Hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic muscle contractions at equivalent workloads

Jason W. Daniels, Charles L. Stebbins and John C. Longhurst
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American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology publishes original investigations that illuminate normal or abnormal regulation and integration of physiological mechanisms at all levels of biological organization, ranging from molecules to humans, including clinical investigations. It is published 12 times a year (monthly) by the American Physiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD 20814-3991. Copyright © 2000 the American Physiological Society. ISSN: 0363-6119, ESSN: 1522-1490. Visit our website at http://www.the-aps.org/.

and a greater decrease in popliteal venous pH (0. 19). 10. Both static and rhythmic contraction of hindlimb muscles in anesthetized animals induce reflex increases in cardiac output.physiology. However. DANIELS. Univ. dynamic muscle contraction causes larger cardiovascular responses than static contraction because of greater chemical and mechanical stimulation. 7. 50 Ϯ 7 vs. dynamic contraction evoked a greater increase in blood velocity (13 Ϯ 1 vs. This difference is reportedly due to continuous restriction of muscle blood flow during static contraction that results in greater accumulation of local metabolites and greater activation of chemosensitive muscle afferents (9. 15. adequate comparison of the response patterns during dynamic Downloaded from http://ajpregu. 19). However. Irvine. blood pressure. Davis 95616–8634.edu). L. and 2Department of Medicine. LONGHURST2 1 Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. separating the effects of mechanoreceptors from those of metaboreceptors on the exercise pressor reflex can be difficult. R1849 0363-6119/00 $5. 13). such that the greater the muscle mass involved or tension developed.org/ by guest on September 14. Stebbins. When time was held constant and tension was allowed to vary. kao stimulator INDIVIDUALS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR disease often are directed away from exercise involving static contraction. holding either contraction time or peak tension constant] in chloralose-anesthetized cats. In conclusion. and John C. Hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic muscle contractions at equivalent workloads. indicating greater mechanoreceptor stimulation. CA 95616–8634 (E-mail: clstebbins@ucdavis.. when peak tension is variable.—We tested the hypothesis that static contraction causes greater reflex cardiovascular responses than dynamic contraction at equivalent workloads [i. To investigate the reflex contribution of mechanoreceptors. when peak tension was held constant. A larger reflex increase in MAP during dynamic stretch (32 Ϯ 8 vs. 15.07 Ϯ 0. However. Ϫ1 Ϯ 1 cm/s) without causing any differences in other variables. Differential stimulation of muscle mechanoreceptors (intermittent vs. The article must therefore be hereby marked ‘‘advertisement’’ in accordance with 18 U. The magnitude of this reflex response is dependent on the amount of muscle mass and/or tension development.01). however.Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 279: R1849–R1855. California 92888 Received 24 March 2000. 12.e. Several attempts have been made to compare the cardiovascular response to both static and dynamic contraction (1–3). dynamic contraction of the hindlimb muscles evoked greater increases (means Ϯ SE) in mean arterial pressure (MAP. we stretched the hindlimb dynamically and statically at the same TTI. Unfortunately. University of California. 6. the greater the pressor reflex (3. http://www. STEBBINS. Div. Charles L.1 CHARLES L. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 279: R1849–R1855. 0. because it is thought that there is a greater reflex autonomic response associated with a larger afterload placed on the heart compared with dynamic contraction. skeletal muscle blood flow. 24 Ϯ 6 mmHg) was observed when time was held constant. 5 Ϯ 1 cm/s). 2000. 30 Ϯ 5 mmHg). 15).S. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact. Similarly. static and dynamic muscle stretch. at comparable TTI. 17). TB 172. Hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic muscle contractions at equivalent workloads JASON W. exercise. suggesting greater metabolic stimulation during dynamic contraction. Nevertheless. 5.1 AND JOHN C. there were no differences in the reflex cardiovascular response to static and dynamic stretch.org The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges.03 Ϯ 0. Jason W. popliteal blood velocity (15 Ϯ 3 vs.. Irvine. Previous studies suggest that static contraction causes greater pressor responses than those caused by dynamic contraction (9. such comparisons have not been performed at equivalent workloads. Longhurst. continuous) also may contribute to differences in the pressor response to dynamic contraction. Davis. and heart rate (HR) (5. popliteal venous PCO2 (15 Ϯ 3 vs. accepted in final form 19 July 2000 Daniels. Although previous attempts have been made to compare cardiovascular responses with dynamic and static contractions (9. of Cardiovascular Medicine. Because the magnitude of the reflex cardiovascular response is directly related to the force production (15). Department of Internal Medicine. static and dynamic contraction or stretch produce similar cardiovascular responses. when peak tension was held constant and time was allowed to vary.01 vs. comparing the reflex cardiovascular response to passive dynamic and static muscle stretch provides a viable alternative because stretch is not associated with any metabolic changes (18). when peak tensions are equivalent. differences in the energy of activation between these two types of contraction may play an important role because they can lead to differences in muscle metabolism and in the production and accumulation of local metabolites (4. Stebbins. 3 Ϯ 1 mmHg). Davis.C. 12). of California. comparisons between static and dynamic contraction have not been adequately investigated with the same muscle group performing equivalent amounts of work. 2012 Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: C. 2000.ajpregu. same tension-time index (TTI). Davis. University of California.00 Copyright © 2000 the American Physiological Society .

