Downtown Crossing, Phase 2 New Haven, Connecticut

Tiger V Capital Grant Application
June 3, 2013

John DeStefano, Jr. Mayor

Kelly Murphy, AICP Economic Development Administrator


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May 31, 2012 Anthony Foxx Secretary Designate United States Department of Transportation 1200 NewJersey Avenue SE Washington, D.C. 20590


Downtown Crossing, Phase 2, New Haven, CT Request for TIGER V Grant Assistance

Dear Secretary Foxx: I am pleased to submit this application for $10 million in TIGER V funding in support of the $12.5 million Phase 2 of Downtown Crossing New Haven’s bold effort to replace the unfinished Route 34 with a pair of urban boulevards, create new land for economic development and job creation and to reconnect the surrounding neighborhoods.

The economic recovery in Connecticut has been slow, but we are moving forward and growing jobs in New Haven, most recently as a result of Downtown Crossing Phase 1 Thanks to USDOT’s TIGER II grant, we have unlocked valuable land in close proximity to the Yale School of Medicine and Yale New Haven Hospital, enabling us to attract $100 million in private investment to construct a new 425,000 s.f. medical-lab/office building in the former highway right-of-way. In turn, this investment has attracted Alexion Pharmaceuticals with a commitment to bring nearly 1,000 permanent jobs, cementing New Haven as a world class center for bio-medical and life science research. TIGER II improvements are well underway and building construction will commence next week, with both projects scheduled for completion in summer 2015.

ihe (:j 1si to expand on this success and is proposing transportation improvements that will further the goals of Downtown Crossing and enable $300 million worth of private investment. A developer is engaged at the site of our proposed TIGER \T infrastructure Improvements and intends to build a I 0 million sf. mixed-use, mixed-income development adjacent to our new urban boulevards and in close proximity to our two train stations. The City is committing $2.5 million to this and nation. city, project and is truly excited by this opportunity to advance the economic
recovery of our state

Thank you for your consideration of this important project. If you have aiw questions do not hesitate to contact Kelly Murphy, the City’s Economic Development Admimstrator at 203.9462366 or Icmurphy(dnewhavenctnet. \

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TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Table of Contents
Section 1

Section 6

Project Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

A. Statement of Work B. Detailed Schedule C. Project Background


A. Financial Feasibility B. Full Cost-Benefit Analysis C. NEPA - Categorical Exclusion D. Financial Commitment and Letters of Support E. Economically Distressed Area Determination F. Federal Wage Rate Certification

Section 2 Section 3 Section 4

Project Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Grant Funds and Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Figures

A. Long Term Outcomes i. State of Good Repair ii. Economic Competitiveness iii. Livability iv. Sustainability v. Safety vi. Project Readiness B. Innovation C. Partnership i. Jurisdictional & Stakeholder Collaboration ii. Disciplinary Integration D. Results of Benefit-Cost Analysis A. National Environmental Policy Act B. Legislative C. State and Local Planning

1. Project Locus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Phase 2 Downtown Crossing, Phase 2, Project Context . . . . 4 3. Conceptual Full Build Downtown Crossing and Surrounding Area (2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Intersection of Orange Street at MLK Boulevard . . . . . . . . 25

Section 5

Approvals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Section 1. Project Description
The City of New Haven is requesting $10 million in TIGER V funding for Phase 2 of Downtown Crossing which includes roadway, stormwater, bike and pedestrian infrastructure improvements at a total cost of $12.5 million. The Phase 2 infrastructure improvements enable $300 million of private investment at the former Coliseum site, which is proposed to be one million square feet of mixed use and mixed-income development. This public-private opportunity is further validation of the good investments and substantial progress made through execution of the Phase 1 Downtown Crossing project. New Haven is the social and economic center of south central Connecticut and is among the fastest growing cities in all of New England in terms of both population and economic significance. Economic drivers in education, the life sciences, advanced manufacturing, IT/Digital Media and supporting service industries are supporting new job growth. New Haven’s job base grew 2% in 2011 (twice the state average) and there are now 78,000 jobs in the City. At the same time, however, the City’s resident unemployment rate is 11.6%, well above the State (8.2%) and United States (7.6%). The City is ranked the 15th most distressed municipality (out of 169 in Connecticut) due to low per capita income, high poverty and other factors affecting the quality of life in the City’s inner city neighborhoods. Downtown Crossing therefore is a key part of the City’s efforts to reconnect the residents of the Hill and other neighborhoods with the Downtown/medical district employment centers.
Aerial of Route 34 corridor

Downtown Crossing is the City’s master plan to remove Route 34, create jobs, and bring private investment to underutilized land. Extensive information and resources including construction updates are available at the project website: The Phase 2 infrastructure improvements will improve connectivity, and safety for motor vehicles, bikes, and pedestrians. The Phase 2 improvements also mitigate undesirable traffic characteristics (speed and congestion) and address certain stormwater flooding conditions in the Route 34 corridor in a sustainable fashion. Together, these improvements will enable a new mixed use/mixed-income development at the Coliseum site and other substantial private investments in the vicinity.


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

A. Statement of Work Phase 1 of Downtown Crossing was funded under a TIGER II grant award of $16 million and has generated $100 million private investment in the 100 College Street site and 600-960 permanent Phase 2 is a logical extension of the Phase 1 project, and includes jobs in bio-medical and life science research as well as over 2,000 five elements: construction jobs. Both the infrastructure improvements and the 1. Intersection of Orange Street at MLK Boulevard building construction are ongoing and set for completion in 2015. The City has proven the ability to deliver on commitments, and 2. Highway transition to urban boulevard at MLK Boulevard leverage public dollars to generate private investments. Phase 2 will 3. Pedestrian connection improvements at Route 34 overpass be a continuation of this success. 4. Bike lane connection to regional bike system at Water Street 5. Stormwater improvements at Route 34 An overview of the Phase 2 improvements and their location relative to the Phase 1 public and private investments is shown on Figure 1. Each of the improvements contributes to the larger objectives of the Downtown Crossing project and the financial viability of the development of the Coliseum site. Phase 2 of Downtown Crossing integrates complete streets, green infrastructure and Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) concepts in the immediate vicinity of the Route 34 corridor to take advantage of the existing infrastructure and to create patterns of development that reflect the values and vision of the community. It is the City’s goal to implement a development plan that will reunite distressed neighborhoods with Downtown while preserving corridor mobility, enhancing safety, and improving economic conditions.

