Gregorian chant – Monophonic melody with a freely flowing, unmeasured vocal line; liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic

Church. monophonic – Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment. neumes – Early musical notation signs; square notes on a four-line staff. mode – Scale or sequence of notes used as the basis for a composition; major and minor are modes. syllabic – Melodic style with one note to each syllable of text. neumatic – Melodic style with two to four notes set to each syllable. melismatic – Melodic style characterized by many notes sung to a single text syllable. Mass – Central service of the Roman Catholic Church. Proper – Sections of the Roman Catholic Mass that vary from day to day throughout the church year according to the particular liturgical occasion, as distinct from the Ordinary, in which they remain the same. Ordinary – Sections of the Roman Catholic Mass that remain the same from day to day throughout the church year, as distinct from the Proper, which changes daily according to the liturgical occasion. Gradual – Fourth item of the Proper of the Mass, sung in a melismatic style, and performed in a responsorial many in which soloists alternate with a choir. responsorial singing – Singing, especially in Gregorian chant, in which a soloist or a group of soloists alternates with the choir. verse – In poetry, a group of lines constituting a unit. In liturgical music for the Catholic Church, a phrase from the Scriptures that alternates with the response. response – Short choral answer to a solo verse; an element of liturgical dialogue. psalm – Sacred poem or song, usually referring to those found in the Book of Psalms from the Bible Haec dies chant Composer: Anonymous Title: “This is the Day” Style: Responsorial Texure: Monophonic – responsorial singing: verse is the solo passage in the gradual of Mass, and the respond is the answer given by the choir Voices: Solo male voice and men’s chorus Type of Mass: Mass Proper Section of the Mass: Gradual Occasion: Easter Sunday service Text setting: Melismatic – common in the Gradual portion of Mass text from a psalm: Haec est dies quam fecit Dominus (“this is the day that the Lord has made”) from the Missa in Dominica Resurrectionis (Mass for the Resurrection of the Lord”) range of the melody is narrow and conjunct, meaning notes that move mainly in seconds or thirds melody is modal and rhythm is unmeasured, flowing with the inflections of the text – free from regular accents, so the music reflects the cadence of the words – free verse rhythm and existed until the development of more structured music, such as when time signatures were invented

organum – Earliest kind of polyphonic music, which developed from the custom of adding voices above a plainchant; they first ran parallel to it at the interval of a fifth or fourth and later moved more freely. polyphonic – Two of more streams of harmony played against each other, common in twentieth-century music. organal style – Organum in which the Tenor sings the melody (original chant) in very long notes while the upper voices move freely and rapidly above it. Haec dies Organum Composer: Anon (attributed to the Notre Dame school Date of composition: approximately 1200 Style: Organum with two parts

O mitissima—Virgo—haec dies Composer: Anon th Year of composition: Sometime during the 13 century Title: Refers to the three separate texts used – one for each voice th Genre: 13 century motet Number of voices: Three – triplum (top voice). the upper voice. a narrow melody range and a conjunct melody much repetition of the rhythmic patterns. cantus firmus – “Fixed melody. or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one. the sense of harmonious proportion and clear form. singing the original chant. creating a complex piece of music – discant style Language: Latin Instrumentation: None (sung a capella. often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition. tenor – Male voice of high range. Josquin des Prez after spending his youth in the north. ostinato – A short melodic.” usually of very long notes. polytextual – Two or more texts set simultaneously in a composition. that found their model in the radiant art of Andrea Mantegna toward the end of his life. each part continuing as others enter. duplum – Second voice of a polyphonic work. the text is only two words melody is melismatic in the tenor line and more syllabic in the other voices. at least 17 masses. in serenely beautiful melody. is supported by sustained lower notes – organal style of writing Text setting Melismatic upper voice uses a narrow range and a number of repeated notes lower part creates a part much like a pedal point as it sings the notes from the original chant motet – Polyphonic vocal genre. and an ostinato in the tenor voice two upper voices share some rhythms. making use of a variety of techniques . including a longer note at the beginning of each bar imitation – Melodic idea presented in one voice and then restated in another. and in expressive harmony composed more than 100 motets. tenor (lowest voice) Text setting: Polytextual setting – polyphonic as there are three independent musical lines. in polyphony. duke of Ferrara—and in the papal choir in Rome his northern style absorbed the classical virtues of balance and moderation. with the chant melody in the bottom voice and the upper voice moving faster and freely – both voices sing the same text. his varied career led him to Italy. meaning voices only) tenor sings the original Haec dies chant. Also a part. where he served at several courts—especially those of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza of Milan and Ercole d’Este. often structural. where he served as a provost at the collegiate church of Conde buried in the choir of the church appeared at a time when the humanizing influences of the Renaissance were being felt throughout Europe able to harness contrapuntal ingenuity to a higher end: the expression of emotion music is rich in feeling. secular in the Middle Ages but sacred or devotional thereafter. with long phrases. rhythmic. common in the Medieval motet. triplum – Third voice in early polyphony. duplum (middle voice). particularly in the Renaissance. yet they work together. especially the medieval motet. and numerous secular pieces. a cappella – Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment. he returned to native France.- - Texture: polyphonic – two-part.

