grouped data).requency of the corresponding xi (ii) N = Σ f = Total frequency Short cut method σ = Σfd2 Σfd − N N I . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK Measure of Dispersion : The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about an average value is called variation or dispersion.6450883.requency of item (term) N = Σf = Total frequency. (a) . median or mode is known as mean deviation. 608-A.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .e.)2 = (σ)2 Coefficient of variance = Coefficient of S. 608-A.D. (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) Mean deviation = Σ |x − S| n MATHS FORMULA . Standard Deviation : S. S = deviation of variate from mean mode. median. Popular methods of measure of dispersion.or individual series (ungrouped data) σ = σ × 100 x Σ (x − x)2 N where x = Arithmetic mean of the series (b) N = Total frequency . G K H J 2 Where d = x – A = Derivation from assumed mean A f = . Mean deviation : The arithmetic average of deviations from the mean. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Variance – Square of standard direction i.M. 2. (σ) is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the terms from their A. 1. Mean deviation = Σ f | x − s| Σf |x − s| = Σf N Note : Mean deviation is the least when measured from the median.MATHS FORMULA . G K H J 2 or σ= Σd2 Σd − N N I .6450883. 2405510 PAGE # 98 . 0744 .D.or continuous series (grouped data) (i) Direct method σ = Where Σfi (xi − x)2 N x = Arithmetic mean of series xi = Mid value of the class PAGE # 97 E D U C A T I O N S . variance = (S. × 100 = (b) Where n = number of terms.

. Trace of a matrix : Sum of the elements in the principal diagonal is called the trace of a matrix. if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j. It is denoted by O.e.POCKET BOOK 4. The number of rows is written first and then number of columns. if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = k for i = j i.. Multiplication of Matrices : Two matrices A & B can be multiplied only if the number of columns in A is same as the number of rows in B. 6.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then A + B (or A – B) is defined and is obtained by adding (or subtracting) each element of B from corresponding element of A Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar : KA = K (aij)m×n Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) 7.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . Order of matrix : If a matrix A has m rows & n columns then A is of order m × n. j or AT = A if m = n and aij = – aji ∀ i.) Ph. 608-A. 2405510 . MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS MATRICES : 1.6450883.) Identity or unit matrix Upper Triangular matrix Lower Triangular matrix Symmetric matrix Skew symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = 1 for i = j if m = n and aij = 0 for i > j if m = n and aij = 0 for i < j if m = n and aij = aji for all i. a11 = a22 . = ann = k (cons. 0744 ..MATHS FORMULA . Properties : (i) (ii) In general matrix multiplication is not commutative i.A system or set of elements arranged in a rectangular form of array is called a matrix. Horizontal line is row & vertical line is column 3. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S 2. AB ≠ BA.e. Addition & subtraction of matrices : If A and B are two matrices each of order same. Types of matrices : A matrix A = (aij)m×n A matrix A = (aij)mxn over the field of complex numbers is said to be Name A row matrix A column matrix A rectangular matrix A square matrix A null or zero matrix A diagonal matrix A scalar matrix Properties if m = 1 if n = 1 if m ≠ n if m = n if aij = 0 ∀ i j. Matrix . A(BC) = (AB)C [Associative law] PAGE # 100 PAGE # 99 E D U C A T I O N S ..6450883. trace (A ± B) = trace A ± trace B trace kA = k trace A trace A = trace AT trace In = n when In is identity matrix. 608-A. trace AB ≠ trace A trace B... trace On = O On is null matrix. 5. K(A + B) = KA + KB (K1 K2)A = K1(K2 A) = K2(K1A) (K1 + K2)A = K1A + K2A = (Ka)m×n where K is constant. j or AT = – A . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 101 E D U C A T I O N S . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. If two rows (or columns) are identical then |A| = 0 (iv) Nilpotent matrix : if ∃ p ∈ N such that Ap = 0 (v) Hermitian matrix : if Aθ = A i.Hermitian matrix : if A = –Aθ (iv) |KA| = Kn det A.POCKET BOOK (iii) A.e. 0744 . Determinant : if A is a square matrix then determinant of matrix is denoted by det A or |A|.ij and is equal to (–1)i+j Mij or Cij = Mij. Minor & cofactor : If A = (aij)3×3.13 and a11 .11 + a12 . expansion of determinant of order 3 × 3 (iv) (KA)T = KAT IT = I a1 b1 a2 b2 ⇒ a3 b3 c1 c2 c3 b2 = a1 b 3 c2 a2 –b 1 c3 a3 c2 a2 b2 + c 1 c3 a3 b3 Some special cases of square matrices : A square matrix is called (i) (ii) (iii) Orthogonal matrix : if AAT = In = ATA 2 or Properties : b1 = –a2 b 3 c1 a1 + b 2 c3 a3 c1 a1 b1 c3 – c2 a3 b3 Idempotent matrix : if A2 = A Involutory matrix : if A = I or A –1 =A (i) (ii) (iii) |AT| = |A| By interchanging two rows (or columns). Am+1 = Am A = AAm 8. if i = j if i ≠ j Note : |A| = a11. (AT)T = A (A ± B)T = AT ± BT (AB) = B A T T T a22 M11 = a 32 a23 a33 and so. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .) Ph. 608-A.POCKET BOOK DETERMINANT : 1. = –Mij.6450883.22 + a13 . aij = a ji (vi) Skew .MATHS FORMULA .23 = 0 2. 2405510 PAGE # 102 .(B + C) = AB + AC [Distributive law] MATHS FORMULA . A is matrix of order n × n .e. cofactor of an element aij is denoted by Cij or . then minor of a11 is / B=C (iv) If AB = AC ⇒ (v) If AB = 0. then it is not necessary A = 0 or B = 0 (vi) AI = A = IA (vii) Matrix multiplication is commutative for +ve integral i.6450883.12 + a13 . value of determinant differ by –ve sign. Transpose of a matrix : A' or A T is obtained by interchanging rows into columns or columns into rows Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) 9.21 + a12 .) Ph.

0744 .e. A Hermitian matrix is purely real. 608-A. 608-A.6450883. |In| = 1. if (i) (ii) Every square sub matrix of order (r + 1) or more is singular There exists at least one square submatrix of order r which is non singular. A zero matrix is zero i. where In is a unit matrix of order n. then the value of the new determinant remain unchanged.POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (iii) (v) 2. Skew symmetric matrix of odd order is zero. where Cij is cofactor of aij . 0744 . |0n| = 0.6450883. 2405510 .) Ph.POCKET BOOK (v) If same multiple of elements of any row (or column) of a determinant are added to the corresponding elements of any other row (or column). An orthogonal matrix is 1 or – 1 A unitary matrix is of modulus unity. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. MATHS FORMULA . |A| ≠ 0 | A| A–1A = In = A A–1 (A–1)–1 = A (iv) (AT)–1 = (A–1)T Multiplication of two determinants : Multiplication of two second order determinants is defined as follows.e. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A|In |adj A| = |A|n–1 (adjAB) = (adjB) (adjA) (adj AT) = (adjA)T (adj KA) = Kn–1(adj A) (vi) Determinant of : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 3. express them firstly in the same order. (vi) |A–1| = |A|–1 = 1 | A| a1 b1 l1 m1 a1l1 + b1l2 × a2 b2 l2 m2 = a2 l1 + b2 l2 a1m1 + b1m2 a2m1 + b2m2 3. (vii) If A & B are invertible square matrices then (AB)–1 = B–1 A–1 Rank of a matrix : A non zero matrix A is said to have rank r. Adjoint of a matrix : adj A = (Cij)T . PAGE # 104 If order is different then for their multiplication. An identity matrix is one i. (iv) adj(adjA) = |A|n–2 Inverse of a matrix : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) A–1 exists if A is non singular i.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 103 E D U C A T I O N S . where 0n is a zero matrix of order n A diagonal matrix = product of its diagonal elements.MATHS FORMULA . MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS : 1. |A| ≠ 0 A–1 = adjA .e. A nilpotent matrix is 0.

.) Ph. 0744 . 608-A. if |A| = 0 and all det (Ai) are zero. Consistent (With infinite many solution). If B ≠ 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. MATHS FORMULA . n. (ii) Matrix method : The non homogeneous system Ax = B. x = A–1 B. Consistent (with infinitely many solutions). 2405510 PAGE # 106 .... B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1. 2.. 0744 . n xi = 0 is called trivial solution. where Ai is the matrix obtained det A from A by replacing ith column with B. then it is called non homogeneous system equations. 608-A. (ii) Consistent (with infinitely many solution).. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. Homogeneous & non homogeneous system of linear equations : A system of equations Ax = B is called a homogeneous system if B = 0.e.. NOTE : A homogeneous system of equations is never inconsistent. if A is non singular.MATHS FORMULA .. 5. (a) Solution of non homogeneous system of linear equations : (i) Cramer's rule : Determinant method The non homogeneous system Ax = B...POCKET BOOK 4. if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a non null matrix. Inconsistent (with no solution) if |A| = 0 and at least one of the det (Ai) is non zero. B = 0 of n equations in n variables is (i) Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1. Inconsistent (with no solution)..6450883. . if |A| = 0 (a) |A| = |Ai| = 0 (for determinant method) (for matrix method) (b) |A| = 0. B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 i...) Ph. . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 105 E D U C A T I O N S . if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a null matrix. 2..6450883.POCKET BOOK (b) Solution of homogeneous system of linear equations : The homogeneous system Ax = B. . (adj A) B = 0 det A i xi = .

2] = –5 Period of [x] = 1 .e... 0744 ...) Ph. b > 0.. . ⇒ or E D U C A T I O N S 3.bn) (v) loga .6450883.. 2405510 I O N S b < c.MATHS FORMULA .b ≥ 0.G I H J K = – loga b = log1/a b Logarithmic . Greatest Integer function : f(x) = [x]. (iv) loga b > loga c b > c.) Ph.6450883. (vii) If a > 0 |x| = a |x| = –a |x| > a |x| ≤ a |x| < –a |x| > –a 2..2] = 4. ⇒ or b < ac.. [–4. x = 0 Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) |x| ≠ ± x |xy| = |x||y| x |x| = y |y| aloga b = b if k > 0.unction : (i) (ii) (iii) logb a to be defined a > 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.UNCTION 1.]denotes greatest integer function equal or less than x. 608-A. bI G H cJ K = loga .POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) loga 1 = 0 loga a = 1 R |x. i.. 2405510 PAGE # 108 .. (vi) Base change formulae logc b loga b = log a c (vii) logam bn = 1 (viii) loga b or 1 loga b = log a b ⇒ x=±a ⇒ no solution ⇒ x < – a or x > a ⇒ –a ≤ x ≤ a ⇒ No solution. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. ⇒ x∈R n loga b m .POCKET BOOK . defined as [4. where [. Modulus function : MATHS FORMULA . cI G H bJ K ⇒ b=a c alogb c = clogb a b > ac. b ≠ 1 loga b = c loga b > c a>1 0<a<1 if a > 1 if 0 < a < 1 PAGE # 107 E D U C A T (ix) (x) log1/a . + loga bn = loga (b1 b2 . 0744 ..G bI H cJ K = loga b – loga c (iv) |x + y| ≤ |x| + |y| (v) |x – y| ≥ |x| – |y| or ≤ |x| + |y| (vi) ||a| – |b|| ≤ |a – b| for equality a. k = blogb k (iv) loga b1 + loga b2 + ... x > 0 |x| = S−x. x < 0 | T0.

