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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation http://archive.org/details/williamfaulknerOOfaul .

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Books by Carvel Collins The American Sporting Gallery Literature in the Modern World (With Others) Editor Frank Norris: McTeague (Rinehart Edition) William Faulkner: New Orleans Sketches William Faulkner: The Unvanquished (Signet Classics Edition) Erskine Caldwell's Men and Women Faulkner's University Pieces William Faulkner: Early Prose and Poetry .

William Faulkner: Early Prose and Poetry .

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William Faulkner: Early Prose and Poetry Compilation and Introduction by . BROWN AND COMPANY Atlantic Monthly Press Book TORONTO BOSTON • . (fcSL-Hfcs Carvel Collins WITH ILLUSTRATIONS An LITTLE.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NO.c COPYRIGHT (C) I962 BY CARVEL COLLINS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Published simultaneously in Canada Brown & Company {Canada) Limited PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA . EXCEPT BY A REVIEWER WHO MAY QUOTE BRIEF PASSAGES IN A REVIEW TO BE PRINTED IN A MAGAZINE OR NEWSPAPER. BROWN AND COMPANY IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY PRESS by Little. NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. 62-17953 FIRST EDITION ATLANTIC-LITTLE. BROWN BOOKS ARE PUBLISHED BY LITTLE.

1961-62.To the amiable members of the Faulkner Seminar. University of Tokyo. . the compilation of this is volume warmly dedicated.

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When prose.Preface William Faulkner added tation in to his already growing repuseminar of in 1955. now. many critics still held them in low regard. But writer. in increasing and though readers were admiring them numbers. and drawings it came to the compiler's knowl- edge. seemed well not to reprint such early work. Faulkner's University first of Mississippi poetry. great. will ever again experience such And younger Japanese students have volunteered that they not only admire Faulkner's fiction but would like to thank him for the address he wrote "To the Youth of Japan. And it seems well to reprint them now early in the hope of avoiding confusion like that which a few years ago accompanied the reprinting of Faulkner's New Orleans newspaper sketches: During the same [ ix ] . widely recognized as a major world Faulkner has such stature that even his earliest works are of interest to many. members of that seminar have said they doubt they an incandescent meeting. versity of Uni- Tokyo. it is pleasant to present to them in this forty years volume some of the work he produced ago while he himself was part of a university community." Now that Faulkner is again the subject of study by a at the seminar of students and teachers in Japan. So it no longer seems helpful to postpone reprinting such pieces. Japan when he took part in the at university teachers and students held Nagano Strongly impressed by him. His mature books had not yet won him the Nobel Prize.

But within a short time other admirers of Faulkner published eleven of the sixteen after hearing New Orleans sketches and later. for the same reason. and an article in an anthology of col- lege writing has reprinted part of the poems. already a few of the drawings have been reproduced. clearly not been a service to Faulkner studies The situation has begun to repeat itself with Faulk- ner's University of Mississippi pieces: most of them have been found and several projects for publishing them are planned by scholars who have not come upon all the materials reprinted here. and possible the gathering of The many people whose general assistance have these full made and similar materials already know the compiler's awareness of the debt he owes them. So. parts of the prose have been quoted in articles. reminiscences. advice. It then seemed proper to bring out the complete leans set of sixteen sketches — and New Or- that postponing their reprinting after had all.year in which the compiler came upon and postponed came best also reprinting these University of Mississippi pieces he upon those to New Orleans sketches and thought it postpone reprinting them. Here he wants to take the opportunity to thank those [ who sup- x ] . this little and elsewhere becoming it seems well to publish ef- compilation now to honor both Faulkner's fectiveness at Nagano and the enthusiasm of the members of the current University of Tokyo seminar. which he looks forward to acknowledging in detail elsewhere. published a second just those volume containing two sketches. with close students of Faulkner here interested in his early writings. about two more of them.

Miss annual for and cooperation. and Mr. Mrs.plied the documents. former Business Manager their support and open-handed offering of drawings and details of publishing history. Branham of that magazine. late George W.. as well as the assistance far it staff of the Oxford Eagle beyond the call of hospitality. Zeller.T. Mr.I. for Hume. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. John Pilkington for her generous and efficient checking of Mississippi documents. from materials brought to Japan as seminar illustrations with no thought of publishing them as a book. Leon Picon contributed so of the United States Embassy here. for reproductions of illustra- and for skillful photographic salvaging of staff of the office burned manuscript pages. in who much 1955 to the success of the Nagano seminar. Mississippi. 1961 [ xi ] . Healey. the University of Texas. for unflagging patience during the examination of their file of Oxford for newspapers. the staff of the Microreproduc- Laboratory M. Tokyo. former Editors of The Scream. for infor- mation and advice. and the Dr. the compiler wants to thank those Japanese students who urged its publication out of their admiration for William Faulkner. sanctions. and professional services on which this little compilation immediately depends: the Ole the staffs of The Mississippian newspaper and their generosity Jr. and Yale University for assistance of tion tions many at kinds. Raymond B. the staffs of the libraries at the University of Mississippi. Dr. little And because has been a pleasure to assemble this volume. the which registers the deeds of Lafayette County. Harvard University.

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Though these two essays and three poems from the Double Dealer were among the items reprinted in 1932 by Paul Romaine in his Salmagundi. and two poems — "Dying Gladiator" and "The Faun" — which ne first published before his novel and which are not in- among the poems he later collected in A Green Bough.Preface to the American Edition These early published works by William Faulkner having been made available to Japanese readers because of a seminar offered at the University of Tokyo. that volume is cluded unfortunately out of print. for her permission to reprint here these additional works of early prose and poetry by William Faulkner. This edition expands the Japanese trait. this The appendix added to edition contains four works which Faulkner pubmagazine in lished in the same literary 1925 shortly after leaving the University for New Orleans: two critical essays which bear on his University writings. Friend Marcus. 1962 [ xiii ] ." volume by adding photographs and "Porpublished in the the poem which Faulkner New still Orleans Double Dealer during 1922 while he was at the University of Mississippi. Managing Editor of the Double Dealer. Massachusetts. Cambridge. lishers The compiler and the pubLillian want to express their gratitude to Mrs. it has been suggested that they be made available to Americans interested in Faulkner's writing.

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Percy Books and Things: Turns and Movies by Conrad Aiken Co-education at 74 77 82 Ole Miss Nocturne Books and Things: Aria da Capo by Edna St.Contents Preface Preface to the American Edition ix xiii Faulkner at the University of Mississippi 3 L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune 39 41 Cathay Landing Sapphics After Fifty Years in Luck 42 51 53 Une Ballade des Femmes Perdues 54 55 57 Naiads' Song Fantoches Clair de Streets Lune 58 59 60 61 A Poplar A Clymene Study 62 Alma Mater To a 64 Co-ed 70 71 Books and Things: In April Once by W. A. Vincent Millay 84 [ XV ] .

Books and Things: American Drama: Eugene O'Neill 86 The Hill 90 93 Books and Things: American Drama: Inhibitions Portrait 99 101 Books and Things: Joseph Hergesheimer Appendix On Criticism 109 113 Dying Gladiator Verse Old and Nascent: A Pilgrimage 114 119 123 The Faun Notes on the Text [xvi ] .

William Faulkner: Early Prose and Poetry .

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[ 3 ] . began a was to make during the next eight years to that annual. six his first published short story and prose sketch. in which William Faulkner lived for much of the period under discussion here. to the University newspaper. and to a University cations humor magazine. sixteen of his poems. and articles of his reviews and literary — the artistic explorations of a novelist his young man who would become the best duced in this century.Faulkner at the University of Mississippi William Faulkner drew of contributions he a picture for the It 1916-1917 series annual of the University of Mississippi. an officer in the administration of the University of Mississippi. country has pro- Faulkner's father. had a house on its campus. By 1925 at least sixteen these three publi- had brought out more of his draw- ings. which adjoins the town of Oxford. In such close physical association with the University he found its publications open to him not only during the time he was enrolled as a student but earlier when he worked at a bank and later when he ran the University Post Office.

but at its con- clusion the newspaper identified author as another man. 1918. A series of such letters did appear. Four months later came the Armistice. It was followed the next year by two signed drawings 1917-1918 Ole Miss. and then resigning from on June 15. Signing up with the Royal Flyhis job as clerk ing Corps. for on that day he began work as a ledger clerk at an armament company in Connecticut. he made a brief trip home 8. [ When the British re- 4 ] . Canada. to begin training as a pilot. seems equally impossible to attribute to him with any certainty another. for Toronto. and there seems to be little possibility of attributing It individual letters from that series to Faulkner.A his former student of that era has kindly volunteered that memory Faulkner wrote in 1916 for the Uni- versity's newspaper two or three imitation "Letters of a his earliest publicaits Japanese School Boy" which were tions. 1918. Faulkner presumably supplied the of Ole Miss with these drawings before April 10. to visit his family before leaving Mississippi on July 1918. shorter series of imitation letters of the period. though he same may have written some of them. one of them for the same first in the "Social Activities" page his to decorate a had decorated. But his first published work which is this investigation has been able to identify the signed drawing for the 1916- 1917 Ole Miss annual. Even high school publications as yet unavailable may contain written juvenilia or drawings similar to ten of Faulkner's pen-and-ink school sketches which survive from 1913. the other page listing the members of a dancing staff group.