Phase 1 construction underway


TIGER V Grant Application

Figure 1: Project Locus

Downtown Crossing, New Haven










TIGER V Grant Application

Figure 2: Downtown Crossing, Phase 2, Project Context

Downtown Crossing, New Haven








TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Phase 2 infrastructure improvements have, from a transportation perspective, independent utility and are essential to improve safety for vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle access in order to relieve congestion and improve traffic flow. The detailed statement of work is as follows: 1. Intersection of Orange Street at MLK Boulevard Phase 1 construction has shifted Route 34 traffic to MLK Boulevard and created a separate exit lane for traffic to access Downtown Crossing service drives. The exit lane condition was an interim fix meant to suffice until the full build project is completed. The interim conditions are a detriment to the viability of the adjacent Coliseum site development. Traffic conditions are less than ideal for bicyclists and pedestrians, and the future connection of Orange Street to the Union Station is hindered by the presence of many lanes of traffic. Phase 2 will convert the exit ramp, highway design standard into a true urban at-grade intersection and a standard City street design. Features of the improved condition include: –– 90 degree, T-type, at-grade intersection –– Orange Street four lane, two way configuration –– Service drive entrance located to the West of Orange Street –– Additional Westbound through lane carried through Orange Street Phase 2 will construct the intersection of Orange Street and MLK Boulevard as a gateway into the City, and will create multi-modal connections for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users. This intersection is a logical interim step toward the full build project as it creates the conditions to allow future connection of Orange Street to the South Frontage Road and to the train station.

Orange Street will be reconnected across the Route 34 corridor as part of the later phase Full Build and will intersect with MLK Boulevard, South Frontage Road, and Downtown Crossing Service Drives. 2. Highway transition to urban boulevard at MLK Boulevard The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Connecticut DOT required construction of transition elements on Route 34 to reduce travel speeds of westbound traffic as part of the Phase 1 Downtown Crossing approvals. The improvements begin at the interstate highway ramp merge and continue west to the MLK Boulevard intersection at Orange Street. The purpose of this improvement is to reduce travel speed of westbound traffic as they approach the gateway into the City, and thereby improve safety through reduction of collisions. The Phase 1 project began with the installation of signs, and revisions to pavement markings and lane narrowing through restriping of Route 34 within the project limit. The Phase 2 improvement project includes significant roadside measures such as landscaping, and street lights in order to create visual indication to motorists that they have transitioned to a city street condition. 3. Pedestrian connection improvements at Route 34 overpass The Route 34 overpass of Union Avenue is the most direct path from Union Station to the Coliseum site and Downtown. This pedestrian pathway is uninviting and characterized by its damaged surfaces and dark sidewalks. The scope of work at this location would provide the lighting, public art and sidewalk surface reconstruction in order to create an inviting path for bikes and pedestrians to access the train station.

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

4. Bike lane connection to regional bike network at Water Street The scope of this improvement will extend a buffered bike lane facility approximately 1,000 feet from the current terminus of the regional bike system at Water Street to the Orange Street at MLK Boulevard intersection. This extension would provide a direct connection to the Coliseum site as well as opportunities for cyclists to access Downtown and Union Station area destinations. The bike lane will connect to the bike lane system installed by the Phase 1 Downtown Crossing project. New Haven boasts some of the highest bike ridership levels in all of New England. The City has adopted a Complete Streets Manual and has worked for the last four years in implementation of bike facilities, amenities and accommodations as part of the routine capital investment plan. The Phase 2 project will provide the missing link connection from the Downtown Crossing project to the Regional Bike network along Water Street. With the construction of this section, the regional bike routes available to commuters will allow access to the Downtown Crossing Developments from the adjacent Towns of Branford, West Haven and Hamden along the Farmington Canal and shoreline bike path facilities. 5. Stormwater improvements at Route 34 Route 34 and has experienced more frequent street flooding in recent years. Over the last three years, the City has recorded three major storm events. During one of these storms, three feet of water flooded Route 34, making it impassable. These storms have also flooded the Temple Street parking garage routinely every two years, causing significant damage.

To address this issue, the City completed a study in 2012 to identify a long-term solution to these flooding problems. That study recommended conventional drainage improvements that included larger storm drains and relief storm drains to convey flood waters downstream through the City. That study identified $29 million of stormwater improvements that would be required to manage a 10year frequency storm. Additional improvements would be required to manage all of the roof runoff that now drains to combined sewers in an improved storm drainage system. That would add another $25 to 30 million dollars to the project (for a total of $54 to 59 million). The Phase 1 project adopted a number of drainage design improvements to incorporate several of the Flooding Study recommendations. The project design was meant to be the first step to addressing long term improvement of stormwater conditions in the Route 34 area. The Phase 2 project proposes an appropriate next step to manage stormwater using a green infrastructure approach. This proposed approach consists of two elements. –– The proposed first element is the construction of a subsurface detention and infiltration system below South Frontage Road. The prosed system will provide 5.8 acre feet of subsurface storage for stormwater runoff that historically had drained into the Route 34 flooding area. The water stored in these chambers would either be released when flood waters receded or would infiltrate into the ground and recharge groundwater. –– The second element of this project is creating a water amenity and additional stormwater storage in open space near the Route 34 and I-95 ramps.

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

The stormwater approach recommended here will allow the City to avoid some of the cost contemplated in the Flooding Study by using groundwater recharge and sustainable drainage design. Further, the City will avoid some long term maintenance costs through reduced infrastructure requirements. B. Detailed Schedule
Project Schedule
Design Permitting Funding (TIGER) Phase 2 Construction Intersection of Orange Street at MLK Boulevard Highway Transition to Urban Boulevard at MLK Boulevard Stormwater Improvements at Route 34 Overpass Bike Lane Connection to Regional Bike System at Water Street Pedestrian Improvements at Route 34 Overpass Coliseum Site Development






The Phase 2 Downtown Crossing project will complete all design, permitting and obligation of funding in a time frame to synchronize with the completion of Phase 1 construction. Phase 2 construction will begin sequentially and immediately after completion of Phase 1 improvements in the MLK Boulevard corridor in order to provide the most orderly treatment of local and regional traffic during construction.

The City is positioned to execute the completion of design and start construction in accordance with the funding requirements of the TIGER V program. All requirements of the State and Federal oversight of the program can be met before the June 30, 2014 deadline. All funding can be obligated by September 30, 2014. Construction will proceed concurrent to the private investment and private construction adjacent to the Phase 2 construction on the Coliseum site.

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

C. Project Background Route 34 was constructed in the 1950’s and extends 0.5 miles from Interstate 95 to a terminus at Exit 3. The six lane expressway was originally proposed to extend as a full expressway ten miles westward from New Haven to the town of Derby. When the Oak Street neighborhood was demolished to make way for Route 34, over 881 households were relocated and 350 businesses were cleared in order to build the highway. The City’s vibrant neighborhoods, Union Station, and Downtown were separated, and as a result, community development foundered. The expressway, opened in 1960 as a limited access highway linking I-91/I-95 and downtown, carries approximately 75,000 vehicles per day. The plan to extend Route 34 west to Derby was abandoned in the 1970’s. Beginning in 2002, the City of New Haven has worked with State and Federal officials to plan for redevelopment of the land and removal of the highway. Extensive materials on the history and background of Route 34 and the Downtown Crossing project were provided as part of the TIGER II Grant Application. These materials are available on the project website.