termed tensiontime index (TTI). The integration of force over time.3–5. Samples were taken immediately before and after contraction or muscle stretch. Static versus dynamic contraction/stretch (TTI matched with variable time and constant peak tension). HR was assessed with a cardiotachometer (Gould 13–4515–65) that was triggered by the arterial blood pressure signal. Static and dynamic contractions were evoked with voltages that varied between 1. appears to be a reasonable quantitative technique for equating force produced during static and dynamic contraction. Therefore.35– 7. the saphenous vein was cannulated. the length attained at full dorsiflexion). 2012 This study was approved by the Animal Use and Care Administrative Advisory Committee at the University of California. the triceps surae was contracted statically for 30 s by electrically stimulating the sciatic nerve at a frequency of 40 Hz (pulse duration ϭ 0. Dynamic contraction evoked a greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared with static contraction (Fig. Statistical significance was accepted at PՅ0. and the other between the peak changes in response to dynamic and static contraction or static and dynamic stretch using the Student’s paired t-test. 2). modulated sinusoidally at 1 Hz). which was determined by integrating the area under the mean tension curves during the 30-s contraction period. If necessary. The Static Versus Dynamic Contraction TTI matched with time constant and variable peak tension.05. and the right sciatic nerve was dissected free of surrounding tissue and placed on a shielded electrode. On the basis of data from a previous study (18). This set of experiments was carried out to determine whether our observed differences in reflex responses were the result of differences in peak tension.org/ by guest on September 14. This allowed blood samples (0. Fig.R1850 STATIC VS. The nerve was kept moist with mineral oil. Arterial blood gases and pH were maintained within the following ranges: PCO2 25–35 Torr.5 times the motor threshold. even though popliteal blood velocity was significantly greater for dynamic than for static contraction. 2) the smaller response to dynamic contraction is due. whereas arterial pH was maintained by administering intravenous sodium bicarbonate (8. This approach provides an accurate means to compare the cardiovascular response during these two disparate types of contraction within the same groups of muscle (1. to greater skeletal muscle blood flow. To match TTI between these two contractions over the same time interval (30 s). . and the Achilles tendon was detached at the calcaneus bone and attached to an isometric force transducer (Grass FT-10). 100% oxygen was supplemented to maintain arterial PO2 Ͼ90 Torr. Davis. Static versus dynamic stretch (TTI matched with time constant and variable peak tension). in part. and a catheter was directed in a retrograde fashion into the popliteal vein so that its tip was positioned just proximal to the triceps surae muscle group. PO2 Ͼ90 Torr.. Tension was expressed as average developed tension or TTI. Mean tension was displayed simultaneously through a lowpass filter (0. dynamic contractions were evoked to generate greater peak tension (5 Ϯ 1 vs. Two sets of comparisons were made: one between the baseline values. All values are expressed as means Ϯ SE.025 ms). Each animal was placed in a spinal unit (David Kopf). Statistical analysis. static contraction induces a greater reflex-pressor response than dynamic contraction. in seven cats. the cats were paralyzed with vecuronium (3–5 mg/kg iv) at the end of the experiment. Blood velocity was measured by a Doppler flow velocity meter (Triton Instruments. The trachea was intubated. Tension produced by the contraction of the triceps surae was recorded as an index of overall hindlimb contraction. To ensure that group III and IV muscle afferents were not stimulated. RESULTS Downloaded from http://ajpregu. the popliteal artery was dissected free of the surrounding tissue. pH 7.6 ml/cat) was obtained in each protocol. and