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# Source: HANDBOOK OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

SECTION 5
FEEDWATER HEATING
METHODS

## Steam-Plant Feedwater-Heating cycle Power-Plant Heater Extraction-Cycle

Analysis 5.1 Analysis 5.8
Direct-Contact Feedwater Heater Feedwater Heating with Diesel-Engine
Analysis 5.2 Repowering of a Steam Plant 5.13
Closed Feedwater Heater Analysis and
Selection 5.3

ANALYSIS

## The high-pressure cylinder of a turbogenerator unit receives 1,000,000 lb per h

(454,000 kg / h) of steam at initial conditions of 1800 psia (12,402 kPa) and 1050⬚F
(565.6⬚C). At exit from the cylinder the steam has a pressure of 500 psia (3445
kPa) and a temperature of 740⬚F (393.3⬚C). A portion of this 500-psia (3445-kPa)
steam is used in a closed feedwater heater to increase the temperature of 1,000,000
lb per h (454,000 kg / h) of 2000-psia (13,780-kPa) feedwater from 350⬚F (176.6⬚C)
to 430⬚F (221.1⬚C); the remainder passes through a reheater in the steam generator
and is admitted to the intermediate-pressure cylinder of the turbine at a pressure of
450 psia (3101 kPa) and a temperature of 1000⬚F (537.8⬚C). The intermediate cyl-
inder operates nonextraction. Steam leaves this cylinder at 200 psia (1378 kPa) and
500⬚F (260⬚C). Find (a) ﬂow rate to the feedwater heater, assuming no subcooling;
(b) work done, in kW, by the high-pressure cylinder; (c) work done, in kW, by the
intermediate-pressure cylinder; (d) heat added by the reheater.

Calculation Procedure:
1. Find the ﬂow rate to the feedwater heater
(a) Construct the ﬂow diagram, Fig. 1. Enter the pressure, temperature, and enthalpy
values using the data given and the steam tables. Write an equation for ﬂow across
the feedwater heater, or (H2 ⫺ H7) ⫽ water (H6 ⫺ H5). Substituting using the
enthalpy data from the ﬂow diagram, ﬂow to heater ⫽ (1 ⫻ 106)(409 ⫺ 324.4) /
(1379.3 ⫺ 449.4) ⫽ 90.977.5 lb / h (41,303.8 kg / h).

## 2. Determine the work done by the high-pressure cylinder

(b) The work done ⫽ (steam ﬂow rate, lb / h)(H1 ⫺ H2) / 3413 ⫽ (1 ⫻ 106)(1511.3
⫺ 1379.3) / 3414 ⫽ 38,675.7 kW.

5.1
FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## 5.2 POWER GENERATION

450 psia
1,000,000 lb per hr 1000°F
1,800 psia 1050°F Reheater
H3 = 1,521
H1 = 1,511.3
Intermediate-
pressure
500 psia cylinder
908,900 lb per hr
740°F
High-pressure H2 =
cylinder 1,379.3
91,100 lb per hr
Heater 908,900 lb per hr
1,000,000 lb per hr 1,000,000 lb per hr 200 psia 500°F
2,000 psia 430°F 2,000 psia 350°F H4 = 1,269
H6 = 409 H5 = 324.4

H7 = 449.4

1,000,000 lb/hr (454,000 kg/hr) 1800 psia (12,402 kPa) 1050°F (565°C)
500 psia (3445 kPa) 740°F (393°C) 1379.3 Btu/lb (3214 kJ/kg) 1511.3 Btu/lb (3521 k?
2000 psia (13,780 kPa) 430°F (221°C) 409 (953 kJ/kg) 350°F (177°C) 324.4 (756 kJ/kg)
450 psia (3101 kPa) 1000°F (538°C) 1521 Btu/lb (3544 kJ/kg) 500°F (260°C)
200 psia (1378 kPa) 1269 Btu/lb (2933 kJ/kg) 324.5 Btu/lb (756 kJ/kg)
908,900 lb/hr (412,641 kg/hr) 91,100 lb/hr (41,359 kg/hr) 324.4 Btu/lb (756 kJ/kg)
449.4 Btu/lb (1047 kJ/kg)
FIGURE 1 Feedwater heating ﬂow diagram.

## 3. Find the work done by the intermediate-pressure cylinder

(c) The work done ⫽ (steam ﬂow through the cylinder)(H3 ⫺ H4) / 3413 ⫽ (1 ⫻
106– 90.977.5 ⫻ 106)(1521 ⫺ 1269) / 3413 ⫽ 67,118 kW.

