CIVILIZATIA

1. United Kingdom
The official name of the country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. British Isles include Great Britain proper, Ireland and a number of small islands. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast respectively. The capital of the UK is London. Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a country, in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found. The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest cast, centre, and south-east — are vast plains. Mountains are not a high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain. The U.K. is a constitutional monarchy. In law, Head of the State is Queen. In practice, Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labor, the Conservative, and the Liberal parties

described as cool, temperate and humid. The weather in Britain changes very quickly. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January. Besides Britain is famous for I fogs. Sometimes fogs are so thick that it is impossible to see anything. We may say that the British climate has three main features: it is mild, humid and changeable. That means that it is never too hot or too cold. Winters are extremely mild. Snow may come but it melts quickly. In winter the cold is humid cold, not the dry one. This humid and mild climate is good for plants. The trees and flowers begin to blossom early in spring.

4. Customs and traditions in U.K.
British nation is considered to be the most conservative in Europe. It is not a secret that every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Great Britain people attach greater importance to traditions and customs than in other European countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. The best examples are their queen, money system, their weights and measures. People in Britain are fond of gardening. They like to plant and grow different flowers. The British have sentimental attitude to animals. They like to keep pets. The British are the sport loving nation. Sport is a popular leisure activity. Football and rugby are very popular with British people. Over three million people participate in basketball in the U.K. Horse-racing; "the sport of Kings" is a very popular sport. Polo is popular too. It was brought to Britain from India in the 19th century by the English soldiers. Fishing is one of the most popular sports. Traditionally, the favorite sports of the British upper class are hunting, shooting and fishing. The most widespread form of hunting is fox-hunting. This is a popular pastime among some members of the higher social classes and is a mark of their status. Darts is a very popular pub game. The British is a nation of tea-drinkers. It is a stereotype which is out-of-date. Of course, they like it to be made in a certain distinctive way — strong and with milk, but more coffee than tea is bought in the country's shops. Afternoon tea was always thought to be a very important tradition in the U.K.

2. London-capital of Great Britain
The capital of Great Britain is London. It's political, economic and commercial center of the country. London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. The heart of London is the City, its financial and business center. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is the St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. Another important monument of London is The Tower of London which was used for many purposes: as a royal palace, an observatory, an arsenal, a state prison and it is now a museum. Westminster is the governmental part of London. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big bell, known as "Big Ben". Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen. Trafalgar Square is the geographical center of London. On the north side of the Trafalgar Square is the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is also famous for its library.There are a lot of factories, workshops, and docks in the East End.

5. New Year's Day in UK
In Wales, the back door releases the Old Year at the first stroke of midnight: it is then locked "to keep the luck in", and at the last stroke the New-Year is let in at the front. New Year's Day is less important in England than Christmas. The most famous places of festivities are Piccadilly Circus and Trafalgar Square in London where crowds of people greet the New Year with the linked-arm singing of "Old Lang Syne". In Scotland, New Years celebration is the greatest festival of the year, where it even has a special name, Hogmanay. After midnight people visit their friends. They carry cakes and spiced ale to wish their hosts a good year. The first visitor must bring a special present — a piece of coal — to wish good luck and warmth to the house. This is an old Scottish custom.

3. Climate and Nature of Great Britain
Great Britain is situated on islands. It is washed by seas from all sides. That's why the climate and the nature of Great Britain are very specific. The climate in Britain is usually

6. Places of interest. There are a lot of places of interest in London. They are all worth seeing. Among them there are: Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace, St Paul’s Cathedral, London Bridge, and the Tower of London. London stands on the river Thames. Crossing the river by the Tower Bridge you can see the Tower of London. It is one of the oldest buildings of the city. Many centuries ago it was a fortress, a royal palace and then a prison. Now it is a museum of arms. On the bank of the Thames, not far from the Tower of London, you can see Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament. It is the seat of the British government and it is one of the most beautiful buildings in London. In one of its towers there is famous Big Ben, the largest clock of England. It strikes every quarter of a hour.Buckingham Palace is the Queen’s official London residence. Tourists always go to see the ceremony of changing the Guard there. London has many fine squares. Some of them are quiet, others are busy like Trafalgar Square. Trafalgar Square is the central square of the city. To the right of the square there is the National Gallery which has a fine collection of European paintings. St Paul’s Cathedral is the biggest English church. Another famous church is Westminster Abbey where kings, queens, and many famous people are buried. London is also famous for its beautiful parks. Hyde Park is the most democratic park in the world, as anyone can say anything he likes there. Regent’s Park is the home of London Zoo. 7. The British Press
The British Media consists of the press and radio and TV broadcasting. Probably in no other country are there such great differences the various national daily newspapers- in the type of news they report and the way they report it. On the one hand, there are the "quality" newspapers: The Times, The Independent, The Guardian, the Financial times and the Daily Telegraph. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international events, with the world of political and business and with the arts and sport. On the one hand, there are the "popular" and «tabloids", so-called because of their smaller size. The tabloids- the most widely read of which are The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, The Sun and the Daily Star- concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring sex, violence, the Royal Family, film and pop stars, and sport. Most of the "Sundays" contain more reading matter than daily papers, and several of them also include "color supplements"- separate color magazines which contain photographically-illustrated feature articles. The British are one of the biggest newspapersreading nations in the world. As far as broadcasting and telecasting are concerned there are two radio and TV stations. The first one — well-known BBC — British Broadcasting Corporation, and the second — IBA — Independent Broadcasting Authorities