Phase 1 infrastructure and 100 College Street construction underway


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Phase 1 of the Downtown Crossing project included: –– Replacing College Street bridge across Route 34 with a surface road and fill structure to create a more typical Downtown Street. –– Realigning and maintaining driveway access to the Air Rights Garage by relocating traffic to Exit 1 and removing westbound off-ramps at Exits 2 and 3. –– Converting MLK Boulevard into a westbound urban boulevard by adding one lane between the Air Rights Garage and Church Street and upgrading traffic signals. –– Encouraging pedestrian and bicycle use with urban design and landscape improvements and increase safety via new sidewalks and bikelanes plus installing new landscaping and wayfinding signs. Phase 2 of the Downtown Crossing project: Phase 2 Downtown Crossing also supports and enables new development on the former Coliseum site and redevelopment in additional areas that were once removed from transit access due to the lack of connectivity. The vision for the Coliseum site is a truly mixed-use and mixed-income regional destination which stitches together north, south, east and west New Haven, providing a central community-gathering place and serving as a key lynchpin to unifying the City’s urban fabric. The Coliseum site development concept is to create a dynamic urban village incorporating: mid to high end residential rental apartments over ground-floor retail; a high-rise residential tower over a retail podium; and on the south end of the site, fronting on MLK Jr. Blvd/Route 34, a hotel and multi-functional center, live/ work space, and a class “A” office facility, all centered on a retailactivated public square and lane.

Summary of Phase 2 private investment Leveraged by TIGER V funding
Residential: 524 units Retail: 75,000 square feet Class “A” Office: Up to 200,000 square feet Hotel: 160 rooms + multi-function space and fitness center Public Space & Retail Lane: 52,000 square feet Rooftop Green Space: 25,000 square feet Total Development Program: One million square feet Total Private Investment: $300 million private investment As a highly integrated mixed-use/mixed-income site, all components of the Coliseum site development plan are interrelated. Successful retail, restaurants and activated public space, require pedestrian and vehicular traffic, convenient access, and visibility to thrive. These amenities create a destination and provide the offering that drives value and a quality of life offering to all other parts of the development. They make the district an attractive place to live, work, and visit and those user populations then serve as important customer bases for a higher density of shops and restaurants. A quality hotel development requires access to these amenities to offer an urban village experience and drive room-night demand; while the ability to attract a Class A office anchor will be meaningfully influenced by proximity to quality housing options and retail amenities for its employees, as well as accommodations for its business visitors. Furthermore, this diversity of uses and users (residents, employees, hotel guests, and other visitors) ensures the district remains active at all times of the day, week and year, supporting a sustainable micro economy.


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

The Phase 2 public infrastructure improvements are critical to the success of the private development. The at-grade intersection adjacent to the site is the enabling feature that creates the access and pedestrian conditions making the adjacent site walkable for pedestrians and creating true urban form in lieu of a grade separated highway condition. Getting the Route 34 intersection at MLK Boulevard and Orange Street right is essential to enabling the private investment in the Coliseum site.

Station and State Street Station. Union Station, which provides Amtrak, MTA Metro-North and Connecticut Shoreline East service, and State Street Station, which provides MTA MetroNorth service and Connecticut Shoreline East service, collectively handle over 4.2 million passengers a year. This means that all redevelopment in the area of Downtown Crossing can take advantage of a transit rich environment. When complete, Downtown Crossing will improve regional and local traffic mobility and safety, and support a shift to multimodal transportation – including human-powered modes – by improving access throughout the downtown for all and providing improvements that enhance the downtown with this important gateway into New Haven.

Summary of Phase 2 private job creation Leveraged by TIGER V
Permanent full time jobs: 1,400-1,900 675 (hotel, retail and residential), 727-1,172 (office tower) Construction Jobs: 1,700-2,400 annually during build-out (Detail Benefit-Cost Analysis in Appendix B.) Full Build of the Downtown Crossing project will include: –– Connecting Temple Street to South Frontage Road –– Connecting Orange Street through an at-grade intersection with South Frontage Road connecting to Union Station –– Enhancing the streetscape along Union Avenue to Union Station –– Completing the South Frontage Road urban boulevard –– Replacing the Church Street Bridge with a surface road and fill structure From a transit perspective, New Haven is among the Northeast’s busiest cities for commuter and regional rail. Downtown Crossing is located within ¼-½ mile of the City’s two stations: Union

Phase 2 Private development at Coliseum site


TIGER V Grant Application

Figure 3: Conceptual Full Build Downtown Crossing and Surrounding Area (2012)

Downtown Crossing, New Haven



TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Section 2 Project Parties
The City of New Haven is joined by its partner LiveWorkLearnPlay The City has received unequivocal support for the project from Inc. as financial supporters of Downtown Crossing. many community leaders and regional agencies including (See Appendix D for support letters): City of New Haven – The City of New Haven ($2.5 million non-federal contribution) will oversee the design and –– The Honorable Representative Rosa L. DeLauro construction of the project. The City will be the grant recipient –– The Honorable Connecticut Senator Toni Harp and will be responsible for administering the grant. The City is –– The Honorable Connecticut Representative Roland Lemar a Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) entitlement –– The Honorable Connecticut Representative Juan Candelaria community and has a professional staff responsible for federal –– ASSA ABLOY grant administration and reporting procedures. –– Connecticut United for Research Excellence Incorporated –– Economic Development Corporation of New Haven LiveWorkLearnPlay Inc. – LiveWorkLearnPlay Inc. is the –– Greater New Haven Chamber of Commerce developer of the City’s former Coliseum site with extensive –– Regional Plan Association experience resolving, repurposing, and repositioning –– REX Regional Xcelleration neighborhoods, projects and assets in order to deal with the –– South Central Regional Council of Governments realities of the challenging real estate marketplace. They plan to –– UIL Holdings Corporation invest $300 million in private funds to accomplish a mixed-use, –– Town Green Special Services District mixed-income project on the site. –– Visit New Haven –– Yale-New Haven Hospital –– Yale University –– LiveWorkLearnPlay Inc. The critical factor in the success of Phase 1 has been extensive collaboration with the many stakeholders, and the regulatory agencies involved. The demolition and removal of a highway is no small undertaking and the City has emphasized outreach, engagement and communication from the very beginning. The technical challenges have been overcome through persistence and dedication by experts at all levels (Federal, State, and Local) as well as the contributions of the neighborhoods, business owners and major employers in New Haven.


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

An overview of the Phase 1 experience exhibits the City of New Haven track record of success: Planning and Public Outreach Planning for the teardown of the highway began in 2006, and was published in 2007. The City has conducted nearly 100 meetings with neighborhood groups, business owners, and public outreach meetings both large and small. Extensive meetings with adjacent property owners and major employers such as Yale-New Haven Hospital have led to strong communication and a foundation of success for future phases. Design The design of the Phase 1 project followed the oversight process prescribed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Connecticut Department of Transportation (CTDOT). Early design considerations set the number of lanes on the urban boulevard (MLK Boulevard) and the extent to which the project could incorporate complete streets measures. Early design plans contemplated a more utilitarian solution that provided extra travel lanes to keep traffic moving. However, reactions from the community indicated a strong desire to have more walkable and complete streets. Subsequent design plans provided complete streets enhancements such as narrow travel lanes, bike lanes, raised intersections and streetscape amenities which yielded tremendous public support. More importantly, the City and the CTDOT were able to work very closely to incorporate these complete street measures without compromising safety or mobility.

