Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

370 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Descon Eng
- 2142 Gimpel Valves
- steam blowing - disturbance factor discusstion2.pdf
- Proper Sizing of Steam Header Drains Prevents Water Induction ASME TDP-1
- Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720C coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine.pdf
- Mid Term Report of thermal power plant
- API Spec Review
- Biomass_Cogen
- none 1
- Training HVAC Production_Boiler
- Dp1
- Hot Rotor Turbine
- imdad training
- Grt Steam Turbines
- MM-M05~1
- Steam Nozzles and Turbines
- Ashok Report
- U6 Post OH Comparision
- 20150806-Modipalm Presentation v2 2010.3
- File 18242

You are on page 1of 16

SECTION 5

FEEDWATER HEATING

METHODS

Analysis 5.1 Analysis 5.8

Direct-Contact Feedwater Heater Feedwater Heating with Diesel-Engine

Analysis 5.2 Repowering of a Steam Plant 5.13

Closed Feedwater Heater Analysis and

Selection 5.3

ANALYSIS

(454,000 kg / h) of steam at initial conditions of 1800 psia (12,402 kPa) and 1050⬚F

(565.6⬚C). At exit from the cylinder the steam has a pressure of 500 psia (3445

kPa) and a temperature of 740⬚F (393.3⬚C). A portion of this 500-psia (3445-kPa)

steam is used in a closed feedwater heater to increase the temperature of 1,000,000

lb per h (454,000 kg / h) of 2000-psia (13,780-kPa) feedwater from 350⬚F (176.6⬚C)

to 430⬚F (221.1⬚C); the remainder passes through a reheater in the steam generator

and is admitted to the intermediate-pressure cylinder of the turbine at a pressure of

450 psia (3101 kPa) and a temperature of 1000⬚F (537.8⬚C). The intermediate cyl-

inder operates nonextraction. Steam leaves this cylinder at 200 psia (1378 kPa) and

500⬚F (260⬚C). Find (a) ﬂow rate to the feedwater heater, assuming no subcooling;

(b) work done, in kW, by the high-pressure cylinder; (c) work done, in kW, by the

intermediate-pressure cylinder; (d) heat added by the reheater.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Find the ﬂow rate to the feedwater heater

(a) Construct the ﬂow diagram, Fig. 1. Enter the pressure, temperature, and enthalpy

values using the data given and the steam tables. Write an equation for ﬂow across

the feedwater heater, or (H2 ⫺ H7) ⫽ water (H6 ⫺ H5). Substituting using the

enthalpy data from the ﬂow diagram, ﬂow to heater ⫽ (1 ⫻ 106)(409 ⫺ 324.4) /

(1379.3 ⫺ 449.4) ⫽ 90.977.5 lb / h (41,303.8 kg / h).

(b) The work done ⫽ (steam ﬂow rate, lb / h)(H1 ⫺ H2) / 3413 ⫽ (1 ⫻ 106)(1511.3

⫺ 1379.3) / 3414 ⫽ 38,675.7 kW.

5.1

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

450 psia

1,000,000 lb per hr 1000°F

1,800 psia 1050°F Reheater

H3 = 1,521

H1 = 1,511.3

Intermediate-

pressure

500 psia cylinder

908,900 lb per hr

740°F

High-pressure H2 =

cylinder 1,379.3

91,100 lb per hr

Heater 908,900 lb per hr

1,000,000 lb per hr 1,000,000 lb per hr 200 psia 500°F

2,000 psia 430°F 2,000 psia 350°F H4 = 1,269

H6 = 409 H5 = 324.4

H7 = 449.4

1,000,000 lb/hr (454,000 kg/hr) 1800 psia (12,402 kPa) 1050°F (565°C)

500 psia (3445 kPa) 740°F (393°C) 1379.3 Btu/lb (3214 kJ/kg) 1511.3 Btu/lb (3521 k?

2000 psia (13,780 kPa) 430°F (221°C) 409 (953 kJ/kg) 350°F (177°C) 324.4 (756 kJ/kg)

450 psia (3101 kPa) 1000°F (538°C) 1521 Btu/lb (3544 kJ/kg) 500°F (260°C)

200 psia (1378 kPa) 1269 Btu/lb (2933 kJ/kg) 324.5 Btu/lb (756 kJ/kg)

908,900 lb/hr (412,641 kg/hr) 91,100 lb/hr (41,359 kg/hr) 324.4 Btu/lb (756 kJ/kg)

449.4 Btu/lb (1047 kJ/kg)

FIGURE 1 Feedwater heating ﬂow diagram.

(c) The work done ⫽ (steam ﬂow through the cylinder)(H3 ⫺ H4) / 3413 ⫽ (1 ⫻

106– 90.977.5 ⫻ 106)(1521 ⫺ 1269) / 3413 ⫽ 67,118 kW.

(d) Heat added by the reheater ⫽ (steam ﬂow through the reheater)(H3 ⫺ H2) ⫽ (1

⫻ 106 ⫺ 90,977.5)(1521 ⫺ 1379.3) ⫽ 128.8 ⫻ 106 Btu / h (135.9 kJ / h).

Related Calculations. Use this general procedure to determine the ﬂow

through feedwater heaters and reheaters for utility, industrial, marine, and com-

mercial steam power plants of all sizes. The method given can also be used for

combined-cycle plants using both a steam turbine and a gas turbine along with a

heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) in combination with one or more feedwater

heaters and reheaters.