∞ ) (viii) [x] < I. x ∈ I = –1. x|x| Signum function 5. Here set A is called domain and set of all f images of the elements of A is called range.6450883. x ∈R+ x +|x| x -|x| [x] (greatest integer function) x . I + 1) (v) [x] ≥ I. ∞ ) (vi) [x] ≤ I.) Ph.) Ph.no vertical line should intersect the graph of the function more than once. ∞ ] R+ R PAGE # 110 x2. where I is an integer x ∈ [I. all possible values of f(x). {{x}} = {x}. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 I O N S . 0744 . x ∈R− . x ∈ [I + 1. ∞ ) R R+ .{x} |x| . 1) (ii) {x + I} = {x} {x + y} ≠ {x} + {y} (iii) {x} + {–x} = 0. Definition : Let A and B be two given sets and if each element a ∈ A is associated with a unique element b ∈ B under a rule f. x ∈ I = 1. 0744 . I) 4. Range = . {[x]} = 0 Signum function : MATHS FORMULA . Properties : (i) {x}. 1} R+ ∪{x} R.e. x x ≠ 0 x=0 PAGE # 109 E D U C A T x ax (exponential function) log x (logarithmic function) = 0. x ∈ (– ∞ . 0. x ∈ [0. R −1 | | S0 f(x) = sgn (x) = | | T1 or f(x) = |x| x R R R R R [0.ractional part function : f(x) = {x} = difference between number & its integral part = x – [x]. 608-A. then this relation (mapping) is called a function. i. x ∉ I (iv) [{x}] = 0. x ∉ I (iv) [x] = I.unctions Polynomial function Identity function x Constant function K Reciprocal function 1 x Domain R R R R0 R R Range R R (K) R0 R+ ∪{x} R {-1.. [x] ≥ I + 1. 1] [0.or all values of x. [x] ≤ I – 1.POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) x – 1 < [x] ≤ x (ii) [x + I] = [x] + I [x + y] ≠ [x] + [y] (iii) [x] + [–x] = 0. x=0 . I + 1] (vii) [x] > I.6450883. .POCKET BOOK 6. Table : Domain and Range of some standard functions . Domain = All possible values of x for which f(x) exists. Graphically . x ∈ (– ∞ . 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . . |x| (modulus function) x3.∪{x} 1 [0. x ∈ [I. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

. f–1(b) = a -1 ⇒ f(a) = b tan-1 x cot-1 x sec-1 x .(-1. Transformation of curves : (i) Replacing x by (x – a) entire graph will be shifted parallel to x-axis with |a| units.atleast one horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once. a is –ve it moves toward left.1) LM −π . π ]2 R U S TV W cosec-1 x R . 608-A. the graph will be shifted parallel to y-axis. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..1) R .1) LM− π .± . π OP.POCKET BOOK 7. (ii) (iii) Onto function (surjection) .{0} N 2 2Q PAGE # 111 E D U C A T I O N S . 1] π 3π R U ± .A function which is both one-one and onto is called bijective function. Inverse function : f–1 exists iff f is one-one & onto both f–1 : B → A.. b ∈ A Graphically-no horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.(-1. 2405510 PAGE # 112 π [0. Kinds of functions : (i) One-one (injection) function . if to each y ∈ B ∃ x ∈ A s. upward if a is +ve downward if a is –ve. ± 2 π . x ≠ y but f(x) = f(y) Graphically .V S 2 2 T W ⇒ f(a) ≠ f(b). y ∈ A s..6450883. a.f : A → B is one-one if f(a) = f(b) ⇒ a = b or a≠b Domain R R R- Range [-1. ± 2 π } Domain x x (-1.} R - R.POCKET BOOK Trigonometric .1] R R R -(-1. R R R . (iv) Into function : f is said to be into function if R(f) < B (v) One-one-onto function (Bijective) .unctions sin x cos x tan x cot x sec x cosec x Inverse Trigo . π ] 8.(-1.unctions sin cos -1 MATHS FORMULA . Similarly if y is replace by (y – a). 608-A. ± π . π ) 9. π IJ H 2 2K (0.{0. 0744 .e. ± π .) Ph.. 1] [-1. f(x) = y Many one function : f : A → B is a many one function if there exist x. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .t.6450883..{0.± .) Ph.t. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . If a is +ve it moves towards right. 1] [-1.. .V S 2 2 T W π 3π R U ± . π OP N 2 2Q [0.G −π .f : A → B is onto if R (f) = B i..1) Range R..

6450883. Similarly if y is replaced by ay (a > 0) then divide all the values of y-axis by a. f(x + T) = f(x). 2405510 PAGE # 114 .6450883. MATHS FORMULA . A given function can be expressed as sum of even & odd function.) Ph. of T1 & T2 provided it satisfies definition of periodic function.MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. Decreasing function : A function f(x) is a decreasing function in the domain D if the value of function does not increase by increasing the value of x.) Ph. Product of an even or odd function is an odd function. f(x) = 0 is the only function which is even and odd both. 14. Periodic function: . then divide all the value on xaxis by a. 13. Similarly if y is replaced by –y then take reflection of entire curve in x-axis. 0744 . 0744 .POCKET BOOK (g) (h) (i) Zero function i. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.unction f(x) will be periodic if a +ve real number T exist such that 11. take reflection of entire curve is yaxis. then the period of af(x) + bg(x) will also be T. (i) If a function f(x) has period T. (iii) PAGE # 113 E D U C A T I O N S . then Period of f(xn + a) = T/n and Period of (x/n + a) = nT (ii) If the period of f(x) is T1 & g(x) has T2 then the period of f(x) ± g(x) will be L.H.H. i. if on L. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S ∀ x ∈ Domain. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 12.M. (iii) Replacing x by |x|. The graph of an odd function is always symmetric about origin.S. remove the portion of the curve corresponding to –ve x (on left hand side of y-axis) and take reflection of right hand side on LHS. If f(x) is odd (even) function then f'(x) is even (odd) function provided f(x) is differentiable on R.S.e. Product of two even or odd function is an even function. then portion of the curve below x-axis will be reflected above x-axis. f(x) = 1 1 [f(x) + f(–x)] + [f(x) – f(–x)] 2 2 (iv) Replace f(x) by |f(x)|. Sum of even and odd function is neither even nor odd function. 608-A. Increasing function : A function f(x) is an increasing function in the domain D if the value of the function does not decrease by increasing the value of x. = even function + odd function. . If period of f(x) & g(x) are same T. (v) Replace x by ax (a > 0). Even and odd function : A function is said to be (i) (ii) Even function if f(–x) = f(x) and Odd function if f(–x) = –f(x). Such a least +ve no. Properties of even & odd function : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The graph of an even function is always symmetric about y-axis. There may be infinitely many such T which satisfy the above equality.POCKET BOOK (ii) Replacing x by –x. y is present and mode is taken on R. T is called period of f(x). 10. Sum & difference of two even (odd) function is an even (odd) function.e.C.

∀ x ∈ X In general gof ≠ fog If both f and g are bijective function.6450883. 608-A. 5 cos x2 x + sin x x cos x cos x .G x − π I H 3 J K 4 sin3 x + cos3 x sin x + cos x 3 sin x sin5x tan2 x – cot2 x x – [x] [x] NON PERIODIC .) Ph. 608-A. gof : X → Z will be defined as gof(x) = g(f(x)).UNCTIONS : 2 3 x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x . Composite function : If f : X → Y and g : Y → Z are two function.POCKET BOOK 15. 0744 . cos x sec x.MATHS FORMULA . Period 2π π 6π π/4 1 π π/2 6π 2π/3 2π 2π π 1 1 2 cos . 0744 .POCKET BOOK .) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 116 . x .unction sin x. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 115 E D U C A T I O N S . cot x sin (x/3) tan 4x cos 2πx |cos x| sin x + cos x 4 4 MATHS FORMULA . then so is gof. cosec x tan x. then the composite function of f and g. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883.

.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. provided x →a g(x) x→a x→a (iii) (iv) x→a lim 1 1 .POCKET BOOK 5.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .actorisation method : If x →a 0 form. Theorems on limits : (i) (ii) (iii) x→a f(x) 0 is of form g(x) 0 then factorize num. 608-A. & deno..) Ph.MATHS FORMULA . ∞ 0 . When x → ∞ : Divide num.. (ii) x→a lim (f(x) ± g(x)) = lim f(x) ± Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x). then x →c LIMIT 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x x (v) x→a lim f(g(x)) = f lim g(x) . 0744 . ∞ × 0. x→a k is a constant. 0744 . ∞ – ∞ . & devo. Methods of evaluation of limits : (i) 3. 1∞ 0 ∞ 4. by 0. H I K (iv) (v) n n lim x − a = nan–1 x→a x −a By using standard results (limits) : g(x) function f(x) is continuous. 0∞ . by the highest power of x present in the expression and then after removing common factor which is participating in making the indeterminate form. lim f(x) exists iff lim− f(x) = lim+ f(x) = l Existence of limit : x →a x→a x→a Case II: If c is an integer.g(x) = lim f(x). Indeterminate forms : 0 ∞ . we rationalize the factor and simplify. xlim [x] = c → c− → c+ lim [x] = does not exist and x →c 6. 2 . separately and cancel the lim . then xlim [x] = c – 1.) Ph. provided value of x→a . 0 Rationalization method : If we have fractional powers on the expression in num. lim f(x) = l (finite quantity) Limit of a function : x →a 2. 2405510 . (vi) x→a lim [f(x) + k] = lim f(x) + k x→a (a) (b) (c) (d) x→0 lim x lim sinx = 1 = x → 0 x sin x x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x tan x lim sinx = 0 lim cosx = lim x→0 1 =1 cos x PAGE # 118 lim log(f(x)) = log lim f(x) (vii) x →a x→a lim (f(x))g(x) = (viii) x →a . 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 117 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x) x→a f(x) lim g(x) ≠ 0 = lim g(x) . Limit of the greatest integer function : Let c be any real number lim [x] = [c] Case I : If c is not an integer. deno or in both. H I K x→0 L O M N lim f(x)P Q x→a x→0 x→a lim g(x) x→0 . replace lim (k f(x)) = k lim f(x).