FHWA and CTDOT mandate that the project limits of Downtown Crossing extend to the I-91/I-95 Interchange in order to install transition elements on Route 34 to reduce travel speeds of westbound traffic. The purpose would be to reduce travel speed of westbound traffic as they approach the gateway into the City, and thereby improve safety through reduction of collisions. Construction The City completed the design of Phase 1, bid, awarded and began construction of the project in February 2013. Concurrent to the design, the City has coordinated the local approvals and construction coordination of the 100 College Street project. Extensive coordination of timing, logistics, constructability and responsibility for design, construction and ownership of public and private improvements has been conducted by the City. City staff have orchestrated coordination between the contractors on both the Phase 1 public and private projects, along with the details of closing Exit 3 ramps to Route 34 and the maintenance of traffic during construction. The City has proven that it has the skills and resources to implement Downtown Crossing. All of the details have been managed and the commitments have been met.


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Section 3 Grant Funds and Sources / Uses of Project Funds
The City of New Haven is proposing to submit an application for funding under the USDOT TIGER V funding source for Phase 2 of the Downtown Crossing Project. The proposed improvements to be funded under this application will facilitate the development of the former Coliseum site. The following is the cost and funding allocation of each proposed improvement:
Total Cost (millions) $4.12 $1.00 TIGER V (millions) $3.30 $0.80 Non-Federal (millions) $0.82 $0.20 Date of Funding Obligation September 30, 2014 Percentage $5.60 $1.05 $4.48 $0.84 $1.12 $0.21

The cost estimate was prepared by Fuss & O’Neill based on Connecticut Department of Transportation cost estimating guidance and includes all clearing and grubbing; maintenance and protection of traffic; mobilization; construction staking; escalation; contingencies; incidentals; survey, design, construction administration; and rights of way. Detailed cost estimates are provided in Appendix A.
Funding Source Total Cost (millions) $12.5 100% Non-Federal (millions) $2.5 20% TIGER V (millions) $10 80%

Scope Element Intersection of Orange Street at MLK Boulevard Highway transition to urban boulevard at MLK Boulevard Stormwater improvements at Route 34 Bike lane connection to regional bike system at Water Street Pedestrian connection improvements at Route 34 overpass Total Percentage

The City has secured funding commitments totaling 20% of the Phase 2 project cost. The City of New Haven is requesting $10 million in TIGER V funding for Phase 2 of Downtown Crossing which includes roadway, stormwater and bike and pedestrian infrastructure improvements at a total cost of $12.5 million. The Phase 2 infrastructure improvements enable $300 million of private investment at the former Coliseum site, which is proposed to be one million square feet of mixed use development. This public-private opportunity is further validation of the good investments and substantial progress made through execution of the Phase 1 Downtown Crossing project.




$12.50 100%

$10.00 80%

$2.50 20%


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Section 4 Selection Criteria
Downtown Crossing Phase 2 improvements meet the TIGER V primary selection criteria by providing long term benefits, creating jobs, and generating economic stimulus. A. Long Term Outcomes 1. State of Good Repair The NOFA defines a State of Good Repair as “Improving the condition of existing transportation facilities and systems, with particular emphasis on projects that minimize life‐ cycle costs”. It is difficult to effectively communicate the consequences of underinvestment, or conversely, the benefits of investing at a given level. It is one thing to explain the benefits of new service to the public and legislators—new service brings economic development—but it is harder to convey the significance of improving existing facilities. Maintaining a State of Good repair is essential, however, for historic city centers to grow and adjust to changing economic conditions. Route 34 was built at the same time as the Nation’s interstate highway system, when New Haven and the country as a whole had an industrial based economy. Route 34 is now at the end of its useful life and New Haven’s economy is vastly different than it was in the 1960s. Downtown Crossing adapts Route 34 to our modern economy and creates infrastructure that will be easier to maintain and adapt over the next 50 years. Downtown New Haven has significant market for new biomedical, and life science space and real estate demands that cannot be supported by the existing Route 34 infrastructure. The infrastructure has become a major constraint to the opportunities that exist in economic

development. By converting the Route 34 infrastructure from an aging highway to a modern city street standard as a local roadway, the City will dramatically improve the state of repair of this enabling infrastructure and promote the development of the surrounding properties. The mobility and accessibility goal for Downtown Crossing is simple: to provide a multi-use street network and transportation system that complements the activity, humanscaled design, and urban character of New Haven while facilitating access to major employers and Downtown. –– Improve the condition of existing transportation facilities –– Reduce life cycle costs for roadway infrastructure –– Eliminate the need for major rehabilitation or replacement of the bridges at College and Church Streets –– Introduce a demand responsive, coordinated traffic control system with Downtown New Haven Downtown Crossing Phase 1 began eliminating a highway that is grade-separated from the rest of the City’s street network; Phase 2 continues that work and adds additional cost saving measures. –– By changing the deteriorating infrastructure of Route 34 and the frontage roads to at-grade intersections, the City can save considerably on maintenance costs over the long term. –– Improvements to the underpass at State Street/Union Avenue provide an opportunity to widen sidewalks for alternate modes of transportation. –– The elimination of Water Street through the Coliseum site serves to improve bicycle and pedestrian linkages between neighborhoods, thereby enhancing use of the facility by commuters and further reducing Vehicle Miles

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Traveled. The proposed stormwater infrastructure and landscaping create a signature entry feature to Downtown New Haven from the interstate system, and it demonstrates a deeper understanding and commitment to climate resiliency. While accommodating climate change may seem too lofty a goal, the life cycle cost of inherent best practices is also greatly improved over the conventional method of piping and pumping. 2. Economic Competitiveness New Haven is a dynamic and growing city, placing its residents, employees and visitors at the cross-section of arts, culture, education, health care, and business. As the second largest city in Connecticut, with a population of 129,585 (2011 est.), New Haven is the economic center of a broader MSA region of 862,813 people (2012 est.), and is home to an evolving mixed-use urban core, strong and diverse communities and world-class institutions. While already well-established in New Haven (of the 52 biotech firms in the state, 39 are located in Greater New Haven), the socalled “eds and meds” (medical, bio-science, and research/ development) employment sector continues to grow. Innovation and economic growth are increasing a result of technology transfers from world class institutions of higher education and research, such as Yale-New Haven Hospital and Yale University. The growth of these institutions and clusters is important for the economic health of the nation, not just New Haven and Connecticut. The City is committed to creating the conditions for growth and investment, and these efforts have achieved positive results. The City’s ambitious but effective economic development strategy has, over the past five years alone, attracted almost $3 billion in new development

projects and job growth faster than the State as a whole. These recent developments have included the following major public and private investments (among others) in the area adjacent to Downtown Crossing: –– 360 State Street (2008): $180 million, 500-unit residential building above a 25,000 sf grocery store (the largest apartment building in the State of Connecticut) ( realestate/28newhaven.html?_r=2) –– Smilow Cancer Center (2009): $500 million, 497,000 sf world-class cancer treatment facility associated with the Yale-New Haven Hospital ( why_ynhh/cancer_center.html) –– Gateway Community College (2012): $198 million, 367,000 sf, 11,000-student higher education facility relocated to the central business district (http://www. –– 100 College Street (under construction - 2014 est. delivery): $135 million, 400,000 sf med / lab office building (