## 4. Compute the heat added by the reheater

(d) Heat added by the reheater ⫽ (steam ﬂow through the reheater)(H3 ⫺ H2) ⫽ (1
⫻ 106 ⫺ 90,977.5)(1521 ⫺ 1379.3) ⫽ 128.8 ⫻ 106 Btu / h (135.9 kJ / h).
Related Calculations. Use this general procedure to determine the ﬂow
through feedwater heaters and reheaters for utility, industrial, marine, and com-
mercial steam power plants of all sizes. The method given can also be used for
combined-cycle plants using both a steam turbine and a gas turbine along with a
heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) in combination with one or more feedwater
heaters and reheaters.

ANALYSIS

## Determine the outlet temperature of water leaving a direct-contact open-type feed-

water heater if 250,000 lb / h (31.5 kg / s) of water enters the heater at 100⬚F

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS 5.3

(37.8⬚C). Exhaust steam at 10.3 lb / in2 (gage) (71.0 kPa) saturated ﬂows to the
heater at the rate of 25,000 lb / h (31.5 kg / s). What saving is obtained by using this
heater if the boiler pressure is 250 lb / in2 (abs) (1723.8 kPa)?

Calculation Procedure:
1. Compute the water outlet temperature
Assume the heater is 90 percent efﬁcient. Then to ⫽ tiww ⫹ 0.9wshg / (ww ⫹ 0.9ws),
where to ⫽ outlet water temperature, ⬚F; ti ⫽ inlet water temperature, ⬚F; ww ⫽
weight of water ﬂowing through heater, lb / h; 0.9 ⫽ heater efﬁciency, expressed as
a decimal; ws ⫽ weight of steam ﬂowing to the heater, lb / h; hg ⫽ enthalpy of the
steam ﬂowing to the heater, Btu / lb.
For saturated steam at 10.3 lb / in2 (gage) (71.0 kPa), or 10.3 ⫹ 14.7 ⫽ 25 lb /
in2 (abs) (172.4 kPa), hg ⫽ 1160.6 Btu / lb (2599.6 kJ / kg), from the saturation
pressure steam tables. Then
100(250,000) ⫹ 0.9(25,000)(1160.6)
to ⫽ ⫽ 187.5⬚F (86.4⬚C)
250,000 ⫹ 0.9(25,000)

## 2. Compute the savings obtained by feed heating

The percentage of saving, expressed as a decimal, obtained by heating feedwater
is (ho ⫺ hi) / ( hb ⫺ hi) where ho and hi ⫽ enthalpy of the water leaving and entering
the heater, respectively, Btu / lb; hb ⫽ enthalpy of the steam at the boiler operating
pressure, Btu / lb. For this plant from the steam tables ho ⫺ hi / (hb ⫺ hi) ⫽ 155.44
⫺ 67.97 / (1201.1 ⫺ 67.97) ⫽ 0.077, or 7.7 percent.
A popular rule of thumb states that for every 11⬚F (6.1⬚C) rise in feedwater
temperature in a heater, there is approximately a 1 percent saving in the fuel that
would otherwise be used to heat the feedwater. Checking the above calculation with
this rule of thumb shows reasonably good agreement.

## 3. Determine the heater volume

With a capacity of W lb / h of water, the volume of a direct-contact or open-type
heater can be approximated from v ⫽ W / 10,000, where v ⫽ heater internal volume,
ft3. For this heater v ⫽ 250,000 / 10,000 ⫽ 25 ft3 (0.71 m3).
Related Calculations. Most direct-contact or open feedwater heaters store in
2-min supply of feedwater when the boiler load is constant, and the feedwater
supply is all makeup. With little or no makeup, the heater volume is chosen so that
there is enough capacity to store 5 to 30 min feedwater for the boiler.

## CLOSED FEEDWATER HEATER ANALYSIS AND

SELECTION

Analyze and select a closed feedwater heater for the third stage of a regenerative
steam-turbine cycle in which the feedwater ﬂow rate is 37,640 lb / h (4.7 kg / s), the
desired temperature rise of the water during ﬂow through the heater is 80⬚F (44.4⬚C)
(from 238 to 318⬚F or, 114.4 to 158.9⬚C), bleed heating steam is at 100 lb / in2 (abs)
(689.5 kPa) and 460⬚F (237.8⬚C), drains leave the heater at the saturation temper-
ature corresponding to the heating steam pressure [110 lb / in2 (abs) or 689.5 kPa],
and 5⁄8-in (1.6-cm) OD admiralty metal tubes with a maximum length of 6 ft (1.8

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## 5.4 POWER GENERATION

m) are used. Use the Standards of the Bleeder Heater Manufacturers Association,
Inc., when analyzing the heater.