10. Political system of United Kingdom
Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. It means that there is a Queen (or King) and the Parliament. The Queen has almost no power in the country. Her powers are limited by the Parliament. Laws are made by the Parliament. The Queen is only a formal ruler: she reigns but does not rule. In fact everything that she does is done on the active of her ministers, who are responsible for the royal acts. Thus, most of her functions are

symbolic. The Queen’s residence in London is Buckingham Palace. The British Parliament consists of two cambers: the House if Lords and the House of Commons. There are more than 1000 members in the House of Lords. Many seats are hereditary. The House of Commons has 635 members. They are elected by a general election (secret ballot). The government is headed by the Prime Minister, who is the leader of the party that has won the election. In Great Britain there are three main political parties: the Conservatives, the Lab our Party and the Liberals. 11. Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon lies at the very heart of England. It attracts people not only by its history and connection with William Shakespeare, but also by its wonderful nature and typical English character. Stratford stands on the river Avon and is one of the oldest market towns. It has still preserved its own character and atmosphere, as you will not see modern buildings there. The houses are small and lots of them are very old. Some of them date back to Shakespeare's time. Here you can visit Shakespeare's birthplace (it is a museum now), Anna Hathaway's cottage the foundations of the New Place, where Shakespeare lived when he retired and died in 1616. Just round the corner there is Grammar school that Shakespeare used to attend. Here in Stratford there is Holy Trinity Church where William Shakespeare was buried. Thousands of people from all parts of England and foreign visitors come hereon Shakespeare's birthday (23rd April) to pay tribute to the great poet. Among other sights connected with the name of Shakespeare there is an interesting monument with the statue of the great poet on top and with characters from his plays round it. And, of course, you should visit the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, a red-brick building standing on the banks of the Avon. The Royal Shakespeare Company, which is one of the best known and largest theatre companies in the world, regularly performs here and in the Barbican Centre in London. 12. Holidays in Great Britain English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them. There are many holidays in Great Britain. They are Christmas day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Easter, May Day, St.Valentine's Day. The most favorite holiday is Christmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It's a big Christmas tree and it stands in the Trafalgar Square. Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charities and sing carols, traditional Christmas songs. Many churches hold a service on the Sunday before Christmas. The fun starts the night before, on the 24th of December. Traditionally this is the day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stockings at their beds, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and fill them with toys and sweets. Christmas is a family holiday. All the family usually meets for the big Christmas dinner of turkey and Christmas pudding. And everyone gives and receives presents. The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday after Christmas. It’s the time to visit friends and relatives. New Year's Day is less popular in Britain then Xmas. Another best-loved holiday is St.Valentine's Day on the 14th of February - the holiday of love and affection, the day of sending and giving presents to those you love. In England, Easter is a church holiday. A custom is decorating eggs for children. Halloween is the day or evening before all Saint's Day. Children dress up in suits of the Halloween and masks and go on streets.

