Introduction In my essay I will be discussing climate change as a whole, how humans cause it and also the natural causes

of it and thereafter I will be discussing the effects of climate change on our environment and the lives of living species and possible solutions to overcome it. The reason why my topic is of interest is because climate change is a serious matter as it can affect our ecosystems and our lifestyles. Climate change plays an importance in geography because it can affect our natural scenery and features of our world, like our flora and fauna.

plant. hydrogen. Greenhouse gasses: A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation. an organism is any connecting living system (such as animal. Chlorofluorocarbons: Any of a class of compounds of carbon. heat. In at least some form. Methane: Methane is a chemical compound. typically gases used chiefly in refrigerants and aerosol Carbon dioxide: A colourless. 8th Edition.g. and fluorine.Vocabulary (“Emissions: the production or sending of light. e. CO2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration and absorbed by plants in. chlorine. gas. fungus. Climate: The weather conditions prevailing in an area over a long period. or micro-organism). .1990. all. carbon dioxide. It is an alkane and it is the primary component of natural gasses Flora and fauna: In biology.’’) Concise oxford Dictionary. odourless gas.

This results temperatures to increase thus causing climate change. such as Carbon dioxide which human contribute to. volcanoes and tsunamis just to mention a few. It may be a change in the average weather condition or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average. however now it is proven that the weather changes are also caused by human activities. on page 9. Below are just a few examples of the natural factors of climate change that occurs in Africa. These disasters results in a disturbance in the atmosphere which results in climate change”) Agrafioti 2011:2. for example. Natural factors: Drought –a drought basically occurs when there is no rainfall present over a period of time. The current climate changes are due to global warming and the high emission of greenhouse gasses. greater or fewer extreme weather events”) Agrafioti 2011:1. Climate change also causes rising sea levels which will be caused by ice caps and glaciers melting due to the increase in temperature. the graph shows the different amount of gas emissions. The land becomes hot and dry. Causes of climate change? The causes of climate change are separated into two categories: natural causes and those that are created by human. tornadoes. The air becomes humid and there is a lack of rainfall over a period of time. The changes have previously been due to nature.Climate change refers to the changing of weather patterns over a period of time. To what extent does climate change originate from an unpredictable nature? (“Climate change mostly originates from natural disasters such as hurricanes. .What is climate change? (“Climate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years.

when the sun bursts it gives of small particles which are extremely hot.When plants absorb in carbon dioxide through their stoma which is a natural process.) Singh 2008:41. the stoma decreases in size resulting in less water being emitted into the air thus decreasing the coolness of the atmosphere making temperatures warmer therefore causing a change in the climate. The more carbon dioxide means the more chances of adding to global warming thus resulting in climate change. heavy storms and floods”. lake and sea levels. The majority of carbon dioxide is given off from wetlands. water is produced in the stoma and when there is a decrease in carbon dioxide.(“the ocean plays an important role in determining the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide”) Kapadia 2004:3.due to the changes of temperature either caused by a natural cause or by human activities. it therefore causes everything to rise and resulting in land sinking. Sun spots. Earths orbital changes.volcano eruptions gives off carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. When the ocean changes its circulation it may result in affecting the climate because carbon dioxide is moved in and out of our atmosphere during this circulation process. Ocean current. Geographical features. Natural vegetation. . rainfall either increases or decreases. When there is an increase in rainfall it causes wetlands to be present and wetlands starts to produce more methane. This results in hotter the earth turns around the orbit it either moves closer to the sun or further away from the sun thus resulting in either a decrease of temperature or an increase in temperature. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas thus it promotes global warming resulting in climate change. Solar variation-the movements that occurs in space sometimes takes place irregularly thus resulting in climate change.(“when glaciers melt. it leads to an increase in river. This greenhouse gas is released into the air thus adding to global warming therefore resulting in climate change. Natural water supplies.Volcanic eruptions.

Large scale deforestation: The cutting of trees is rapidly increasing.) Singh 2008:49 . To what extent does climate change originate from human actions? Global warming. the more nitrous oxide are being released into the atmosphere thus polluting the air in the atmosphere and therefore causing climate changes resulting from global warming because (“petrol. The heat drives weather and increased water levels. detergents and refrigerators”. the more vehicles that are being used. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS): CFCS react with oxygen in the atmosphere and breaks down the ozone layer.cement is a key component used for constructions of buildings and bridges. Humans play a significant role in contributing to the increase in global warming”) Jackson 2004:2.Natural building materials. diesel are both fossil fuels”. thus the burning of fossil fuels increase to meet the needs of the people because some people burn these fuels as a source of energy to keep warm. the factories and businesses increases thus leading to pollution of the earth because of harmful gases produced by factories. causing the increase of ultra violet rays from the sun thus leads to heating up the earth. such as (“deodorants.) Jackson 2004:5 Urbanisation: When people from the rural area migrate to the city and the central business district (CBD) resulting in the city becoming over populated. this means that the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are increasing and more carbon dioxide heat is absorbed in the atmosphere therefore results in an increase of temperature leading to climate change.(“when the earth retains more heat from the sun over time. There are products that release carbon dioxide in the air. This cement gives off methane and methane is one of the greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming resulting in climate change. Such as from: Car exhaust pollutants (transport): motor vehicles produces nitrous oxide. Demands of consumers: this causes the needs of people to increase as the population increases.