William Faulkner in 1918. as a Cadet in the Royal Flying Corps. Training in Canada [ 5 ] .

enrolling in French. 1919. 1919. His first contributions to the University's newspaper. so much. Spanish." "Cathay" accompany in illustrates some seem of the uncertainties which reprinting these pieces: to Lines of the poem is The Mississippian have been disturbed by faulty typesetting. on September he registered as a student at the University of Mississippi. he returned from Canada to Mississippi. The Mississippian. the illustrations which now can be seen in as Plate 3 among James B. on November 12. and the sophomore survey of English literature. were a slightly revised version of "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune" in October and. The New Republic printed his first his poem "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune. That spring and summer a close associate of those days — according — Faulkner to Phil Stone.leased him from training the following month. the poem "Cathay. 1919. did even more reading than usual and wrote much he would revise for The Marble Faun of of the poetry five years later. 1961). On August known draft to 6. Meriwether's excellent book The Literary It differs Career of William Faulkner (Princeton. three is The most a typescript William Faulkner loaned to the its Princeton University Library for exhibition of 1957. but not to be found in the accessible of the perfect guidance for emendation other three available versions. from the printed version at points where The Mississip- [ 6 ] . At summer's end." piece of writing have been published and his first published on the Symbolist poets from whom he would draw 19.

a military titled "Landing in Luck" and Canada. The came to light about a decade after a 1941 fire had destroyed a house containing early Faulk- ner papers — when I was able. The Sound and The Mississippian launched Faulkner fiction as an author of two weeks it after it had printed his poem "Cathay. at training aerodrome in In the same issue the newspaper published another of his poems. and the discrepancy created opposition to Faulkner's work. with the kind consent and help of the owners. printing some of them as late 1933. had created that the Fury. "Sapphics. to separate from the debris.pian seems not to have other two versions made typographical errors. out. after he not only had become a novelist but fictional masterpiece. On February 4. These documents be- cause William Faulkner revised and improved his early poems as for several years. the week after he published "Une [ 7 ] . dated 1920 and an undated. 1920." the rest of that and in subsequent issues during 1919-1920 academic year published ten more. Faulkdiffer ner loaned to Princeton. including a damaged holograph version of this poem it. dry and read more than four hundred and seventy pages. Most of them were more sophisticated than the verse other students wrote for the newspaper. the is story he known set to have published." first when brought out on November 26. damaged typescript of They in differ at several points not only from the version the version The Mississippian but from Mr. 1919.

" 8 ] ." the second of this group of four titles — appeared — all of 3." a fellow student parodied After Faulkner published "Naiads' Song" and "Fan- toches. and the third. With his "Fantoches. in addition to a poem called "A Poplar" he published one of the very few responses he has ever made to the reactions of his readers." Faulkner was also learning from to cherish poetes maudits more and more the natural independence and self-containment within which he has recorded his aesthetic perceptions with remarkable indifference to much neglect and hostility during long early years. Faulk- ner began the publication of a group of four poems which he specifically connected with their source. Faulk- ner already must have learned from them to expect hostility of this sort. Femmes Perdues. on March "Streets. great adulation during recent years. in the this case work of Paul Verlaine. and considerable misunder- standing throughout." on February 25. a reply to the student "J" who had parodied two title of his earlier poems. and one would like to imagine that." the parodist struck again. them using Verlaine's 1920." signed "J." As an artist partly apprenticed to the Symbolists. with "Whotouches. 1920. while he was learning to adapt to skills his own circumstances and some of the aesthetic practice and theory of the authors of "L'Apres-midi dun Faune" and les "Fantoches.Ballade des it." which the paper mis-set as "Fantouches." on March 17. Appearing under the [ "The Ivory Tower. Faulkner's adaptation of Ver- laine's "Streets" was not his only contribution to that issue of The Mississippian. "Clair de Lune.

.) This though. (its clarity it me. yet the matter scarcely worth exhausting either I my vocabulary or the reader's patience. unless humor like evil. has said Ben Jonson. is beside the point. Yet mirth requires two I things: humor and a sense of humor. the utter valuelessness of an imitation of an imitation. will state further. To my mind of two there is languages — nothing as vulgar as a conscious mingling unless. (2.) The first own poem was stupid. closely resembling being a vulgarly stupid agglomeration of words. poem submitted by him was One sees at a glance in stupid. (1. that in it his present vein and accepting boldly — he never achieve It without asking — collaboration. flatter myself that I I am unprejudiced — my will possess the latter. Which quite true: Imagine what this world would be without it. be humor. [ 9 ] . by adhering to some simple language such as an early Aztec dialect). The most de- plorable thing was his meaningless and unnecessary parading of his doubtless extensive knowledge of the Latin language. in all probability. were not the sufficient that I make this statement is lest reader justifiably cry "Wolf!". so shall be as brief as possible. been drawn in single language could have been enhanced. himself that laughter is is one of our most valuable possessions. was not the only way which the poet sinned. The second poem the first in if is not worthy of note. then I have lost my sense of it. Whatever tones and shades seems to his poem possessed could have. for my then. but — and I am sure unknown I "affinity" has notably failed in producing the former. in the eye of the beholder.. .this reply said (in part and with the obvious typographical errors removed): a strong advocate of Mirth. the mingling gives shades and tones that the work would not otherwise possess. this is. This though. of course.

Michael Millgate. answer is. which is he has retained. in signing this response." That esting piece of this as untrue as an even less inter- minor coinage which once again re- appears in another recent. American books of Faulkner 1924 Hoffman. Discussions of who put the "u" in William Faulkner's the renditions of that great musical name rival in number question about the overalls in Mrs. Faulkner. as he did in signing most of his University of Mississippi pieces which are reprinted here. the continual confusion concerning it illustrates the immaturity of about Faulkner. in its ferring to the year "Chronology. published by the Four Seas Co. of course. the which he has so palpably simply de gustibus. grandfather. William Faulkner (Edinburgh. Frederick re- beginning to the present. The customary — and is much wrong writing — ex- planation of the change in spelling counterfeit coins which too one of the small ner industry have passed many workers in the Faulkamong themselves from the criticism. a "u" added to Faulkner's name. Murphy's chowder. For example. gained the effect for striven. Faulkner "managed to Canadian Flying Corps. a book of poems. join the as Millgate puts it.However." says. Because of printer's error. "First book published: The Marble Faun. followed the form of his family name which his father." which must have taken [ 10 ] . 1961): that in the First World War. 1961). and great-grandfather used. Insignificant as the matter is. William Faulkner (New York. by any chance. of Boston. if he has. William Falkner. small book. the most recent of the J.

But when such books. badly damaged. According to the for of the in armament company which Faulkner worked his Connecticut from April into June of 1918. significant false coinage of critical much more name began whose error judgment which such books also to circulate. These bits of biographical counterfeit. offer them again and again. and bearing. carefully lettered by author. have tertiary no importance whatever. Faulkner." New Re- public. To reduce the possibility that writers on Faulkner than will attribute that insertion of the "u" — more it five years before the publication of Faun ner. The "u" in in Faulkner's appear intermittently some years before the publication of The Marble Faun is 1 924 by printers to the spelling staff continually attributed." One of the two copies I have read of the booklet titled Marionettes. "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune. titled The Lilacs. lished" himself in pen-and-ink which Faulkner "pubto a and circulated ] few [ 11 . in their records of that year's first name appears employees as "William Faulkner." His work signed "Faulkner" literary is known published literary his first known published work: 1919. may be well to mention other early appearances of "Faulk- Among the burned sheets of his early writings salvaged some years ago was a small. beautifully produced booklet of poems. drawing them from dubious secondary sources." — The Marble to an error by the New Republic printers. 1920. of course. dated its January 1. they are an obvious reminder of the existence of a more subtle. the name "W. hand-lettered as a gift to a friend.considerable managing because in that war Canada had no air force.

William Faulkner in the Uniform of the British Air Force [ 12 ] .

1920. This is apparently the on Faulkner's works to — and War published commentary in tone one more similar many of the commentaries on Faulkner published beit is fore the lect: I feel Second World than pleasant to recol- it my duty to answer an article that appeared in the last issue of your very estimable paper. bears the date "1920" and the name "W. works of French Symbolists but a walking detached air of his unemployment which masked his dedica- tion to the labor of writing. common to uncommon genius.friends." both in Faulkner's characteristic lettering. other items among the fire-damaged papers of his University of Mississippi years which relate to this little matter are typescripts of poems by "William Faulkner" which bear-dates of earlier than that is The Marble Faun. and the answer the question Who Put the "u" in William Faulkner's Name? is William Falkner. This article seems to have been written by a peculiar person [ who calls himself 13 ] ." which the student "J" used in a letter printed in The Mississippian first for March 24. Faulk- ner. spelling his family Whatever way he was name. So. apparently. that he would one day become a led first-rate artist — all these had some of the college students to give him the nickname "Count. and his awareness. which has produced more than twenty-five books and was already producing the formative published and unpublished pieces of those early years. In addition to his booklet The Lilacs. this one puzto zling spelling printers did not cause. Faulk- ner's importing to the Mississippi campus not only the stick.

we should while away our time singing of lascivious knees. each a find self. and voluptuous toes? Wouldn't that be just too grand? Since Count used a quotation. allow I me the same liberty." I have written the parodies to give Count's poems a mean- ing. trifle like kicking myself three successive I tried times. Miss. severer than the former. — J. make this article very brief. But permit fine University me to wander. and permit me to remain. He says he "flatI ters" himself that he possesses a sense of ters himself this if humor. "I boldly make lest the statement Editor justifiably cry 'Bull. "He brays. what the Count was "driving and only that him- admits his work was "stupid. and." And now. Editor.' " I shall. Your humble servant. the Laureate of the long-eared kind." so hard to he. Two weeks later the controversy in The Mississippian over Faulkner's poetry had not abated. at. wouldn't this be a if all of us were to wear sailor collars. Mr. use the words of Lord Byron. desiring to conserve the valuable space in this paper and also my own exhaustible energy for some more serious subject. say he flat- he says he possesses anything. we would 'mose' along the by the aid of a walking prop." Modesty forbids me using a stronger epithet than "stupid. of course. and behold! how little he appreciates my humble efforts. Mr. allow me to apologize for wasting your valuable time on such a subject. smiling lute strings.William Falkner and sides in the who from all accounts undoubtedly re- remote village of Oxford. for the paper carried a brief note by Faulkner wondering of "J" "where did he learn English construction?" and a lengthy de[ 14 ] . street and brilliant pantaloons. if monkey if hats. I feel. Editor. ye gods forbid.

this. such a di- lemma. Ha! well might one use a raindrop to measure the ocean's depth. is . Of all the by-products of nature. . . Poets don't sprout in every garden of learning. who signs himself . . . the least able to protect himself in . think some gentle reader should undertake to defend Count a poet in this controversy. 15 ] . choose the movement of a turtle to explain the eagle's flight. his following Count's passionate outbursts with some of Possum Hollow poetry adds about as much dignity and calm to the majestic pose and sweep of Count's literary "J" 's course as a tomato can tied to a poodle's tail. so that he can convey to our thirsting souls in its full significance. . [ . This seems to have been written by a peculiar person "J" I . in his fancy. Rather than have him shoulders with the task. with the keen discernment of a poetic eye. he is probably now. . I burden life my weak and for once tions to in my perhaps place nobility under obliga- me." a new participant in the controversy who seems now to our hindsight pleasantly perceptive: I feel it my duty to answer an article that appeared in the article last issue of your very estimable paper. and how can they grow and bloom into a genius when they are continually surrounded by bitterweeds. fairy. figuratively measuring the dimple on the knee of some rhythmic verse interrupted in speaking. or listen to the screech of the "J" bird to interpret the love notes of a dove.fense of Faulkner by someone signing himself "F. It is not intended to infer that Count could not answer this article as well as anyone else. However. . The only excuse he has poets seems to be that he for this propensity to pester the is giving them meaning.