Calculation Procedure:
1. Determine the LMTD across heater
When heat-transfer rates in feedwater heaters are computed, the average ﬁlm tem-
perature of the feedwater is used. In computing this the Standards of the Bleeder
Heater Manufacturers Association specify that the saturation temperature of the
heating steam be used. At 100 lb / in2 (abs) (689.5 kPa), ts ⫽ 327.81⬚F (164.3⬚C).
Then
(ts ⫺ ti ) ⫺ (ts ⫺ to)
LMTD ⫽ tm ⫽
ln [ts ⫺ ti / (ts ⫺ to)]
where the symbols are as deﬁned in the previous calculation procedure. Thus,
(327.81 ⫺ 238) ⫺ (327.81 ⫺ 318)
tm ⫽
ln [327.81 ⫺ 238/(327.81 ⫺ 318)]
⫽ 36.5⬚F (20.3⬚C)
The average ﬁlm temperature tf for any closed heater is then
tf ⫽ ts ⫺ 0.8tm

## 2. Determine the overall heat-transfer rate

Assume a feedwater velocity of 8 ft / s (2.4 m / s) for this heater. This velocity value
is typical for smaller heaters handling less than 100,000-lb / h (12.6-kg / s) feedwater
ﬂow. Enter Fig. 2 at 8 ft / s (2.4 m / s) on the lower horizontal scale, and project
vertically upward to the 250⬚F (121.1⬚C) average ﬁlm temperature curve. This curve
is used even though tf ⫽ 298.6⬚F (148.1⬚C), because the standards recommend that
heat-transfer rates higher than those for a 250⬚F (121.1⬚C) ﬁlm temperature not be
used. So, from the 8-ft / s (2.4 m / s) intersection with the 250⬚F (121.1⬚C) curve in
Fig. 2, project to the left to read U ⫽ the overall heat-transfer rate ⫽ 910 Btu /
(ft2 䡠 ⬚F 䡠 h) [5.2 k] / m2 䡠 ⬚C 䡠 s)].
Next, check Table 1 for the correction factor for U. Assume that no. 18 BWG
5
⁄8-in (1.6-cm) OD arsenical copper tubes are used in this exchanger. Then the
correction factor from Table 1 is 1.00, and Ucorr ⫽ 910(1.00) ⫽ 910. If no. 9 BWG
tubes are chosen, Ucorr ⫽ 910(0.85) ⫽ 773.5 Btu / (ft2 䡠 ⬚F 䡠 h) [4.4 kJ / (m2 䡠 ⬚C 䡠 s)],
given the correction factor from Table 1 for arsenical copper tubes.

## 3. Compute the amount of heat transferred by the heater

The enthalpy of the entering feedwater at 238⬚F (114.4⬚C) is, from the saturation-
temperature steam table, hfi ⫽ 206.32 Btu / lb (479.9 kJ / kg). The enthalpy of the
leaving feedwater at 318⬚F (158.9⬚C) is, from the same table, hfo ⫽ 288.20 Btu / lb
(670.4 kJ / kg). Then the heater transferred Ht Btu / h is Ht ⫽ ww(hfo ⫺ hfi), where
ww ⫽ feedwater ﬂow rate, lb / h. Or, Ht ⫽ 37,640(288.20 ⫺ 206.32) ⫽ 3,080,000
Btu / h (902.7 kW).

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## FIGURE 2 Heat-transfer rates for closed feedwater heaters. (Standards of

Bleeder Heater Manufacturers Association, Inc.)

## TABLE 1 Multipliers for Base Heat-Transfer Rates

[For tube OD 5⁄8 to 1 in (1.6 to 2.5 cm) inclusive]

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## 4. Compute the surface area required in the exchanger

The surface area required A ft2 ⫽ Ht / Utm. Then A ⫽ 3,080,000 / [910)(36.5)] ⫽
92.7 ft2 (8.6 m2).

## 5. Determine the number of tubes per pass

Assume the heater has only one pass, and compute the number of tubes required.
Once the number of tubes is known, a decision can be made about the number of
passes required. In a closed heater, number of tubes ⫽ ww (passes) (ft3 / s per
tube) / [v(ft2 per tube open area)], where ww ⫽ lb / h of feedwater passing through
heater; v ⫽ feedwater velocity in tubes, ft / s.
Since the feedwater enters the heater at 238⬚F (114.4⬚C) and leaves at 318⬚F
(158.9⬚C), its speciﬁc volume at 278⬚F (136.7⬚C), midway between ti and to, can
be considered the average speciﬁc volume of the feedwater in the heater. From the
saturation-pressure steam table, vf ⫽ 0.01691 ft3 / lb (0.0011 m3 / kg) at 278⬚F
(136.7⬚C). Convert this to cubic feet per second per tube by dividing this speciﬁc
volume by 3600 (number of seconds in 1 h) and multiplying by the pounds per
hour of feedwater per tube. Or, ft3 / s per tube ⫽ (0.01691 / 3600)(lb / h per tube).
Since no. 18 BWG 5⁄8-in (1.6-cm) OD tubes are being used, ID ⫽ 0.625 ⫺
2(thickness) ⫽ 0.625 ⫺ 2(0.049) ⫽ 0.527 in (1.3 cm). Then, open area per tube
ft2 ⫽ (␲d 2 / 4) / 144 ⫽ 0.7854(0.527)2 / 144 ⫽ 0.001525 ft2 (0.00014 m2) per tube.
Alternatively, this area could be obtained from a table of tube properties.
With these data, compute the total number of tubes from number of tubes ⫽
[(37,640)(1)(0.01681 / 3600)] / [(8)(0.001525)] ⫽ 14.29 tubes.