...MATHS FORMULA .. then we can substitute x=a+t ⇒ t=x–a If x → a. (b) When x → – ∞ substitute x = – t ⇒ t → ∞ (c) When x → ∞ substitute t = x2 x3 + + ... 2! 3! (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) 1 ⇒ t → 0+ x (vii) By using some expansion : ex = 1 + x + e–x = 1 – x + lim a − 1 = log a x→0 e x x lim e − 1 = 1 x→0 x x lim log(1 + x) = 1 x→0 x 1 lim loga (1 + x) = x →0 loga x x→0 log(1 + x) = x – log(1 – x) = –x – lim (1 + x) − 1 = n x lim sinx = lim cos x = 0 x→∞ x x sin 1 x 1 x n ex ln a = ax = 1 + xlogea + sinx = x – x→∞ x3 x5 + –. 2! 3! x2 x3 – + ... then lim g(x) = l. t → 0.....6450883. 2! 4! 2 x3 + x5 + .POCKET BOOK (vi) By substitution : (a) If x → a. 2405510 ... x →a x →a x →a ⇒ PAGE # 119 E D U C A T I O N S l < lim g(x) < l. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .) Ph..... aI = lim G1 + J H xK x x→∞ 7..G1 + 1 IJ H xK . 2 3 x2 x3 – –... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S ...6450883. 608-A. 2! 3! x2 x3 + – .. 3! 5! x2 x4 + –. x n(n − 1) 2 x + . 608-A. 15 3 cosx = 1 – =1 tanx = x + (n) x→∞ lim (o) x →0 lim (1 + x)1/x = e = lim x →∞ 1/x lim = ea x → 0 (1 + ax) (p) . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ....... 2! Sandwich Theorem : In the neighbour hood of x = a f(x) < g(x) < h(x) (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + lim f(x) = lim h(x) = l..POCKET BOOK 0 lim sin x = π x→0 180 x −1 x lim sin x = 1 = lim −1 x→0 x→0 sin x x −1 x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x→0 tan−1 x x MATHS FORMULA .. 0744 .......) Ph.. x →a PAGE # 120 .. 2 3 (x loge a)2 (x loge a)3 + + ..

POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .6450883. u = g(x) [chain rule or differential coefficient of a function of a function] then dy dy du = × dx dx du NOTE : d [x] does not exist at any integral Point. v = h(x). dx = d f(x) ± dx d g(x) dx loga x ax sin x tan x cosec x 1 x loge a ax loge a cos x sec2 x –cosec x cot x 1 1−x 2 loge x ex cos x cot x sec x 1 x ex –sin x –cosec2 x sec x tan x 1 1 − x2 (iii) cf(x) ± g(x)h (iv) d dv du (uv) = u + v . x ∈R (vi) d dx . x ∉ I |x| x . (k) Derivative 0 . (Product rule) or d du dv dw (uvw) = vw + uw + uv . dx dx dx dx sin–1 x .) Ph.) Ph. where u & v are functions dx dx dx of x. 2405510 .POCKET BOOK 2.unction A cons.–1<x<1 cos–1x – . where c is a constant.. . then f (ax + b) dx dx .G u I H vJ K = v du dv −u dx dx 2 v (quotient rule) [x] 0.ERENTIATION : (i) DI. x≠ 0 | x| (vii) If y = f(u). 0744 .6450883.unction xn Derivative nxn – 1 d f(x) = 0 if and only if f(x) = constant dx d dx d dx (ii) ccf(x)h = c d f(x).|x|>1 cosec–1 x – 1 |x| 1 − x2 d d f(x) = φ(x).MATHS FORMULA . SOME STANDARD DI. 608-A.ERENTIATION : . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .–1|x|>| = a φ(ax + b) tan–1 x 1 1+x 2 .OR DI. dx PAGE # 121 E D U C A T I O N S llly If y = f(u).. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..UNDAMENTAL RULES . then PAGE # 122 .–1<x<1 (v) sec–1 x 1 |x| 1 − x 2 If . 0744 .x ∈ R cot–1 x – 1 1 + x2 . u = g(v).ERENTIATION 1. 608-A.

y) = 0..t. 608-A.6450883. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . (a) (b) (c) loge (mn) = logem + logen loge dy / dx f'(x) dy = = g'(x) dz / dx dz (xv) Differentiation of inverse Trigonometric functions m = logm – logen n (d) (f) logn m aloga x loge (m)n = nlogem logm n = 1 using Trigonometrical Transformation : To solve the problems involving inverse trigonometric functions first try for a suitable substitution to simplify it and then differentiate. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. differentiate w. 608-A.e if y = un ⇒ dy du = nun–1 dx dx dy at one side and find dx dy .t. form (f(x))g(x) or g ( x ) g ( x ).e.r. then differentiate applying chain rule d f[g(x)] = f'g(x) . We first take log on 1 2 both sides and then differentiate.6450883. then differentiation of y w.G 1I H uJ K = −1 u2 du .) Ph..) Ph.POCKET BOOK (xii) Differentiation of implicit function : If f (x. g'(x) i.r. z is u ≠ 0 Logarithmic Differentiation : If a function is in the f1 ( x ) f2 ( x ). 0744 . dx OR (viii) Differentiation of composite functions Suppose a function is given in form of fog(x) or f[g(x)]. m (e) logan xm = loga x n = x (g) loge e = 1 (h) loge m logn m = log n e PAGE # 123 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 ...MATHS FORMULA . where t is a parameter. If no such substitution is found then differentiate directly by using trigonometrical formula frequently.. | u| dx dx dy g'(t) dy dt = = f'(t) dx dx dt (xiv) Differentiation of a function w. u ≠ 0 dx (x) (xi) u du d |u| = .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 124 .r. y) = 0 in which y is not expressible explicitly in terms of x are called implicit functions] (xiii) Differentiation of parametric functions : If x = f(t) and y = g(t). another function : Let y = f(x) and z = g(x).t. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. dx [The relation f(x. x and collect the terms containing dy dy du dv = × × dx du dv dx i. then (ix) d dx ...

cosec–1 (xii) tan–1 x + cot–1 x = π /2 1I . π II tan G − θJ J G H H 2 KK = π – θ 2 π – θ 2 tan–1 (cot θ ) = tan–1 = . for – π 2 ≤ x ≤ π 2 cos–1 (cos x) = x.cos . 0744 . (ix) (x) (xi) tan3x = tan–1 = cot–1 x. 1I G H xJ K .6450883. 0744 .) Ph.POCKET BOOK (xvi) sin–1 sin (x) = x. 1I G H xJ K = sec–1 x.MATHS FORMULA . for 0 ≤ x ≤ π tan–1 (tan x) = x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. cos–1 .POCKET BOOK 3. x±yI G H 1 m xy JK I K (xix) sin–1 (cos θ ) = sin–1 (xiv) sin–1 x ± sin–1 y = sin–1 x 1 − y2 ± y 1 − x2 . cot–1 . 608-A. 608-A. Important Trigonometrical . II π − θJ J G G H H 2 KK = π – θ 2 (xv) cos–1 x ± cos–1 y = cos–1 . tan–1 (–x) = – tan–1 x. π II − θJ J G G H H 2 KK . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 125 E D U C A T I O N S . G K H xJ = sin–1 x (xiii) tan–1 x ± tan–1 y = tan–1 . H xy m 1 − x2 1 − y2 IK cos–1 (sin θ ) = cos–1 . 2405510 PAGE # 126 . G K H xJ = cosec–1 x. 1I G H xJ K 1I .sin .6450883. cos–1 (–x) = π – cos–1 x sin3x = 3sinx – 4sin3 x (xviii) sin–1 (vi) cos3x = 4cos3 x – 3cosx 3 tan x − tan3 x 1 − 3 tan2 x . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π /2 sec–1 x + cosec–1 x = π /2 sec–1 = cos–1 x.) Ph.ormula : (i) sin2x = 2sinx. H . cosx = 2 tan x 1 + tan2 x MATHS FORMULA . 1I G H xJ K = tan–1 x. for – π π < x < 2 2 (ii) cos2x = 1 − tan2 x 1 + tan2 x = 2 cos2 x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin2 x (viii) tan2x = (iii) 2 tan x 1 − tan2 x (xvii) sin–1 (–x) = –sin–1 x. .

r.POCKET BOOK Part B Expression Substitution x = a tan θ or x = a cot θ Substitution x = sinθ x = cosθ . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 128 .ormula 3sinθ – 4sin3 θ 4cos3 θ – 3cosθ 3 tan θ − tan3 θ 1 − 3 tan2 θ Result sin3θ cos3θ a2 + x2 a− x a+ x or a+ x a− x x = a tan θ x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ a2 – x2 tan3θ a+x or a−x a−x a+x x = tanθ x = a cos θ x = a sec θ or x=acosec θ 2x 1+x 2x 1−x 2 2 x = tanθ 2 tan θ 1 + tan2 θ 2 tan θ 1 − tan θ 1 – 2sin2 θ 2cos2 θ – 1 1 – sin2 θ 1 – cos2 θ sec θ – 1 2 sin2θ x 2 – a2 x = tanθ x = sinθ x = cosθ x = sinθ x = cosθ 2 tan2θ cos2θ cos2θ cos2 θ sin2 θ tan θ 2 a2 + x2 a2 − x2 or a2 − x2 a2 + x2 x2 = a2 cos θ 1 – 2x2 2x2 – 1 1 – x2 5.) Ph.6450883. 608-A. dy I G H dx J K = d f'(x) dx c h 1 + x2 x = tanθ x = cotθ is called the second derivative of y w. 0744 .POCKET BOOK 4. 608-A.) Ph. x .MATHS FORMULA .6450883. Some Useful Substitutions : Part A Expression 3x – 4x3 4x3 – 3x 3x − x3 1 − 3x 2 MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Successive differentiations or higher order derivatives : (a) If y = f(x) then dy = f'(x) is called the first derivadx tive of y w.r.t.t. 0744 . x d2 y dx 2 x 2 – 1 x = secθ x = cosecθ cosec2 θ – 1 1 + tan2 θ 1 + cot2 θ cot 2 θ sec2 θ cosec2 θ ⇒ = d dx . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 127 E D U C A T I O N S .