With "Study." on April 21. On April 14 The Mississippian published "A Clyfour mene." a parody of Faulkner's "Clair de Lune. and during 12. in humor The Hamlet when the idiot wanders with cow. delayed his reply on the assumption that Faulkner's defender "had been shipped to Jackson for treatment" in the state insane asylum.This defense of Faulkner's poetry ended the controversy with "J" except for a lished almost a weak on letter which "J" pubsaying he had month later. May 5. The Mississippian concluded 16 ] [ ." "Une Ballade d'une Vache Perdue. on May writ- parody of his "Une Ballade des Femmes Perdues." the last of the poems which Faulkner as- cribed to Verlaine. 1920. a titled the next month. The Mississippian published only two of Faulkner's poetry." on May 12. and "Alma Mater. and others. a fellow student and good friend recalls that Faulkner's departure from campus poetic convention led balled for to his being black- membership in a literary society — a vote amusing to Faulkner's friend. apparently by more parodies new titled performers: in the same issue which contained the letter from "F. parody. Though the parodies ended and though Faulkner received visible support of his writing that in the letter — — when he won by "F" in the in addition to a prize for the best literary work 1920 Mississippian." execrably its ten but briefly arresting because of crude presentation for of a motif which Faulkner himself in a piece first published in would use humor French translation during 1943 as "L'Apres-midi d'une Vache" and which he and pathos as well his would use as for thematic point." "Cane de Looney".

Faulkner had served during the college year as one of the art editors on the staff under the writer Louis Cochran. when Faulkner again Marionettes as the University's Faulkner's friend enrolled at the University. Members of the Mar- ionettes recall that several of them.its publication of works by Faulkner during his first year as a student. Faulkner wrote a one-act play titled Marionettes." which Cochran had led invited to joke him to contribute — and which has first Cochran about having been the publisher to get Faulkner's writing into a book. which he "pub- lished" for friends as a few attractive hand-lettered booklets. was the in president. the annual also contained his poem "To a Co-ed. The next autumn. But his University productions of that year in its were not over: the 1919-1920 Ole Miss appearance contained six end-of-year of of his pieces. being an honor- ary member until 1925. he joined at once in formally founding the official dramatic society. and Faulkner was charge of staging the plays. In addition to Faulkner's drawings. later Ben Wasson. performed the next January. and Faulkner was to continue with the society for some years beyond his semesters as a student. had enjoyed producing plays for a year or more before officially connecting their group with the University. five them drawings. such as The Arrival of Kitty. Early in his association with the Marionettes. The first page of the text of one copy and its facing 1 drawing have been made generally accessible as Figure [ 17 ] . whose work first appeared on Broadway. including Faulkner. who was then a student and the annual's editor in chief.

presenting the significance of mortality as in do the man named Time in The Sound and the Fury.of the illustrations in James B. though much removed than Mayday from Shade of this last figure Quentin's monologue. including Verlaine Amy Lowell. [ shows how Ruth. an 18 1 . Meriwether. the Pierrot. untitled. Another copy of the booklet contains fifty-three pages of hand-lettering and nine pages of line drawings. this play introduces in at least some elements which appear two other prose works Faulkner wrote during the 'twenties: the story of Sir allegorical booklet titled Galwyn in the unpublished Mayday and Quentin Compson's the Fury. Faulkner. ently survived in only one copy. is section of The Sound and it Among farther the characters of this play. and the Spirit of Autumn. Mayday and Quentin's father The suggestion that the in a river looks troubled Pierrot to the may have drowned ahead drownings which end the lives of both Sir Galwyn and Quentin Compson. are Pierrot. the motif of a well-groomed woman walking the formal paths of her garden presumably owing something to Miss Lowell's "Patterns. During his period at the University of Mississippi. The Literary Career of William Faulkner." Despite great differences of intention and surface. according to a one-act play which apparIt wrote a brief. Some of the play's motifs from other Faulkner works of that time — among them come "A Poplar" and "Study" in The Mississippian as well as preliminary versions of the poetry he would later publish as The Marble Faun — and from and the works of other writers. Marietta. probably rather early in friend. and it.

ends her en- gagement to the more worldly Francis and becomes enin to gaged to pusillanimous Jim. but nothing whatever in the wording and plot of the play proves that it is by Faulkner." series of articles discussed The second in this Conrad Aiken. which retained 19 ] . The [ Mississippian. 1920. according to her. In May. signed poems. as of James Joyce. unpublished works by Faulkner might feel at least the slightest of similarities between the quiet opening remark of tence of Jason's as well as this play and the noisy opening senin monologue The Sound and this the Fury between the action of play and the central motif of one of Faulkner's unpublished. a volume of which he often carried about the campus.emancipated girl of the prohibition era. so dominating. Before two months of the autumn semester of his second year had passed. who. Five days after he abandoned formal schooling The Mississippian brought out the articles: first of a series of his literary a review of a volume of W. Faulkner withdrew from enrollment in the University. One interested in identifying unlike to signed. though giving Ruth on he is all counts. Percy's poetry in which Faulkner made the interesting remark that Percy " — like alas! how many of us — suffered the misfortune of having been born out of his time. fire-damaged. wins her because. 1921. A. and never again registered as a student! But by no means severed his connection with the University's publications. on November this 5. whose poetry he did the poetry Faulkner respected and frequently quoted admiringly to his University of Mississippi friends.

Faulkner resumed for three years the University of Mississippi. But before his important sojourn in his New Orleans. a native of Mississippi whom known Oxford. association with The University newspaper its December 9. he was able to introduce Faulkner to Elizabeth Prall. which also had retained Faulkner's staff roll." And at the end of that 1920-1921 academic year the Ole Miss annual. as name on with its one of its art editors. published his poem "Co-Education at Ole Miss. a New York at One of his friends there was the he had writer Stark Young. for Friday. was to introduce Faulkner to her husband in New Orleans to begin an association which Faulkner has since described as one he remembers with great pleasure. Young did more than offer Faulkner a temporary base in this unsettled period following college. for. has been in New York City for some time studying has returned to the University to take the temporary postmastership at the University post office." [ And an- 20 ] . the room Bill shared for a time. who art. featuring it poem "Nocturne" as a its two-page spread which sequence of was impressive the plates in spite of the reversal of the — presumably left a printers' error.Faulkner's name on its staff roll as one of the "Contrib- uting Editors" despite his having resigned as a student. "in whose house I had a room. 1921. staying for Faulkner time in Oxford during City. published four of his drawings and his unsigned decorative border. this period." Later Elizabeth Prall. in "Locals" column reported: "William Falkner. former Ole Miss student. by then the wife of Sherwood Anderson. as he has helpfully written in a letter.

" am indebted to a former member first of the newspaper's staff." almost as soon as he had enrolled as a fiction student. both of them initialed "W.other article in the same issue. and by March. his recommendation to become permanent postmaster reached the United States Senate for confirmation. 1922. ending an association [ 21 ] .F. 1922. That spring the Ole Miss annual for 1922 contained. on February 3. Hill. The week following ner called "American the appearance of this sketch The com- Mississippian printed the part of an article by FaulkInhibitions. but for confirmation that he wrote and the four other Mississippian pieces signed "W. Faulkner in the had published no other piece of that more than two years 10. on the page of the French Club. 1922. after The month he began work in the University's post office." The sketch the tenth in so closely related to a A Green Bough — poem by Faulkner is — I that there no problem this about ascription." Drama: which it pleted in the next week's issue. its last drawing by Faulkner. noting that the "examination for the position was held Saturday in Oxford" for Faulkner and two other contestants.F. wished "the best man success. on January 13." Faulkner won the position. had passed when on a March sketch." his first Though he had published "Landing in piece of fiction. Faulkner began contributing again to Mississippian.F. 1922. with a review of The Edna St. Vincent Millay's article prais- Aria da Capo. Luck. which it received." The Mississippian printed which it prose "The is credited merely to "W. and an ing Eugene O'Neill.

After he had showed his concern with poetry by publishing during 1932 several poems in an issue of Contempo which featured his work. issue of that national "little magazine. the period immediately following his return. 1922. lished poems are dated on that European In 1926. 1925. Though Faulkner had brought out his last University poem in the spring of 1921. tion for the larger audience is world-wide. When the Ole Miss annual was printing first this last of its drawings by Faulkner." which was published New Orleans. forty years later.which had begun five years before is when the annual had first published the drawing which tion this investigation has Faulkner's publica- been able to discover. from Pascagoula. the of his seven contributions to the "Portrait" Double Dealer in the June. — appeared — the poem at titled 1922. volumes which included revisions of poems he had written at the University of Mississippi. of course. In December. where Faulkner was later to turn to fiction. and by bring- ing out in 1932 and 1933 This Earth and A Green Bough. Other unpubtrip. he dated more poems. the University newspaper pub[ 22 ] . published major novels he still Mississippi. But by this time Faulkner was. not so much withdrawing his work from the University of Mississippi's their relatively small circle of amateur publications and readers as he was moving toward professional publicawhich now. his concern with poetry was to continue for some years: He dated a few unpublished poems during his New Orleans months in 1925 and had left published four in the Double Dealer by the time he New Orleans for Europe on July 7.

who later would become post- master when Faulkner resigned. but voting his time to writing poems and now was he moved a little closer in time to the novelist he become. the paper carried a large. Each was listed as a "president" of the company. a review article center- ing on three novels by Joseph Hergesheimer. lished its last essay by Faulkner. on January 1924. start of the last At year of his postmastership. one of Faulk- ner's post office assistants. Interestingly — though probably it is only coincidence — the subjects of his previous pieces of literary criticism in The Missisdeas to sippian had been either poetry or drama while he was plays. but there the possibility that much [ 23 ] . Possibly Faulkner made one more contribution to The the 1 1 Mississippian after this review of Hergesheimer. and Faulkner. humorous "advertise- ment" for a Bluebird Insurance Company which was dedicated to the happiness of students because protect it would them in their college courses by insuring them "against professors and other failures. of Faulkner's which mento tion the Bluebird Insurance Company seem have as- that Faulkner invented and de- One cannot with assurance label that is interpretation wrong." This advertise- ment and those which followed it purported to have been a purchased by a company composed of three men: student who had at just returned from England where he had been Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. life The published accounts sumed without question veloped this joke.. this final Mississippian review was Faulkner's only contribution to that newspaper about an author of fiction.