## 6. Compute the required tube length

Assume that 14 tubes are used, since the number required is less than 14.5. Then,
tube length l, ft ⫽ A / (number of tubes per pass)(passes)(area per ft of tube). Or,
tube length for 1 pass ⫽ 92.7 / [(14)(1)(0.1636)] ⫽ 40.6 ft (12.4 m). The area per
ft of tube length is obtained from a table of tube properties or computed from
12␲ (OD) / 144 ⫽ 12␲ (0.625) / 155 ⫽ 0.1636 ft2 (0.015 m2).

7. Compute the actual number of passes and the actual tube length
Since the tubes in this heater cannot exceed 6 ft (1.8 m) in length, the number of
passes required ⫽ (length for one pass, ft) / (maximum allowable tube length, ft) ⫽
40.6 / 6 ⫽ 6.77 passes. Since a fractional number of passes cannot be used and an
even number of passes permit a more convenient layout of the heater, choose eight
passes.
From the same equation for tube length as in step 6, l ⫽ tube length ⫽ 92.7 /
[(14)(8)(0.1636)] ⫽ 5.06 ft (1.5 m).

## 8. Determine the feedwater pressure drop through heater

In any closed feedwater heater, the pressure loss ⌬p lb / in2 is ⌬p ⫽ F1F2(L ⫹
5.5D)N / D1.24, where ⌬p ⫽ pressure drop in the feedwater passing through the
heater, lb / in2; F1 and F2 ⫽ correction factors from Fig. 3; L ⫽ total lin ft of tubing
divided by the number of tube holes in one tube sheet; D ⫽ tube ID; N ⫽ number
of passes. In ﬁnding F2, the average water temperature is taken as ts ⫺ tm.
For this heater, using correction factors from Fig. 3,

⌬ p ⫽ (0.136)(0.761) 冋5.06(8)(14)
(8)(14)
⫹ 5.5(0.527) 册 8
0.5271.24
⫽ 14.6 lb/in2 (100.7 kPa)

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## FIGURE 3 Correction factors for closed feedwater heaters. (Standards of

Bleeder Heater Manufacturers Association, Inc.)

## 9. Find the heater shell outside diameter

The total number of tubes in the heater ⫽ (number of passes)(tubes per pass) ⫽
8(14) ⫽ 112 tubes. Assume that there is 3⁄8-in (1.0-cm) clearance between each
tube and the tube alongside, above, or below it. Then the pitch or center-to-center
distance between the tubes ⫽ pitch ⫹ tube OD ⫽ 3⁄8 ⫹ 5⁄8 ⫽ 1 in (2.5 cm).
The number of tubes per ft2 of tube sheet ⫽ 166 / (pitch)2, or 166 / 12 ⫽ 166
tubes per ft2 (1786.8 per m2). Since the heater has 112 tubes, the area of the tube
sheet ⫽ 112 / 166 ⫽ 0.675 ft2, or 97 in2 (625.8 cm2).
The inside diameter of the heater shell ⫽ (tube sheet area, in2 / 0.7854)0.5 ⫽
(97 / 0.7854)0.5 ⫽ 11.1 in (28.2 cm). With a 0.25-in (0.6-cm) thick shell, the heater
shell OD ⫽ 11.1 ⫹ 2(0.25) ⫽ 11.6 in (29.5 cm).

## 10. Compute the quantity of heating steam required

Steam enters the heater at 100 lb / in2 (abs) (689.5 kPa) and 460⬚F (237.8⬚C). The
enthalpy at this pressure and temperature is, from the superheated steam table, hg
⫽ 1258.8 Btu / lb (2928.0 kJ / kg). The steam condenses in the heater, leaving as
condensate at the saturation temperature corresponding to 100 lb / in2 (abs) (689.5
kPa), or 327.81⬚F (164.3⬚C). The enthalpy of the saturated liquid at this temperature
is, from the steam tables, hf ⫽ 298.4 Btu / lb (694.1 kJ / kg).
The heater steam consumption for any closed-type feedwater heater is W, lb /
h ⫽ ww(⌬t)(hg ⫺ hf), where ⌬t ⫽ temperature rise of feedwater in heater, ⬚F, c ⫽
speciﬁc heat of feedwater, Btu / (lb 䡠 ⬚F). Assume c ⫽ 1.00 for the temperature range
in this heater, and W ⫽ (37,640)(318 ⫺ 238)(1.00) / (1258.8 ⫺ 298.4) ⫽ 3140 lb /
h (0.40 kg / s).
Related Calculations. The procedure used here can be applied to closed feed-
water heaters in stationary and marine service. A similar procedure is used for
selecting hot-water heaters for buildings, marine, and portable service. Various au-