13. Educational system in Great Britain All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies. Education is compulsory from 5 till 16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class. At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups. At 16 pupils take a national exam called General Certificate of Secondary Education and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education. Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called «A» level (advanced level) at IS. Yon-need «A» level to enter a university. Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics. Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with «A» levels from 18. Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of fulltime study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony. 15. Washington Washington is the capital city of the United States. It’s located on the north bank of the Potomac River. It was called after George Washington; the first President of the USA, Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United States. It has little industry, and only one million people. One reason Washington looks different from other cities is that no building in the city may be more than 40 meters tall. There are no skyscrapers, because they would hide the city's many monuments from view. One can easily find a park, a square or an open area there. The most impressive and the best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. The heart of Washington is the Capitol, which is connected with the White House by Pennsylvania Avenue. It dominates the city of Washington. All the tourists begin sightseeing from the Capitol and see the Senate Chamber, the Hall of Representatives, the Statuary Hall and some others. The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts. The Washington Cathedral is on Massachusetts Avenue, and the Arlington National Cemetery is outside the city limits just across the Potomac River near the Pentagon in Virginia. The famous Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is visited by millions of people every year. Washington is the place where mass demonstration stake place against unemployment and racism, for democracy and civil rights. 16. USA The United States of America is one of the greatest countries in the world. It is situated on the North American continent and is washed by three oceans: the Pacific, the Atlantic and the Arctic. The USA borders only on two countries — Canada and Mexico. This great country has a lot of mountains, rivers, lakes. The main mountains are the Appalachians and the Cordilleras. The longest rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri. The climate of the country is varied. America has fifty states and one federal District of Columbia where the capital of the country is situated. The capital of the USA is Washington. The flag of the United States is called 'Stars and Stripes'. The 50 stars —

white on a blue field represent the 50 states and the 13 stripes represent 13 original English colonies, which in 1776 became free and independent of England. The USA is the federate republic. The president is the heard of the state. He is also commander –in –chief of army and navy. The highest legislative organ in the country is the congress, which consists of the senate and House of Representatives. The main cities are located on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. New-York is the largest city of the country. Other large cities are SanFrancisco, Los-Angeles, Detroit, Chicago, Phoenix and Dallas. The USA is a country of highly developed industry and agriculture. The main industrial centres are Chicago and Detroit. The USA has an Academy of Sciences. There are many scientific institutions, museums, libraries, theatres and other interesting places in the country. 17. Science in 20th century The 20th century began slowly, to the ticking of grandfather clocks and the stately rhythms of progress. Thanks to science, industry and moral philosophy, mankind’s steps had at last been guided up the right path. The century of steam was about to give way to the century of oil and electricity. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, only 41 years old in 1900, proposed a scientific basis for the notion that progress was gradual but inevitable, determined by natural law. And everybody thought that the development would continue in the small steps that had marked the progress of the 19th century. Inventions like the railroad or the telegraph or the typewriter had enabled people to get on with their ordinary lives a little more conveniently. No one could have guessed then that, in the century just beginning, new ideas would burst upon the world with a force and frequency that would turn this stately march of progress into a long distance, free-for-all sprint. Thrust into this race, the children of the 20th century would witness more change in their daily existence and environment than anyone else who had ever walked the planet. Assassinations in Sarajevo in 1914 lit a spark that setoff an unprecedented explosion of destruction and death. The Great War did more than devastate a generation of Europeans. It set the tone - the political, moral and intellectual temper - for much that followed. Before long the Great War received a new name -World War I. The roaring 1920s and the Depression years of the 1930s proved to be merely a prelude to World War II. Largely hidden during that war was an awful truth that called into question progress and the notion of human nature itself. But civilization was not crushed by the two great wars, and the ruins provided the stimulus to build a way of life again. To a degree previously unheard of and perhaps unimaginable, the citizens of the 20th century felt free to reinvent themselves. In that task they were assisted by two profound developments - psychoanalysis and the Bomb. 18. Scotland Scotland is a part of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and that's almost all we know about it. But there are several things that are usually associated with the Scottish culture. Those are kilt, bagpipe. The kilt is a knee-length garment with pleats at the rear, originating in the traditional dress of men and boys in the Scottish Highlands of the 16th century. Since the 19th century it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland in general, or with Celtic heritage even more broadly. It is most often made of woolen cloth in a tartan pattern. Although the kilt is most often worn on formal occasions and at Highland games and sports events, it has also been adapted as an item of fashionable informal male clothing in recent years, returning to its roots as an everyday garment. Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones, using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe and Irish Uilleann pipes have the greatest international visibility.