reduction of voices Monophonic chant opening (“Gloria in excelsis Deo” (Glory be to God on high)) – chanted by celebrant (or officiating priest) polyphonic setting for the remaining text. the last musical movement of the Ordinary. closing hollow cadence Meter change. and the lower parts were distributed among the normal ranges of the male Characteristics: Frequent textural changes. Sanctus – A section of the Mass. Pope Julius III (r. Gloria – A section of the Mass. and homorhythm (all voices moving together) A cappella performance (choral. and a closing couplet) Rymed strophic poem to the Virgin Mary. from duple to triple and back example of how Josquin used the motet to experiment with different combinations of voices and textures final couplet. low voices) A cappella performance (choral. a personal plea to the Virgin (“O Mother of God. dialogue (high vs. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina c. highest voice was sung by boy sopranos of male falsettists. appointed him to the Sistine Chapel Choir even though. with no accompaniment) – papal choir at the time sang without instrumental accompaniment Clearly audible text set syllabically. low voices). each vers beginning Ave (Hail) 4-voiced (SATB) in varied settings. set in various registers (high vs. is set in a simple texture that emphasizes the words. 1550-55). Expressive final text (O Mater Dei) set homorhythmically. or countertenors (tenors with very high voices). and effect desired by the Council of Trent Changes of density and texture (SATTBB). balancing the harmonic and polyphonic elements of his art so that the words of the sacred text are clear and audible. Credo – A section of the Mass. others were original throughout Ave Maria … virgo serena Date of work: 1480? Genre: 4-voice motet Basis: Chant to Virgin Mary (opening only) – soon drops this melody in favour of a freely composed form that is highly sensitive to the text Poem: Rhymed poem (a couplet. where he spent the last 23 years of his life wrote over 100 Masses. the fourth musical movement of the Ordinary. the second musical movement of the Ordinary. the third musical movement of the Ordinary. of which the most famous is the Mass for Pope Marcellus. Gloria. he was ineligible for the semi-ecclesiastical post dismissed by a later pope but ultimately returned to direst another choir at St. including St. without accompaniment). Peter’s in Rome his patron . Agnus Dei – A section of the Mass. often sung nearly homorhythmically . the alto part by male altos.- some works were based on pre-existent monophonic of polyphonic models. Peter’s. in personal plea from composer. including imitative polyphony. strict demands placed on polyphonic church music by the Council of Trent Missa Pape Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass) (Gloria) Date of work: Published 1567 Genre: Mass. successor to Julius III written to satisfy the new. from a setting of the Ordinary Voices: 6 (SATTBB) – a typical setting for the all-male church choirs of the era. proclaiming the emotional and humanistic spirit of a new age Mass – Central service of the Roman Catholic Church. as a married man. 5 quatrains. 1525-1594 worked as an organist and choir master at various churches. remember me”).

consonant harmony ideal sound—restrained.- Alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures Full. and celestial . serene.