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## thorities recommend the following terminal difference (heater condensate temper-

ature minus the outlet feedwater temperature) for closed feedwater heaters:

## POWER-PLANT HEATER EXTRACTION-CYCLE

ANALYSIS

A steam power plant operates at a boiler-drum pressure of 460 lb / in2 (abs) (3171.7
kPa), a turbine throttle pressure of 415 lb / in2 (abs) (2861.4 kPa) and 725⬚F
(385.0⬚C), and a turbine capacity of 10,000 kW (or 13,410 hp). The Rankine-cycle
efﬁciency ratio (including generator losses) is: full load, 75.3 percent; three-quarters
load, 74.75 percent; half load, 71.75 percent. The turbine exhaust pressure is 1
inHg absolute (3.4 kPa); steam ﬂow to the steam-jet air ejector is 1000 lb / h (0.13
kg / s). Analyze this cycle to determine the possible gains from two stages of ex-
traction for feedwater heating, with the ﬁrst stage a closed heater and the second
stage a direct-contact or mixing heater. Use engineering-ofﬁce methods in analyzing
the cycle.

Calculation Procedure:
1. Sketch the power-plant cycle
Figure 4a shows the plant with one closed heater and one direct-contact heater.
Values marked on Fig. 4a will be computed as part of this calculation procedure.
Enter each value on the diagram as soon as it is computed.

## 2. Compute the throttle ﬂow without feedwater heating extraction

Use the superheated steam tables to ﬁnd the throttle enthalpy hf ⫽ 1375.5 Btu / lb
(3199.4 kJ / kg) at 415 lb / in2 (abs) (2861.4 kPa) and 725⬚F (385.0⬚C).
Assume an irreversible adiabatic expansion between throttle conditions and the
exhaust pressure of 1 inHg (3.4 kPa). Compute the ﬁnal enthalpy H2s by the same
method used in earlier calculation procedures by ﬁnding y2s, the percentage of
moisture at the exhaust conditions with 1-inHg absolute (3.4-kPa) exhaust pressure.
Do this by setting up the ratio y2s ⫽ (sy ⫺ S1) / sfg, where sg and sfg are entropies at
the exhaust pressure; S1 is entropy at throttle conditions. From the steam tables, y2s
⫽ 2.0387 ⫺ 1.6468 / 1.9473 ⫽ 0.201. Then H2s ⫽ hg ⫺ y2shfg, where hg and hfg are
enthalpies at 1 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa). Substitute values from the steam table for
1 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa); or, H2s ⫽ 1096.3 ⫺ 0.201(1049.2) ⫽ 885.3 Btu / lb
(2059.2 kJ / kg).
The available energy in this irreversible adiabatic expansion is the difference
between the throttle and exhaust conditions, or 1375.5 ⫺ 885.3 ⫽ 490.2 Btu / lb

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS 5.9

FIGURE 4 (a) Two stages of feedwater heating in a steam plant; (b) Mollier chart
of the cycle in (a).

(1140.2 kJ / kg). The work at full load on the turbine is: (Rankine-cycle efﬁ-
ciency)(adiabatic available energy) ⫽ (0.753)(490.2) ⫽ 369.1 Btu / lb (858.5 kJ /
kg). Enthalpy at the exhaust of the actual turbine ⫽ throttle enthalpy minus full-
load actual work, or 1375.5 ⫺ 369.1 ⫽ 1006.4 Btu / lb (2340.9 kJ / kg). Use the
Mollier chart to ﬁnd, at 1.0 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa) and 1006.4 Btu / lb (2340.9
kJ / kg), that the exhaust steam contains 9.5 percent moisture.
Now the turbine steam rate SR ⫽ 3413(actual work output, Btu). Or, SR ⫽
3413 / 369.1 ⫽ 9.25 lb / kWh (4.2 kg / kWh). With the steam rate known, the nonex-

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

s).