" and by the humor section of the Ole Miss for 1923 in the list "Hardest Worker — Count Falkner" named of "Superlative Election" results which [ 24 ] ." the formal roll of name had appeared on "Freshman as "Falkner." gave a talk to the Latin Club of the University about life at Oxdis- ford. the reporter described the talk rather it respectfully. an page of the humor section of the 1922 office the Ole Miss which named the post "Postgraduate Club" with "Hours: 11:20 to 12:20 every Wednesday." and "Aim: Develop postmasters out of Faulkner's the fifty students every year.— or all? — of this series of advertisements originated in the office of The Mississippian and that Faulkner and. the other two men were drafted as "presidents" without their consent or knowledge. with the jolly lets rabble" and that there one " — can you afternoon tea interfere with a hotly contested cricket match. doncher know. saying versity had revealed that at Oxford Uni- "luncheon was served in one's room and one only had to take one's dinner. England. University's Literary Class" in the 1919-1920 Ole Miss he had been listed as^ Count William. Linking the three men together as founders of the company may have struck the newspaper's staff as funny: When the returned Rhodes Scholar." The post antly office assistant enough — — had appeared — believe it? pleas- in a series of Mississippian columns figures which made fun of campus and also." "Motto: Never put the mail up on time. perhaps. along with in Faulkner and others of the post illustrated half office force. just this whom a Mississippian news article of time called "the famous and inimitable.

At once he began to realize he had wasted most of his life and had failed to take out that policy when the BLUEBIRD salesman called the day before. the man rain very. When : of tight places. very hard. Unlimited. Policy for young men will make you laugh when m?kes a date with her he was a long ways from Seeing no other shelter.! WE INSURE YOU! MAKE OLE MISS A WINTER RESORT! Insure yourself against professors and other failures. crawled into a hollow log and went to sleep. Let your failures pay your way through college. The man felt that his last days had come. — Girls. TKink of Your Feet! Our Foot-Ease Dancing Policy for ladies beats Blue-Jay in stopping that after-dance pain. & M. President.. they mean less popthe co-eds will your money. Jr. Moral Let the BLUEBIRD help you out There was once a home it began to man who went hunting. let us be the one to worry. President Bell-Falkner-Jicgetts. friends to come over. When he awoke the log had swollen so that he could not get out. This made him feel so small that he crawled right out of the little end of the log. Laugh at pop-writtens written checks. THE BLUEBIRD INSURANCE "We Take James Bell. Take out one of our famous policies and then write your A. If the professors don't appreciate your brains. President Louis Jigcetts. CO. Anything" William Falkner. Boys. Underwriters [ 25 } . If sweetie stands Why Worry? Our Broken-Hearted sheik you up.

" Though the "president" of the Bluebird Insurance Company who had been officer or unofficial J.such other involuntary electoral victors as "Most Popular Professor" and "Biggest Grouch. would strongly have favored publishing among the defenses of the Company in its advertiseis ment of February 15 such an item injustice to say that President as this: "It a gross Falkner has permanently retired in the Post Office. naps — during He merely takes temporary business hours. make in a jokes about students and letter As one example. it seems doubtful that the remaining "president. University's administration]. and though the "president" who was The an assistant Scholar at the post office was listed with the Rhodes among the "Contributors to This Issue" of first Mississippian which carried the Bluebird advertise- ment." and through the years he had appeared in the "Hayseed Letters" columns of The Mississippian in which the correspondence beat college tween an imaginary bumpkin and his father back on the farm at Possum Trot gave to the authors of the column opportunities faculty. [ 26 ] . Bill Falkner and Paul Rogers is all here now so school can comminct whenever it wants to. whose sense of it humor has clearly demonstrated that includes himself. Me and Blind Jim [an Negro about the campus adopted as a class whom the students sometimes member of the Tubb and Hannibal. a Rhodes Scholar had also been one of the two authors of those "Hayseed Letters" with their burlesquing of stu- dents and faculty. I the son wrote home: "Wei here am back again at the afflicted best schule in the world. September 21." William Faulkner. 1920. T." Faulkner.

at least by some of the friends. he had years in addition to his writing. The first game was to be The next solely for the eds. and had nothing February 15 whatever to do with the news article in the Mississippian which announced that the next day the campus would start "The Bluebird Game. "Snowflake. did not favor stretching the joke over such a long time. policy." secretly the Bluebird. first would "carry a striped letter" to deliver "to the coed" who for- happened to ask whether he was the Bluebird. variation affected by Henry Ford's legendary order to give them any color they want [ 27 ] . but dence appears either way. many pleasures in these He kept up his practice of taking long walks into the countryside. which was named." and must have offered a pleasant. "The tunate young lady" would receive a ticket to the movies and a Bluebird insurance "solely for the coeds. and sometimes going days." "Isn't it." in which "some popular young man. until which did not end many months later with a full- page notice in the Ole Miss annual.may have taken part in this series of advertisements. in a time still and notable. a ticket to the show worth asking the question? Try You'll find it fun. admirers of be kindly allowed voluntarily help at least to until firmer evi- his fiction if should assume that Faulkner did work up these Bluebird notices he did not write the more flat-footed parts of them. often covering twelve or fifteen miles with Phil Stone on a Sunday." to the Bluebird In- Whatever Faulkner's relationship surance Company hoax. off on foot for jaunts lasting several He and his friends enjoyed driving about in his open white car. Play the Bluebird game.

Former members recall with pleasure and admiration that at meetings. One former youth in now an im- portant scholar. a Faulkner introduced and the boys of Oxford joyed. such as one in late August. He is said by friends to have accepted the job with the greatest reluc- [ 28 ] . for he obviously scoutmaster. Faulkner elected to remain. Faulkner himself enjoyed this association game much enand must was a have disliked having to end first-rate it. 1924. an amateur. in golf. shouted adult discipline. on day-long outings. Faulkner also played golf frequently at the University — so competently that near the time of his resignation as postmaster he took part in an exhibition match with two touring sin professionals. one from Wisconin the best score. and turned the When managers of the exhibition passed a hat in the audience to collect money for the players to divide among themselves. the boys maintained sense and order and had of Oxford. his performance something be desired. William Faulkner created an unusually pleasant atmosphere. and one from Indiana. at a small lake northwest of Oxford. to As postmaster apparently left however. an outdoorsman. recalls the interest Faulkner was able to give a game which the problem was to creep unde- tected through the woods toward a central player. so that in the complete absence of nervous. and during periods in camp. Faulkner served during part of this period as scoutmaster of the Oxford Boy Scout troop. in these years. Always an tively athlete.just so it's black. a fine time. and a man effec- concerned for the welfare of the young.

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plan- office. The inspector has since recalled that Faulkner said he Office sent was "glad the Post someone who had a sense of humor and 'hell realized what a of a job' " it was. his poem sippi Hills: My Epitaph. 1924. Post Office inspector with headquarters in Corinth. and a his having in the of publication book which some patrons claimed was written at the post office. 1924. By September 1924. inscribed to him as one "to whose I owe extrication from a very unpleasant situ- About mid-October Faulkner may have begun ning his departure from the post sity.tance." Post Office inspector. If so. 1924. a U. had written Faulkner a letter letters detailing patrons' complaints about undelivered and packages. and was much revised later for the booklet published as This Earth and for [ A Green 30 ] .S. Faulkner gave a copy to the Faun had been friendship ation. from the Univertitled "Missis- and from Mississippi. Moses making a living sorting other peo2. Mississippi. when The Marble published. And to readers of today there is something preposthe terous about the future author of The Sound and Fury and ple's Go Down. his at- reading a great deal instead of maintaining ardent tendance process at the stamp window. Christmas cards. after almost three years at the post Faulkner resigned and the next day in a moving a friend reported that free again to write it letter to was pleasant to be completely to be and that he intended never again so trapped no matter what the consequences. on December 26. At the end of office." which survives in manuscripts dated October 17. October. A few weeks later.

They have an unusual feeling for words and the music of words. where he will spend the [ campus for England winter months in study. 31 ] . and bearing date line for the composition of the poems." and under the date line. an instinct for color and rhythm.. "April.. written by Phil Stone. has first additional poignance. . They belong . after the publication of Immediately the The Marble Faun. and youth's sudden. a love of soft vowels. In mid-December. under the headline. June." Some of Stone's prefatory the poetry in — and prophetic also — comments about apply to The Marble Faun many of Faulkner's early poems which are being reprinted here: They are the poems of youth. and times — — at a hint of coming muscularity of wrist . . author of "The Marble Faun." which he recently received from his New York publisher.. . vague. . inevitably to that period of uncertainty have the defects of youth cation and immaturity. will leave these things behind. They also youth's impatience. unreasoned sadness over nothing at all.. with a preface dated "September 23. Miss." announced: William Falkner. 16. a man who has real talent will grow. book. was published in to a volume of poems dedicated the poet's mother. his Boston. will finally bring forth a flower that could have grown in no garden but his own. I think these poems show promise. 1924. to "Author Goes versity. The Marble Faun. .Bough. unsophisti. . 1924" who had been instrumental in arat its end. "Uni- Dec. — and illusion. New Orleans Times-Picayune. . Europe. as a ranging for its publication.. 1 91 9. is preparing to leave the University of Mississippi and Italy. They have youth's sheer joy . May.

in addition to dating the manuscript of an unpublished poem from called there on February 26. where. as devote his energy to poetry into next decades a writer who was to give his energy during the to fiction — and with magnificent at results. being as officially listed 1925 one of the art editors. and within a few months of his arrival at New Orleans he had novels. these three were drawings. In May. 1925. but whether he did or not remains uncertain and the drawings have not come a few weeks before he left to light. New Orleans for Europe. the first of his many During from time his to months in New Orleans Faulkner returned time to the University of Mississippi. to to continue. [ 32 ] . But when Faulkner reached he postponed the trip New Orleans to take a ship and settled in the city's French Quarter for several important months in which he changed from a writer who had expected in his University years. It was in New Orleans that Faulkner almost once began writing sketches for the Double Dealer and for the Picayune.Young Falkner poems is expecting also to complete a number of started in this country. the first fiction for which he had received payment. completed Soldiers' Pay. Associates remember that he possibly made designs and drawings for another humor magazine. 1925. The last Scream printed three pieces of work which are the this investigation has found signed by Faulkner in any first University of Mississippi publication. he took some part in the production of a University humor magazine on the staff in The Scream. Just as his three signed contributions had been eight years before.