respiration was maintained by a mechanical ventilator. model 100) and was expressed in centimeters per second.45. Average developed tension was equivalent to that produced by electrically induced contractions using the same stimulation parameters as described previously. and an electrode was attached to either a stimulus-isolation unit (Grass PSIU6) and a squarewave stimulator (Grass S88) for static contraction or a Kao. Protocols Static versus dynamic contraction (TTI matched with time constant and variable peak tension). the triceps surae muscle was stretched to ϳ90–110% of its maximal in vivo muscle length (i. The triceps surae was also contracted dynamically for 30 s by electrically stimulating the sciatic nerve with the modified Kao stimulator (60-Hz carrier frequency. 1). Arterial blood pressure was measured with a pressure transducer (Statham P23ID) attached to the arterial catheter. In seven cats.physiology. A catheter was placed in the left femoral vein for administration of drugs or fluids and in the left femoral artery for sampling arterial blood gases and for measurement of systemic arterial blood pressure.4 ml/sample) to be withdrawn from the venous effluent of the triceps surae muscle group. we stretched the hindlimb dynamically (1 Hz) and statically for 30 s to equivalent TTI (n ϭ 5 cats).5 and 2. which tends to “wash out” local metabolites that induce the exercise pressor reflex. In six cats. In some animals. A total of four blood samples (1. 15).e. The order of contractions was randomized. sinusoidal wave stimulator for dynamic contractions. n ϭ 5 cats) during which peak tension and TTI were matched.35 Hz). METHODS right hindlimb was clamped in a fixed position.4%) as needed. we tested the following hypotheses: 1) when developed tension over time (TTI) is similar. 2 Ϯ 1 kg. and the stimulus was repeated to demonstrate a lack of change in blood pressure or HR. We conducted both static (30 s) and dynamic (60 s) contractions (n ϭ 6 cats) in addition to static (30 s) and dynamic stretch (60 s. Surgical Preparation Adult cats of either sex (2. To determine the role of mechanoreceptors in the reflex cardiovascular responses to both static and dynamic contraction. DYNAMIC CONTRACTION AT EQUIVALENT WORKLOADS and static exercise cannot be made accurately unless force production is similar. Additional doses of ␣-chloralose (10 mg/kg) were administered as needed throughout the experiment. Dynamic contraction also induced significantly greater changes in venous effluent PCO2 and pH (Table 1).0 kg) were anesthetized with ketamine (25–30 mg/kg im) followed by ␣-chloralose (60–80 mg/kg iv). and a Doppler flow transducer was placed around the artery for assessment of blood velocity to the triceps surae.

PO2. absolute tension. TTI matched with variable time and constant peak tension.0 Ϯ 0. . 60 s dynamic) to equate TTI (Fig. No significant differences were observed in venous lactate concentration ([lactate]) or PO2. despite greater increases in popliteal blood velocity during dynamic contraction.5 kg) contraction.0 Ϯ 0. 3). 4). there were no differences in HR. Beats/ min. peak developed tension was matched during static (2. and mean tension. pH. greater reflex increases in MAP and HR were observed during dynamic compared with during static stretch (Fig.physiology. or [lactate] (Table 1). In this protocol (n ϭ 6). Variables shown are mean arterial pressure (MAP). In addition. Static Versus Dynamic Stretch TTI matched with time constant and variable peak tension. Dynamic contraction evoked increases in MAP that were similar to those caused by static contraction (Fig. Original record of the cardiovascular response to static and dynamic contraction at matched tension-time index with peak tension held constant (A) and with time held constant (B). but the time of contraction was varied (30 s static vs. During 30 s of passive stretch (n ϭ 5). heart rate.org/ by guest on September 14. bpm. 1).5 kg) and dynamic (2.STATIC VS. DYNAMIC CONTRACTION AT EQUIVALENT WORKLOADS R1851 Downloaded from http://ajpregu. 1. 2012 Fig. PCO2.