. = dx dx t csin xh nπ = sin x + 2 .. 0744 . (f) If y = sin (ax + b). 0744 ..POCKET BOOK llly d3 y dx3 = d2 dx2 cf'(x)h etc. 608-A.an (iii) dn dx n (cos x) = cos x + . This process can be continued and we can obtain derivatives of higher order Note : To obtain higher order derivative of parametric functions we use chain rule i. then yn = an sin ax + b + .e. G Hax + b + 2 J K ⇒ dy = t dx d2 y dx 2 d dx ex j n = n! ⇒ (b) = . dy I G H dx J K (ii) = d dt 1 (t) = 1.) Ph.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. then yn = an (ax + b)n+1 ax + b (−1) n−1 (v) (log x) = (– 1)n–1 (n–1)! x–n If u = g(x) is such that g'(x) = K (constant) dn dx n NOTE : (e) If y = log (ax + b). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. If y = cos (ax + b).. 2405510 PAGE # 130 .) Ph. G H nπ 2 I J K Thus. G H I J K πn 2 If y = (ax + b)m m ∉ I. then yn = an cos nth Derivatives of Some ..unctions : dn dxn dn dx n nπ I . then yn = (n − 1)! (ax + b)n an then f g(x) c h = Kn L d M M Ndu n n f(u) O P P Q u= g(x) .. y = t2 (i) 6. then ym = m! am and ym+1 = 0 (iv) dn dx n dn dx n (emx ) = mn emx (d) (−1)n n! 1 If y = . (m–n+1) (ax + b)m–n .MATHS FORMULA . G H I J K (c) If m ∈I. if x = 2t..6450883.. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 129 E D U C A T I O N S . then yn = m(m–1) (m–2) .6450883.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 131 E D U C A T I O N S . differentiating both sides w.e logy = y log x.6450883.H. 608-A. x we get ∆ = R1 R2 R3 = |C1 C2 C3| 1 y dy 1 dy = y + logx dx dx x R'1 ∆' = R 2 R3 R1 '2 R + R3 R1 R 2 + R'3 ⇒ dy = dx .) Ph. L-hospital rule : if as x → a f(x) & g(x) either both → 0 or both → ∞. v If R. Differentiation of Determinant : then function becomes y = xy now taking log on both sides i. then L. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 132 . 0744 .POCKET BOOK 9. But if value fluctuate on R.H.H rule can be applied.S.G 1 − log xI J Hy K y x y2 = x(1 − y log x) = |C'1 C2 C3| + |C1 C'2 C3| + |C1 C2 C'3| 8. rule can't be applied. Differentiation of Infinite Series : method is illustrated with the help of example x if y = x x − −∞ MATHS FORMULA . then lim f(x) f'(x) = lim x →a g'(x) g(x) x →a (a) it can be applied only on 0/0 or ∞/∞ form (b) Numerator & denominator are differentiated separately not (c) u formulae. then L.MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. exist or d'not exist because value → ∞.6450883.) Ph.S.t. If it is applied continuously then at each step 0/0 or ∞/∞ should be checked. . 608-A.POCKET BOOK 7. 0744 .r.H.

y1) is y – y1 = (x 1 . then (x1 . 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 133 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. dy I | G J H dx K | T 1 (x . y1 ) (x1 .) Ph. x – intercept = x1 R | | y – S . 0744 .) Ph.G dy I H dx J K 10. f(a)) If the tangent makes an angle ψ (say) with +ve x direction then f'(x) = 3. y1) → ∞ 9. 608-A. . DERIVATIVES TANGENT AND NORMAL : 1.MATHS FORMULA . y – intercept = y1 – x1 dy I . Slope of the normal =– If the tangent line makes equal angle with the axes.POCKET BOOK 7.G dy IJ H dx K . ψ = 2 y1 − x1 = ⇒ 5. (x1 . Length of intercepts made on axes by the tangent : APPLICATION O. y1) Length of perpendicular from origin to the tangent : = 0. =– 6.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . y 1 ) . Geometrically f'(a) represents the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the point (a. 2405510 PAGE # 134 . 608-A.G dy IJ H dx K 1 Slope of the tan gent dx I . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. G K H dy J (x1 . y1) (x – x1) dy = – cot φ .6450883. π If the tangent is perpendicular to x-axis. y1) = tan ψ = slope of the tangent. y ) 1 1 If the tangent is parallel to x-axis. dy I 1+G J H dx K 2 (x1 . dy I G H dx J K . G H dx J K (x .G dy IJ H dx K (x1 . 2. Equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1. 4.y1 ) (x1 .G dy IJ H dx K 8. y1) = ± 1. dx . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then . ψ = 0 ⇒ . If normal makes an angle of φ with +ve direction of x-axis. y ) 1 1 U | | V | | W .

y1) = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.y1 ) Length of sub-normal = y . dy I 1−G J G J H dx K H dx K 1 1 2 where dy I . If the normal is parallel to x-axis ⇒ . 2405510 PAGE # 136 . 0744 .6450883. Length of perpendicular from origin to normal : Length of normal = y 1+ . 0744 . dy I nally then G H dx J H dx J K G K = –1 curve & 2 1 2 dy I . dy I . G H dx J K 1 is the slope of first 2 . G H dx J K 2 y – intercept = y1 + x1 (x1 . If normal is equally inclined from both the axes or cuts equal intercept then dy I . If both curves intersect orthogo. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 135 E D U C A T I O N S . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. dy I +y G J H dx K . y1) = 0.y1 ) 16. 608-A. dy I . .) Ph. 14. dy I G H dx J K −G H dx J K . y1 ) 15. 608-A.G dy IJ H dx K (x1 . normal. Angle of intersection of the two curves : 11. 13.y1 ) dy dx dy I . dy I G H dx J K 2 x1 = .G dy I H dx J K of second. tanθ = ± 12. dy I G H dx J K 1 = ± 1.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . The equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1. G H dx J K (x – x1) 18. dx I G H dy J K y 1+ Length of tangent = (x1 .POCKET BOOK 17.6450883. Length of intercept made on axes by the normal : x – intercept = x1 + y1 . y1) is y – y1 = – . dy I G H dx J K . Length of tangent.MATHS FORMULA . subtangent & subnormal : (x1 . If the normal is perpendicular to x-axis ⇒ .G dy IJ H dx K (x1 .) Ph. dy I 1+G J H dx K 1 Length of sub-tangent = 2 y dy / dx dy dx (x1 .

In an interval [a. 6. (ii) If a function f(x) is defined in an interval [a. 2. c. (iv) If f"(a) < 0. a + h). ∀ x ∈ (b – h. Working rule for finding local maxima & Local Minima : (i) .) Ph. x ≠ a. 0744 .) Ph. Minima : A function f(x) is said to be minimum at x = b.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b] is not necessarily its greatest value in that interval. if there exists a very small +ve number h. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b) Strictly increasing if f'(x) > 0 Strictly decreasing if f'(x) < 0 4.. f(d)] Where x = c. b]. f(c). if there exists a very small +ve number h. 608-A. .. such that f(x) > f(b). then the value of f(x) is maximum at x = 0 and if f"(a) > 0. MATHS FORMULA . ∀ x ∈ (a – h. b] = min. such that f(x) < f(a).to x and substitute the critical points in it and get the sign of f"(x) for each critical point. (ii) Solve the equation f'(x) = 0 and let its real roots (critical points) be a. A function is said to be monotonic function in a domain if it is either monotonic increasing or monotonic decreasing in that domain At a point function f(x) is monotonic increasing if f'(a) > 0 At a point function f(x) is monotonic decreasing if f'(a) < 0 3. Absolute (Greatest and Least) values of a function in a given interval : (i) A minimum value of a function f(x) in an interval [a.POCKET BOOK (ii) Sufficient condition : (a) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is maximum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) < 0. x = d are those points for which f'(x) = 0. i.ind the differential coefficient of f(x) w.POCKET BOOK MONOTONICITY.MATHS FORMULA . c . f(d)] Least value of f(x) in interval [a.r... f(b). (b) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is minimum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) > 0. 5.. b]. Similarly by getting the sign of f"(x) for other critical points (b. MAXIMA & MINIMA : 1. f(c). Conditions for Maxima & Minima of a function : (i) Necessary condition : A point x = a is an extreme point of a function f(x) if f'(a) = 0.to x. . Similarly a minimum value may not be the least value of the function. Maximum & Minimum Points : Maxima : A function f(x) is said to be maximum at x = a. 2405510 PAGE # 137 E D U C A T E D U C A T I O N S I O N S .e. 608-A. 0744 . b. A function may have more than one maximum & minimum points. b + h). (iii) Now differentiate f'(x) w.r. 2405510 PAGE # 138 7. f'(x) and equate it to zero. f(b).. provided f'(a) exists. x ≠ b. Remark : (a) (b) The maximum & minimum points are also known as extreme points.... b] = max [f(a). then the value of f(x) is minimum at x = a.. then greatest or least values of this function occurs either at x = a or x = b or at those values of x for which f'(x) = 0. .) we can find the points of maxima and minima. a function f(x) is Monotonic increasing if f'(x) ≥ 0 Monotonic decreasing if f'(x) ≤ 0 constant if f'(x) = 0 ∀ x ∈ (a. [f(a). Thus greatest value of f(x) in interval [a.6450883.

h = b – a 4πr2 1 2 πr h 3 πrl πr2h 2πrh 2πr(h + r) l × b × h 2(lb + bh + hl) 2(l × b) h l3 6l2 4l2 PAGE # 139 E D U C A T I O N S . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK ROLLE'S THEOREM & LAGRANGES THEOREM: 1. 2405510 PAGE # 140 . then there exists at least one c ∈ (a. Some Geometrical Results : In Usual Notations Area of equilateral and its perimeter Area of square Perimeter Area of rectangle Perimeter Area of trapezium Results MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK 8. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . 608-A.) Ph. 2. 608-A. b) such that f'(c) = 0. Rolle's Theorem : If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a. b] (b) It is differentiable on (a.6450883. b). b] (b) It is differentiable on (a.6450883. 0 < θ < 1. b) and (c) f(a) = f(b). b) such that f(b) − f(a) = f'(c) b−a 3 (side)2. 4 3 (side) (side)2 4(side) l × b 2(l × b) 1 (sum of parallel sides) 2 × (distance between them) πr2 2πr 4 3 πr 3 Area of circle Perimeter Volume of sphere Surface area of sphere Volume of cone Surface area of cone Volume of cylinder Curved surface area Total surface area Volume of cuboid Surface area of cuboid Area of four walls Volume of cube Surface area of cube Area of four walls of cube (ii) If for c in lagrange's theorem (a < c < b) we can say that c = a + θ h where 0 < θ < 1 and h = b – a the theorem can be written as f(a + h) = f(a) + h f'(a + θ h).) Ph. then there exists at least one point c ∈ (a. Mean value theorem [Lagrange's theorem] : (i) If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a.