[ 33 ] . to end by a kind of amitosis the series of contributions to University of Mississippi publi- cations which William Faulkner had begun in 1917. Not his until May of 1927. when he had already published The Scream. did the staff of financially pressed and appreciative of his draftsmanship.But Faulkner's connection with The Scream was not quite over with their publication or even with the publi- cation the next autumn of an unsigned drawing showing a man dangling outside an airplane in death drag acro- batics which seems to be in Faulkner's style. cut in half their 1925 plate of his drawing showing two men watching three illus- women boarding a streetcar and print the parts as trations of two jokes. second novel.

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William Faulkner: Early Prose and Poetry .

I'M^R [ 36 ] .

[ 37 ] .

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The green night in the silver west Of virgin stars. like the wild brown bee that flies Sweet winged. a sharp extravagance kisses on my limbs and neck. love-wearied She pauses: and as one who grieves Shakes down her blown and vagrant hair To veil her face. or autumn leaves air. pale row on row Like ghostly hands. but not her eyes — A Or Of hot quick spark. I have a nameless wish to go far silent To some midnight noon [ 39 } . Slow shed through still. trees like She whirls and dances through the That lift and sway arms and fleck Her with quick shadows. Now hand in hand with her I go.L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune I follow through the singing trees hair and face Her streaming clouded And Of lascivious dreaming knees Like gleaming water from some place sleeping streams. and the breeze Lies on her short and circled breast. and ere she sleep The dusk will take her by some stream In silent meadows. dim and deep — In dreams of stars and dreaming dream. each sudden glance.

and brows And Are their sad slow limbs petals drifting on the breeze Shed from the fingers of the boughs. unclad and cold earth's great heart that — was the broke old. [ 40 . A sound like some great deep Falls. blond limbed dancers whirling past. It bell stroke and they dance. For springs before the world grew WILLIAM FAULKNER.Where lonely streams whisper and flow And And The The sigh on sands blanched by the moon. until at Their hair powdered bright with dew. Then suddenly on all of these. sighing trees. senile worn moon is staring through last.

University Mississippi. [ 41 ] . So who sows Death to reap. Now go the empty years infinitely is it: Rich with thy ghosts. lest thy sleep Be broken? Where once thy splendors rose. And Drift flocks and herds on aimless muffled glittering kings feet street where went through each Of thy white vanished cities. sweep Where yesterday tall shining carvels Swam in thy golden past. The seed of Fame. Sharp sands. What Fate foretells That now the winds go lightly. They know thee not. with faces sharp as spears.CATHAY. nor will To see thy magic empire when the Hand Thrusts back the curtain of the shifting sand. William Falkner. and the years Have closed like walls behind them. lest like these. We stare. On singing stars and lifting golden hill. And cast their banners bright against the sky. those blind desert horsemen. Still Through the spawn of lesser destinies. where once thy stars burned. makes the grain for Wanderers. We lose faith.

sir. stretching his his clothes He got a cigarette after a fashion resembling sleight-of- hand. turned and taxied back and stopped." "Think you can — hold that stick back." who had just made a fairly creditable landing. engine running idle. Falkner. "Fairish. The from instructor climbed slowly out onto the lower wing. The instructor in the forward cockpit faced about and raised his goggles. sir. How many hours have you had?" Cadet Thompson. then to the ground.LANDING IN LUCK. "Seven hours and nine minutes. with the small remaining part of his unconquered optimism in his voice. a "barracks ace. assumed an expression of assured confidence. [ 42 ] . legs. "not so bad. headed into the its wind again. By William The machine It levelled off and settled on the aerodrome." he said. will you? — think you can take her round alone?" "Yes." he answered as he had answered at least four times a day for the last three days.

A machine descended in a series of high. The C. it's goin' to your neck or my reputation." A head. now. too. you necks. chaps like you that give this stage such a name for inefficiency. gave us all a raggin' last night. brought you to think you could fly? it Swear I don't What ever know you either what cr to do with you. Here you have had seven if hours. Let you try and break your neck. and say right now. O. stared off The instructor." pulled Thompson down his goggles. Take her and what ever you do. He had been angry enough to kill his officer for the better part of a week. Get rid of recommend you for discharge. and yet this you never know at you are goin' to land on aerodrome or down Borden. way. "See that chap there? He's probably had half your time but he makes landings alone. and a devilish good thing. silence hung heavily about Thompson's unhappy sucking his cigarette. landed tail where other wild and hardy amaand crashed. And then you always pick a house or another machine to land on. across the aerodrome. He was a strange mixture of fear and pride as he opened the throttle wide and pushed the stick forward — fear [43 ] . that's is somethin' none of you rockin' chair aviators do. you cut your gun and sit up there like a blind idiot try and when you con- descend to dive the bus. yours and your best to break our I'll mine too. so added indignities rested but lightly upon him."You've got to solo It's some day. levelled off too soon like and landed bumps an inferior tennis ball. keep your nose down. teurs took off. off. Well. But you.

back in the A shock. he was in no particularly safe frame of mind for his solo flight. The less was off the ground now and Thompson. losing more far speed. so he closed the When the noise of the engine ceased he heard the instructor shouting at him. He jerked the open. more or nervous. His subconscious mind had registered a cable across the end of the that it. his was that he would show himself up before fortunate friends to whom he had talked largely of spins and side slips and gliding angles. Below him [ 44 1 . field. he pulled on the speed at the stick back. All-in-all. When nothing hap- pened he ventured a frightened hurried glance. He was no physical coward.that he would wreck the machine landing. his eyes were he to close the indicator. cycle. he closed his eyes. So. and pride that he was on his his fear less own at last. pulled the stick back before the machine had gained speed sufficient to It rise. expecting to go over and his down on road below. were they? Cadet Thompson throttle was once more cleanly angry. lurched forward and the tail sank heavily. though he had taken the machine off like a veteran with the instructor aboard. off again. tail He gained speed down the field. The motion once became easier and he climbed as much as he dared. and the splutter of a motor Sending after him. and he had flown enough as to to know it was touch and go whether he would clear He was afraid of rising too soon again in time and he knew that he throttle would not stop now. He knew that he had gone too down the field and should turn back and take throttle.

"like poor He leaned out of his cockpit and gestured pleasantly at them." crew gaping foolishly fish. he was. for here he was still going forward. He opened the throttle and closed it again. to all peoples of the civilized world. a warning. its oc- him. "Why'n the hell don't they get off and lemme land?" he wondered. Bet if he'd a' hit that cable he'd t'hell been on his back in that road. "thinks he's the only man Wish in this wing who can a' really fly. circle. The other machine passed him cupants shouting at in a long bank. Eight hundred "High enough. His altimeter showed two hundred feet. and made another on the field. Now him he'd show 'em what kind what flying was." his turn carefully. him. He a picked his spot throttle "Now. right now. Thompson felt like shouting. The field filled with people run- ning about and flapping their arms. engine idle and long flames wrapping back from the exhausts." he thought. "Like fish. was he? He'd tell pull a perfect landjust ing and walk up to that officer and of a poor fish he was. one of them carried something [ 45 ] . cut the and pushed the stick forward. Rotten. losing height. wires singing. field and the aerodrome far to So the cable had broken! Must have." he decided.was the yellow of a wheat the rear. a popular gesture known feet. He found was good gliding angle." he thought." he said. Another machine rose to meet him. "Blasted Englishman. He made at Below its at the edge of the aerodrome stood the ambulance.

'e 'assn't 'No landing gear?' What's sir. — on his machine — Had two on his mawheels? Then Thompson stripped a wheel else it remembered cable. Yes." off "There 'e is. anyway. O. immediately." "My word. sir. B Flight. he had nothing less to to land on." said an orderly. "Sir. like two strange dogs meeting. frantically. the cable. So he circled off and climbed. 'E's abaht out of petrol and the Flight Commander says 'e'll be a-coming down soon. C. that's "My word. going to the door and closely followed by the others. O. O. Thompson came out They circled again and he saw that the object was about the size and shape of a wheel? A wheel from the landing gear of a machine. reports that a cadet abaht to crash. got no landing gear. Therefore it were quite point- bother about landing. "Yes. O. then. [ 46 ] . again and went toward the hangars at a very good gait. entering the mess where the "sir. His brain assimilated this fact calmly. followed cautiously by the other machine. 'im in front. and three lesser lights were playing bridge." said the C. He had on that There was nothing could mean. this? What's this?" sir. What kind to of a joke was this? Why had they brought a wheel up show him? He'd seen chine lots of wheels. Flight the is Commander." "Out " 'ere. sir. sir." said the C.. sir." " 'Crash?' " repeated the C. Having lost a wheel. 'E wiped it orf a-taking orf.to which he gestured and pointed of his dive.

gave me a jolly raggin' not a fortnight I will. Bessing!" over. watched him bad name when life An is instructor gets a his cadet crashes." "H-m. "Mr. Bessing?" The C. "Rotten take off. G. He helped the C. C. "Something in you people at this wing. he responsible for the cadet's as well as the machine." volunteered one. Bessing?" "Chap's had seven hours. Thompson was out of petrol at The two machines [ 47 ] . lost his right he carried right on. O. "Cadet Thompson. Mr. Oh. O. We sent another chap up to pull him up a petrol He's almost out of and he'll have to come down soon. to a light and lit a cigarette for himself. Bessing's cadet. shading his eyes as he stared into the sky. O."What's this? What's this?" Approaching the group of officers." said the C. and pro- duced Thompson's card. He tried to rise too soon. The C. Bessing came "What's narrowly. Do something. instead of comin' back and tryin' again. though. last. Cadets and officers both. since. studied sir?" it a moment. Struck that cable and wheel and he's been sittin' up there ever bit. too. then returned it.. all this. N. C." he protested. sir. lifting his feet nervously. O. swear The drone from the engines above suddenly ceased.'s got it. sir. O. Didn't send him up too soon. good lad. Mr. did you. Do something. and when he failed. "Good lad." ago. "Wharton. sir. O.

tip The left wing was low and the wing crumpled like paper. the blind. Bessing was the to reach him. a strut snapped. Comin' out was a all many an old flyer couldn't do! I say. slewed around and stood on first nose. bounded. are you right?" 48 . never expected Don't ever of that let anyone trick else say you can't fly. For Thompson's nerve was going earth." Bessing muttered half aloud. strong to kick his rudder over and close The machine descended. as he neared the The temptation was his eyes. and he regained do- minion over his limbs. "If "Here they come. his brain had ceased he was all staring eyes watching the remorseless earth. his height. but he expected to crash any second. he only remembers to land on his oh. utterly unable to He watched the approaching ground make any pretence of levelling off. scraped again. A tearing of fabric. lyzed. barely re- taining headway.descended in a wide spiral. but too late to do anything — were there anything to be done. as utterly beyond any human aid as though he were on another planet. and they on the earth stood watching him as he descended. the He did not know ground rushed past too swiftly to judge. The tail touched. solidly. "Lord. "Are you all right? it! Never expected you'd come Didn't think to see you alive! through. Thompson's fate was on the laps of the Gods. parato function. The machine its struck again. bounding fool!" left wing — the fool. Lord!" he was near weeping from nervous tension.

