Paul Henley A.

Ayuma BS Architecture

Noise vs. Music
Hearing is one of the most important senses a man can have. It allows a person to hear sounds through the mechanical waves that are transmitted and which stimulate the hearing organs. Each of the Earth’s components and everything that is in it can create sounds that are unique from each other. The air, water, trees, and animals, including man, can create sounds. Man creates sounds through his voice and actions. Aside from this, he has developed special instruments in order to create sounds such as those that are used in music. Pianos and organs, guitars and violins, drums and bongos, cymbals and xylophones are only a few of the instruments that are made by man in order to enjoy music. Music is a form of art with sound as a medium, and the musical note is a combination of pitch and duration as its foundation. Music is present in all cultures, and it plays a significant role in man’s life. Even during prehistoric times man was known to have enjoyed music as evidenced by ancient musical instruments found in ruins of ancient civilizations. It has many genres with common elements such as pitch, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, and texture. Different voices and instruments produce varying frequency combinations of sound and music. When these frequencies become inharmonious, they produce noise instead of music. While music has a pleasing effect on the listener, noise is unpleasant to a person because of its irregular wave form, low frequency, and sudden changes in wave length. Noise can obstruct, garble, and contradict the meaning of electronic human and animal communication. It is an unwanted sound, usually very loud, and meaningless. Only a very thin line distinguishes music from noise. With the popularity of rock music, what is considered noise by other people may be music to the ears of others? Summary: 1. Music is the art of arranging and combining sounds in order to create a harmonious melody while noise is an unwanted sound that is usually very loud and meaningless. 2. Music is pleasing to the ears while noise is an unpleasant sound. 3. Noise has irregular wave form and wave length and has low frequency while music has frequencies and wave lengths that are harmonious. 4. Noise can obstruct and confuse the spoken messages of man and animals when they are communicating with each other while music has a very soothing and pleasing effect. 5. Noise may also be low like the conversation between two people, which is considered noise by a third person who is not involved, while music may also be loud such as in the case of heavy metal or rock music. 6. Both noise and music when very loud can be damaging to the human ears.

Common Sources of Sounds
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vibrating solids rapid expansion or compression (explosions and implosions) Smooth (laminar) air flow around blunt obstacles may result in the formation of vortices (the plural of vortex) that snap off or shed with a characteristic frequency. This process is called vortex shedding and is another means by which sound waves are formed. This is how a whistle or flute produces sound. Also the Aeolian harp effect of singing power lines and fluttering venetian blinds.

The usual context is the measurement of sound intensity in the air at a listener's location. . The basic units are watts/m2 or watts/cm2 . Principal Characteristics of Musical Tone Musicians point to three distinguishing characteristics of musical notes: loudness. This is controlled by how hard a piano key is pressed or how hard one blows on the mouthpiece of a saxophone. so that this threshold takes the value 0 decibels (0 dB). To assess sound loudness. and timbre (or "quality").Sound Intensity Sound intensity is defined as the sound power per unit cycle per second is called a hertz in honour of Heinrich Hertz. with period 1/440 seconds.000 hertz. Many sound intensity measurements are made relative to a standard threshold of hearing intensity I0 : The most common approach to sound intensity measurement is to use the decibel scale: Decibels measure the ratio of a given intensity I to the threshold of hearing intensity. Human hearing is confined to frequencies that range roughly from 20 to 18. So. pitch. The timbre of the note includes those characteristics that enable us to tell a piano note from a violin note with the same loudness and pitch. i.    The loudness of the note is measured by the magnitude of the changes in air pressure.e. but we will focus on these three in this module. The frequencies of interest to us will be measured in cycles per second -. There are other characteristics. More precisely. for example. The pitch of the note is the frequency of repetition of the basic pressure pattern. as distinct from an objective intensity measurement. a note with pitch 440 hertz has a pressure function that repeats itself 440 times per second. the sensitivity of the ear must be factored in. the frequency is the number of times the basic pattern is repeated per unit of time.