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

LiveWorkLearnPlay Inc. (LWLP), master developer of the Coliseum Site, sees the potential and incentive to develop the property as a project of regional significance – as a central and fully integrated mixed-use urban node and activated regional hub positioned to positively impact and support the City’s and State’s broad range of economic, community, planning, job-creation, and redevelopment priorities. In short increasing the economic productivity of the land: –– maximizes the value of the site and allows $300 million private investment on the site
Downtown Crossing Route 34 Parcels

Downtown Crossing enhances economic competitiveness by unlocking land for redevelopment in close proximity to these core economic assets. Yale also has large scale collaboration with industry, such as Gilead Life Sciences. There is renewed interest by the private sector to locate close to the Yale – New Haven Hospital, the Yale School of Medicine and their affiliated organizations. This is being clearly demonstrated in Phase 1 with the construction of 100 College Street, which will be the world headquarters of Alexion Pharmaceuticals, who were attracted to the site due to its proximity to New Haven’s major institutions and infrastructure. Despite these and other successes, there is still much to accomplish to fulfill New Haven’s potential. Facilitating continued progressive urban redevelopment throughout Downtown will enhance the quality of life offering and overall economic health of the City and region. To that end, Downtown Crossing Phase 2 will unlock the development potential of the former Coliseum Site in Downtown New Haven, adjacent to Route 34 and enable $300 million in private investment.

–– enhances the value of vacant parcels on other side of MLK Boulevard by laying paths to an at-grade crossing and enhancing the State Street connection –– anticipated 2,000 jobs during construction and 1,4001,900 permanent jobs –– enables this development in an economically distressed area –– enhances development potential of land near the fourth largest hospital in the country and one of the best research universities in the world –– enhances development potential of land proximate to Connecticut’s largest rail hub, one of the busiest Amtrak lines in the country and the terminus for the busiest rail line (Metro North New Haven Line) in the country –– creates jobs in area particularly accessible to low-income and disadvantaged workers due to bus and rail networks in close proximity Not only will the project create jobs, many of the opportunities are available to small and disadvantaged businesses. The City has small and WMBE hiring requirements for City construction projects and which LWLP has agreed to follow when building on the Coliseum

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

site. LWLP also has a leasing and casting strategy aimed at small businesses and local entrepreneurs. This is core to their development plan and is consistent with Ninth Square’s micro economy. So the goal of urban vitality and economic viability can be approached by utilizing portions of the right-of-way, from removing a major physical and visual barrier, to create development sites for mixed-use opportunities that will potentially improve the economy, increase tax revenues, and create new jobs. The transformation of Route 34 East from highway stubs and ramps into street-scale urban boulevards and new land parcels will connect the Downtown business and government centers to Union Station and the active Medical District. This will help balance the 40% of the City’s land that is tax exempt due to the high concentration of institutional, education and park uses. Downtown Crossing will significantly increase the tax base and revenues that can support other economic development activities. The proposed changes would transform the area and would increase residential/retail and office space which, in turn, would spur further private sector investment in the area. 3. Livability “Livability” has finally become a common place term – Americans are more aware than ever that they have many quality of life choices instead of simply following the typical path. Livability also needs to be considered beyond the boundaries of one project to understand the city-wide and even regional implications. The following section uses the Sustainable Communities Principles to organize the description of project details and its larger influences.

Provide more transportation choices. Route 34 as conceived in the 1960s was about moving vehicles at highway speeds into parking garages. Downtown Crossing is about urban streets, transportation alternatives and accessibility. Phase 1 removes the highways and changes the frontage roads into boulevards – Complete Streets with bicycle lanes, sidewalks, and signaled pedestrian crossings. The long-term vision of terminating Route 34 at a 4-way, at-grade intersection with Orange Street will create an appropriate sense of arrival to New Haven, ensuring that the Downtown urban fabric truly begins at Orange Street. This also establishes New Haven as a place for all modes of transportation, and sets the conditions for development commensurate with the importance of the intersection as the City’s front door. Phase 2 of Downtown Crossing increases mobility and provides accessibility to a greater population by enhancing the connection between Downtown, the Hill and Union Station and begins the work of improving this connection even more. The former Coliseum site sits at the corner of Orange Street and MLK Boulevard and its redevelopment is essential for achieving the goals of Downtown Crossing. The focus of Phase 2 is this intersection and the planned improvements are a significant first step that sets the stage for a future at grade crossing of Orange Street, and improves the physical conditions surrounding the Coliseum site, allowing the developer to commence its first phases of development. New Haven has two train stations- the Union Station (AMTRAK, Metro-North, and Shoreline East) and the State Street Station (Metro-North and Shoreline East) which makes the City a central transit point between New York, Harford/Springfield and New London. The Union Station area is the regional transportation hub serving over 4 million

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

passengers per year. Downtown Crossing, within a ¼ mile walk, is an extremely important transit-oriented redevelopment opportunity for the City as it provides new residential and commercial space in close proximity to these two train stations with multiple local and regional rail services. New Haven already the has highest percent of bike and walk commuters in New England and those numbers are likely to increase. The Orange and State Street connections allow those unable to own a vehicle to have many commuting and travel options – and in many cities, not owning a car and still having complete mobility is a source of pride. A push to more transit-oriented and a balanced mix of uses will make New Haven more accessible and economically competitive. The bike improvements connect regional recreational systems to a jobs center, creating a true regional bike commuting infrastructure. Promote equitable, affordable housing. Transportation costs play a key role in affordability, and improved access to transit is vital for New Haven’s lowincome population. Approximately 40% percent of New Haven residents and 70% of low income residents live more than one mile from the City’s two rail stations. Although parts of New Haven are served by public buses and shuttle services, most neighborhoods do not have a direct bus connection to either of New Haven’s train stations. New Haven is currently a tight market with one of the lowest apartment vacancy rates in the United States, recently hovering between 1%- 3%, indicating unfulfilled demand for quality housing, particularly in the Downtown core. New Haven and this project will increase the housing supply and add variety of types and sizes. In addition, affordable housing will be included

in any development on City or State owned land. The Coliseum site development vision includes 524 units of rental residential above at-grade retail. The residential program will have a mix of unit sizes and types, and will integrate some affordable and/or workforce housing, although the specifics of these latter details have yet to be established. Initial residential product will be rental, however, there may be potential individual housing ownership

LWLP neighborhood at street level with residential bldgs

opportunities in a later phase of the development. Given the prime location of proximity to Union Station and regionally connected bicycle facilities, the housing units will have easy access to multiple modes of transit and allow vehicle ownership to be optional rather than mandatory. Without the expense of purchasing and maintaining a car, the new residents will have increased options on the size and type of housing they choose. Enhance economic competitiveness. Downtown Crossing is central to the employment base of New Haven. To the northwest of the project is the Hillto-Downtown Planning Initiative (or Medical District),