dynamic. 17.8 Ϯ 0.3 2. venous PCO2 and Hϩ levels during dynamic contraction were actually higher than during static contraction.01 1. Thus the greater cost of muscle activation and higher peak tensions during dynamic contraction probably augmented the production of muscle metabolites. greater stimulation of metaboreceptors most likely contributed to the larger reflex-pressor response to dynamic contraction. dynamic.4* 0.2 35 Ϯ 2 60 Ϯ 6* 25 Ϯ 3 28 Ϯ 2 37 Ϯ 2 9Ϯ1 7. static vs. However.05. and variable peak tension.6 Ϯ 0. The results of our study did not confirm our hypothesis. no.6 Ϯ 0. However. DYNAMIC CONTRACTION AT EQUIVALENT WORKLOADS DISCUSSION Fig.1 40 Ϯ 3 55 Ϯ 4*† 15 Ϯ 3† 34 Ϯ 5 31 Ϯ 3 Ϫ3 Ϯ 2 7. 5). by holding contraction time constant and by increasing peak tension during dynamic contraction to equate TTI. Short duration. * P Ͻ 0.4 2. Peak changes (⌬. 4).R1852 STATIC VS.13 Ϯ 0.vs.01 1. Change.05. These differences appear to be related to greater ATP requirements for the initial activation of the muscle during intermittent contraction (7).01 Values are means Ϯ SE. 2012 Table 1.01 7.01† 1. n.10 Ϯ 0.6 Ϯ 0. Moreover. we found that the pressor response to dynamic contraction was not reduced compared with static contraction under these conditions. and mean blood velocity during static and dynamic contraction (n ϭ 7) at equivalent tension-time indexes. Numbers below histograms represent baseline values.18 Ϯ 0. We had proposed that static contraction would elicit a greater reflex-pressor response than dynamic contraction at comparable workloads. mmHg Precontraction Postcontraction ⌬ PO2. No significant change in popliteal artery blood velocity was observed (Fig.0 Ϯ 0. 2. .01* Ϫ0.03 Ϯ 0.02*† Ϫ0. We expected that the greater blood flow during dynamic contraction would result in less activation of the exercise-pressor reflex both because of a greater supply of oxygen and because of greater “metabolite washout” in the active muscle. postcontraction. There were no significant differences in the reflex cardiovascular response to static and dynamic stretch during these conditions (Fig. 18).20 Ϯ 0.4 2.07 Ϯ 0. Instead. mM Precontraction Postcontraction ⌬ PCO2.1* 0.31 Ϯ 0. constant time (30 s).01* Ϫ0. of cats. *P Ͻ 0.02 7.4 Ϯ 0.32 Ϯ 0.2 Ϯ 0. mmHg Precontraction Postcontraction ⌬ pH Precontraction Postcontraction ⌬ 1.02 7. the pressor response to dynamic contraction was greater than that caused by static contraction.physiology. ⌬.02 7.4* 0.3 1. pre. Metabolic responses to dynamic and static contraction at equivalent tension-time index Time Constant (n ϭ 7) Static Dynamic Peak Tension Constant (n ϭ 6) Static Dynamic Lactate.2 37 Ϯ 4 66 Ϯ 5* 29 Ϯ 4 27 Ϯ 1 36 Ϯ 9 9Ϯ4 7. static vs. When TTI was matched by maintaining similar peak tensions and increasing contraction time during dy- Downloaded from http://ajpregu.2 Ϯ 0.9 Ϯ 0.1* 0.02 Ϫ0. † P Ͻ 0. the higher muscle blood flow associated with the greater peak tension likely limited accumulation of these local metabolites.25 Ϯ 0. This difference in the cardiovascular response occurred despite the fact that active muscle blood velocity was significantly higher during dynamic contraction.28 Ϯ 0. Overall.30 Ϯ 0.0 Ϯ 0. intermittent contractions have previously been shown to cause greater increases in energy metabolism and muscle metabolite production than static contraction (4.7 Ϯ 0.org/ by guest on September 14. heart rate. 7.05.31 Ϯ 0. TTI matched with variable time and constant peak tension.1 41 Ϯ 4 44 Ϯ 3 3Ϯ1 34 Ϯ 5 34 Ϯ 4 0Ϯ1 7. means Ϯ SE) in MAP.1 Ϯ 0.

However. Peak changes (means Ϯ SE) in MAP. differential activation of mechanoreceptors could also be involved. 2012 Fig. blood velocity was still considerably greater during dynamic contraction. when a greater peak tension was produced so that time could be held constant during dynamic and static stretch. we observed similar increases in blood pressure and venous metabolite concentrations during both types of contraction. heart rate. We examined this possibility by comparing dynamic and static stretch using the same protocols in which dynamic and static contractions were compared. when peak tension was matched. this technique allowed us to isolate the effects of mechanoreceptor activation from those caused by metaboreceptor activation. Comparison of the pressor responses induced by static and dynamic stretch at the same TTI. there are both a greater production and removal of metabolites during dynamic contraction that result in no net accumulation compared with static contraction. 60 s dynamic).org/ by guest on September 14. *P Ͻ 0. 4. static vs. *P Ͻ 0. These findings support the premise that when peak tension is equal. DYNAMIC CONTRACTION AT EQUIVALENT WORKLOADS R1853 Because passive stretch of skeletal muscle reflexly increases blood pressure. static vs. constant time (30 s). However. Although dis- Downloaded from http://ajpregu. this technique primarily stimulated group III muscle afferent nerve endings. because there is greater activation of metaboreceptors. and HR. and mean blood velocity during static and dynamic contraction (n ϭ 6) at equivalent tension-time indexes. because these afferents are believed to be primarily mechanically sensitive. heart rate. Fig. 3. at comparable TTI. Numbers below histograms represent baseline values. increased accumulation of these substances appears to have been offset by higher blood flows. without changing muscle metabolite concentrations (18). dynamic. whereas group IV muscle afferents are considered to be predominately chemically sensitive (10). In all likelihood.STATIC VS. revealed no differences between the two modes of stretch. and variable peak tension. Greater metabolite production during dynamic contraction presumably was due to the greater metabolic cost of repetitive muscle activation. . These patterns of response were consistent with those observed during static and dynamic contraction under similar conditions. Nevertheless.05. Numbers below histograms represent baseline values. Peak changes (means Ϯ SE) in MAP. a greater pressor response occurred during dynamic stretch. and mean blood velocity during static and dynamic stretch (n ϭ 5) at equivalent tension-time indexes. constant peak tension.05. dynamic. myocardial contractility. namic contraction. However. These findings also provide support for the contention that dynamic contraction causes a greater pressor response than static contraction (when TTI is equated by holding time constant).physiology. and variable time (30 s static vs.