ANALYSIS

water heater if 250,000 lb / h (31.5 kg / s) of water enters the heater at 100⬚F

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

(37.8⬚C). Exhaust steam at 10.3 lb / in2 (gage) (71.0 kPa) saturated ﬂows to the

heater at the rate of 25,000 lb / h (31.5 kg / s). What saving is obtained by using this

heater if the boiler pressure is 250 lb / in2 (abs) (1723.8 kPa)?

Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the water outlet temperature

Assume the heater is 90 percent efﬁcient. Then to ⫽ tiww ⫹ 0.9wshg / (ww ⫹ 0.9ws),

where to ⫽ outlet water temperature, ⬚F; ti ⫽ inlet water temperature, ⬚F; ww ⫽

weight of water ﬂowing through heater, lb / h; 0.9 ⫽ heater efﬁciency, expressed as

a decimal; ws ⫽ weight of steam ﬂowing to the heater, lb / h; hg ⫽ enthalpy of the

steam ﬂowing to the heater, Btu / lb.

For saturated steam at 10.3 lb / in2 (gage) (71.0 kPa), or 10.3 ⫹ 14.7 ⫽ 25 lb /

in2 (abs) (172.4 kPa), hg ⫽ 1160.6 Btu / lb (2599.6 kJ / kg), from the saturation

pressure steam tables. Then

100(250,000) ⫹ 0.9(25,000)(1160.6)

to ⫽ ⫽ 187.5⬚F (86.4⬚C)

250,000 ⫹ 0.9(25,000)

The percentage of saving, expressed as a decimal, obtained by heating feedwater

is (ho ⫺ hi) / ( hb ⫺ hi) where ho and hi ⫽ enthalpy of the water leaving and entering

the heater, respectively, Btu / lb; hb ⫽ enthalpy of the steam at the boiler operating

pressure, Btu / lb. For this plant from the steam tables ho ⫺ hi / (hb ⫺ hi) ⫽ 155.44

⫺ 67.97 / (1201.1 ⫺ 67.97) ⫽ 0.077, or 7.7 percent.

A popular rule of thumb states that for every 11⬚F (6.1⬚C) rise in feedwater

temperature in a heater, there is approximately a 1 percent saving in the fuel that

would otherwise be used to heat the feedwater. Checking the above calculation with

this rule of thumb shows reasonably good agreement.

With a capacity of W lb / h of water, the volume of a direct-contact or open-type

heater can be approximated from v ⫽ W / 10,000, where v ⫽ heater internal volume,

ft3. For this heater v ⫽ 250,000 / 10,000 ⫽ 25 ft3 (0.71 m3).

Related Calculations. Most direct-contact or open feedwater heaters store in

2-min supply of feedwater when the boiler load is constant, and the feedwater

supply is all makeup. With little or no makeup, the heater volume is chosen so that

there is enough capacity to store 5 to 30 min feedwater for the boiler.

SELECTION

Analyze and select a closed feedwater heater for the third stage of a regenerative

steam-turbine cycle in which the feedwater ﬂow rate is 37,640 lb / h (4.7 kg / s), the

desired temperature rise of the water during ﬂow through the heater is 80⬚F (44.4⬚C)

(from 238 to 318⬚F or, 114.4 to 158.9⬚C), bleed heating steam is at 100 lb / in2 (abs)

(689.5 kPa) and 460⬚F (237.8⬚C), drains leave the heater at the saturation temper-

ature corresponding to the heating steam pressure [110 lb / in2 (abs) or 689.5 kPa],

and 5⁄8-in (1.6-cm) OD admiralty metal tubes with a maximum length of 6 ft (1.8

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

m) are used. Use the Standards of the Bleeder Heater Manufacturers Association,

Inc., when analyzing the heater.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the LMTD across heater

When heat-transfer rates in feedwater heaters are computed, the average ﬁlm tem-

perature of the feedwater is used. In computing this the Standards of the Bleeder

Heater Manufacturers Association specify that the saturation temperature of the

heating steam be used. At 100 lb / in2 (abs) (689.5 kPa), ts ⫽ 327.81⬚F (164.3⬚C).

Then

(ts ⫺ ti ) ⫺ (ts ⫺ to)

LMTD ⫽ tm ⫽

ln [ts ⫺ ti / (ts ⫺ to)]

where the symbols are as deﬁned in the previous calculation procedure. Thus,

(327.81 ⫺ 238) ⫺ (327.81 ⫺ 318)

tm ⫽

ln [327.81 ⫺ 238/(327.81 ⫺ 318)]

⫽ 36.5⬚F (20.3⬚C)

The average ﬁlm temperature tf for any closed heater is then

tf ⫽ ts ⫺ 0.8tm

Assume a feedwater velocity of 8 ft / s (2.4 m / s) for this heater. This velocity value

is typical for smaller heaters handling less than 100,000-lb / h (12.6-kg / s) feedwater

ﬂow. Enter Fig. 2 at 8 ft / s (2.4 m / s) on the lower horizontal scale, and project

vertically upward to the 250⬚F (121.1⬚C) average ﬁlm temperature curve. This curve

is used even though tf ⫽ 298.6⬚F (148.1⬚C), because the standards recommend that

heat-transfer rates higher than those for a 250⬚F (121.1⬚C) ﬁlm temperature not be

used. So, from the 8-ft / s (2.4 m / s) intersection with the 250⬚F (121.1⬚C) curve in

Fig. 2, project to the left to read U ⫽ the overall heat-transfer rate ⫽ 910 Btu /

(ft2 䡠 ⬚F 䡠 h) [5.2 k] / m2 䡠 ⬚C 䡠 s)].