ORMULAE : .unction INDE.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then dx Here integrand.unction Integration z zc z x dx ax + b dx n x + c.POCKET BOOK . f(x) is the f x dx = f(x) f' x dx = f(x) + c.) Ph. c is any real no.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n ≠ –1 n+1 n+1 z z z z z z z z z z z z dx sec2 x dx cos ec2x dx sec x tan x dx cos ec x cot xdx tanx dx cot x dx sec x dx cos ec x dx dx 1 − x2 dx a −x dx 1 + x2 2 2 . 608-A. z z ch z ch zch zm r zch z cos x Integration sin x + c tan x + c – cot x + c sec x + c –cosec x + c –log|cos x| + c = log|sec x| + c log|sin x| + c = –log|cosec x| + c log|sec x + tan x|+c = log tan f x dx = . 0744 . 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 142 . n ≠ –1 sin–1 x x + c = –cos–1 + c a a z z z z E D U C A T I O 1 dx x log|x| + c tan–1x + c = –cot–1x + c x 1 x −1 tan–1 + c = cot–1 a + c a a a 1 dx ax + b ex dx ax dx sinx dx 1 (log|ax + b|) + c a ex + c dx a2 + x2 dx |x| x2 − 1 dx |x| x2 − a2 ax + c loge a –cos x + c PAGE # 141 E D U C A T z z sec–1x + c = –cosec–1x + c 1 x sec–1 + c = a a x −1 cosec–1 a + c a . 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . π xI G H 4 + 2J K +c x log|cosec x – cot x|+c = log tan +c 2 sin–1 x + c = –cos–1x + c h n 1 ax + b . c ∈ R k f x dx = k f(x) dx (f x ± g x ) dx = ch ch z zch zch h n+1 f x dx ± g x dx .UNDAMENTAL . 608-A. a n+1 c + c.(x) = f(x). 2405510 N S . (integrating constant) d (ii) dx (iii) (iv) (v) 2.(x) + c dx is the notation of integration.6450883. (i) d If .6450883.INITE INTEGRATION 1.

x−a x x−a . x c 1 h x = a sin2 θ z d c hi c h z cc hh f x n f' x dx f(x) = t cf(x)h n+1 n+1 + c.MATHS FORMULA . a2 – x 2 x = a sin θ or a cos θ x = a tanθ or x = a sinhθ x = a sec θ or x = a cosh θ x2 + a2 . . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 143 E D U C A T I O N S . Some following suggestions will prove useful. x −a . 2405510 PAGE # 144 . x 2 .(β > α) . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. h x a− x x−a .POCKET BOOK SOME RECOMMENDED SUBSTITUTION : into another variable t so that the integrand f(x) is changed into . INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION : By suitable substitution. a+ x +c φ x dx φ(x) = t z ch 1 x a+ x . 2 2 Substitution 1 a2 − x2 1 x + a2 1 x2 − a2 a+ x . 608-A. n ≠ – 1 x . x a+ x c c h c h x = a tan2 θ f t dt x .(t) which is some standard integral.unction Substitution ax + b = t Integration z f x dx is changed ch .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2 2 .(ax + b) + c a f x f' x dx f(x) = t dfcxhi 2 2 x . x2 + a2 . a− x a− x .6450883.6450883. x 2 – a2 zc h zch ch z d c hi c h z cc hh fφx f' x f x dx f ax + b dx 1 . β−x c h x a− x a+x a−x c 1 h x = a sec2 θ f' x fx dx f(x) = t 2[f(x)]1/2 + c x = a cos 2θ x = α cos2 θ + β sin2 θ cx − αh cβ − xh . x f(x) = t log|f(x)| + c x a−x . a+ x x−α . the variable x in MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . 0744 . 608-A.POCKET BOOK 3.unction a −x .) Ph. a− x .

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.UNCTIONS USING ABOVE STANDARD RESULTS : .POCKET BOOK INTEGRATION O. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 . M G M NH b 2a I J K 2 + 4ac − b2 4a 2 O P P Q x 1 = tanh–1 a + c. 608-A. when x < a a dx x −a 2 2 (ax2 + bx + c) dx px + q ax + bx + c px + q ax2 + bx + c 2 then use appropriate formula log{|x + x − a |} + c 2 2 = cosh–1 xI .MATHS FORMULA .G x IJ + c H aK x − a |} + c x2 + a2 |} + c 2 2 z ax P(x) 2 + bx + c dx . 2405510 PAGE # 145 E D U C A T I O N S . I G H J K x a + c constant. 2405510 PAGE # 146 . G H aJ K+c x2 + a2 |} + c z z z dx or Express : px + q dx or = λ d (ax2 + bx + c) + µ dx dx x +a 2 2 log{|x + (px + q) (ax2 + bx + c) dx evaluate λ & µ by equat ing coefficient of x and = sinh–1 .unction z z z z 1 x −a 2 2 x−a 1 log x+a 2a = + c x −1 coth–1 a + c when x > a a 1 a −x 2 2 dx a+ x 1 log a− x 2a + c z z z Method 1 ax + bx + c 1 2 dx or Express : ax2 + bx + c = ax2 + bx + c dx or a x+ L . .POCKET BOOK IMPORTANT RESULTS USING STANDARD SUBSTITUTIONS : .unction Integration MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. the integral reduces to known form z z z E D U C A T I O N S a − x dx 2 2 1 1 2 x a2 − x2 + a sin–1 2 2 . Apply division rule and express it x − a dx 2 2 1 1 x x2 − a2 – a2 log {|x + 2 2 1 1 x x2 + a2 + a2 log {|x + 2 2 where P(x) is a polynomial of degree 2 or more in form Q(x) + R x 2 ax + bx + c ch x2 + a2 dx The integral reduces to known form .6450883.6450883.

x ± a I GH x JK 2 = t.dx jP dx J e z K Q Divide numerator & denominator Rule to choose the first function : first fun. 608-A.6450883.) Evaluate λ & µ. Thus dx integral reduces to known form. a2.) + d (deno.z or MATHS FORMULA . . on the left is normally chosen as first function] I – Inverse trigonometric function L – Logarithmic function A – Algebraic function T – Trigonometric function E – Exponential function by x2 and put .GH d 1st fun. υ dx = u. [The fun. µ. the integral becomes one of standard forms. ν.6450883. (i) then put tan x/2 = t and replace 1 + tan2 x/2 = sec2 x/2 a sin x + b cos x dx c sin x + d cos x Express : num. 0744 . dx – z LMN. Thus the form reduces as above. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 147 E D U C A T I O N S . 2nd fun. = λ(deno. 0744 . by 2a2 and then add & sub x2. υ dx – z z or a sin x + b cos x + c dx p sin x + q cos x + r Express : Num. Thus the form reduces to the known form.) Ph. dx dx a sin x + b cos x + c Replace sin x = 2 tan x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2 .e. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.Hz du dx υ dx O dx I KP Q 1st fun. dx Thus integral reduces to known form. µ z u.) + zc z z z LMN . should be choosen in the following order of preference (ILATE). dx x + kx2 + a2 4 Divide num & deno.) Ph. 1 a sin x + b cos x h 2 dx then put tanx = t & solve. cos x = 1 − tan2 x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2 INTEGRATION BY PARTS : when integrand involves more than one type of functions the formula of integration by parts is used to integrate the product of the functions i. . dx h c h d (deno. = λ(deno. 2 z z zc z x2 x + kx 2 + a 4 4 dx Divide numerator & denominator by 2 and then add & sub. 608-A. z 4.POCKET BOOK 1 a sin x + b cos2 x + c 2 dx Divide numerator & denominator by cos x. dx O I 2nd fun.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 148 . µ x 2 ± a2 x 4 + kx 2 + a 4 dx = (1st fun) (ii) 2nd fun.) + ν Evaluate λ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

Q(x) are polynomials.6450883. the rational fun. Integrate one integral by parts and keeping other integral as it is by doing so we get the result (integral). If degree of numerator is less than that of denominator. for integrating rcxh . where px2 + qx + r he j Bx + C A + 2 x−a x + bx + c x2 + bx + c can not be factorised = a +b 2 2 cacos bx + b sinbxh c h + k ex h + k1. 2 je j Ax + B x + ax + b 2 + Cx + D x + cx + d 2 and eax a2 + b2 a cos bx + c + b sin bx + c c where x + ax + b.e. b. may be represented in the form Px ex f x + f' x dx = ex f(x) + c e mx ch ch mf x + f' x dx = e ch ch mx f(x) + c emx f x + L f' cxh O P dx M c h m P M Q N = emx f x m ch + c.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .6450883. INTEGRATION O. ch ch ch gcxh f x = q(x) + c h . 0744 .(iii) (a) (b) (c) z z z MATHS FORMULA . z z xf' x + f x dx = x f(x) + c. is said to be proper other wise it is improper.UNCTIONS USING PARTIAL .) Ph.) ≥ deg(deno. RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC .) apply division rule i. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. If deg (num. x2 + cx + d can not be factorised . 0744 . The following table illustrate the method. where P(x). resolve the gcxh gcxh r x fraction into partial factors. a ≠ b hc hc 2 h px2 + qx + r . Types of proper rational functions Types of partial fractions A B + x−a x −b A B C + + x−a x −b x−c (v) eax sinbx dx and e ax a2 + b2 e 2 ax 2 z eax sin bx + c dx c h c c px + q x−a x−b .POCKET BOOK 5. 2405510 S . x−a x−b x−c = (a sin bx – b cos bx) + k and a. Qcxh (iv) NOTE : Breaking (iii) & (iv) integral into two integrals. a px2 + qx + r ≠ b A + x−a cx − ah B 2 + C x−b (vi) z e ax cos bx dx and e ax z e ax cos bx + c dx c h c x − a x2 + bx + c . 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. c h. c are distinct hc h a +b [a sin (bx + c) – b cos(bx + c)] + k1 cx − ah cx − bh . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 150 .) Ph.RACTION : Every Rational fun. PAGE # 149 E D U C A T I O N px3 + qx2 + rx + s 2 + ax + b x2 + cx + d .

(iii) To evaluate MATHS FORMULA . linear dx split the integral into two. pure quad put 3 sin mx − sin 3mx 4 3 cos mx + cos 3mx 4 pure quad = t (vii) To evaluate dx pure quad. IRRATIONAL ALGEBRAIC .C. quadratic dx put linear = 1/t INTEGRATION USING TRIGONOMETRICAL IDENTITIES : (A) To evaluate trigonometric functions transform the function into standard integrals using trigonometric identities as (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) sin2 mx = cos2 mx = 1 − cos 2 mx 2 or zc zc linear . then resolve 1 or quadratic . of m & n). each of which is of the put linear = t form : z dx linear quad. linear I G H quadratic J K into partial fractions and z z z dx linear linear dx quad.M. quadratic x dx h h 2 1 + cos 2mx 2 mx mx cos 2 2 or linear . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 151 E D U C A T I O N S . (iv) To evaluate put linear = t2 7. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 6. 0744 . 608-A.6450883.) Ph. 0744 .6450883.POCKET BOOK (viii) To evaluate z dx quad. INTEGRATION O.UNCTIONS : (i) (ii) If integrand is a function of x & (ax + b)1/n then put (ax + b) = tn If integrand is a function of x. quad or z linear quad. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. put pure quad = u (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) = sec2 mx – 1 = cosec2 mx – 1 cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) PAGE # 152 . pure quad put x = 1 and t then is the resulting integral. 608-A. quadratic 2 sin mx = 2sin sin3 mx = cos3 mx = tan2 mx cot2 mx 2 cos A 2 sin A 2 sin A (vi) To evaluate z z dx pure quad. (ax + b)1/n and (ax + b)1/m then put (ax + b) = tp where p = (L.) Ph. 2405510 .MATHS FORMULA . (v) To evaluate linear. quad dx and if the quadratic not under the square root can be resolved into real linear factors.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 153 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph.n c cm + nh h 8. 0744 . 0744 .POCKET BOOK (B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) z sinm x cosm xdx . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . & put tan x = t m+n−2 is –ve integer 2 z z z secn x dx n−2 secn−2 x tan x + I n − 1 n–2 n−1 cos ecnx dx – n−2 cos ecn−2 x cot x + I n − 1 n–2 n−1 sinm x cosn x dx cosn−1 x sinm+1 x + n − 1 Im. 2405510 PAGE # 154 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. if m is odd put cos x = t if m is even put sin x = t if m & n both odd put sin x or cos x as t if m & n both even use the formula of sin2x & cos2x if m & n rational no.ORMULA) : . z xn−1eax dx xn sin x dx sinn x dx –xn cos x + nxn–1sin x – n(n – 1) In–2 – n−1 sinn−1 cos x + In–2 n n cosn x dx n−1 cosn−1 x sin x + In–2 n n tann x dx ctanxh – n−1 n−1 n−1 – In–2 cotn x dx ccot xh n−1 – In–2 .6450883. n ∈ N 1 n ax n x e – I a a n–1 where In–1 = NOTE : These formulae are specifically useful when m & n are both even nos. INTEGRATION BY SUCCESSIVE REDUCTION (REDUCTION . n−2 –sinm–1x cosn+1x + (m – 1) Im–2.unction z z z z z z Integration xneaxdx .6450883. 608-A.) Ph.