## 3. Determine the heater extraction pressures

With steam extraction from the turbine for feedwater heating, the steam ﬂow to the
main condenser will be reduced, even with added throttle ﬂow to compensate for
extraction.
Assume that the ﬁnal feedwater temperature will be 212⬚F (100.0⬚C) and that
the heating range for each heater is equal. Both assumptions represent typical prac-
tice for a moderate-pressure cycle of the type being considered.
Feedwater leaving the condenser hotwell at 1 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa) is at
79.03⬚F (26.1⬚C). This feedwater is pumped through the air-ejector intercondensers
and aftercondensers, where the condensate temperature will usually rise 5 to 15⬚F
(2.8 to 8.3⬚C), depending on the turbine load. Assume that there is a 10⬚F (5.6⬚C)
rise in condensate temperature from 79 to 89⬚F (26.1 to 31.7⬚C). Then the temper-
ature range for the two heaters is 212 ⫺ 89 ⫽ 123⬚F (68.3⬚C). The temperature
rise per heater is 123 / 2 ⫽ 61.5⬚F (34.2⬚C), since there are two heaters and each
will have the same temperature rise. Since water enters the ﬁrst-stage closed heater
at 89⬚F (31.7⬚C), the exit temperature from this heater is 89 ⫹ 61.5 ⫽ 150.5⬚F
(65.8⬚C).
The second-stage heater is a direct-contact unit operating at 14.7 lb / in2 (abs)
(101.4 kPa), because this is the saturation pressure at an outlet temperature of 212⬚F
(100.0⬚C). Assume a 10 percent pressure drop between the turbine and heater steam
inlet. This is a typical pressure loss for an extraction heater. Extraction pressure for
the second-stage heater is then 1.1(14.7) ⫽ 16.2 lb / in2 (abs) (111.7 kPa).
Assume a 5⬚F (2.8⬚C) terminal difference for the ﬁrst-stage heater. This is a
typical terminal difference, as explained in an earlier calculation procedure. The
saturated steam temperature in the heater equals the condensate temperature ⫽
150.5⬚F (65.8⬚C) exit temperature ⫹ 5⬚F (2.8⬚C) terminal difference ⫽ 155.5⬚F
(68.6⬚C). From the saturation-temperature steam table, the pressure at 155.5⬚F
(68.6⬚C) is 4.3 lb / in2 (abs) (29.6 kPa). With a 10 percent pressure loss, the extrac-
tion pressure ⫽ 1.1(4.3) ⫽ 4.73 lb / in2 (abs) (32.6 kPa).

## 4. Determine the extraction enthalpies

To establish the enthalpy of the extracted steam at each stage, the actual turbine-
expansion line must be plotted. Two points—the throttle inlet conditions and the
exhaust conditions—are known. Plot these on a Mollier chart, Fig. 4. Connect these
two points by a dashed straight line, Fig. 4.
Next, measure along the saturation curve 1 in (2.5 cm) from the intersection
point A back toward the enthalpy coordinate, and locate point B. Now draw a
gradually sloping line from the throttle conditions to point B; from B increase the
slope to the exhaust conditions. The enthalpy of the steam at each extraction point
is read where the lines of constant pressure cross the expansion line. Thus, for the
second-stage direct-contact heater where p ⫽ 16.2 lb / in2 (abs) (111.7 kPa), hg ⫽
1136 Btu / lb (2642.3 kJ / kg). For the ﬁrst-stage closed heater where p ⫽ 4.7 lb / in2
(abs) (32.4 kPa), hg ⫽ 1082 Btu / lb (2516.7 kJ / kg).
When the actual expansion curve is plotted, a steeper slope is used between the
throttle super-heat conditions and the saturation curve of the Mollier chart, because
the turbine stages using superheated steam (stages above the saturation curve) are
more efﬁcient than stages using wet steam (stages below the saturation curve).

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## 5. Compute the extraction steam ﬂow

To determine the extraction ﬂow rates, two assumptions must be made—condenser
steam ﬂow rate and ﬁrst-stage closed-heater extraction ﬂow rate. The complete cycle
will be analyzed, and the assumption checked. If the assumptions are incorrect,
new values will be assumed, and the cycle analyzed again.
Assume that the condenser steam ﬂow from the turbine is 84,000 lb / h (10.6
kg / s) when it is operating with extraction. Note that this value is less than the
nonextraction ﬂow of 92,500 lb / h (11.7 kg / s). The reason is that extraction of
steam will reduce ﬂow to the condenser because the steam is bled from the turbine
after passage through the throttle but before the condenser inlet.
Then, for the ﬁrst-stage closed heater, condensate ﬂow is as follows:

The value of 5900 lb / h (0.74 kg / s) of condensate from the ﬁrst-stage heater is the
second assumption made. Since it will be checked later, an error in the assumption
can be detected.
Assume a 2 percent heat radiation loss between the turbine and heater. This is
a typical loss. Then

Compare the required extraction, 5950 lb / h (0.75 kg / s), with the assumed ex-
traction, 5900 lb / h (0.74 kg / s). The difference is only 50 lb / h (0.006 kg / s), which
is less than 1 percent. Therefore, the assumed ﬂow rate is satisfactory, because
estimates within 1 percent are considered sufﬁciently accurate for all routine anal-
yses.
For the second-stage direct-contact heater, condensate ﬂow, lb / h is as follows:

The required extraction, calculated in the same way as for the ﬁrst-stage heater,
is (90,900)(61.7 / 932.2) ⫽ 6050 lb / h (0.8 kg / s).

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## 5.12 POWER GENERATION

The computed extraction ﬂow for the second-stage heater is not compared with
an assumed value because an assumption was not necessary.