The problem with this approach is that whole body metabolism. 3). For example. may not accurately reflect the level of activation of the sympathetic nervous system (16). 60 s dynamic). we believe that our findings indicate that greater activation of both metabo. because muscle tension usually begins to decline within ϳ15–20 s.physiology. workloads were equated by matching oxygen uptake. However. especially if there are large differences in the amount of active muscle mass involved. comparison of the cardiovascular responses during these two forms of exercise at the same level of oxygen consumption could lead to inaccurate conclusions. because the stimulus intensity increases and decreases gradually. our data suggest that the smaller pressor response to static contraction when time was held constant was not due to adaptation. who showed that intermittent tetanic contraction evokes synchronized renal nerve discharge. This potential contribution of mechanoreceptors is in agreement with Victor et al. 1). Most likely. 5. oxygen uptake was used to assess work intensity. charge activity of mechanoreceptors can be altered by the frequency of muscle contraction in that continuous activation may lead to adaptation or decreased firing (9). DYNAMIC CONTRACTION AT EQUIVALENT WORKLOADS Fig. supporting a role for mechanoreceptor afferents in the reflex cardiovascular response to dynamic contraction. In these studies. and variable time (30 s static vs. This outcome is particularly true for static contraction (see Fig. Thus sequential activation of muscle mechanoreceptors by the Kao stimulator may influence the magnitude of the corresponding pressor response compared with contraction evoked by unmodified stimulation in which peak intensity is reached instantaneously. (20). because there was no difference between the cardiovascular response to static and dynamic contraction when peak tension was held constant. Therefore. whole body metabolism (oxygen uptake) does not correlate closely with sympathetic nerve activity during exercise. greater mechanoreceptor stimulation may have occurred due to higher peak tension development during dynamic contraction such that a greater reflex sympathetic nerve activation and a greater pressor response occurred. because these changes in autonomic activity are more dependent on local metabolic changes in exercising muscle rather than whole body metabolism. Peak changes (means Ϯ SE) in MAP. we used a modified Kao stimulator (see METHODS) to evoke dynamic contractions. Therefore. a level of static exercise (isometric leg extension) that requires less oxygen consumption than dynamic exercise (cycle ergometery) can induce greater increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity compared with dynamic contraction (16). The Kao stimulator produces a sinusoidal stimulus that increases slowly from low to peak intensity and then gradually decreases in a similar fashion (8). therefore. when peak tension was varied. We have found that even when the decline in tension is small. It also should be noted that cardiovascular response to electrically induced muscle contraction does reach a true steady state.org/ by guest on September 14. Previous studies in humans have reported comparable pressor responses to static and dynamic contraction (2. as indicated by oxygen uptake. because it allowed us to more closely simulate rhythmic contractions as they occur naturally (8). Additional studies employing afferent unit recording will be required to confirm this potential differential activation of muscle mechanosensitive receptors during dynamic muscular contraction. 2012 . This pattern of activation is similar to that present during voluntary contraction and causes a pattern of mechanoreceptor activation that is different from that induced with a standard square-wave stimulator. heart rate. and mean blood velocity during static and dynamic stretch (n ϭ 5) at equivalent tension-time indexes. That is why a contraction period of only 30 s was selected.and mechanoreceptors contribute to the larger reflex-pressor response during dynamic contraction at comparable workloads when peak tension is allowed to vary.R1854 STATIC VS. constant peak tension. To evoke dynamic contraction in this study. Downloaded from http://ajpregu. Numbers below histograms represent baseline values. the pressor response to contraction usually peaks within 20–45 s and does not achieve a plateau for Ͼ5–10 s.

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