"Look at the nerve he's got. will you?" "He'—" "Ah. Then he became violently sat ill. words of tempered He forgot the days of his tribulation and insult in this man's company. so Well. tripped her up and she stood on her nose. " — and me. don't That's all. Cadet Thompson looked this cold. M. I know what Bessing said? Ask him! You're a bunch of poor hams that think you [ 49 ] . but this one — which was my left — knew I it was thought to put my tail down first and then drop lie wing.'s had dug right across the mind you. I had thought of that. and pulled a pretty good scout "Ah-h-h — — my belt up. only a ditch those fool A. I up to had already thought of a plan seemed the best of several. so.O. surprised at the officer. worked just as I had doped it out. Bessing said — he's " they jeered him down profanely. and his eyes filled with utter adoration. and recent experience. short at Bessing. That night Thompson the writing gracefully on a table in room of a down town hotel. the old bus wouldn't turn over and it down on me. too.Hanging face downward from the cockpit. we know you! Why. the poor his solo. I when my petrol gave out. bum crashed on and listen at the line he's giving us!" "Well. field. tapping a boot with his stick and talking to sundry companions. what "Dammit. Bessing said — "Bessing said! Bessing said! Bessing said!" Go tell the G.C.

Ask Bessing! there's a guy that knows what's what.F. and arm was through the officer's." his Thompson passed through again. "Say. you chaps. He's the T out of flying." fly? "That guy? That guy He's so rotten they can't discharge him.A. a cadet but recently enlisted and still in ground school: "D' you think he really did all that? He must be pretty good.can fly! Why. They watched him with varying expressions. He was deep in discusup in time to give sion evidently." He flung out of the room. Biggest liar in the R." spoke one. Every time he goes up they have to get a gun and shoot him down." [ 50 ] . You poor fish. I got an hour and a half solo time. with Bessing. but he looked them a cheerfully condescending: "Hello.

Loves She looks not back. she looks not back to where The nine crowned muses about Apollo Stand like nine Corinthian columns singing In clear evening. And yet though sleep comes not to me. with shaken hair and white Aloof pale hands. the white feet of the Oceanides Shining and unsandalled. [ 51 ] . there comes A vision from the full smooth brow of sleep. drunken with singing. So she beholds me.SAPPHICS. The white Aphrodite moving unbounded By her own hair. and and breasts of iron. She sees not the Lesbians kissing mouth To mouth Nor across lute strings. Beaks straight without desire. Nor in my eyes. In the purple beaks of the doves that draw her. So it is : sleep comes not on lips my eyelids. necks bent flying feet of backward Toward Lesbos and the Weeping behind her.

While ghosts of outcast Lethean women. Stiffen the twilight. a thunder of wings. [ 52 ] . Miss. lamenting. University. William Falkner.Before her go cryings and lamentations Of barren women.

nets that cannot hold. for there in dreams from other dreams that lent Her softness as she stood. And filled with shades and echoes that deceive No one save her. And Of hovered white birds for her caress: A crown she could have had to bind each tress hair. Her house is empty and her heart is old. for still she tries to weave With blind bent fingers. crowned with soft hair. W. life Holding him body and within its snare. he feels her presence like shed scent.AFTER FIFTY YEARS. FAULKNER. She rose Her mirrors know her whiteness. [ 53 ] . like told. And with his bound heart and his young eyes bent And blind. 'tis Once all men's arms rose up to her. and her sweet arms the Witches' Gold.

their tiny ardent faces Like windflowers from some blown garden of dreams To their love nights among the roses I am old. [ 54 1 . vraiment. vraiment fait rien! little ghosts of loves in silver sandals They dance with quick feet on my lute strings With the abandon of boarding school virgins While unbidden moths Amorous Call of my white seraglio them with soundless love songs A sort of ethereal seduction They hear. charmant. Falkner. and alone And the star dust from Has dimmed my eyes I their wings sing in the green lost ladies Of — dusk vraiment charmant. alas My women And brush my lips Stealing with little ghostly kisses away Singly. Si — W.UNE BALLADE DES FEMMES PERDUES 'Mais ou sont les neiges d'antan' I sing in the green dusk Fatuously — £a ne Gay Of ladies that I have loved Helas.

Our mouths are soft as any rose That in a high walled garden grows. come with us to sleep In undulations dim and deep. ye are in a garment clad Of sorrow. Here our mouths unfold As does a flower bare its gold. sleep. ye are sad. 55 ] . Finding profound contentment there. A garden level as a cup With the sunlight [ that fills it up. noon lies over us And shaken ripples cover are soft as is Our arms the stream. Come ye No more Plunge sorrowful and weep in waking. Come keep If with us our slumbrous dream if Disheartened ones. Come The ye sorrowful and keep Tryst with us here in silent wedded us. come and steep Yourselves in us as does the bee in the rose that. he Has opened.NAIADS' SONG. Where sunlight spreads and quivering To draw in golden reveries Its fingers lies through our glistered hair. singing.

Come ye
Of winds

sorrowful and sleep

Within our arms beneath the sweep
that whisper in the trees,

And boughs
Of dancers

that whisper to the breeze

In a sad extravagance
in a

hushed dance;

When Pan
Stand
still

sighs

and

his pipes

doth blow

While sky above and earth below

and hearken

to his strain,

And

sigh also as does the rain

Through woodland lanes remote and cool

To dream upon

a leafed pool.

Come ye

sorrowful and keep

Tryst with us here in

wedded

sleep,

Our eyes are soft as Our breasts are soft

twilit

streams,

as silken

dreams

And white

at

dusk; our breasts the beds
soothe
all

On which we
Till glides

aching heads,
tress

Binding each in a scented

he in forgetfulness,

While the night sighs and whispers by

Sowing

stars across the sky.

Come ye
Here
in

sorrowful and keep
sleep.

unmeasured dream and

— W. FALKNER.

[

56

(:

\jO

I

O

tXfOLA

FANTOCHES.
a Paul Verlaine.

Scaramouches and Pucinella
Cast one shadow on the mellow
Night, and kiss against the sky

And

the doctor of

In his skull cap and

Bogona kimono

Seeks for simples with pale avid eye

While

his

daughter half naked

Glides trembling from her narrow bed

To meet

her lover waiting in the

moon

Her lover from the Spanish Main Whose passion thrills her with a strain La lune ne garde aucune rancune

W. FALKNER.

[

57

]

CLAIR DE LUNE.
From

PAUL VERLAINE.

Your

soul

is

a lovely garden, and go

There masque and bergamasque charmingly,
Playing the lute and dancing and also

Sad beneath

their disguising fanchise.*

All are singing in a minor key

Of conqueror love and life opportune, Yet seem to doubt their joyous revelry As their song melts in the light of the moon.
In the calm moonlight, so lovely fair

That makes the birds dream

in the slender trees,

While fountains dream among the statues there;
Slim fountains sob in silver ecstasies.

— W. FALKNER.
:

See Notes on the Text, page 128.

[

58

]

Dance I the Jig! loved her pretty eyes Fairer than starry skies And bright with malicious subtleties Dance the Jig! airs She had those dainty That fill poor hearts with tears truly Ah. [ 59 1 . how charming were her the Jig! airs Dance But this solace is To kiss her mine mouth and find is That now to her my heart deaf and blind Dance Her In the Jig! face will ever be my mind's infinity it She broke the coin and gave half to me Dance the Jig! — W.STREETS. FROM PAUL VERLAINE. FALKNER.

A POPLAR. And yet you lift your pliant supplicating arms as though To draw clouds from the sky to hide your slenderness. You are a young girl Trembling in the throes of ecstatic modesty. FALKNER. A white objective girl Whose clothing has been forcibly taken away from her. [ 60 . — W. Why do you You shiver there river Between the white are not cold. light and the road? With the sun dreaming about you.

(From Paul Verlaine.A CLYMENE. it So shall ever be Through infinity.) Mystical chords Songs without words Dearest. and deranges horizon And troubles the Of my reason. Because your hidden slightness Like a swan's graceful whiteness Has filled my soul's room With your perfume. A nimbus that dances In my heart and entrances. [ 61 ] . because your eyes Color of the skies. W. Because In all of my being my breathing and seeing flowers Is a lingering like Of your hours. FALKNER. Because your voice estranges My vision.

for them. Where the timid violet first appear. for me Exams are near And my thoughts uncontrollably I Wander. (Hush. now. (Work.STUDY. Somewhere a slender voiceless breeze will go Unlinking the shivering poplars' arms. you fool! — wood a Somewhere a blackbird lost within a its Whistles through golden wired throat. I While can think of nothing in else at all still Except the sunset her eyes' pool. and brakes With sleeves simply crossed where waters flow. A sunless stream quiet and deep. that slakes The thirsty alders pausing there at dawn. hush. work. (Muted dreams Bitter science. and cannot hear [ 62 ] . Trembling gaspingly as though hood in fear. Some ways are white with birches in Of silver shaken by his mellow note. Where was I? Jonson) Somewhere a candle's guttering gold Weaves a tapestry upon a cottage wall And her gold hair. simple fold on fold.