18. William Shakespeare The last half of the 16th and the beginning of the17th centuries are known as the golden age of English literature. It was the time of the English Renaissance, and sometimes it is even called "the age of Shakespeare". William Shakespeare, the greatest and most famous of English writers, and probably the greatest playwright who has ever lived, was born on the23d of April, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon. In sprite of his fame we know very little about his life. At the age of six he was sent to school, but had to leave it at the age of 13. His father, John Shakespeare, was a glove-maker, and when he fell into debt, William had to help him. When Shakespeare was twenty-one, he went to London. We don't know why he left Stratford-on-Avon. There is story that Shakespeare's first job in London was holding rich men's horses at the theatre door. But nobody can be sure that this story is true. Later, Shakespeare became an actor and a member of a very successful acting company. It's highly probable that The Comedy of Errors, Romeo and Juliet and some other plays by Shakespeare were performed for the first time on this stage. Shakespeare’s experience as an actor helped him greatly in the writing of his plays. His knowledge of stage and his poetical genius made his plays the most wonderful one sever written. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays: 10 tragedies (such as Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth), 17comedies (such As You Like It, Twelfth Night, Much Ado About Nothing), 10 historical plays (such as Henry 4, Richard 3). He also left 7 books of poems and sonnets. Most of Shakespeare's plays were not published in his lifetime. So some of them may have been lost in the fire when the -«Globe» burned down in 1613. Shakespeare spent the last years of his life at Stratford, where he died in 1616. He was buried in the church of Stratford. A monument was erected to the memory of the great playwright in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey. 19. New York New York is the largest city in the USA and the biggest seaport. It is the business centre of the United States. There are five districts in the city: Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. Manhattan is the central and the oldest part of the city. It is the district of business and finance. It is here in Wall Street that many business offices, banks and the world famous New York stock exchange are situated. The New York stock exchange dominates business life of many countries. A traveler who visits New York for the first time wonders at the modern architecture. The Statue of Liberty, which is on Liberty Island, was a present from France in 1876 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of American independence. This statue and a few 18th and 19th century churches, hospitals, newspaper offices and other buildings are the only examples of "old" architecture in New York. Wherever your eyes travel, everywhere you can see sky-scrapers. New York has many museums and art galleries which have collected works of art of many peoples and of all times. Many of them are on constant display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum of Art. Most of the theatres and cinemas are in or near Broadway, the longest street and the biggest shopping district in New York. The Metropolitan and Modern Arts Museums attract many visitors. 20. Tourism is becoming increasingly important as a source of revenue to many countries but its disadvantages shouldn’t be overlooked. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Tourism is becoming popular now. More and more people go abroad not only for business trip, but for holiday On the one hand tourism is good, because people learn more about the world and gain useful things for themselves.

They meet new people, make friends, communicate and improve their languages. Sometimes sick people need doctor from another country and touristic companies help to make a fast flight. However, there are disadvantages caused by the tourists. One of the most important problems will be the damage caused to the tourist spots like ancient signatures by the visitors. Secondly, they spoil the culture of the local society. Additionally overcrowding does prevail due to more number of foreigners. Moreover, the tourist spot becomes the point of attack for the terrorists and cause disaster to the country. On the other hand tourism makes people less hardworking and patriotic. People forget about culture and the places of interests in their native country. Sometimes people begin to think that their country is worse, dirtier and less beautiful than others. And it is horrible! People must think about their native country at first. They must love it and protect from any enemies. In my view tourism is good. It is so interesting but we must not forget our country. We cannot imagine how many wonderful and mysterious places there are in our native country! 21. How do changes in society influence people’s culture? What can slow down or speed up cultural development? The development of the technological innovations can improve our knowledge and the future generations will become professionals in what they do, and the level of their culture will increase fast and in a impressive way. On the other hand, if we and the future generations don’t control ourselves with all these innovations, we can become victims of the virtual life and so we will destroy even what we have. It is important to pass the barriers and to know the limits. Likewise, if people are forced by government to do or to accept something that they don’t want, for example a law , like marriage between two persons of the same sex, they may be influenced in a bad or a good way, but in both cases the national values and beliefs are affected, children become confused and this may slow down the natural development of the culture and thinking. Therefore, everything should be controlled, even freedom, because too much freedom leads to stupidity and forgetting of what is really important.