Next, check Table 1 for the correction factor for U. Assume that no. 18 BWG

5

⁄8-in (1.6-cm) OD arsenical copper tubes are used in this exchanger. Then the

correction factor from Table 1 is 1.00, and Ucorr ⫽ 910(1.00) ⫽ 910. If no. 9 BWG

tubes are chosen, Ucorr ⫽ 910(0.85) ⫽ 773.5 Btu / (ft2 䡠 ⬚F 䡠 h) [4.4 kJ / (m2 䡠 ⬚C 䡠 s)],

given the correction factor from Table 1 for arsenical copper tubes.

The enthalpy of the entering feedwater at 238⬚F (114.4⬚C) is, from the saturation-

temperature steam table, hfi ⫽ 206.32 Btu / lb (479.9 kJ / kg). The enthalpy of the

leaving feedwater at 318⬚F (158.9⬚C) is, from the same table, hfo ⫽ 288.20 Btu / lb

(670.4 kJ / kg). Then the heater transferred Ht Btu / h is Ht ⫽ ww(hfo ⫺ hfi), where

ww ⫽ feedwater ﬂow rate, lb / h. Or, Ht ⫽ 37,640(288.20 ⫺ 206.32) ⫽ 3,080,000

Btu / h (902.7 kW).

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

Bleeder Heater Manufacturers Association, Inc.)

[For tube OD 5⁄8 to 1 in (1.6 to 2.5 cm) inclusive]

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

The surface area required A ft2 ⫽ Ht / Utm. Then A ⫽ 3,080,000 / [910)(36.5)] ⫽

92.7 ft2 (8.6 m2).

Assume the heater has only one pass, and compute the number of tubes required.

Once the number of tubes is known, a decision can be made about the number of

passes required. In a closed heater, number of tubes ⫽ ww (passes) (ft3 / s per

tube) / [v(ft2 per tube open area)], where ww ⫽ lb / h of feedwater passing through

heater; v ⫽ feedwater velocity in tubes, ft / s.

Since the feedwater enters the heater at 238⬚F (114.4⬚C) and leaves at 318⬚F

(158.9⬚C), its speciﬁc volume at 278⬚F (136.7⬚C), midway between ti and to, can

be considered the average speciﬁc volume of the feedwater in the heater. From the

saturation-pressure steam table, vf ⫽ 0.01691 ft3 / lb (0.0011 m3 / kg) at 278⬚F

(136.7⬚C). Convert this to cubic feet per second per tube by dividing this speciﬁc

volume by 3600 (number of seconds in 1 h) and multiplying by the pounds per

hour of feedwater per tube. Or, ft3 / s per tube ⫽ (0.01691 / 3600)(lb / h per tube).

Since no. 18 BWG 5⁄8-in (1.6-cm) OD tubes are being used, ID ⫽ 0.625 ⫺

2(thickness) ⫽ 0.625 ⫺ 2(0.049) ⫽ 0.527 in (1.3 cm). Then, open area per tube

ft2 ⫽ (d 2 / 4) / 144 ⫽ 0.7854(0.527)2 / 144 ⫽ 0.001525 ft2 (0.00014 m2) per tube.

Alternatively, this area could be obtained from a table of tube properties.

With these data, compute the total number of tubes from number of tubes ⫽

[(37,640)(1)(0.01681 / 3600)] / [(8)(0.001525)] ⫽ 14.29 tubes.

Assume that 14 tubes are used, since the number required is less than 14.5. Then,

tube length l, ft ⫽ A / (number of tubes per pass)(passes)(area per ft of tube). Or,

tube length for 1 pass ⫽ 92.7 / [(14)(1)(0.1636)] ⫽ 40.6 ft (12.4 m). The area per

ft of tube length is obtained from a table of tube properties or computed from

12 (OD) / 144 ⫽ 12 (0.625) / 155 ⫽ 0.1636 ft2 (0.015 m2).

7. Compute the actual number of passes and the actual tube length

Since the tubes in this heater cannot exceed 6 ft (1.8 m) in length, the number of

passes required ⫽ (length for one pass, ft) / (maximum allowable tube length, ft) ⫽

40.6 / 6 ⫽ 6.77 passes. Since a fractional number of passes cannot be used and an

even number of passes permit a more convenient layout of the heater, choose eight

passes.

From the same equation for tube length as in step 6, l ⫽ tube length ⫽ 92.7 /

[(14)(8)(0.1636)] ⫽ 5.06 ft (1.5 m).

In any closed feedwater heater, the pressure loss ⌬p lb / in2 is ⌬p ⫽ F1F2(L ⫹

5.5D)N / D1.24, where ⌬p ⫽ pressure drop in the feedwater passing through the

heater, lb / in2; F1 and F2 ⫽ correction factors from Fig. 3; L ⫽ total lin ft of tubing

divided by the number of tube holes in one tube sheet; D ⫽ tube ID; N ⫽ number

of passes. In ﬁnding F2, the average water temperature is taken as ts ⫺ tm.