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

anchored by Yale-New Haven Hospital and Yale Medical School, which currently holds about 15,700 jobs, and directly north is the established Central Business District of Downtown New Haven and Yale University with approximately 20,000 jobs combined. As shown by Downtown Crossing Phase 1, there is renewed interest by the private sector to locate close to the Yale – New Haven Hospital, the Yale School of Medicine and their affiliated organizations. At full build out of the Downtown Crossing master plan, the four development parcels are expected to generate more than 2,000 new jobs and $3.775 million in net tax revenues [Source: Downtown Crossing, 2007]. Educational opportunities in the vicinity of Downtown Crossing are extensive - there are more than 35,000 students, faculty and staff located at Yale University and Gateway Community College as well as 12,000 residents living and working within close proximity. Yale University’s School of Medicine is immediately adjacent to the Downtown Crossing development parcels and the main campus is within an easy walking distance. As these schools are located to take advantage of a symbiotic relationship with the hospital, this area also provides local residents plenty of access to worldclass healthcare facilities. There is very little developable land remaining in New Haven as the City is almost fully built out – only approximately 4% left. There is even less land available in close proximity to major economic drivers and close to transit hubs. Unlocking the land of Downtown Crossing and its adjacent parcels furthers ability for these drivers to grow and further New Haven as a world class center for healthcare, bio-medical research and life sciences.

Support existing communities. In a historic City such a New Haven, there are limited areas where the City can grow. Initiatives to promote connections and planned density in areas, like the Hill-to-Downtown area and Downtown Crossing that have the most available land for development, are important for economic growth. The City needs to encourage development to remain competitive, attract new jobs, and increase the tax base to provide necessary City services for the current residents while steering development to the right locations to protect the look and feel of the existing neighborhoods. All infill and redevelopment projects in the City re-use or recycle land and this project is no different. Downtown Crossing includes proposed mixed-use development on the former Coliseum site which will be supportive of the existing Downtown residential neighborhoods rather than competing. Downtown Crossing is a plan supported by a myriad of partners and, therefore, also has technical expertise and advice ranging from neighborhood visioning to economic feasibility. With the help of planning tools such as master plans and zoning code revisions, along good policy recommendations for resilience and sustainability, the project will enable denser developments, thus preventing sprawl. Coordinate and leverage federal policies and investment. Since the adoption of the state’s smart growth policy, several transit-oriented, mixed-income, and mixed-use development projects have been funded and the City has been able to leverage the federal investments of Phase 1 (under TIGER II) to spur public-private partnerships on additional projects. Federal policies and investments have not been limited to the TIGER Program. New Haven has also received two Sustainable Communities Grants for efforts in the

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

that there are $11.80 of benefits for every $1 invested in biking and walking emphasizing the importance of alternate modes; and, reducing the load on the stormwater discharge system by capturing and treating heavy storm runoff before it enters the system Downtown Crossing is built on partnership and cooperation between agencies. As Phase 1 is now under construction, it is time for Phase 2 of Downtown Crossing - continuing the commitment to a previously funded project.
Phase 1 - 100 College Street Development

area between Union Station and Downtown Crossing: a $185,000 HUD Regional Planning Grant and a $1 million HUD Challenge Grant of $1 million, as well as a $390,000 Connecticut TOD Pilot Grant. There is also ongoing Federal investment in the New Haven - Hartford - Springfield Line, which is expected to open in 2016, and significant investment (National Institutes of Health funding for example) into Yale New Haven Hospital and the Yale School of Medicine. By partnering with review agencies and private developers, the City of New Haven has successfully increased the opportunities for growth. Embracing the Sustainable Communities Principles has allowed goals to be met – housing balance, multi-modal accessibility, and sustainable practices. For example: the Hill-to-Downtown Initiative is likely to include Live Where You Work type programs to encourage employees to invest in housing near jobs at the hospital or Downtown; the Alliance for Biking and Walking estimates

Value communities and neighborhoods. The project site is between an increasingly vibrant central business district and the Hill neighborhood, one of many neighborhoods severely impacted by urban renewal activities in the 1960s and 1970s. One of the most significant changes to any center City at the time was the demolition of the Oak Street section of the Hill in order to build Route 34. Over 881 households and 350 businesses were cleared in order to build the highway. The resulting loss of population and commercial activity, coupled with redevelopment-era concentrations of new affordable housing have contributed in part to neighborhood distress. Today, there are over 150 vacant structures in the neighborhood. 23% of all vacant structures in the City are located in the Hill neighborhood alone (City of New Haven, 2011). Likewise, the total number of housing units in the Hill decreased by 175 since 2000 (US Census, 2010) even though demand for rental housing is increasing Citywide. Designated as a Federal Empowerment Zone and a State Enterprise Zone, the Hill can once again become a thriving neighborhood and with residents better connected to the employment opportunities within Downtown Crossing. The project area and its surroundings are becoming more

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven



to create a community with land use patterns that reduces energy consumption, generates fewer vehicle miles traveled, and cuts greenhouse gases. As a compact area, it should be readily walkable but requires improvements of pedestrian facilities thereby reducing reliance on single-occupant auto use and reducing energy consumption and improving air quality. Downtown Crossing will provide improved connections to the existing street grid, and identification of and enhancements to alternative routes to optimize the functionality of the existing infrastructure. A good mix of uses makes a community complete and Downtown New Haven is already fairly well-rounded, with employment, commercial, and education, but the improvement of the existing neighborhoods and potential for additional Downtown residents will increase the quality of life for all in the area. The City may be able to provide developer incentives for new construction within the Downtown Crossing master plan, including tax credits and regulatory reforms, to encourage development that reduces energy consumption and lowers greenhouse gas emissions. Downtown Crossing also goes beyond Smart Growth to incorporate sustainability concepts throughout and begin to address climate change by both adapting to it and mitigating it. The Master Plan improves the ability to identify areas prone to greater risk from climate change and restrict development in those areas, in the individual phases and the full build-out scenario. For example, the Route 34 corridor is susceptible to storm surge and, due to its sunken location, can provide stormwater mitigations for a larger area.


Route 34 Historical Photos

dense and walkable neighborhoods that are healthy and safe for young people and seniors to move into the City once again. While retaining and restoring the historic nature and character of the Hill neighborhood, the new parcels in the Route 34 right-of-way, along with some prime spots Downtown like the old Coliseum site, can be developed for people to live near the center of activity without relying on cars. 4. Sustainability From an urban design perspective the most environmentally sound and economically sustainable community is compact, connected, and complete. As an historic City, New Haven is compact. The original plan was nine blocks and there are natural features that have constrained the area of Downtown however, due to Route 34, it is not cohesive. As Downtown Crossing restores the urban fabric, greater development intensity can be achieved


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven



in other cities to result in major safety benefits for other users of streets. The benefits of walking include increased public health, greater neighborhood safety, and support for locallyowned businesses. Unemployment, vacant storefronts, the high costs of vehicle-related pollution and noise, concerns about public safety and childhood obesity rates within sections of the City suggest that making streets friendlier to walking, biking, and transit use should be at the top of the priority list.