## 6. Compare the actual condenser steam ﬂow

Sketch a vertical line diagram, Fig. 5, showing the enthalpies at the throttle, heaters,
and exhaust. From this diagram, the work lost by the extracted steam can be com-
puted. As Fig. 5 shows, the total enthalpy drop from the throttle to the exhaust is
369 Btu / lb (389.3 kJ / kg). Each pound of extracted steam from the ﬁrst- and sec-
ond-stage bleed points causes a work loss of 75.7 Btu / lb (176.1 kJ / kg) and 129.7
Btu / lb (301.7 kJ / kg), respectively. To carry the same load, 10,000 kW, with ex-
tractions, it will be necessary to supply the following additional compensation steam
to the turbine throttle: (heater ﬂow, lb / h)(work loss, Btu / h) / (total work, Btu / h).
Then

Check the assumed condenser ﬂow using nonextraction throttle ﬂow ⫹ addi-
tional throttle ﬂow ⫺ heater extraction ⫽ condenser ﬂow. Set up a tabulation of
the ﬂows as follows:

## FIGURE 5 Diagram of turbine-expansion line.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS 5.13

Compare this actual ﬂow, 83,840 lb / h (10.6 kg / s), with the assumed ﬂow,
84,000 lb / h (10.6 kg / s). The difference, 160 lb / h (0.02 kg / s), is less than 1 percent.
Since an accuracy within 1 percent is sufﬁcient for all normal power-plant calcu-
lations, it is not necessary to recompute the cycle. Had the difference been greater
than 1 percent, a new condenser ﬂow would be assumed and the cycle recomputed.
Follow this procedure until a difference of less than 1 percent is obtained.
7. Determine the economy of the extraction cycle
For a nonextraction cycle operating in the same pressure range,

## Heat chargeable to turbine ⫽ (throttle ﬂow ⫹ air-ejector ﬂow)(heat supplied by

boiler) / (kW output of turbine) ⫽ (92,500 ⫹ 1000)(1328.3) / 10,000 ⫽ 12,410
Btu / kWh (13,093.2 kJ / kWh), which is the actual heat rate HR of the nonextraction
cycle.
For the extraction cycle using two heaters,

## As before, heat chargeable to turbine ⫽ (95,840 ⫹ 1000)(1195.3) / 10,000 ⫽

11,580 Btu / kWh (12,217.5 kJ / kWh). Therefore, the improvement ⫽ (nonextraction
HR ⫺ extraction HR) / nonextraction HR ⫽ (12,410 ⫺ 11,580) / 12,410 ⫽ 0.0662,
or 6.62 percent.
Related Calculations. (1) To determine the percent improvement in a steam
cycle resulting from additional feedwater heaters in the cycle, use the same pro-
cedure as given above for three, four, ﬁve, six, or more heaters. Plot the percent
improvement vs. number of stages of extraction, Fig. 6, to observe the effect of
tional heaters. Eventually the gains become so small that the added expenditure for
an additional heater cannot be justiﬁed.
(2) Many simple marine steam plants use only two stages of feedwater heating.
To analyze such a cycle, use the procedure given, substituting the hp output for the
kW output of the turbine.
(3) Where a marine plant has more than two stages of feedwater heating, follow
the procedure given in (1) above.

## FEEDWATER HEATING WITH DIESEL-ENGINE

REPOWERING OF A STEAM PLANT

## Show the economies and environmental advantages possible with Diesel-engine

repowering of steam boiler / turbine plants using feedwater heating as the entree.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## FIGURE 6 Percentage of improvement in

turbine heat rate vs. stages of extraction.

Give the typical temperatures and ﬂow rates encountered in such installations using
gas and / or oil fuels.

Calculation Procedure:
1. Determine the output ranges possible with today’s diesel engines
Medium-speed Diesel engines are available in sizes exceeding 16 MW. While this
capacity may seem small when compared to gas turbines, it is appropriate for
repowering of steam plants up to 600 MW via boiler feedwater heating.
Modern Diesel engines can attain simple cycle efﬁciencies of over 47 percent
burning natural gas or heavy fuel oil (HFO). The ability to burn natural gas in
Diesels is a key factor when coupled with coal-ﬁred boilers. Since the Clean Air
Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA) require these boilers to reduce both NOx and SO2
emissions on a lb / million Btu-ﬁred basis (kg / MJ), a boiler feedwater heating sys-
tem that can help make these reductions while simultaneously improving overall
plant efﬁciency is attractive. Diesel engines offer these reductions when used in
repowering and feedwater heating.
Today Diesel engines convert about 45 percent of mechanical energy to elec-
tricity; 30 percent becomes exhaust-gas heat; 12 percent is lost to jacket-water heat;
and 6 percent is used to cool the lube oil. The remaining energy lost is generally
not recoverable.