Paul Henley A. This pattern repeats indefinitely. while the individual particles return to their original positions. Shown in the diagram below is a traveling wave. Vibrations in air are called traveling longitudinal waves. is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz (Hertz) or cycles per second. The longer the wavelength. Lighter areas are low pressure (rarefactions) and darker areas are high pressure (compressions). such as by the wind or produced by humans such as by speech. etc. Compression is the part of the sound waves where the molecules of air are pushed (compressed) together. The ear is the primary organ for sensing . Wavelength. The wavelength of voice is about one meter long. vibrating walls and human vocal chords. Hearing becomes gradually less sensitive as frequency decreases. Other sound terms in common usage include: underwater sound. Infrasonic Infrasonic. The rarefactions are regions of low air pressure. the sound pressure must be sufficiently high. Moving objects: examples include loudspeakers.) around it to vibrate. organ pipes. Sound waves consist of areas of high and low pressure called compressions and rarefactions. sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound. One wavelength of the wave is highlighted in red. speed is a constant. A vibrating object compresses adjacent particles of air as it moves in one direction and leaves the particles of air ‘spread out’ as it moves in the other direction. which we can hear. Compression and Rarefaction in Sounds Sound waves have two parts: compression and rarefaction. frequency is determined by speed / wavelength. and speed are related by the equation speed = frequency * wavelength. The compressions are regions of high air pressure Rarefaction is the part of the waves where the molecules are far away from each other. The shaded bar above it represents the varying pressure of the wave. Moving air: examples include horns. Greater amplitude means the sound will be louder. frequency. guitar strings. the "normal" limit of human hearing. Ayuma BS Architecture Origin of sound Sound is a variation in the pressure of the air of a type which has an effect on our ears and brain. so for humans to perceive infrasound. The 'height' of the wave is its amplitude. Disturbances in the air with frequencies of vibration which are too low (infrasound) or too high (ultrasound) to be heard by human hearing are also regarded as sound. or frequency of the sound. such as the following. or structure-borne sound. In addition to its link with human hearing the term sound is also used for other movement in air governed by similar physical principles. The wavelength and the speed of the wave determine the pitch. Since sound travels at 343 meters per second at standard temperature and pressure (STP). The vibrating body causes the medium (water. Sound waves are a lot of compressions and rarefactions. Thus. the lower the pitch. mechanical fans and jet engines. These pressure variations transfer energy from a source of vibration that can be naturally-occurring. The amplitude determines how loud a sound will be. respectively. Sound in the air can be caused by a variety of vibrations. sound in solids. air. The displaced particles pass on their extra energy and a pattern of compressions and rarefactions travels out from the source. Infrasound: frequency too low for human hearing Ultrasound: frequency too high for human hearing Sound is produced when something vibrates.

an oversized organ pipe. At higher power levels. and also in ballistocardiography and seismocardiography to study the mechanics of the heart. Organisms such as bats and porpoises use ultrasound for locating prey and obstacles.000 hertz) in healthy. who was born in Russia as Vladimir Gavronsky. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures. One of the pioneers in infrasonic research was French scientist. covering sounds beneath 20 Hz down to 0. Infrasound was used by the Allies of World War I to locate artillery. and to accelerate chemical processes. ultrasonic is useful for changing the chemical properties of substances. His interest in infrasonic waves first came about in his laboratory during the 1960s. The first technological application of ultrasound was an attempt to detect icebergs by Paul Langevin in 1917. Organisms such as bats and porpoises use ultrasound for locating prey and obstacles. At higher power levels. starts as far back as Pythagoras in the 6th century BC. Infrasound is characterized by an ability to cover long distances and get around obstacles with little dissipation. measurement and cleaning. and to accelerate chemical processes. was useful in transducers to generate and detect ultrasonic .001 Hz. This frequency range is utilized for monitoring earthquakes. Ultrasound is thus not separated from 'normal' (audible) sound based on differences in physical properties. when he and his laboratory assistants experienced pain in the ear drums and shaking laboratory equipment. ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially. Ultrasound can be used for medical imaging. who wrote on the mathematical properties of stringed instruments. His interest in infrasonic waves first came about in his laboratory during the 1960s. but at higher intensities it is possible to feel infrasound vibrations in various parts of the body. History of Ultrasonic Acoustics. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Industrially. Ultrasonic imaging (sonography) is used in both veterinary medicine and human medicine. The piezoelectric effect. He concluded it was infrasound caused by a large fan and duct system and soon got to work preparing tests in the laboratories. Ultrasound is used in many different fields. The study of such sound waves is referred to sometimes as infrasonic. only the fact that humans cannot hear it. He concluded it was infrasound caused by a large fan and duct system and soon got to work preparing tests in the laboratories. it is approximately 20 kilohertz (20. Vladimir Gavreau. measurement and cleaning.[1] Ultrasonic is the application of ultrasound. ultrasound is used for cleaning and for mixing. but no audible sound was picked up on his microphones. Vladimir Gavreau. but no audible sound was picked up on his microphones. Sir Francis Galton constructed a whistle producing ultrasound in 1893. who was born in Russia as Vladimir Gavronsky. Ultrasonic imaging (sonography) is used in both veterinary medicine and human medicine. when he and his laboratory assistants experienced pain in the ear drums and shaking laboratory equipment. an oversized organ pipe. Ultrasound can be used for medical imaging. Although this limit varies from person to person. ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws.infrasound.[1] One of the pioneers in infrasonic research was French scientist. Ultrasonic is the application of ultrasound. charting rock and petroleum formations below the earth. One of his experiments was an infrasonic whistle. In the non-destructive testing of products and structures. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz. Ultrasonic Ultrasonic is an oscillating sound pressure wave with a frequency greater than the upper limit of the human hearing range. the science of sound. young adults. detection. detection. One of his experiments was an infrasonic whistle. ultrasound is used for cleaning and for mixing. ultrasonic is useful for changing the chemical properties of substances. discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. History of Infrasonic Sounds Infrasound was used by the Allies of World War I to locate artillery. Ultrasound is used in many different fields.