Mining. It is becoming a threat to many ecosystems and species.when people burn fossil fuels for greater energy supply such as coal.(“cows are responsible for the release of methane gas. The effects of climate change (both present and in the future) on human activities and the environment in Africa as a result of observations and climatic records. trees. (“According to the UN cattle ranching is responsible for 18% of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. annexure 3 and 4 supports my information on how it will affect South Africa. . trees take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. E.when mining takes place. The greater amount of fossil fuels burnt the greater amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air thus causing climate change. Burning of fossil fuels. yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50% in some regions by 2020. This gas has the ability to heat up the air 20 times faster than carbon dioxide”. by burning agriculture it destroys and depletes many habitats and species which plays a key role in the contribution to the carbon percentage in the atmosphere. Our diversity in Africa will be 2o2o. (“Africa. and this beats the emissions from all forms of transport combined”) Singh 2008:49.) Singh 2008:49 this causes global warming. Cattle farming. methane is released from the ground and is emitted into the air thus adding to greenhouse gases because methane is a greenhouse gas therefore causing global warming and climate change. By burning trees it will interfere with the life cycle. agriculture production including access to food. Many species will end up as fossils and extinct.Burning of agriculture. between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to increase water.g. carbon dioxide is a bi-product which is released into the air. may be severely compromised”) Climate change in Africa 2007:1 Climate change is going to impact the world in a way we don’t realize.veld fires and the burning of trees and forests impacts negatively on the environment.

Some plants and animals become scarce. Due to the climate changing food prices will go up people will have to spend more to survive the less fortunate will suffer severe hardships as supported in annexure 3 (“Higher temperatures and drought increase desertification Sea levels increase as icebergs and glaciers melt. Delicate marine ecosystems for example coral reefs and coastal areas are destroyed when sea levels increase. Food availability. Cholera and malaria are increased which are water borne diseases. Increased stress on water supply. Tropical cyclones. The changing rainfall patterns will result in the increase of sea levels and flooding. Rising food cost due in crop yields. thunder storms. tornadoes. Greater risk of wild fires. Our life cycle will not be functional Access to sea. Rainfall.It has been drastically affecting the environment by causing soil degradation.climate change can cause severe droughts and due to drought conditions there will be a rapid decrease in the amounts of crops growing and present crops will die thus this will affect the cycle of life to both human and animal life. This damages the lives of many and infrastructures of the habitats and ecosystems. Increase in mosquitos as they thrive in higher temperatures. Changing weather pattern. droughts are increased.increases over the years due to temperature increase. less fertile soil due to floods and therefore food supply will become scares due to the lack of crops growing.Because of climate change resulting from global warming the coral reefs are severely affected thus resulting in a depletion of marine life. .

- Heat waves will bring increased injuries and death.- Populations will migrate as desertification increase in the Sahara. Do not use chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’S) products thus try to reduce the carbon percentage in our atmosphere to avoid ozone depletion and thus saving our ecosystem. to decrease the burning of coal and the release carbon dioxide percentage. wide spread water stress. An additional 67 million people in Africa could be at risk of malaria epidemics by the 2080’s”) Singh 2008:50 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR AFRICA BY : Individuals and Communities: Use alternate sources of energy such as hydroelectric and solar. Encourage the planting of trees. Reduce cattle farming and methane emission example: reduce the meat intake in your diet. When doing construction and building. use materials that are reflective and transparent to deflect heat. dengue fever and cholera may increase. . Start using public transport instead of taking your car to work every day thus reducing the amount of gas emissions released in the atmosphere. instead of absorbing it. Promote recycling and use cotton bags so you can reuse it instead of purchasing plastic bags thus reducing pollution. The rising temperature. increased frequency and severity of draughts and floods and rising sea levels will severely damage progress on development goals in Africa. do it together as a community. Vector – and water-borne diseases such as malaria. Encourage to start thinking green as it will save future generations.

new buildings and factories are being built thus the greater amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere therefore leads to climate change. create penalties for those who pollute thus those ignorant about pollution will rectify their mistakes. The government should make use of such a protocol as it helps reduce the emissions of gases that cause the greenhouse effect which results in climate change. Carbon dioxide is harmful to our environment as it is one of the greenhouse gases and it leads to global warming therefore results in climate change. Annexure 1-The graph represented in annexure 1. The government should implement the “Kyoto Protocol” which is discussed in annexure 4 which was an agreement that was placed in many countries around the year of 1997. the highest gas given off is carbon dioxide. Higher temperatures and heavy rainfall will occur. Carbon dioxide is mostly contributed by human factors. From my graphs and articles we can see that as the years go by climate changes increases because of new infrastructure thus emitting more greenhouse gases and so forth. Annexure 2-As we can see in annexure 2 The reason why temperatures and rainfall is increasing in Africa is due to the fact that too many greenhouse gasses are being emitted into the environment because as years go by people and the world becomes modern. I have used a graph to show how much of carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere. . Findings and discussions In my opinion I think that human activities have a greater amount of impact on climate change than natural factors do. As humans we need to work together and stop emitting harmful gasses into the environment because these gases add to the greenhouse effect which results in climate change. Create educational programmes all over Africa to create an awareness to reduce pollution and one’s carbon footprint.GOVERNMENT: Stricter laws to curb pollution.

In my opinion I think that human have a greater amount of impact on climate change than natural factors.Conclusion In my essay I have defined what climate change is. . effects and given suggested solutions. As humans we need to work together and stop emitting harmful gasses into the environment because these gases add to the greenhouse effects which results in climate change. I have explained its causes.

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