t. 2a VI.INITE INTEGRAL : If f(x) is a periodic function with period T. z b a a b f x dx = zch c a a b f x dx + zch b c f x dx where a < c < b f x dx = . . b zch zc f x dx = −a f a + b − x dx or h 0 zch a f x dx = zc a 0 f a − x dx h V. Then nT I.MATHS FORMULA . then ch III. 0744 . Definite Integration : If z b a f x dx = – f x dx b ch ch zch a z b a z f x dx = . x + c ch ch b a = . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. v. then PAGE # 155 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.6450883.GH z du . DE.(a) is called definite integral This property is mainly used for modulus function. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. if f 2a − x = f x VII. zch 0 0 f x dx = R |2 fcxh dx S | | T 0 z a 0 c h ch .INITE INTEGRATION II.irst obtain the indefinite integral of f(x) and then apply the upper and lower limit. We note that while changing the independent variable in a definite integral.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . if f x is an even function ch . 608-A.or integration by parts in definite integral we use following rule. z a f x dx = ch z ch a 0 f x + f −x dx c h * z uv dx = a {uz v.dx} b a b – a z . PROPERTIES O. if f c2a − xh = − f cxh . 1. 2405510 PAGE # 156 .6450883. of f(x) w. Remarks : * To evaluate definite integral of f(x). if f cxh is an odd function * When we use method of substitution. 0744 .(x) + c.r. zch b a N S f x dx = z b a f t dt ch zch f x dx = n f x dx 0 zch T and further if a ∈ R+.(b) – . greatest integer function & breakable function IV. 2405510 E D U C A T I O .POCKET BOOK DE. .) Ph. the limits of integration must also we changed accordingly. x from x = a to x = b Here a is called lower limit and b is called upper limit. dx dx dx IJ K = R | 2z f cxh dx S | T 0 a 0 .) Ph.

2 .ormulae : π /2 f x dx < M(b – a) (i) IX.. 2. t) dt + R dψ (x) U S T dx V W f(x.POCKET BOOK a+nT MATHS FORMULA . then. If m and M are the smallest and greatest values of a function f(x) on an interval [a. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. b] and differentiable at a point x ∈ (a. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2 . If f(x) < g(x) on [a. then z b a f x dx ≤ ch zch b a v(x) R n−1 n−3 2 . t) is continuous. n − 2 .MATHS FORMULA .6450883. z b a f x dx ch < z ch z a π /2 cosn x dx = z 0 sinn x dx |f x dx| = X. then m(b – a) < ψ(x)) – dφ (x) U R S T dx V W f(x. | − n n 2 3 S − − π n 1 n 3 1 | | T n . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S u(x) z f(t) dt = z 0 π /2 n sin x dx or z 0 cosn x dx PAGE # 157 E D U C A T I O N S .or integration steps (a) (b) (c) Differentiation Under Integral Sign : Leibnitz's Rule : (i) If f(x) is continuous and u(x). b]. dx dx ..1. and f(x. 2405510 PAGE # 158 . t) dt O P = P Q ψ (x) φ(x) z f (x.) Ph.. 0744 .. d dx nT zch f x dx = zch zch a nT f x dx .6450883. f x dx = (n – m) f x dx .. then.) Ph. v(x) are differentiable z 0 sinm x cosn x dx follow the following If m is odd put cos x = t If n is odd put sin x = t If m and n are even use sin2x = 1– cos2x or cos2x = 1 – sin2x and then use π /2 d functions in the interval [a.POCKET BOOK (ii) If the function φ(x) and ψ(x) are defined on [a. . dx d d f{v(x)} {v(x)} – f{u(x)} {u(x)}... VIII. 608-A.. 608-A. Reduction . φ(x)). π /2 if n is odd if n is even g x dx (ii) . b). b]. b]. . zch b a b a 3. 0 0 mT zch T b +nT a+ nT zch zch b f x dx = f x dx a L M M N ψ (x) φ(x) z f (x. 0744 .

... . * z 0 c h f csin xh + fccos xh dx = f sin x π /2 zc 0 f sin x + f cos x dx f cos x c h h c h . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 159 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883.) Ph..] (m − n) (m + n − 2) . e −ax xndx = n! a +1 n (ii) lim π /2 (vi) z 0 r 1 f n r =1 n . f x dx = h →0 +f(a + (n – 1)h] (v) z 0 ∞ where nh = b – a.] [(n − 1) (n − 3) ..... M m+n m+n−2 3 +n 1+n M M m−1 m−3 1 n−1 n−3 2 . 2 ....e...I ∑G HJ K n = zch 1 0 f x dx sinn x cosm x dx [i... 2 + n..6450883... 2405510 PAGE # 160 .. if m is odd and n may be even or odd ..MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n . the given series in the form ∑nfG K H nJ 1 ... Summation of series by Definite integral or limit as a sum : (iii) z 0 ∞ e − ax cos bx dx = a a2 + b2 (iv) z 0 ∞ e−ax sinbx dx = b a + b2 2 (i) zch b a n→∞ lim h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +.... if m is enen and n is odd . 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. m + n − 2 .. exp.) Ph.. .POCKET BOOK 4. 608-A. .. 2 .. 0744 .rI = m−1 m−3 2 1 L . if m is even and n is even OP PP PP PP Q replace r 1 by x and by dx and the limit of the n n sum is These formulae can be expressed as a single formula : π /2 zch 1 0 f x dx ] z 0 sinm x cos n x dx 5. by π when m and n are both even 2 * z 0 π /2 logsin x dx = z 0 logcos x dx = −π log2 2 π /2 to be multiplied integers.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 608-A.. . Key Results : π /2 = [(m − 1) (m − 3). M m+n m+n−2 2 +n n n−2 3 M M m−1 m−3 1 n−1 n−3 1 π M Nm + n. n − 2. .

7.MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. then If a < b then ze a 0 a2 − x2 j n 2. 608-A..5 . G H I J K if a > 0 if m. fctan xh + fccot xh * z a 0 x2 a2 − x2 dx = πa4 16 π /2 * z 0 π /2 sinmx sin nx dx = 0 R | π S | T2 z 0 cos mx ..) Ph..POCKET BOOK π /2 = z 0 f tan x + f cot x c f tan x c h c h π /2 h dx = z 0 c h dx f csec xh + f ccos ecxh f sec x f cot x * ze a 0 x dx a2 + x2 j 3/2 dx = 1 2a2 ... 0744 . 0744 . 2n 2n+1 dx = 3. 6. 2405510 PAGE # 162 . cos nx dx * z a 0 x2 π 2 a2 − x2 − dx = a3 4 3 a+ x . n are different + ve int egers if m = n = 2a * z 0 2ax − x2 dx = πa2 2 * z a 0 a2 − x2 dx = π 2 a 4 * * If n ∈ N.. 2405510 E D U C A T I O PAGE # 161 E D U C A T I O N S . 2n + 1 a c c h h * z a 0 π 1 dx = 2 a2 − x2 (i) * z a 0 z b a dx x−a b−x =π x a − x2 2 2 dx = a (ii) * z a 0 N S z a 0 a 0 x−a π b−a dx = a+x 2 c h x a2 − x2 dx = πa 3a + 6 8 2 2 (iii) zc x − a b − x dx = π b − a 2 2 hc h c h ..POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 4...6450883. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. = zc f cos ec x f cos ec x + f sec x c h c h π /2 h dx= z 0 c h dx = π/4.6450883.

z a 0 a a+x π +2 dx = 2 a−x c h * f(c) = 1 f x dx is called the mean value of the b−a a zch b (ii) z a 0 fun. If f(x) is a periodic fun. f(x) on the interval [a. The no.6450883. b]. The above result is called the first mean value theorem for integrals.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 163 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. 2k a− x a π −2 a + x dx = 2 c h zd 0 a x − x dx = k.t (iv) * z b a x cx − ahcb − xh dx = π ab 2 ab > 0 If a > 0 then (i) zch b a f x dx = f(c) [b – a]. then a+ T a+ x a − x dx = .MATHS FORMULA . b) s. I π + 1J a G H2 K * π 2a a π /4 If a > 0. 0744 . 608-A. b > 0) x . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b] then there exists a point c ∈ (a. then (i) z 0 zch z c 0 f x dx is independent of a. 608-A.POCKET BOOK * If f(x) is continuous on [a. n ∈ N. where k ∈ I. i (iii) (iv) * z z a 0 a 0 a+ x a− x dx = 10 a a 3 * Q x – [x] is a periodic function with period 1.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. with period T. 0744 . log 1 + tan x dx = h π log2 8 ∞ x e −ax dx = a > 0 ∞ (ii) z e −r 2 2 x dx = 0 π (r > 0) 2r (iii) z 0 ∞ e−ax − e −bx dx = loge(b/a) (a. 2405510 PAGE # 164 .

degree of (i) 1 (ii) 2 & (iii) 2 3. Integrate both sides i. 608-A. 0744 ..) Ph. z dy = g(y) (C) Homogeneous Equations : It is a differential equation z f(x) dx + c + dy + 5y = 0 dx f(x. y) and g(x...IRST ORDER AND .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . I G H J K x or yn f y . dX AX + BY Solve it and then put X = x – h.MATHS FORMULA . Equations Reducible to Homogeneous form and variable separable form ..POCKET BOOK (B) Variable Separable . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y) is said to be homogeneous of the form y of degree n if it can be written as xn f x (ii) dy y = x + dx .IRST DEGREE : (A) Differential equation of the form dy = f(y) dx dy = f(x) or dx * ax + by + c dy = Ax + By + C dx .. 2405510 PAGE # 166 .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.ERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1. Order of a differential equation : The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative occurring in it. 608-A. PAGE # 165 E D U C A T I O N S . A function f(x. d yI G H dx J K 3 3 2 + dy I . SOLUTIONS O.orm where order of (i) 2 (ii) 1 & (iii) 3. THE . y) dy = . 0744 .. The given equation will have variables separable in v and x. After substituting y = vx or x = vy.e. 1+ G K H dx J + 5y = 0 (D) Such an equation can be solved by putting y = vx or x = vy. .ERENTIAL EQUATIONS O. dX dx find h. Degree of a differential equation : The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative occurring in it when the derivatives are made free from the radical sign.6450883. I G H J K (iii) . This is homogeneous. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . where f(x. Y = y – k we shall get the solution. DI.... or z dy = f(y) z z dy = z f(x) dx Then dx to get its solution. (1) a b ≠ A B This is non Homogeneous Put x = X + h and y = Y + k in (1) ∴ dy dY = Put ah + bk + c = 0.6450883.. g(x. Eg.orm : Differential equation of dy = f(x) g(y) dx This can be integrated as DI. Ah + Bk + C = 0.) Ph. y) dx y) are homogeneous functions of x and y of the same degree. k dY aX + bY = .. (i) d2 y dx 2 the form 2. dy I 1+G J H dx K 2 2 .