properly performed ultrasound poses no known risks to the patient. Nevertheless. and some applications use up to 1000 watts per square centimeter. quality of the tone. They are not heard separately.waves in air and water. It may also be used in an external manner in stallions for evaluation of testicular condition and diameter as well as internally for reproductive evaluation (deferent duct etc. The technology can be expensive. or some other device that creates sound waves when moved. making an oboe sound different from a trumpet or drum. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle has been advocated for an ultrasound examination — that is. Uses of Ultrasonic Sounds Human medicine Medical sonography (ultrasonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic medical imaging technique used to visualize muscles. when he demonstrated that bats hunted and navigated by inaudible sound and not vision. It is also used to evaluate the health and characteristics of unborn calves. Such high power levels can induce chemical changes or produce significant effects by direct mechanical action. Sounds are different because of harmonics. Ultrasound is used to evaluate fat thickness. Most musical instruments have a reed. structure and any pathological lesions with real time tomographic images. currently most doctors feel that the benefits to patients outweigh the risks. Ultrasound technology provides a means for cattle producers to obtain information that can be used to improve the breeding and husbandry of cattle. are actively discouraged. and is produced by air vibrating a certain number of times per second. and can inactivate harmful microrganisms. rib eye area. and internally in particular for reproductive work – evaluation of the reproductive tract of the mare and pregnancy detection. These vibrations are called waves. . but add to the tone of the sound. Ultrasound is also used to visualize fetuses during routine and emergency prenatal care. The technology is relatively inexpensive and portable. Processing and Power High-power applications of ultrasound often use frequencies between 20 kHz and a few hundred Khz. which by definition are not necessary. above 10 watts/square centimeter. Energy in Sounds A musical sound is called a tone.). this technology has proven useful in managing and running a cattle breeding operation. tendons. and how long it plays. and intramuscular fat in living animals. Ultrasound has been used by radiologists and sonographers to image the human body for at least 50 years and has become a widely used diagnostic tool. especially when compared with other techniques. keeping the scanning time and power settings as low as possible but consistent with diagnostic imaging — and that by that principle non-medical uses. Veterinary medicine Diagnostic ultrasound is used externally in horses for evaluation of soft tissue and tendon injuries. which are higher and quieter sounds mixed in. a string. and many internal organs. Although the long term effects due to ultrasound exposure at diagnostic intensity are still unknown. to capture their size. These sound waves must be contained in some way so that the performer can control the loudness. ultrasound technology began to be used by the beef cattle industry to improve animal health and the yield of cattle operations. cavitation can be inducted in liquid media. Starting at the turn of the century. such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed (CT).[2] Echolocation in bats was discovered by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1794. Such diagnostic applications used during pregnancy are referred to as obstetric. As currently applied in the medical field. Power densities can be very high. and the power levels used for imaging are too low to cause adverse heating or pressure effects in tissue. Sonography does not use ionizing radiation. and it requires a substantial time commitment for continuous data collection and operator training.

Different types of sound waves have different shapes. You will find also W·s/m3 or N·m/m3. The sound energy density or sound density (symbol E or w) is an adequate measure to describe the sound field at a given point as a sound energy value. Look at these images to see what sound waves "look" like. it is necessary to distinguish between the space average (at a given instant) and the time average (at a given point). In speaking of average energy density. The sound energy density is given in J/m3. High notes have a higher frequency than lower notes and this changes their shape. also known as pascals. the shape of the sound wave stays the same. maximum energy density. where the joule J = W·s = N·m. and peak energy density have meanings analogous to the related terms used for sound pressure. therefore we choose the letter E. The unit of measurement for sound energy density is N/m2. the sound energy density E (also: sound density) describes the time medium value of the sound energy per volume unit. Scientists even have a name for how they measure the frequency of sounds. the same as the units of sound pressure. More formulas for sound energy density for even proceeding sound waves: where: Symbol Units Meaning p pascals sound pressure f hertz frequency . The terms instantaneous energy density. Notice that even if pitch and volume change. it gives information about the sound energy which is at a defined place in the room.The number of times that a sound wave vibrates in a second is called its frequency. In opposite to the sound intensity I. which gives the sound power per area A. The letter "lower case w" sign is easily mixed with the sign (omega). They measure it in cycles and call it hertz. Where I is the sound intensity in W/m2 and c is the sound speed in m/s. The sound energy density E (or w) for an even-proceeding sound wave is: .

See sound energy density level. .ξ m. watts sound power or acoustic power A m² area For digits of the sound energy density the RMS value will be given. But you get also the level in dB. meters particle displacement c m/s speed of sound v m/s particle velocity =2· · f radians/s angular frequency kg/m3 ρ density of air Z=c·ρ N·s/m³ acoustic impedance a m/s² particle acceleration I W/m² sound intensity E W·s/m³ sound energy density Pac W.