Creativitati
The Internet has forever changed the way we live. The Internet today is an important source of communication and it plays an important role in the life of every person. It brings people of the world closer together. The Internet makes the world smaller because through the Internet we can communicate with people from all over the world. People are so fond of computers and the Internet, that sometimes they forget to go for a walk or to eat something. Most of them like virtual life even more than the real one. People meet one another in the Internet, fall in love and even love. They don’t need your appearance, they love you as you are, your thoughts and manners. You can find virtual true friends in the Internet world. You can tell him/her all secrets you have and they will not gossip or laugh at you. Internet resources help people get latest news improve knowledge by providing access online libraries. Internet is the center of attention for businesses, governments and individual around the world. It has spawned entirely new industries transformed existing ones and become a global cultural phenomena. Communicating through the Internet gives the opportunity to know and other people of other nations and find out their culture, to make comparisons between regions and even to learn new things from that communicated with. The internet changed our lives in many ways... There are some positive and negative sides to it. The positive side is that we have a faster and easier way of communication. Internet makes communication much easier today than it was years ago... Negative side is that it can become addictive and even dangerous. Everyone should be responsible and use internet wisely. To my mind, life without the Internet would be dull, but should life a real life. 2. Problems of the youth Youth is a very important period in the life of a human being. This is the time when a person discovers the world and tries to determine his place in the universe. Young people face a great deal of problems which are very important for them. They do not differ much from those that once their parents had to deal with. At the same time every generation is unique. People say that youth is the most wonderful period in a person's life. Others are sure that young people face too many problems nowadays. Many people are convinced that youth and happiness are synonyms. But an Arabian proverb says: "Youth is a kind of illness cured only by the passing years". I have always wondered why many people believe that youth is the most wonderful period in a person's life. From the psychological angle, youth is a very complicated period when young people are undergoing the painful transition from childhood to independence. They are facing psychological problems that may cause aggression and lead to the rejection of adult values and experience. Socially, many young people suffer from such problems as poverty, unemployment, low incomes, or breakdown of the family. So alcohol and drugs may become a kind of psychological or emotional escape for young people. However, it would be wrong to say that youth is the most awful period in a person's life. It is the time of parties, dates and entertainment. What is more, youth is the period of many happy moments, thrilling experiences and wonderful discoveries. Young people don't usually have as many responsibilities and duties as adults do. They don't have to work and they can spend their time on studies, hobbies and entertainment. Youth is the time to make

friends and to fall in love. Besides, young people are usually active, enthusiastic and know what they want. All in all, youth is a period which may be very complicated and happy at the same time. It is impossible to protect young people from all problems and difficulties that they have to overcome. However, it is necessary to support them and to help them use this period fruitfully.

3. City life-advantages and disadvantages of living in cities.
Nowadays many people live in big cities. Some of them were born there, others came from small towns. What can give them life in the big city? On the one hand, life in the big city offers many attractions. You can visit a lot of cafes, restaurants, museums and cinemas. You can along the streets of the city all day long and looking beautiful architecture. Then you can go to the city park and rest there. In addition, there are much more opportunities to realize your plans. There are more working places in big cities. Many people are able to find an interesting job for themselves, if they try, of course. There are a lot of shops and supermarkets in big cities. People can easily find the necessary things for themselves. Many people like to spend hours to do shopping. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages in the life in big city. For example, there is a bad ecology. There are many kinds of transport that pollute the air. Factories put their waste into water and atmosphere. People are nervous because of the rapid rhythm of the life and they begin to smoke. It also pollutes the air. People are always in a hurry in big cities. Sometimes they pass by each other, not noticing the familiar faces. We must not forget that living in a big city, you can spend a lot of time to get from one place of the city to another. As for me, I could not live in a big city all the time. Sometimes I would need to go to any suburb with more fresh air and the measured rhythm of life. We cannot say "big city is bad", or "big city is good." Life in the big city has many advantages and disadvantages. And everyone can find a reason to live there. 4. Love means different things to different people. The subject of love is one that has inspired poets, writers, those lucky in love and those who have been passed over by Cupid...Love has been defined as wise, silly, profound, bitter, funny...It seems as if each and one of us has a different understanding of love, or at least the attitude to love varies greatly from person to person..It may be a surprising revelation to some of us, because love has traditionally been considered to be something that unites people. And yet, there's no use denying the fact that love has as many definitions as there are human beings on this planet. And it doesn't necessarily mean that love no longer unites people. It just means that love has different dimensions, different sides that reflect our understanding of life. But personally, I can't let myself be cynical about love. Maybe I'm too young and inexperienced, but I believe it’s a great feeling. Some say that love is the true meaning of our life, that love is all it's cracked up to be. They also say that "love is the master key that opens the gates of happiness". I can't but agree. Love is something that makes us tender, and affectionate, and caring...It's when another person's needs become more important than yours and you don't see it as a burden. It’s when you do your best to make each other's lives somewhat easier in this troublesome world...Love is a feeling that makes you stronger and helps you get through a crisis. It's something I can't imagine my life without.