For this heater, using correction factors from Fig. 3,

⌬ p ⫽ (0.136)(0.761) 冋5.06(8)(14)

(8)(14)

⫹ 5.5(0.527) 册 8

0.5271.24

⫽ 14.6 lb/in2 (100.7 kPa)

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

Bleeder Heater Manufacturers Association, Inc.)

The total number of tubes in the heater ⫽ (number of passes)(tubes per pass) ⫽

8(14) ⫽ 112 tubes. Assume that there is 3⁄8-in (1.0-cm) clearance between each

tube and the tube alongside, above, or below it. Then the pitch or center-to-center

distance between the tubes ⫽ pitch ⫹ tube OD ⫽ 3⁄8 ⫹ 5⁄8 ⫽ 1 in (2.5 cm).

The number of tubes per ft2 of tube sheet ⫽ 166 / (pitch)2, or 166 / 12 ⫽ 166

tubes per ft2 (1786.8 per m2). Since the heater has 112 tubes, the area of the tube

sheet ⫽ 112 / 166 ⫽ 0.675 ft2, or 97 in2 (625.8 cm2).

The inside diameter of the heater shell ⫽ (tube sheet area, in2 / 0.7854)0.5 ⫽

(97 / 0.7854)0.5 ⫽ 11.1 in (28.2 cm). With a 0.25-in (0.6-cm) thick shell, the heater

shell OD ⫽ 11.1 ⫹ 2(0.25) ⫽ 11.6 in (29.5 cm).

Steam enters the heater at 100 lb / in2 (abs) (689.5 kPa) and 460⬚F (237.8⬚C). The

enthalpy at this pressure and temperature is, from the superheated steam table, hg

⫽ 1258.8 Btu / lb (2928.0 kJ / kg). The steam condenses in the heater, leaving as

condensate at the saturation temperature corresponding to 100 lb / in2 (abs) (689.5

kPa), or 327.81⬚F (164.3⬚C). The enthalpy of the saturated liquid at this temperature

is, from the steam tables, hf ⫽ 298.4 Btu / lb (694.1 kJ / kg).

The heater steam consumption for any closed-type feedwater heater is W, lb /

h ⫽ ww(⌬t)(hg ⫺ hf), where ⌬t ⫽ temperature rise of feedwater in heater, ⬚F, c ⫽

speciﬁc heat of feedwater, Btu / (lb 䡠 ⬚F). Assume c ⫽ 1.00 for the temperature range

in this heater, and W ⫽ (37,640)(318 ⫺ 238)(1.00) / (1258.8 ⫺ 298.4) ⫽ 3140 lb /

h (0.40 kg / s).

Related Calculations. The procedure used here can be applied to closed feed-

water heaters in stationary and marine service. A similar procedure is used for

selecting hot-water heaters for buildings, marine, and portable service. Various au-

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

ature minus the outlet feedwater temperature) for closed feedwater heaters:

ANALYSIS

A steam power plant operates at a boiler-drum pressure of 460 lb / in2 (abs) (3171.7

kPa), a turbine throttle pressure of 415 lb / in2 (abs) (2861.4 kPa) and 725⬚F

(385.0⬚C), and a turbine capacity of 10,000 kW (or 13,410 hp). The Rankine-cycle

efﬁciency ratio (including generator losses) is: full load, 75.3 percent; three-quarters

load, 74.75 percent; half load, 71.75 percent. The turbine exhaust pressure is 1

inHg absolute (3.4 kPa); steam ﬂow to the steam-jet air ejector is 1000 lb / h (0.13

kg / s). Analyze this cycle to determine the possible gains from two stages of ex-

traction for feedwater heating, with the ﬁrst stage a closed heater and the second

stage a direct-contact or mixing heater. Use engineering-ofﬁce methods in analyzing

the cycle.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Sketch the power-plant cycle

Figure 4a shows the plant with one closed heater and one direct-contact heater.

Values marked on Fig. 4a will be computed as part of this calculation procedure.

Enter each value on the diagram as soon as it is computed.

Use the superheated steam tables to ﬁnd the throttle enthalpy hf ⫽ 1375.5 Btu / lb

(3199.4 kJ / kg) at 415 lb / in2 (abs) (2861.4 kPa) and 725⬚F (385.0⬚C).

Assume an irreversible adiabatic expansion between throttle conditions and the

exhaust pressure of 1 inHg (3.4 kPa). Compute the ﬁnal enthalpy H2s by the same

method used in earlier calculation procedures by ﬁnding y2s, the percentage of

moisture at the exhaust conditions with 1-inHg absolute (3.4-kPa) exhaust pressure.

Do this by setting up the ratio y2s ⫽ (sy ⫺ S1) / sfg, where sg and sfg are entropies at

the exhaust pressure; S1 is entropy at throttle conditions. From the steam tables, y2s

⫽ 2.0387 ⫺ 1.6468 / 1.9473 ⫽ 0.201. Then H2s ⫽ hg ⫺ y2shfg, where hg and hfg are

enthalpies at 1 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa). Substitute values from the steam table for

1 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa); or, H2s ⫽ 1096.3 ⫺ 0.201(1049.2) ⫽ 885.3 Btu / lb

(2059.2 kJ / kg).