e z R.POCKET BOOK * In x : dx + Rx = S. 608-A. its solution ye z P dx = z Qe z P dx dx + c where e z P dx is called the integrating factor (I.POCKET BOOK * . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) of the equation.. S are functions of y dy ax + by + c dy = + By + C Ax dx a b = = k say A B . 2405510 PAGE # 168 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 167 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 .dy is called the integrating factor (I.) Ph. where R. log c etc.) Equation reducible to linear form : * Differential equation of the form dy dx ⇒ dz kz + c = A + B dx z+c This is variable separable form and can be solved. alone or constant. ec.. 608-A. Q are function of x dx ⇒ The given equation will be linear in z and can be solved in the usual manner.6450883. its solution x e where k (Ax + By) + c dy = ∴ Ax + By + C dx Put Ax + By = z z R dy = z S. (1). we get y–n Put ∴ dz = a + b f(z) dx This is variable separable form and can be solved..orm where MATHS FORMULA .6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.orm = f(ax + by + c) dx + Py = Qyn Put ax + by = z ⇒ a + b dy dz = dx dx where P and Q are functions of x or constant is called Bernoulli's equation. (. 0744 . * dy .) Ph... Note : In general solution of differential equation we can take integrating constant c as tan–1 c.. On dividing through out by yn. according to our convenience.) of the equation.dy dy + c ⇒ dy dz A + B = dx dx e z R.MATHS FORMULA . (E) * Linear equation : In y : dy + py–n dx y–n + 1 + 1 = Q = z dy + Py = Q. alone or constant. .. where P..

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Triangle law of addition : AB + BC = AC 6. r a Vector a $ = (b) Unit vector : = a |a | Magnitude of a (c) Equal vector : Two vectors a and b are said to be equal if |a| = |b| and they have the same direction. y2. c of the point C dividing [AB] in ratio m1 : m2 is given by r r m1b + m2a r c = m +m 1 2 (ii) (iii) p. of A + p. then m a is a vector and r magnitude of m a = m|a| r $ $ i + a2 j + a3 k and if a = a1 $ r $ $ then m a = (ma1) $ i + (ma2) j + (ma3) k 2. of terminal pt – p. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. any vector = p. the p. 2405510 PAGE # 170 .POCKET BOOK 4. of the mid point of [AB] is 1 [p. 0744 .v.v.6450883. z2) → c = a + b –b + – a C = Magnitude of AB = 7.) Ph.6450883.v.e.v. of B] 2 If point C divides AB in the ratio m1 : m2 externally. –c = – b (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1)2 + (z2 − z1 )2 A – a B 3. then p.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points - VECTORS 1.v. AB = OB – OA = Position vector of B – position vector of A i. Parallelogram law of addition : OA + OB = OC a + b = c B – b C Position vector of a dividing point : r (i) If A( a ) & B( b ) be two distinct pts.v. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar : r r If a is a vector and m is a scalar. Types of vectors : (a) Zero or null vector : A vector whose magnitude is zero is called zero or null vector.v. Distance between two points : Distance between points A(x1. of C is c = D where OC is a diagonal of the parallelogram OABC – a A m1 b − m2 a m1 − m2 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 169 E D U C A T I O N S . y1. 5.MATHS FORMULA . of initial pt. z1) and B(x2. 608-A. 0744 . 608-A.) Ph.

m. c = |AB| a+b+c 8.v.e. n all non zero such that l a + m b + n c = 0. then GA + GB + GC = 0 If O is the circumcentre of a ∆ABC. a Component of r on a = |a |2 Component of r ⊥ . then AD + BE + C. c be three non coplanar non zero vector then x a + y b + z c = 0 r r a+b+c B( b ) and C ( c ) is 3 (v) p. remaining two vectors i.$ i = j. Coplanar and non coplanar vector : (i) If a .$ =k i . 0744 . CA & AB respectively. 608-A.v. then a vector c can be expressed uniquely as linear combination of aα + bβ + cγ where a = |BC|. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. l + m + n = 0 (iv) (v) a. b . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 171 E D U C A T I O N S . a . of the incentre of the triangle formed by the points r r r A( α ). y = 0. b = |a| |b| cosθ Projection of a in the direction of b = a. E. then OA + OB + OC = 3 OG = OH where G is centriod and H is orthocentre of ∆ABC. are the mid points of sides BC. I G H J Ka . B( β ) and C( γ ) is ⇒ x = 0. = 0 (ii) (iii) If G is the centriod of ∆ABC.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . b = |CA|.) Ph. a I to a = r – G H|a| J Ka 2 $ $ $ $ .e. b | b| (iv) If H is orthocentre of ∆ABC. Collinearity of three points : (i) (ii) Three points A. Some results : (i) If D. r. z = 0 (ii) If a . b . c be three coplanar vectors. then HA + HB + HC = 3 HG = OH 9.POCKET BOOK (iv) p. r = x a + y b + z c 11. of centriod of triangle formed by the points A( a ). c = λ a + µ b (iii) Any vector r can be expressed uniquely as inner combination of three non coplanar & non zero vectors a . MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK 10.6450883.k i =0 .6450883. b . 608-A. b and c i.) Ph. . c to be collinear is that there exist three scalars l.v.k $ =1 i . The necessary and sufficient condition for three points with p. B and C are collinear if AB = λ AC for some non zero scalar λ. b & Projection of b in the direction of a = | a| (iii) r. Products of vectors : (I) (i) (ii) Scalar or dot product of two vectors : a .j = k $ $ $ $ $. j = j . 2405510 PAGE # 172 .

. b are parallel ⇔ a × b = 0 a × b = –( b × a ) $ =± n 1 |a × b | 2 a×b | a × b| (xii) Moment of . c are p. b . 0744 . then area = (II) Vector or cross product of two vectors : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) $ a × b = |a| |b| sinθ n if a . b (xiii) Lagrange's identity : | a × b |2 = a. b is not defined (ix) (x) (xi) ( a ± b )2 = a2 ± 2 a . of vertices of ∆ABC.) Ph. then a .6450883. is force vector and d (xi) 1 |( a × b ) + ( b × c ) + ( c × a )| 2 Area of parallelogram : (a) If a & b are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram.POCKET BOOK (vii) a × ( b × c ) = ( a × b ) × c (viii) a × ( b + c ) = ( a × b ) + ( a × c ) (ix) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ i × $ i = j × j = k × k = 0. b are ⊥ ⇔ a .MATHS FORMULA . b = 0 (viii) ( a . $ $ = $. = r × .) Ph.6450883.POCKET BOOK (vi) If a and b are like vectors. b ). b = | a || b | and If a and b are unlike vectors. $ i × j = k.v. a a. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. acting at a point A about O is Moment of force = OA × . b + b2 | a + b | = | a| + | b | | a + b |2 = |a|2 + |b|2 MATHS FORMULA . then = (xiii) work done by the force : where . d . b b. b = –| a || b | (vii) a . 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . is displacement vector. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 174 . then area = | a × b | (b) If a and b are two diagonals of a parallelogram. then $ $ $ j k i a a2 a3 a × b = 1 b1 b2 b3 a. 0744 . 608-A. b (III) Scalar triple product : r r $.orce : Moment of the force . b = b $ $ and (i) If a = a1 $ + b2 $ j + a3 k j + b3 k i + a2 $ 1i r $ then c = c1 $ j + c3 k i + c2 $ (vi) a × a =0 PAGE # 173 E D U C A T . then a . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. $ $ $ $ let a = a1 $ i + a2 j + a3 k & b = b1 $ i + b2 j + b3 k . k $ × $ = $ j × k j i i Area of triangle : (a) (b) (x) ⇒ a || b ⇒ a ⊥ b a ⊥ b 1 2 AB × AC (xii) | a + b | = | a – b | work done = . ⇒ If a .

) Ph.POCKET BOOK (d) If r b r a r c r r r a . r r r r r r ( a × b ). b .( b × c ) etc. Application of Vector in Geometry : (i) (ii) (ix) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD is → → → a b c r $ are r . 0744 . r r r r r r (iv) ( a × b ). r r r r r (iii) [ a b c ] = 0 if any two of the three vectors a . c + a and a – b . r . r – a are also coplanar. c ) b – ( a . r r a × b. b r & c are collinear 12. c are coplanar. a . c ) a r r r r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) = ( a .MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b . b .our points with p. b . b .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . C.6450883. a+b+c Orthocentre formula : The position vector of the r r r a tan A + b tan B + c tan C orthocentre of ∆ ABC is tan A + tan B + tan C (iii) [ AB AC AD ] = 0 r r r r (xii) (a) [ a + b b + c r r r r (b) [ a – b b – c r r r r (c) [ a × b b × c E D U C A T I O N S → → → r r r r r c + a ] = 2[ a b c ] r r c – a] = 0 r r r r r c × a ] = [ a b c ]2 PAGE # 175 E D U C A T (iv) Vector equation of a straight line passing through a r fixed point with position vector a and parallel to a r r r r given vector b is r = a + λb . c be any three vectors. D are coplanar if $] = 1 [$ jk i $ (IV) Vector triple Product : r r r r r r If a . c = [ a b c ] = a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c 2 c 3 r r b – c. $ + bj $ + ck Direction cosines of r = ai |r | |r | |r | Incentre formula : The position vector of the incentre r r r aa + bb + cc of ∆ ABC is . 2405510 I O N S . . r r r r r r r r r but [ a b c ] = – [ b a c ] = – [ a c b ] etc. c ) b – (b . r . c . (v) r r r r r r (vi) If λ is a scalar. b . 608-A. c r r r r r r r r r (ii) [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ]. b ) c r r r r r r Clearly in general a × ( b × c ) ≠ ( a × b ) × c but r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = a × ( b × c ) if and only if a . AD | 6 r r r r (x) . d will be coplanar if r r r r r r r r r r r r [d b c ] + [d c a] + [d a b] = [a b c ] (xi) . r r r and [ a b c ] = volume of the parallelopiped whose r r r coterminus edges are formed by a .v. c are coplanar ⇔ [ a b c ] = 0 1 | AB × AC .our points A.6450883. then ( a × b ) × c r r r and a × ( b × c ) are known as vector triple product and is defined as r r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = ( a . r c are collinear or equal. c = a . 608-A.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b + c . then [λ a b c ] = λ[ a b c ] r r r r r r r r r r (vii) [ a + d b c ] = [ a b c ] + [ d b c ] r r r r r r (viii) a . then so are r r r × c . 2405510 PAGE # 176 . B. 0744 . c × a and r r r r r r r + b .