–– Underground Detention System The graphic above, shows a system built under South Frontage Road from College Street to South Orange Street. The system would store 252,000 cf of water. The underground storage area would be connected to the main drainage truck line. Pretreatment of the stormwater before it enters the drainage system will be installed, if feasible. –– Brewery Street Detention Area This area will intercept some of the drainage on Route 34 that is conveyed through the 91/95 interchange area drainage system and will lessen the load on that system as well as providing primary stormwater treatment. This area would not be built solely as a detention area but would be designed as a water feature that will create an amenity for the area. 5. Safety Walkable and bike-friendly cities have been shown to be more socially inclusive, economically prosperous, environmentally friendly, and safer for all road users. Increasing the rate of cycling, in particular, has been shown

Safety improvements, such as improved pedestrian and bicyclist facilities, and traffic calming measures that slow traffic on urban streets can be completed without restricting access or necessarily reducing capacity. These may include bulb-outs or neck-downs at on-street parallel parking, and raised or textured crosswalks, along with other features included in the City’s Complete Streets policy. It is anticipated that Downtown Crossing will reduce the number of accidents by further reducing high speed traffic patterns and reconfiguring difficult merge areas and intersections.


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

Bike lane connection to regional bike system at Water Street

6. Project Readiness Technical Feasibility Design of the five project elements are ongoing and being prepared in close coordination with LiveWorkLearnPlay Inc., the Developer of the Coliseum site so that the two projects are seamlessly connected. Design documents were assembled for the preparation of cost estimates as provided in Appendix A; Financial Feasibility. The City has adopted standard design criteria for the Downtown Crossing project, and have met all CTDOT and FHWA requirements in the design of Phase 2 improvements. A summary of the design documents are provided in the following images.

Financial Feasibility A total of $12.5 million is required to complete the infrastructure for the second phase improvements. The requested TIGER V Grant funding of $10.0 million is matched by a $2.5 million (20.0%) non-federal local contribution as shown in more detail in Section 3. In addition, the project demonstrates a substantial positive benefit/cost ratio, as described in the Benefit-Cost Analysis (Part B of Section 6 Appendix) and detailed project budgets are included in Part A of Section 6 Appendix.


TIGER V Grant Application

Figure 4: Intersection of Orange Street at MLK Boulevard

Downtown Crossing, New Haven


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

B. Innovation Innovation and economic growth are increasing a result of technology transfers from world class institutions of higher education and research, such as Yale-New Haven Hospital and Yale University. The proximity of these institutions to Union Station, Downtown and the Medical District have made New Haven a globally significant center for research and development, entrepreneurship, and life science company starts. Yale New Haven Hospital Yale-New Haven Hospital includes Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven, Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital and YaleNew Haven Psychiatric Hospital. Together these institutions are the fourth largest hospital in the country with 1,541 beds and 12,000 employees, and are nationally ranked in 12 of 16 specialties by US News & World Reports; Top 10 nationally in diabetes (8), endocrinology (8), geriatrics (10) and psychiatry (10). Smilow Cancer Center is also 1 of only 41 comprehensive National Cancer Center Institute facilities in the nation. Smilow Cancer Hospital In 2009, Yale-New Haven Hospital completed construction on its new Smilow Cancer Hospital, which was fully occupied by April 2010. The facility is one of just 41 designated cancer centers recognized by the National Cancer Institute, and is transforming the City and its medical district into a destination for researchers, medical professionals and patients from around the nation. Smilow Hospital is a nationally renowned cancer center and represents New Haven’s emergence as a major center in American medicine and health care. Yale University Yale University has a truly global reach and includes 2,239 international scholars and 2,135 international students, all of whom contribute to the basic economy. As a basic industry, Yale’s

ability to form partnerships across the globe creates significant academic and economic opportunities. President Richard Levin has positioned the university to form longstanding partnerships in China, with over 60 faculty members participating in YaleChina programs, and by establishing Yale-NUS College—the first liberal arts college in Singapore. Yale University is ranked #3 in the nation by US News & World Reports and is the #14 recipient of NIH Grants in the country. Yale has undertaken large scale collaboration with industry such as Gilead Life Sciences and Alexion Pharmaceuticals. Alexion has made a firm commitment as the major tenant in the 100 College Street building, which was enabled by the Phase 1 Downtown Crossing project. Yale is growing and has a $2 billion capital improvement program underway with two new residential colleges under construction which will add 800 students, and the New School of Management opening in 2013 which will add 200 students to the roughly 450 existing student base. C. Partnership The City, State, MPO and their partners have been working on the project plan since 2007 when the first public meetings were held. Then, in 2008, Mayor John DeStefano, Jr. reached out to neighborhoods across the City and presented Downtown Crossing in well-attended library room settings. In June, 2011, a major community meeting was held at the New Haven Free Public Library. The session was well attended with lively discussion of elements of the design, pedestrian and bicycle accessibility, and opportunities for sustainable development. The team, led by the City, is continuing to actively encourage public and stakeholder involvement throughout implementation and construction to improve future phases of the project.


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

1. Jurisdictional & Stakeholder Collaboration As evidenced by the many letters received, which are included in Section 6 Appendix and the following weblink: The project is also supported by a wide range of parties in business, government and community services. 2. Disciplinary Integration One of the primary objectives of Downtown Crossing is to restore neighborhoods and improve livability within Downtown New Haven. The project is engaging citizens in stakeholder interviews and public meetings, with more to be scheduled as the project progresses. Non-transportation public agencies will be invited to participate in these sessions which will provide input to the design team.

D. Results of Benefit-Cost Analysis The overall project brings a significant benefit to New Haven and the nation as a whole.  By continuing the progress made by the first phase of Downtown Crossing, the proposed project will continue to shift mode share away from single occupant vehicles, decreasing VMT and promoting a more varied use of transportation modes.  By removing an unsightly parking lot and replacing it with residential and commercial structures with high end amenities, and by reconnecting severed portions of the urban fabric, the project will raise property values of nearby parcels, as well as elevating New Haven’s overall urban experience.  Ecological elements of the project will manage a significant amount of storm water, reducing flooding in areas currently inundated by major rain events.  These benefits, conservatively measured, significantly outweigh the costs of


TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

construction and the slight increase in travel time for vehicles using the calmed roads.  The overall benefit cost ratio for the public portion of the project is more than 2.0, even using a conservative real discount rate of 7 percent. Reduced VMT – Reduced Maintenance Costs As a direct result from driving fewer miles, vehicles are likely to have lower expenditures related to maintenance. , The reduction of over 1.6 million Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), combined with an average maintenance expenditure of five cents per mile translates into more than $91,000 in annual savings in 2018, growing in subsequent years. Property Damage Avoided The reduction in VMT will also create fewer traffic accidents that affect personal property. At a value of 0.6 cents per VMT, the reduction of over 1.6 million VMT will save approximately $10,000 in annual savings in 2018, growing in subsequent years. Reduced VMT – Reduced Fuel Consumption ($) Using an average fuel efficiency of 37 miles per gallon, 1.6 million less VMT will end up saving about 46,000 gallons of gasoline. At an average cost of $3.65 a gallon, the annual savings from less fuel consumption is approximately $165,000 in 2018, growing in subsequent years. Agglomeration Benefits Private residential and commercial developments as well as public infrastructure improvements are likely to increase overall agglomeration in the City of New Haven. The addition of 1,000 new jobs to the Downtown area will increase total earnings as well as urban density. The increase in wages will increase the local tax bases, as well as local spending. This benefit is estimated to be about $442,000 at the completion of the project, and will increase over time with wage growth.