The available energy in this irreversible adiabatic expansion is the difference

between the throttle and exhaust conditions, or 1375.5 ⫺ 885.3 ⫽ 490.2 Btu / lb

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

FIGURE 4 (a) Two stages of feedwater heating in a steam plant; (b) Mollier chart

of the cycle in (a).

(1140.2 kJ / kg). The work at full load on the turbine is: (Rankine-cycle efﬁ-

ciency)(adiabatic available energy) ⫽ (0.753)(490.2) ⫽ 369.1 Btu / lb (858.5 kJ /

kg). Enthalpy at the exhaust of the actual turbine ⫽ throttle enthalpy minus full-

load actual work, or 1375.5 ⫺ 369.1 ⫽ 1006.4 Btu / lb (2340.9 kJ / kg). Use the

Mollier chart to ﬁnd, at 1.0 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa) and 1006.4 Btu / lb (2340.9

kJ / kg), that the exhaust steam contains 9.5 percent moisture.

Now the turbine steam rate SR ⫽ 3413(actual work output, Btu). Or, SR ⫽

3413 / 369.1 ⫽ 9.25 lb / kWh (4.2 kg / kWh). With the steam rate known, the nonex-

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

s).

With steam extraction from the turbine for feedwater heating, the steam ﬂow to the

main condenser will be reduced, even with added throttle ﬂow to compensate for

extraction.

Assume that the ﬁnal feedwater temperature will be 212⬚F (100.0⬚C) and that

the heating range for each heater is equal. Both assumptions represent typical prac-

tice for a moderate-pressure cycle of the type being considered.

Feedwater leaving the condenser hotwell at 1 inHg absolute (3.4 kPa) is at

79.03⬚F (26.1⬚C). This feedwater is pumped through the air-ejector intercondensers

and aftercondensers, where the condensate temperature will usually rise 5 to 15⬚F

(2.8 to 8.3⬚C), depending on the turbine load. Assume that there is a 10⬚F (5.6⬚C)

rise in condensate temperature from 79 to 89⬚F (26.1 to 31.7⬚C). Then the temper-

ature range for the two heaters is 212 ⫺ 89 ⫽ 123⬚F (68.3⬚C). The temperature

rise per heater is 123 / 2 ⫽ 61.5⬚F (34.2⬚C), since there are two heaters and each

will have the same temperature rise. Since water enters the ﬁrst-stage closed heater

at 89⬚F (31.7⬚C), the exit temperature from this heater is 89 ⫹ 61.5 ⫽ 150.5⬚F

(65.8⬚C).

The second-stage heater is a direct-contact unit operating at 14.7 lb / in2 (abs)

(101.4 kPa), because this is the saturation pressure at an outlet temperature of 212⬚F

(100.0⬚C). Assume a 10 percent pressure drop between the turbine and heater steam

inlet. This is a typical pressure loss for an extraction heater. Extraction pressure for

the second-stage heater is then 1.1(14.7) ⫽ 16.2 lb / in2 (abs) (111.7 kPa).

Assume a 5⬚F (2.8⬚C) terminal difference for the ﬁrst-stage heater. This is a

typical terminal difference, as explained in an earlier calculation procedure. The

saturated steam temperature in the heater equals the condensate temperature ⫽

150.5⬚F (65.8⬚C) exit temperature ⫹ 5⬚F (2.8⬚C) terminal difference ⫽ 155.5⬚F

(68.6⬚C). From the saturation-temperature steam table, the pressure at 155.5⬚F

(68.6⬚C) is 4.3 lb / in2 (abs) (29.6 kPa). With a 10 percent pressure loss, the extrac-

tion pressure ⫽ 1.1(4.3) ⫽ 4.73 lb / in2 (abs) (32.6 kPa).

To establish the enthalpy of the extracted steam at each stage, the actual turbine-

expansion line must be plotted. Two points—the throttle inlet conditions and the

exhaust conditions—are known. Plot these on a Mollier chart, Fig. 4. Connect these

two points by a dashed straight line, Fig. 4.

Next, measure along the saturation curve 1 in (2.5 cm) from the intersection

point A back toward the enthalpy coordinate, and locate point B. Now draw a

gradually sloping line from the throttle conditions to point B; from B increase the

slope to the exhaust conditions. The enthalpy of the steam at each extraction point

is read where the lines of constant pressure cross the expansion line. Thus, for the

second-stage direct-contact heater where p ⫽ 16.2 lb / in2 (abs) (111.7 kPa), hg ⫽

1136 Btu / lb (2642.3 kJ / kg). For the ﬁrst-stage closed heater where p ⫽ 4.7 lb / in2

(abs) (32.4 kPa), hg ⫽ 1082 Btu / lb (2516.7 kJ / kg).

When the actual expansion curve is plotted, a steeper slope is used between the

throttle super-heat conditions and the saturation curve of the Mollier chart, because

the turbine stages using superheated steam (stages above the saturation curve) are

more efﬁcient than stages using wet steam (stages below the saturation curve).