5. Books in our lives Books are one of the greatest wonders in the world. They follow us during all our life. When you read a book you enrich your mind with knowledge. This knowledge will help you in different subjects. People who read many books are very clever. If you read many books you will get a lot of information on many subjects. Some of modern adolescents don’t like reading books. They prefer watching TV, playing computer games and other kinds of entertainment. I don’t think it’s very good. Books are not only entertainment. They help us in self-education, and also to imagine the future, to look into the past. Books develop our intellect, our soul, but, of course, except of some modern crime or love novels, which you can find in any bookshop and which are printed only for entertain. I don’t like this kind of literature and, in my opinion, reading such books is only waste of time. Everybody has his favorite books. They can be novels, detective stories, science literature and many others. All of them distinguish and form some individual traits of character in everybody. As for me, I like to read books in my free time. Books help me to go away from life problems, to get into another world. Books pass over to us the knowledge and experience of previous generations, broaden our scope of vision. I like various literature directions and authors. It depends on my mood which book I take to read. There is no definite author which I like most of all. I like definite books and stories, for example, “One flew over the cuckoo’s nest” by Ken Kezee, “Occurrences” by D. Charms, “The little prince” by Exupery and others. Also I like novels, written by Dostoevsky, Nabokov, Mopassan and Remark. From their books you can learn more about people’s feelings, about life; you can even begin to see the world from another angle after reading these books. My favorite poets are Charle Bodler and antique poets, for example, H.V. Katull. Their poems are full of bright images. Every book gives birth to special inner world in my mind and in my soul. I like to imagine main characters of my favorite books, their clothes, and faces. It is difficult for me to leave the characters of my favorite novels in the end of the books. 6. The future role of technology in the world. Write about advantages and disadvantages. I mention in the piece that even though there are both advantages of advanced technology, I wish a more developed world, with great technologies. Today, we can’t imagine ourselves without technological advances such as cars, microwaves, cell phone, computers and televisions. However, technology won’t stop here, but develop further. As technology develops, there are not only advantages, but disadvantages from them. A few advantages of upgraded technology are that one can save time and money and life will be made easier as a result of not having to do all the hard labor. In contrast, the disadvantages of upgraded technology are that people will loose their jobs to machines that will do the work for them. I personality would want a developed world with advanced technologies. My major reason is because when you have advanced technologies, life is much easier as robots and machines would take over your daily life chores. For example, daily life chores might be serving your breakfast, cutting your lawn, or cleaning your room. With robots and machines doing one’s chores one has time to relax. Other reasons why I want advanced technologies are because they save a great deal of time and money. Another example of benefits from advanced technology is that if

there are new, developed vehicles that will transport people to anywhere rapidly, so that one would not need to spend all those boring, long hours in an airplane to try to get another country. As there are so many advantages from highly developed technology, there also is a great deal of disadvantages from them. One advantage is that as technology develops, robots and machines will take over many jobs and people will loose their by contrast. As people loose their jobs, they will have hard time getting money which would make it hard for them to continue to meet living expenses. Another disadvantage of highly developed technology is that machines and robots are complex. It is hard to activate all the machines you have unless you can multitask. Even as there are as many advantages and disadvantages of technology, I personally wish a more advances world with great technologies. In the future it would be more about using your brain and being intelligent that doing the hard labor yourself. I hope these days come within my lifetime. 7. Pocket money how much do you get how much do you need Some people think that teenagers become more responsible and sensible getting pocket money. Others claim that young people can not deal with money and believe they waste it on useless things. I would like to express my opinion on this situation. I think that pocket money helps teenagers to learn how to plan their budget. There are a lot of things they want to spend their money on, but the amount of money is limited. Moreover, teenagers get information about the cost of living. It helps them to realize what kind of job to choose in future to earn enough money for everything they want to get. On the other hand, many people say that teenagers waste money. I do not agree with this statement, because we spend a lot of money on food as most of us spend our time at school or courses. We spend money on clothes because looking smart and fashionable is very important today. We pay for mobile phones and the Internet. However, some people argue that teenagers have no idea of how difficult money is earned. I disagree, because many teenagers have part time jobs and realize that to make good money they have to be hardworking, reliable and intelligent. All things considered, there are two points of view on this problem. I believe that parents should give teenagers pocket money because sensible spending of it teaches them a lot of. 8. One is rich when she has friends. Everybody knows how it is important to have friends. Who can help us in difficult situations, give us a piece of advice, and take care of us? A good friend should be responsive, attentive and be ready to help at any time. Friendship is richness, which is very difficult to get. It's not like money at all; you can destroy and lose everything at the moment. A good friendship is a result of many years work; you should understand its importance. That's why one is rich when he has friends.