Reduced Congestion Another benefit from reducing VMT is the time savings from reduced congestion. With fewer cars on the road, overall congestion throughout New Haven is likely to decrease saving other drivers time. This value is estimated to be about $0.23 per VMT. The over 1.6 million fewer VMT will save New Haven motorists approximately $398,000 of time annually, growing in subsequent years. Improved Experience – Walking and Biking Public development as a result of the project includes a new pedestrian underpass as well as new bicycle track lanes. These public amenities are likely to increase recreational walking and biking. With an estimated value of $1.47 and $3.16 for walking and biking, respectively, the addition of 100 new walkers and 50 new cyclists will create a benefit of about $31,000 annually, growing in subsequent years. Existence Value – All Regional Residents The project replaces an unsightly surface parking lot with active development, including an open air plaza with amenities. This public space amenity reaches beyond the City limits of New Haven City, and has value to both immediate neighborhood residents, and the residents that reside in New Haven County. Our estimate of the existence value of these amenities is $25.20 for New Haven City residents, and $1.30 for County residents, the total one time value of the existence of public space is about $900,000. We exclude residents that live within ¼ mile of the project to avoid double counting with the property value increase. Real Estate Values The value of properties in the immediate area surrounding the Coliseum site is likely to increase due to the aesthetic upgrade and amenities the new development provides. By taking the assessed value of all properties within a quarter mile of the new

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

development and adjusting it to market value, a two percent increase in property values will increase the value of nearby properties by approximately $9 million dollars. This increase will only be one-time. Non-Carbon Emissions Reductions With reduced VMT come fewer car emissions. Excluding carbon dioxide, emissions include sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, fine particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds. Based off cost estimates in the TIGER V guide, New Haven will see a sizeable drop in total emissions, valued at approximately $0.07 per VMT. Annual savings from reduced emissions is approximately $111,000 in 2018, growing in subsequent years. Stormwater Management With every heavy rainfall, the City has to treat excess storm water. New green infrastructure will collect approximately 5.8 million gallons of excess storm water. This infrastructure incorporates a slow release mechanism back into the soil which bypasses the need for treatment. Assuming a cost of 5 cents per gallon to treat, total savings from water captured by green infrastructure is estimated to be approximately $290,000 annually. Injuries Prevented Traffic accidents are responsible for injuries ranging in severity that come at great costs. Reducing VMT will decrease the number of traffic accidents, and therefore reduce the total number injuries. Based on probabilities and average cost per injury type, the average cost of injury is approximately $0.17 per VMT. By reducing over 1.6 million VMT, the total savings in injuries prevented is about $283,000 in 2018, growing in subsequent years.

Lives Saved Along with injuries and property damage, traffic accidents can cause loss of life. Reducing VMT will decrease the number of traffic accidents and the deaths that occur from them. Based on the probability and average cost of traffic deaths, the average benefit of lives saved is approximately $0.10 per VMT. By reducing over 1.6 million VMT, the total benefit of lives saved is about $170,000 in 2018, growing in subsequent years. Flood Mitigation Flooding causes property damage, lost wages, and generates other expenses. With an estimated 2,000 households in the area surrounding the Coliseum site, green infrastructure would mitigate the possible damage from future floods. Assuming that one percent of households will be affected by floods, and that a major flood occurs every ten years, the annual value of mitigated floods is about $31,000 in 2018, growing in subsequent years. Additional detail can be found in the full Benefit-Cost Analysis location as Part B of Section 6 Appendix. The detailed excel workbook with computations and assumptions can be found at the following link: center/

Section 5 Approvals
A. National Environmental Policy Act Due to the developed nature of the project area, there are relatively few environmental approvals required. Based on the project elements described in Section 1, the following environmental permits and approvals are anticipated from the CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection : –– Construction Stormwater General Permit –– Flood Management Certification –– Coastal Consistency Review

TIGER V Grant Application
Downtown Crossing, New Haven

The status of the NEPA documentation is provided in detail in Appendix C.

The Route 34 project has been incorporated into the state Transportation Improvement Program (TIP). The TIP is the basis for the regional air quality analysis that CTDOT performs to ensure conformity with the Clean Air Act. The C. State and Local Planning ozone conformity determination performed by CTDOT and The project is consistent with state, regional, and local plans. published in Jan 2011 ( Phase Two is an integral phase of the Downtown Crossings AQ_Determination. pdf ), included the following statement. project, which in conjunction with the Route 34 redevelopment “This document was prepared to include the following project in will serve as key multi-use transportation corridor and the Air Quality Conformity Report for Fiscal Year 2010-2013, component of the City of New Haven’s downtown revitalization originally dated September 2009. The inclusion of the following initiatives. Phase 2, and the overall Downtown Crossing along project necessitated the submission of this document:  Project # Route 34, are addressed in the following state, regional, and local 0092-0614 Conversion of Route 34 from Expressway to Atplanning documents: Grade Boulevard between I-95 and Park Street. –– City of New Haven Comprehensive Plan, 2003 –– The Future of Route 34 Study, Clough Harbour, 2007 The above project was incorporated into the travel model –– Downtown Crossing: A Proposal for the Revitalization of network commencing in model year 2015 forward. The highway Route 34 East, 2007 networks were rebuilt and model years were rerun, along with –– Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy, 2008 accompanying VMT and Mobile 6.2 emissions model. The –– Plan of Conservation and Development, South Central results of these runs show a decrease in emissions in the affected Region, South Central Regional Council of Governments area and therefore the transportation program and plan continue (SCRCOG), 2009 to conform to the State Implementation Plan (SIP).” –– Master Transportation Plan 2009-2016, Connecticut Department of Transportation B. Legislative –– Transportation Improvement Program, 2010 The following legislative approvals have been obtained for this –– Connecticut on the Move: Strategic Long-Range project: Transportation Plan (2009 – 2035) – – I-95 New Haven Harbor Crossing (NHHC) Corridor 1. FFY 2010-2013 Transportation Improvement Plan. The Improvement Program, SCRCOG Congestion Management South Central Regional Council of Governments approved Process Report, 2010 this project and incorporated as part of Amendment #8 on –– South Central Regional Long Range Transportation Plan July 28, 2010. The MPO reference # is SCRCOG #2010(2011-2040) A8-6. –– Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (2012)

2. Conveyance Act. The Connecticut State Legislature authorized conveyance of the surplus right-of-way adjacent to the Route 34 corridor as necessary for the improvements to MLK Boulevard and South Frontage Road as part of conveyance bill #66951 in June 2010.