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

To determine the extraction ﬂow rates, two assumptions must be made—condenser

steam ﬂow rate and ﬁrst-stage closed-heater extraction ﬂow rate. The complete cycle

will be analyzed, and the assumption checked. If the assumptions are incorrect,

new values will be assumed, and the cycle analyzed again.

Assume that the condenser steam ﬂow from the turbine is 84,000 lb / h (10.6

kg / s) when it is operating with extraction. Note that this value is less than the

nonextraction ﬂow of 92,500 lb / h (11.7 kg / s). The reason is that extraction of

steam will reduce ﬂow to the condenser because the steam is bled from the turbine

after passage through the throttle but before the condenser inlet.

Then, for the ﬁrst-stage closed heater, condensate ﬂow is as follows:

The value of 5900 lb / h (0.74 kg / s) of condensate from the ﬁrst-stage heater is the

second assumption made. Since it will be checked later, an error in the assumption

can be detected.

Assume a 2 percent heat radiation loss between the turbine and heater. This is

a typical loss. Then

Compare the required extraction, 5950 lb / h (0.75 kg / s), with the assumed ex-

traction, 5900 lb / h (0.74 kg / s). The difference is only 50 lb / h (0.006 kg / s), which

is less than 1 percent. Therefore, the assumed ﬂow rate is satisfactory, because

estimates within 1 percent are considered sufﬁciently accurate for all routine anal-

yses.

For the second-stage direct-contact heater, condensate ﬂow, lb / h is as follows:

The required extraction, calculated in the same way as for the ﬁrst-stage heater,

is (90,900)(61.7 / 932.2) ⫽ 6050 lb / h (0.8 kg / s).

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

The computed extraction ﬂow for the second-stage heater is not compared with

an assumed value because an assumption was not necessary.

Sketch a vertical line diagram, Fig. 5, showing the enthalpies at the throttle, heaters,

and exhaust. From this diagram, the work lost by the extracted steam can be com-

puted. As Fig. 5 shows, the total enthalpy drop from the throttle to the exhaust is

369 Btu / lb (389.3 kJ / kg). Each pound of extracted steam from the ﬁrst- and sec-

ond-stage bleed points causes a work loss of 75.7 Btu / lb (176.1 kJ / kg) and 129.7

Btu / lb (301.7 kJ / kg), respectively. To carry the same load, 10,000 kW, with ex-

tractions, it will be necessary to supply the following additional compensation steam

to the turbine throttle: (heater ﬂow, lb / h)(work loss, Btu / h) / (total work, Btu / h).

Then

Check the assumed condenser ﬂow using nonextraction throttle ﬂow ⫹ addi-

tional throttle ﬂow ⫺ heater extraction ⫽ condenser ﬂow. Set up a tabulation of

the ﬂows as follows:

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

Compare this actual ﬂow, 83,840 lb / h (10.6 kg / s), with the assumed ﬂow,

84,000 lb / h (10.6 kg / s). The difference, 160 lb / h (0.02 kg / s), is less than 1 percent.

Since an accuracy within 1 percent is sufﬁcient for all normal power-plant calcu-

lations, it is not necessary to recompute the cycle. Had the difference been greater

than 1 percent, a new condenser ﬂow would be assumed and the cycle recomputed.

Follow this procedure until a difference of less than 1 percent is obtained.

7. Determine the economy of the extraction cycle

For a nonextraction cycle operating in the same pressure range,

boiler) / (kW output of turbine) ⫽ (92,500 ⫹ 1000)(1328.3) / 10,000 ⫽ 12,410

Btu / kWh (13,093.2 kJ / kWh), which is the actual heat rate HR of the nonextraction

cycle.

For the extraction cycle using two heaters,

11,580 Btu / kWh (12,217.5 kJ / kWh). Therefore, the improvement ⫽ (nonextraction

HR ⫺ extraction HR) / nonextraction HR ⫽ (12,410 ⫺ 11,580) / 12,410 ⫽ 0.0662,

or 6.62 percent.

Related Calculations. (1) To determine the percent improvement in a steam

cycle resulting from additional feedwater heaters in the cycle, use the same pro-

cedure as given above for three, four, ﬁve, six, or more heaters. Plot the percent

improvement vs. number of stages of extraction, Fig. 6, to observe the effect of

additional heaters. A plot of this type shows the decreasing gains made by addi-

tional heaters. Eventually the gains become so small that the added expenditure for

an additional heater cannot be justiﬁed.

(2) Many simple marine steam plants use only two stages of feedwater heating.

To analyze such a cycle, use the procedure given, substituting the hp output for the

kW output of the turbine.

(3) Where a marine plant has more than two stages of feedwater heating, follow

the procedure given in (1) above.

REPOWERING OF A STEAM PLANT

repowering of steam boiler / turbine plants using feedwater heating as the entree.

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

turbine heat rate vs. stages of extraction.

Give the typical temperatures and ﬂow rates encountered in such installations using

gas and / or oil fuels.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the output ranges possible with today’s diesel engines

Medium-speed Diesel engines are available in sizes exceeding 16 MW. While this

capacity may seem small when compared to gas turbines, it is appropriate for

repowering of steam plants up to 600 MW via boiler feedwater heating.