The voice telling me I that work I I must. I For everything will be the same when wish am dead A thousand years. were a bust All head. [ 63 ] .) — W. FALKNER.

FALKNER. and held by At The beginning. is this. her kind calmly dreaming face. not the end. Onward. to kiss her in fond embrace - parting. drawing us infinitely Upwardly. by her unremitting grace With memories that nothing can efface Throned securely in our hearts. [ 64 ] . and Task are one. All our eyes and hearts look up to thee. For here all our voiceless dreams are spun walls. — Holding. quiet in dignity Between thy Lent by the spirits of them whose lives begun Within thy portals. — W.ALMA MATER. Through them we can see Upon the mountain top the shining sun until Life Success.

.

proaiyzdndu f. " [ 66 } .

An<jlait.L« QK»n4 L<X pelilc Acwicam* Fvancaitt. Parlei-vcui /»'fcHur. Do you lofe »« ? K**t *e oute'*! Oa^n! ' ?l| [ 67 ] ./V\au oo«. wamttlli I un p«u.

>Sociv\l -Activities 68 .

Pe 8J3lue [ 69 .

a singing bridge of still replies. Their Thais seemed then as now. faint and fair and far. for her kiss. And throat. W. Your face still beckons like a lonely star. Nor have the sages known a fairer face Than yours. yet all dreams hover there. gold-shadowed by your bright sweet Than you does Venus seem less heavenly fair. The twilit hidden stillness of your eyes. Falkner. Who found no beauty in their Beatrice. Though some had bartered Athens For down Time's arras. A slender bridge. [ 70 ] . I could have turned unmoved from less lovely Helen's brow.To a Co-ed The dawn herself could not more beauty wear Than you 'mid other women crowned in grace. hair.

Yale University Press. Percy is a native Mississippian. Percy Mr. ville. later of the poets we shall give a discussion of some who are representative of the spirit of the present in the form and content of their verse. for like Swinburne.BOOKS AND THINGS We [sic] are presenting this week a review by William S. Percy. [ 71 ] . he sionate adoration of beauty a mixture of pas- and as passionate a despair and disgust with its manifestations and accessories in the is human sies race. He now of us lives in Green- Mr. A. In April Once by W. a graduate of the University of the South and of the Harvard Law School. Falkner of "In April Once" by W. His muse Latin in type — poignant ecsta- of lyrical extravagance and a short lived artificial strength achieved at the cost of true strength in beauty. He should have lived in Victorian England and gone to Italy with is Swinburne. then served as a lieutenant attached to the 37th Division. A. in He was a member of the Belgian Relief Commission the early days of the war. Percy — like alas! how many — suffered the misfortune of having been born out of his time.

Percy's "Epistle from Corinth" far the fruit. for it is not always the word that Mr. So full of certainties. man who As has ever lived. the it book sustains level of lyrical beauty. this to war poems. is the victim of his age. Occasionally becomes pure vowelization. to him. Percy. among dead The influence of the frank is pagan beauty worship of is the past heavily upon him. of which is naive admiration before his own Mr. Except upon was but a simple bird trees. I No man. many. he like a little boy closing his eyes against the dark of modernity which threatens the bright simplicity and the colorful romantic pageantry of the middle ages with which his eyes are full. but the sound. Percy seeks. could listen long his knees. would seem intellect that the last thing he saw with his subjective in was Browning standing mediocrity. This is and away the best thing in the book. is almost jike physical pain. evident in the simplicity of this in the book — poem which is the nearest perfect thing I heard a bird at break of day Sing from the autumn trees A song so mystical and calm. many reams of paper [ 72 ] . its a whole. How many. There is one element that it will tend is more than anything the section devoted else to help oblivionward.Beauty. Yet this think. Alone. One can imagine him best as a the time violinist it who became blind about Mozart died. and would have like every been better except for the fact that Mr.

probably. — there is too much music instrument in it for that. like Swinburne. would not undertake to say. for he is a difficult person to whom to render justice. yet still the and Red Cross brassards. nightingales wear swords ever know. one either one remains forever cold him passion- ately or to him.that have been ruined with poetry appertaining to the will late war no one. Percy has not written a great book. [ 73 ] . Mr. I How much. he is a violinist with an inferior as — yet (and most unusual modern books of poetry go) the gold outweighs the dross. he obscures likes the whole mental horizon.

that there are certain definite scientific rules which. alone of the entire yelping pack. and are creating a last flurry before darkness kindly en- gulfs them. seems to have a definite goal in mind. Many of them have realized that aesthetics is as much a science as chemistry. In the fog generated by the mental puberty of contem- porary American versifiers while writing inferior Keats rift or sobbing over the middle west. will produce certain effort to is reactions. others hopelessly mired in the all swamps of mediocrity. the others lay about lustily less them with mouth open and eyes closed. combined in the proper proportions. He. The others are so — there are perhaps half a lost in dozen exceptions many loud sounds a single depth of privet hedge. By Conrad Aiken. yet Mr. discover them and apply them [ Nothing 74 ] . Houghton Mifflin Company. will pro- duce great art as surely as certain chemical elements. some in more or impenetrable thickets of Browningesque obscurity. Aiken alone has made any intelligently.BOOKS & THINGS Turns and Movies. appears one of heaven sent blue — — the poems of Conrad Aiken. when properly applied.

he has most happily escaped our national curse of filling each and every space. physical. Vachel Lindsay with pan and iron spoon. They knew you once. he uses variation. without you. These things do not remember you. are so He is never a press agent as It is many of his contemporaries. Kreymborg with his lithographic water coloring. O [ beautiful 75 ] . mind. And I have seen your fingers hold touch upon them this glass. all is is Now am desolate. and wise. rather difficult to quote an example from him. them with your hands and with your And And blessed in my heart they will remember always. yet the three quatrains from Discordants: Music I heard with you was more than music. was in my heart you moved among them. Mr. mental British nightingales. — — eyes. beloved. All that was once so beautiful dead. And yet your For it will not pass. plastic Mr. Your hands once touched this table and this silver. reli- gious. and Mr. Aiken has a version.ever accidental with him. and moral. I And bread that I broke with you was more than bread. Carl Sandburg with his senti- mental Chicago propaganda are so bling in many puppets fumin- windy darkness. and his clear impersonality will never per- mit him to write poor verse. change of rhythm and such metrical tricks with skillful effect. and beside him the his tin Mr. and any division of his work corresponding to the accepted dimensions of a as a single poem is chord to a fugue. as he has written with certain musical forms in mind.

This
cere

is

one of the most beautifully, impersonally
all

sin-

poems of

time.

The most
his

interesting phase of

Mr. Aiken's work

is

experiments with an abstract three dimensional verse

patterned on polyphonic music form:

The

Jig of Forslin

and The House of Dust. This

is

interesting because of
it,

the utterly unlimited possibilities of

he has the whole

world before him; for as yet no one has made a successful
attempt to synthesize musical reactions with abstract

documentary

reactions. Miss

Amy

Lowell

tried a poly-

phonic prose which, in spite of the fact that she has created
is

some

delightful statuettes of perfectly
it

blown

glass,

merely a literary flatulency; and

has

left her,

reed in

hand, staring in naive surprise at the
bubbles have burst.

air

whence her

Mr. Aiken has never been haphazard, he has developed
steadily,

never for a

moment

at

a
his

loss, yet
initial
is

it is

al-

most impossible to discover where

impulse

came from. At times
traces of the

it

seems that he

completing a
to

cycle back to the Greeks, again there

seem

be faint
his

French symbolists, scattered through

poems

are bits of soft sonority that Masefield might have
last

formed; and so at

one returns

to the starting point
is

— from where did he come, and where — say watch,
interesting to

he going?

It is

for

in fifteen years
is

— when
Perhaps

the tide of aesthetic sterility

which

slowly engulfing us
left.

has withdrawn, our

first

great poet will be

he

is

the

man.

W. FALKNER.

[

76

]

CO-EDUCATION AT OLE

MISS.

Ernest says, to Ernestine

Thou art my little queen Thou art the girl Of all the world
For night and day

— — O, — O;

Who makes my heart beat mean
When thou
Thy
fair face
fills

art

away,

my bean An lov'st thou me
I

— O,

As

love thee,

Let's off to Gretna

Green

— O.

W. FALKNER.

[

77

]

riSH.

PLECH,

fQWL

[

78

]

A.E. a GuERrrt with [ 79 ] .F: THIHK CLUB MAflY HOW TIMES he THIS BIRD'S <?rcix beeh DE meeED. got PAlff\S.

MRRI0HLTTE3 [ SO .

.

. wilh|acet& Many woj-lds Ol eil vel ' anc * ^' ue an<J qreen ... \z jleetj +ne /noon. a pei-pindiculqr wall of zWsj Delow ) a alea/u o| enow?. ni£ heci-of Dirde. yet Ine keen qavkne&o Cuts nie ar/we. a eevei-ed hand ai Ren-oj'e {eel. Benind.MOCTURWC. nandc like upon rierrot cpme and are jillea wmrlt . Find he would blue hide his head. . rierrol \~]e tpmz and whirL. away |wm nis jace.. oi His eyes. LoloMbine lean& aUc a Ine Japei- jlaMe : C oloMbine One |linci2 |lma<j toit. whirl?.

J^n piercee h. eo bnaU info and |. Swift -the wiepg o| wolion jlinae blown aci-oed the /vtoon • ColoMbine Pierrot jliic a paper a while rose. c aU. etilfly Wen. Black -Ike lapei-j chai-p (heir Afoulhg. e UqJ on (Le 'Rnd i6 ep-lled epined Ly a p.e lliroucjn he Li-ain.. like Mollj on tlue da^. phcjM and elq.— _ i elcn ! fl violin freezes t injo a blade. m efcu-dqU Tne Ttay sky will ate icy rooHeee. .^.. |lowe»-e aaun+ly q(ow?. a of *u 2 .