2. Show how the diesel engine can be used in the feedwater heating cycle
Modern steam-turbine reheat cycles, Fig. 7, use an array of feedwater heaters in a
regenerative feedwater heating system. The heaters progressively increase the con-
densate temperature until it approaches the steam saturation temperature. Conden-
sate then enters the ﬁnal economizer and evaporator sections of the boiler.
Using the waste heat from Diesel engines to partially replace the feedwater
heaters is almost completely non-intrusive to the operation of the existing system,

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS 5.15

FIGURE 7 In repowering, Diesel exhaust is adjusted in temperature to the same levels expected
from feedwater heaters in the existing plant. (Power.)

but causes several signiﬁcant alterations in the cycle. Two particular cycle altera-
tions are: (1) Jacket water temperature from a Diesel engine is available at about
195⬚F (91⬚C). The lube-oil cooling system produces water at about 170⬚F (77⬚C).
These temperatures are appropriate for partial displacement of the boiler’s low-
temperature feedwater heaters.
(2) A gas / Diesel engine can operate on about 97 percent natural gas / 3 percent
HFO and has an exhaust temperature of 680⬚F (360⬚C). The exhaust gas can be
ducted through an economizer that is equipped with selective catalytic reduction
(SCR) and has heat-transfer sections that can adjust the exit temperature to match
the preheated-burner-windbox air temperature. The SCR reduces NOx emissions
from the engine to about 25 ppm on leaving the economizer. This exhaust econo-
mizer, Fig. 7, also elevates the temperature of the feedwater after it leaves the
deaerator.

## 3. Explain the environmental impact of using diesels in the feedwater heating

loop
Exhaust gas from the economizer sections, Fig. 7, is ducted to the boiler windbox.
This gas serves the same function as ﬂue-gas recirculation (FGR) in a low-NOx
burner. In the installation in Fig. 7, the two Diesel generators produce 351,600
lb / h (159,626 kg / h) of exhaust gas. Most of this gas is ducted to the boiler windbox
to achieve a 17.5 percent O2 level needed for the low NOx burners. The balance
enters the boiler as overﬁre air.

## 4. Determine the heat-rate improvement possible

Diesel engines are highly efﬁcient on a simple-cycle basis. When combined with a
steam turbine, as described, the cycle efﬁciency reaches about 56 percent on an
incremental basis. In the example here, the incremental heat rate of the engine
combined with the additional output from the turbine is 6060 Btu / kWh (6393 kJ /
kWh). This heat rate represents about 25 percent of the total system power and can

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

## 5.16 POWER GENERATION

be averaged with the heat rate of the associated plant. Total system heat rate may
be improved by as much as 10 percent as a result of repowering in this fashion.

## 5. Evaluate system turndown possible with this type of feedwater heating

Typically, a coal-ﬁred boiler can be turned down to about 60 percent load while
maintaining superheat and reheat temperatures. Adding Diesel feedwater heat in-
creases system output by about 25 percent. More important, the system is almost
completely non-intrusive, and can return to normal operation when the Diesel out-
put is not required. Thus, the total turndown of the plant is increased from 40 to
52 percent, making plant operation more ﬂexible.

## 6. Compare diesels vs. gas turbines for feedwater heating

Comparing Diesels vs. gas turbines (GT) in this application, it appears that the
major differences are in the temperature of the exhaust gas and the quantities of
exhaust gas that must be introduced to the boiler. Most GTs have fairly high ex-
haust-gas rates on a per-kilowatt basis, varying from 25 to over 30 lb / kW (9 to
13.6 kg / kW). GT exhaust may contain from 14.5 to 15.5 percent O2.
Conversely, Diesels have exhaust-gas rates of 15 to 16 lb / kW (6.8 to 7.3 kg /
kW). The O2 concentrations for Diesels vary between 11 percent for spark-ignited
gas engines up to 13 percent for gas / Diesels or HFO-ﬁred Diesels. Thus, when
providing inlet gases to the boiler and adjusting the windbox concentrations to 17.5
percent O2, the volume of gas has to be even further increased with GTs.

## 7. Evaluate the cost of this type of feedwater heating

Capital cost for modifying the boiler is largely dependent on the site and boiler.
Cost for a turnkey-installed Diesel facility is about \$850 / kW. For a Diesel plant
connected with an existing power system, net output of the existing system is
increased, as noted, because of increasing ﬂow to the steam turbine’s condenser.
This increased output offsets the cost of interconnection to the boiler.
Related Calculations. The data and procedure given here represent a new ap-
proach to feedwater heating and repowering. Because three function are
served—namely feedwater heating, repowering, and environmental compliance, the
approach is unique. Calculation of the variables is simple because basic heat-
transfer relations—covered elsewhere in this handbook—are used.
The date and methods given in this procedure are the work of F. Mack Shelor,
Wartsila Diesel Inc., as reported in Power magazine (June 1995). SI values were