Modern Diesel engines can attain simple cycle efﬁciencies of over 47 percent

burning natural gas or heavy fuel oil (HFO). The ability to burn natural gas in

Diesels is a key factor when coupled with coal-ﬁred boilers. Since the Clean Air

Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA) require these boilers to reduce both NOx and SO2

emissions on a lb / million Btu-ﬁred basis (kg / MJ), a boiler feedwater heating sys-

tem that can help make these reductions while simultaneously improving overall

plant efﬁciency is attractive. Diesel engines offer these reductions when used in

repowering and feedwater heating.

Today Diesel engines convert about 45 percent of mechanical energy to elec-

tricity; 30 percent becomes exhaust-gas heat; 12 percent is lost to jacket-water heat;

and 6 percent is used to cool the lube oil. The remaining energy lost is generally

not recoverable.

2. Show how the diesel engine can be used in the feedwater heating cycle

Modern steam-turbine reheat cycles, Fig. 7, use an array of feedwater heaters in a

regenerative feedwater heating system. The heaters progressively increase the con-

densate temperature until it approaches the steam saturation temperature. Conden-

sate then enters the ﬁnal economizer and evaporator sections of the boiler.

Using the waste heat from Diesel engines to partially replace the feedwater

heaters is almost completely non-intrusive to the operation of the existing system,

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

FIGURE 7 In repowering, Diesel exhaust is adjusted in temperature to the same levels expected

from feedwater heaters in the existing plant. (Power.)

but causes several signiﬁcant alterations in the cycle. Two particular cycle altera-

tions are: (1) Jacket water temperature from a Diesel engine is available at about

195⬚F (91⬚C). The lube-oil cooling system produces water at about 170⬚F (77⬚C).

These temperatures are appropriate for partial displacement of the boiler’s low-

temperature feedwater heaters.

(2) A gas / Diesel engine can operate on about 97 percent natural gas / 3 percent

HFO and has an exhaust temperature of 680⬚F (360⬚C). The exhaust gas can be

ducted through an economizer that is equipped with selective catalytic reduction

(SCR) and has heat-transfer sections that can adjust the exit temperature to match

the preheated-burner-windbox air temperature. The SCR reduces NOx emissions

from the engine to about 25 ppm on leaving the economizer. This exhaust econo-

mizer, Fig. 7, also elevates the temperature of the feedwater after it leaves the

deaerator.

loop

Exhaust gas from the economizer sections, Fig. 7, is ducted to the boiler windbox.

This gas serves the same function as ﬂue-gas recirculation (FGR) in a low-NOx

burner. In the installation in Fig. 7, the two Diesel generators produce 351,600

lb / h (159,626 kg / h) of exhaust gas. Most of this gas is ducted to the boiler windbox

to achieve a 17.5 percent O2 level needed for the low NOx burners. The balance

enters the boiler as overﬁre air.

Diesel engines are highly efﬁcient on a simple-cycle basis. When combined with a

steam turbine, as described, the cycle efﬁciency reaches about 56 percent on an

incremental basis. In the example here, the incremental heat rate of the engine

combined with the additional output from the turbine is 6060 Btu / kWh (6393 kJ /

kWh). This heat rate represents about 25 percent of the total system power and can

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FEEDWATER HEATING METHODS

be averaged with the heat rate of the associated plant. Total system heat rate may

be improved by as much as 10 percent as a result of repowering in this fashion.

Typically, a coal-ﬁred boiler can be turned down to about 60 percent load while

maintaining superheat and reheat temperatures. Adding Diesel feedwater heat in-

creases system output by about 25 percent. More important, the system is almost

completely non-intrusive, and can return to normal operation when the Diesel out-

put is not required. Thus, the total turndown of the plant is increased from 40 to

52 percent, making plant operation more ﬂexible.

Comparing Diesels vs. gas turbines (GT) in this application, it appears that the

major differences are in the temperature of the exhaust gas and the quantities of

exhaust gas that must be introduced to the boiler. Most GTs have fairly high ex-

haust-gas rates on a per-kilowatt basis, varying from 25 to over 30 lb / kW (9 to

13.6 kg / kW). GT exhaust may contain from 14.5 to 15.5 percent O2.

Conversely, Diesels have exhaust-gas rates of 15 to 16 lb / kW (6.8 to 7.3 kg /

kW). The O2 concentrations for Diesels vary between 11 percent for spark-ignited

gas engines up to 13 percent for gas / Diesels or HFO-ﬁred Diesels. Thus, when

providing inlet gases to the boiler and adjusting the windbox concentrations to 17.5

percent O2, the volume of gas has to be even further increased with GTs.

Capital cost for modifying the boiler is largely dependent on the site and boiler.

Cost for a turnkey-installed Diesel facility is about $850 / kW. For a Diesel plant

connected with an existing power system, net output of the existing system is

increased, as noted, because of increasing ﬂow to the steam turbine’s condenser.

This increased output offsets the cost of interconnection to the boiler.

Related Calculations. The data and procedure given here represent a new ap-

proach to feedwater heating and repowering. Because three function are

served—namely feedwater heating, repowering, and environmental compliance, the

approach is unique. Calculation of the variables is simple because basic heat-

transfer relations—covered elsewhere in this handbook—are used.

The date and methods given in this procedure are the work of F. Mack Shelor,

Wartsila Diesel Inc., as reported in Power magazine (June 1995). SI values were

added by the handbook editor.