( r − a ). a b a . b × c + c × a + a × b = [ abc ]. Then. r . n2 r r r2 . 2405510 PAGE # 178 . 1 2 (xiii) The equation of the planes bisecting the angles r r between the planes r1 .( r r −b c h ⇒ r r r r [ a2 − a1 b1b2 ] = 0 c h ⇒ r ca 2 r r r − a1 .n2 = d2 is given by cos θ = ± |n ||n | . |n| (xv) If the position vectors of the extremities of a diamr r eter of a sphere are a and b . The perpendicular distance of a point having position r r r vector a from the plane r.n − d| r p= . then to reduce the equation r r r r . e j (vi) Shortest distance between two parallel lines : Let l1 and l2 be two lines whose equations are l 1 : r r r r r r r = a1 + λb1 and l2 : r = a2 + µb2 respectively.MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. shortest distance e c h j (x) PQ = cb 1 × b2 . then its equation is r r r r r r r r r ) = 0 or | r |2 – r − + . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. [ b1 b2 a2 − a1 ] = 0 n1 . 0744 . then the shortest distance between them is zero.n − d| r if = R. n |n| |n| |n| .6450883. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S e j PAGE # 177 E D U C A T I O N S . (ix) Vector equation of a plane passing through a point r r r r rrr abc is r = 1 − s − t a + sbt + c r r r r r r r rrr or r. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n1 = d1 and r .POCKET BOOK (viii) The equation of the plane passing through a point r r r having position vector a and parallel to b and c is r r r r rrr rrr r = a + λb + µc or [ r bc ] = [ abc ]. |n| r r (xii) An angle θ between the planes r1.n r If n is not a unit vector.n = d touches the sphere | r − a | = R. b1 × b2 h e j = 0. r (vii) Vector equation of a plane normal to unit vector n and at a distance d from the origin is r $ = d.POCKET BOOK (v) The vector equation of a line passing through two r r points with position vectors a and b is r r r r r =a+ λb−a .b = 0.n1 = d1 and c h If the lines r r r r = a1 + λb1 and r r r r = a2 + µb2 intersect.n2 = d2 are |n1| |n2| r r r r (xiv) The plane r . |b| c h constant.) Ph.6450883. n2 = d2 is r r r . to obtain or r . 608-A. 0744 . r . a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 | h c h= b1 b2 a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 | c h (xi) The equation of any plane through the intersection r r r r of planes r .n = d is given by r r |a. where λ and µ are scalars. r r |a.n2 − d2| r r = r r and r2 . n1 + λn2 = d1 + λd2. Therefore.n1 = d1 r r r r |r. n = d to normal form we divide both sides by | n | r r n r d $ = d r = r r . MATHS FORMULA . where λ is an arbitrary shortest distance between two parallel lines : The r r r shortest distance between the parallel lines r = a1 + λb r r r | a2 − a1 × b| r r r r and r = a2 + µb is given by d = .n1 − d1| |r.

G x H 1 + x2 + x3 + x 4 y1 + y2 + y3 + y 4 z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 . 3. OY. y2. y. z) from coordinate axes OX. γ are the angles which a directed line The coordinates of a point which divides the join of (x1. y1. . 2405510 PAGE # 180 . Points in Space : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) Origin is (0. J m−n K 1 segment makes with the +ve direction of the coordinate axes. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. β . 0.MATHS FORMULA . G H m−n 2 2 1 . γ ≤ π .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . y = 0 (vi) Equation of ZOX plane is y = 0 (vii) Equation of XOY plane is z = 0 2. y1. y. OZ is given by * Volume of tetrahedron = 1 6 y 2 + z2 . G H m+n mx − nx . z2) is given by AB = (ii) (x 2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y1 )2 + (z 2 − z1 )2 . z1) and B(x2. l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1.e. m+n m+n my2 − ny1 m−n 2 * Externally are 1 .6450883.POCKET BOOK * Coordinates of the centroid of a triangle are x .) Ph. then l = cos α . 0744 . x = 0 Equation of YOZ plane is x = 0 + x 2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y 3 z1 + z 2 + z3 . z1) and (x2. n = cos γ are called direction cosines of the line and cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 i. 4 4 4 Note : * Area of triangle is given by ∆ = 2 2 ∆2 x + ∆y + ∆z y1 1 y 2 Where ∆x = 2 y 3 z1 1 z2 1 z3 1 and so.6450883. β. Distance formula : (i) Distance between two points A(x1. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 179 E D U C A T I O N S . 3 3 3 I J K I J K * Coordinates of centroid of a tetrahedron (iv) Equation of z-axis is x = 0.) Ph. . m = cos β . 608-A. Section formula : z2 + x2 and x2 + y2 4. 0) & point (x. z) = 2 2 2 + y1 + z1 x1 * x1 − x2 y1 − y2 z1 − z2 Condition of collinearity x − x = y − y = z − z 2 3 2 3 2 3 x1 x2 x3 x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 z1 z2 z3 z4 1 1 1 1 (iii) Distance of a point p(x. Distance between origin (0. G H 1 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 1. where 0 ≤ α. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line : * If α . 0) Equation of x-axis is y = 0. 0744 . z = 0 Equation of y-axis is z = 0. my 2 + ny1 mz 2 + nz1 . 608-A. y2. IJ K mz − nz I . z2) in the ratio m : n * Internally are mx + nx .

l .) Ph. b. . then a2 + b2 + c2 need not to be equal to 1. Direction cosines of x-axis are 1. * The lines are || if a1 b1 c1 = = a2 b2 c2 and Note : Direction cosines of a line are unique but the direction ratios of line are not unique. y2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n are d. c are called direction ratios of the line and MATHS FORMULA . of a line. n. c are direction no. 0.MATHS FORMULA .c. r r r m1 n1 l1 l2 = m2 = n2 and * The lines are ⊥ if l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 * The angle θ between the lines whose d. m. n = (x2 – x1) l + (y2 – y1)m + (z2 – z1)n. 0. y1. n respectively.'s a. Shortest distance between two skew lines.6450883. 608-A.'s l .6450883. z2). z1) & Q(x2. m. If P(x1. c1 and a2.s of a line OP and (x. 1. where P is (x1.s are a1.'s are l 1. 0 and 0. m. m. b. 2405510 PAGE # 182 . 608-A. similarly direction cosines of y-axis and z-axis are respectively 0. * x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = and m1 n1 l1 x − x2 y − y2 z − z2 = = is given m2 n2 l2 * form) Equation of a line passing through two points is . n are direction cosines of a line and a. b2. m. z1) and Q(x2. z2) be two points and L be a line with d. 0744 . where p(x1.c. y. z) are coordinates of P then x = l r.r. y1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. The lines are || if m n l = = =± a b c * l 2 + m2 + n2 a2 + b2 + c 2 =± 1 a + b2 + c2 2 . 0. c are proportional to l .r.. y1. b1.POCKET BOOK x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 x2 − x1 = y2 − y1 = z2 − z1 * The angle θ between the lines whose d.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 181 E D U C A T I O N S . b. 1. z1) and Q(x2. * Two straight lines in space (not in same plane) which are neither parallel nor intersecting are called skew lines. m1. b. c is x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = (is the symmetrical a c b The lines are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0 Length of the projection of PQ upon AB with d.POCKET BOOK * If l . y2. If l . y2. then projection of [PQ] on L = l (x2 – x1) + m(y2 – y1) + n(z2 – z1) 5. Straight line in space : * Equation of a straight line passing through a fixed point and having d. c2 is given by cos θ = ± * a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 2 2 2 + b1 + c1 a1 2 2 a2 2 + b2 + c 2 * If a. Direction cosines of PQ = r. m2. y = mr and z = nr where r = OP.c. n2 is given by cos θ = l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2. then a.c. z2) are x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z 2 − z1 . 0744 . n1 and l 2.

m. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . Plane : A plane is a surface such that if two points are taken in it. where l . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA .6450883. y and z is x y z + + = 1. y1. C. b. plane are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0 a1 b1 c1 plane are || if a = b = c = 0.d. Equation of plane passing through a point (x1.s proportional to A. z1) is A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0. straight line joining them lies wholly in the surface.'s of a normal to the plane. Equation of plane through the intersection of two planes P ≡ a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and Q ≡ a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is P + λ Q = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. B.) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 184 .'s of the normal to the plane and p is the length of perpendicular from the origin. 608-A. 2 2 2 . B. c respectively on the axes x. a c b PAGE # 183 E D U C A T I O N S x x1 x2 x3 y y1 y2 y3 z 1 z1 1 z2 1 z3 1 = 0 or * x − x1 x2 − x1 x3 − x1 y − y1 z − z1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1 = 0 * The angle between the two planes is given by cos θ = ± a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 2 2 2 2 2 + b1 + c1 a1 a2 2 + b2 + c 2 where θ is the angle between the normals.c.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . a c b x2 − x1 s. where A. * Equation of plane which cuts off intercepts a.POCKET BOOK * Normal form of the equation of plane is l x + my + nz = p. n are the d. C are d. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.c.) Ph. 0744 . Equation of plane through origin is given by Ax + By + Cz = 0. * * * Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 represents a plane whose normal has d. * ax + by + cz + k = 0 represents a plane || to the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ⊥ to the line x y z = = .6450883. = ± l1 l2 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 m1 n1 m2 n2 (m1n2 − m2n1)2 + (n1 l2 − l1n2 )2 + (l1m2 − m1 l2 )2 * Two straight lines are coplanar if they are intersecting or parallel x2 − x1 condition l1 l2 y2 − y1 m1 m2 z2 − z1 n1 = 0 n2 * Equation of plane through three non collinear points is 6.r.

0744 . z1) to a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d a2 + b2 + c 2 The line is || to the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0. The line lies in the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0 and ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 The angle θ between the line and the plane is given by sin θ = p= * Distance between two parallel planes (ax + by + cz + d1 = 0.6450883. according as the expression ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d are of same or different sign. cr + γ ) * Length of the ⊥ from P(x1.POCKET BOOK * If AP be the ⊥ from A to the given plane. y1. 608-A. where A l + Bm + Cn = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y2. 0744 . y1. so that its equation is x−α y−β z−γ = = = r (say) a c b MATHS FORMULA . z1) to the line * Bisector of the angles between the planes a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are x−α y−β z−γ = = is given by m n l + m(y1 – β ) + n(z1 – γ )]2 p2 = (x1 – α )2 + (y1 – β )2 + (z1 – γ )2 – [ l (x1 – α ) a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 2 2 2 + b1 + c1 a1 = ± a2 x + b2 y + c2 z + d2 2 2 a2 2 + b2 + c 2 if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 is –ve then origin lies in the acute angle between the planes provided d1 and d2 are of same sign. then m n l * * * * The line is ⊥ to the plane if a b c = = m n l Any point P on it is (ar + α .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then it is || to the normal. z2) lie on the same or different sides of the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0. Line and Plane : If ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane and x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = represents a straight line. 2405510 PAGE # 186 .) Ph. br + β .6450883. Length of the perpendicular from a point (x1. * A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0. ax + by + cz + d2 = 0) is given by d2 − d1 a + b2 + c2 2 al + bm + cn a2 + b2 + c2 l2 + m2 + n2 * General equation of the plane containing the line x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = is n m l * Two points A(x1.POCKET BOOK 7. z1) and B(x2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 185 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . y1. .