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

- Descon EngUploaded byAqeel Shah
- 2142 Gimpel ValvesUploaded byramakantinamdar
- steam blowing - disturbance factor discusstion2.pdfUploaded bychem_ta
- Proper Sizing of Steam Header Drains Prevents Water Induction ASME TDP-1Uploaded bykappanjk7584
- Calculation of a 900 MW conceptual 700/720C coal-fired power unit with an auxiliary extraction-backpressure turbine.pdfUploaded byktsnl
- Mid Term Report of thermal power plantUploaded bySketcher Sumit Gupta
- API Spec ReviewUploaded bymohantyom
- Biomass_CogenUploaded bytortuoise
- none 1Uploaded byallovid
- Training HVAC Production_BoilerUploaded bySlobodan Antic
- Dp1Uploaded byDivya Prakash Srivastava
- Hot Rotor TurbineUploaded byyogacruise
- imdad trainingUploaded byihussain23
- Grt Steam TurbinesUploaded byXXX
- MM-M05~1Uploaded bySamuelTrinando
- Steam Nozzles and TurbinesUploaded byPrabhu Mani Rathinam
- Ashok ReportUploaded byAshok Kumar Marthota
- U6 Post OH ComparisionUploaded byvijaykrishnatenneti
- 20150806-Modipalm Presentation v2 2010.3Uploaded byDavid CS Chiang
- File 18242Uploaded byfaisalnadim
- Super Critical Steam GeneratorsUploaded byMahaManthra
- Is.10392.1982 Feed Water BoilerUploaded byAngelina Yunita
- 6101___0Uploaded bymakasad26
- Stcwcir4 2012 AnnexII AUploaded byRavi Viknesh
- 3909Uploaded byBharath Kumar
- B2 Steam Turbine Schedules Rev a 2010-11-23Uploaded byAnonymous kIrNuh
- manufacturing and study of steam turbinesUploaded byBairi Rajesh
- Steam TheoryUploaded byProcess Engineer
- Prime MoverUploaded byАбдельнасир Абдельрахман
- Chapter 5, 6, and 7Uploaded bynagesh

- autodesk inventor 8 manual español para empezarUploaded bymadenicola10
- Utilisima-curso Practico de Manualidades-excelenteUploaded bymadenicola10
- manual de manualidades - papiroflexia - el mejor avión de papel del mundoUploaded bymadenicola10
- Bricolage - Torno de MaderaUploaded bymadenicola10
- Manual de Instalacion CalderasUploaded bymadenicola10
- EIR ManualUploaded byle_barros
- Manual Placa Madre Pc Chips p25gv10Uploaded bymadenicola10
- Manual de Recarga Diversos Cartuchos(1)Uploaded bymadenicola10
- Rooter Um Ct536bUploaded bymadenicola10
- AmidiagUploaded bymadenicola10
- ebook - Robot - Sensors and Methods for Mobile Robot Positioning - 1996Uploaded byikasetyo

- Wendy Mach OMTEC 2014 PresentationUploaded byVanessa Duz
- Jacketed VesselsUploaded byImamRN
- Analysis of HydrocarbonsUploaded byAya Javier
- _Transformer Service Handbook_version int_V4 0_rev 3.pdfUploaded byEduardo Gutierrez
- Oxide Surfaces.pdfUploaded bycarlosponcio
- Organic Chemistry AllUploaded byDaniel McDermott
- PWHTUploaded byIle Ibrahim
- ThermalStakingGuidelines.pdfUploaded bydiego_mtz
- Surface Roughness 2Uploaded bylw124
- 31 2 (Science)Uploaded bymanik
- C-67Uploaded byQuiyuchS
- Understanding Fuel Gas CompositionUploaded byDuggineni Ramakrishna
- Sep11 2012 Striptheory HeaveUploaded bysibanandarms
- MEC701 Lab Manual W2014Uploaded bymohamadreza1368
- 2012_REVIEW-ppGpp-Magic beyond RNAP.pdfUploaded bycarlos javier
- honors organic chemistry lab presentation 2014Uploaded byapi-258249524
- Onshore US 1-10-08Uploaded bySKR
- FREECAP_BrochureUploaded byMohsen Shk
- A Study to Minimise Bottomw Water Coning in Heavy Oil ReservoirsUploaded bysaladinayubi1234
- PROP6020pUploaded bylukeneer
- BernoulliUploaded byBen
- Perf Analysis of the Ideal Rocket Motor - Part 1.pdfUploaded byHarris Chacko
- 238988905-Handbook-of-X-ray-Photoelectron-Spectroscopy-1995.pdfUploaded bySandra Milena Londoño R
- E301 Compiled.pdfUploaded byOliver Quiambao
- Radiation Dosimetry of Graphite Moderated Radium - Berilium SourceUploaded byCarlos Ly
- F 364 - 96 R02 _RJM2NA__Uploaded byjamaljamal20
- FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TELMISARTAN TABLETS EMPLOYING FACTORIAL DESIGNS AND STABILITYUploaded byBaru Chandrasekhar Rao
- DrivingForceAnalysis Good PhDThesis FTreactor Code MatlabUploaded byMinhaj Ghouri
- Basic Concepts in Reservoir EngineeringUploaded byDiego A. Navia
- Murakami JapanUploaded bynuckelchen

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.