BOOKS & THINGS Aria da Capo: a Play in One Act. truly so in the sense that her contemporaries (those of them who will ever become aware will that she has done something 'different') each wonder to himself why it first. St. for about modern playwrights and [ 84 ] . this loud gesturing of the aesthetic messiahs of our emotional Valhalla the ball who have one eye on and the other on the grandstand. by Edna Vincent Millay. Its sim- The play is a slight thing in itself. Yet. In newspaper parlance Miss Millay might be said to have scored a 'beat'. Here is an idea so simple that does give to wonder it why under heaven no one has thought of plicity is doubtless the reason. it he or she did not think of which is very natural. the surprising fresh- ness of the idea of a pastoral tragedy enacted and con- cluded by interlopers against a conventional background of paper streamers and colored confetti in the midst of a thoroughly artificial Pierrot and Columbine suite alone makes it worth a second glance. all this is an unjust versifiers statement. before. Something new enough to be outstanding in this age of mental puberty.

A lusty tenuous simplicity. — heaven sent the play is not too long. either from choice or compulsion. it either mental or physical. by the Beef Butchers' Union. make or mar a piece of writing. from the reading done during the period of his mental development. no mental sofa pillows to break the tiring fall of the doomed and have mind. no padding. the gods given Miss Millay a strong wrist. Aria da Capo clever idea skilfully carried out. [ 85 ] . Carl Sandburg in the stock yards. a species of emotional shorthand. to be acted. of a Saturday afternoon. and though an idea alone does not thing..e. to be traced from teristics other than those charac- acquired without conscious effort by every young writer. too close attention. nor careless from lack of the choice of words. The language is good.offer us is a sterile clashing of ideas innocent of imagina- tion. it possesses yet it is more than a difficult to is put the hand on just what makes go. W. or Mr. F. will live it it is some- and this one of hers even though Miss Amy Lowell intricately festoons sets it with broken glass. the rhyme neither faltering through it. Pierrot's with one exception — a speech of which I do not remember contains a word of inexcusable crudeness genius — — is sound: and i. there no unusual depth of experience.

this man is has overturned all literary tradition in this point. and just as Balzac nineteenth century Paris.BOOKS & THINGS AMERICAN DRAMA: EUGENE O'NEILL. It is he is already a make one wonder difficult at the truth of the above not especially — ] after a man has written [ 86 . they is that art preeminently provincer- comes directly is from ascertain age and a tain locality. it said have said everything — — a Frenchman. though young as he quantity to assertion. for Lear and Hamlet and All's Well could never have been written (this anywhere save is in England during Elizabeth's reign proved by the Hamlets that have come out of Denmark All's and Sweden. This a very profound statement. probably. But there all rules are exceptions to this.. It too soon yet to be committed is. holding a two modern ones being Conrad and These two men are anomalies. and the could Well of French comedy) nor in Madame Bovary Rhone is have been written any place other than the valley in the nineteenth century. Conrad especially. as there are to particle of truth. about O'Neill. Some one has cial: i.e. Joseph Eugene O'Neill.

" Yet here raised in is a man. to astounding lengths in a land possessing Facts about Conrad. however. while we essentially are not. The English are the wanderers. worth the name. Synge soil is provincial. son of a New York New York City and a student at Princeton. The most unusual had no factor about O'Neill that a sea. the German playwrights have obviously and logically followed their destinies according to the Teutonic standards of thought the down to work of Hauptmann and Moeller. leaving and contempo- behind him a drama which the hand does not hold blood that can cap. smacking of the from which he sprang is as no other modern does (Synge dead now). who is even more of a contradiction than O'Neill. and hence no If this be the reason. This may be because literature of the fact that America has no tradi- drama or tion. indefinable quantity genius — horrible word — is is. one must perforce believe that the Fates have indeed played a scurvy trick upon him in casting into twentieth century America a man who might go traditions. modern have American should write plays about the salt We water traditions for a hundred years. and also show what an incalculable. It can be seen how Shakespeare his predecessors ruthlessly took what he needed from raries. supply a basis for is hoping that chance not diabolical enough to perpetrate such a thing.and passed on together by — to trace the threads which were drawn him and put on paper in the form of his own work. [ who 87 ] . while the one man is who is accomplishing anything in American drama all a contradiction to concepts of art. political "boss.

writes of the sea.

He

has been, through accident, a sailor

himself: he

was shanghaied aboard a South American and was forced
to

bound

vessel

make

a voyage as an able

seaman from Rio
is

to Liverpool in order to get

home. He
lungs,

not physically strong, having congenitally
life

weak

hence must lead a careful
posure; and yet his
the sea.
first

as regards hardship

and ex-

writing phase

was dominated by

And

he has written good healthy plays, and

strange thing

— New York has

a

realized his possibilities.
there,
in

"The Emperor Jones" played
and "Anna Christie" are playing
These
last

and "The Straw"
winter.

New York this
that

two are

later plays, not of the sea,
is

but the

thing that

makes them go

the

same

made "Gold"
rise

and

"Diff'rent" go, that
in his

made

the

"Emperor Jones"

up and swagger
last

egoism and cruelty, and die
all

at

through his

own

hereditary fears: they

possess

the

same

clarity

and simplicity of plot and language. No-

body since "The Playboy" has gotten the force behind
stage language that O'Neill has.

The Emperor

Jones'

"who dat dare

whistle in de Emperor's palace?" goes back

to the "Playboy's" "the likes of

which would make the

mitred bishops themselves strain at the bars of paradise
for to see the lady

Helen walking

in her

golden shawl."

He

is still

developing; his later plays "The Straw" and

"Anna

Christie" betray a changing attitude toward his

characters, a change

from a detached observation of

his

people brought low by sheer circumstance, to a more
personal regard for their joys and hopes, their sufferings

and

despairs. Perhaps in time

he
]

will

make something

[

88

of the wealth of natural dramatic material in this country,
the greatest source being our language.

ture

cannot spring from folk lore

— though
many

A

national litera-

heaven

knows, such a forcing has been tried often enough
for


it

America

is

too big and there are too

folk lores:

Southern negroes, Spanish and French

strains, the old

west, for these always will remain colloquial; nor will

come through our
come from

slang,

which also

is

likewise indigenous

to restricted portions of the country. It can, however,

the strength of imaginative idiom
all

which

is

understandable by

who

read English. Nowhere
is

to-

day, saving in parts of Ireland,

the English language
it is

spoken with the same earthy strength as
States;

in the

United

though we

are, as a nation,

still

inarticulate.

W.

F.

[

89

THE HILL

Before him and slightly above his head, the

hill crest

was

clearly laid

on the

sky.

Over

it

slid a sibilant invisi-

bility of

wind

like a sheet of water,
lift

and

it

seemed

to

him

that

he might

his feet
hill

from the road and swim upthis

ward and over the

on

wind which

filled

his

clothing, tightening his shirt across his chest, flapping
his

loose jacket

and trousers about him, and which

stirred the thick
face.

uncombed

hair above his stubby quiet
fell,

His long shadow legs rose perpendicularly and

ludicrously, as though without

power of progression,

as

though

his

body had been mesmerized by a whimsical

God
At

to a futile puppet-like activity
life terrifically

upon one
left

spot, while

time and

passed him and
crest

him behind.
headlong

last his
it.

shadow reached the
valley rim

and

fell

over

The opposite
and

came

first

into sight, azure
it,

aloof, in the level afternoon sun. Against

like

figures rising in a

dream, a white church spire rose, then

house-tops, red and faded green and olive half hidden in

budded oaks and elms. Three poplars twinkled
leaves against a gray sunned wall over

their

which leaned
fragile

peach and apple

trees in

an extravagance of

pink

and white; and though there was no wind
[

in the valley,

90

]

honey- had slept for a century. churned and torn by hoof of horse and of winter ashes and rusting tin cans. waiting. hopes and despairs. In the valley there was no movement save the thin spiraling of smoke and the heart-tightening grace of the poplars. never es- caping leaves. of the drying spittle of religious controversy. The hamlet slept. Here and there a thread of smoke anced precariously upon a chimney.bent narrowly to the quiet resistless compulsion of April in their branches. from the hilltop were to be seen no cluttered barren lots sodden with spring rain and cattle. then were still and straight again ex- cept for the silver mist of their never ceasing. no piles no dingy hoardings covered with the tattered insanities of posted salacities and advertisements. whipped vanities. invisibly combed with joys and sorrows. There was no suggestion of of striving. springing far out. lay across it. quiet bal- and enormous. for the end of time. His like a portent upon the church. and his shadow. The entire valley stretched beneath him. he could not see that the sonorous simplicity of the court house columns was discolored and stained with casual tobacco. but eluded him. of ambition and lusts. and being unaware that there [ 91 ] . wrapped as it in peace and quiet beneath the evening sun. no sound save the measured faint reverberation of an anvil. From the hilltop the valley was a motionless mosaic of tree and house. The slow featureless mediocrity of his face twisted to terrific an internal impulse: the monstrous shadow lay groping of his mind. and for a moment he had it almost grasped something alien to him.

toil to and beyond it lay waiting another day of gain bread and clothing and a place to sleep. for a space. far above a world of * and troubled slumber. * * abasement beneath a icy * Behind him was the motionless conflagra- tion of sunset. Here. forgetting. untouched. nymphs and fauns might riot to a shrilling of thin pipes. shaken at last by the faint resistless force of spring in a valley at sunset. 92 ] . [ F. the tieless casual. untouch- able. before him was the opposite valley rim hori- upon the changing sky.was anything which had of his tried to break down the barriers mind and communicate with him. a victory gotten at the price of bodily tissues and the numbered days of his existence. And as the who him lived and labored first in the sun. he was unaware had been eluded. in the dusk. * * He slowly descended the hill. to a shivering and hissing of cymtall bals in a sharp volcanic star. a to gain against the forces of nature bread and clothing and a place to sleep. his mind that troubled for the time. Behind him was a day of harsh strife that he labor with his hands. became quieted. before him lay the hamlet which was home to him. For a while he stood on one zon and stared across endless toil at the other. with a mind heretofore untroubled by moral quibbles and principles. W. that he must return. silently into the liquid green of the west and the valley was abruptly in shadow. The sun plunged sun released him. In this way he worked out the devastating unimportance of his destiny.

so to speak. money in this country Europe. all Writing people are desire to so pathetically torn between a make a figure in the world terest in their personal egos — and a morbid in- the deadly fruit of the grafting of a Sigmund Freud upon the dynamic chaos of nationalities. hodge-podge of And. with characteristic national restlessness. for unfortunately. and to synthetic whiskey. has that stratum which.BOOKS & THINGS American Drama Inhibitions Only by means of some astounding blind machination of chance will the next twenty-five years see in a fundamentally sound play America — a structure solidly built. Playwrights and actors are now at the mercy of circumstances which must inevitably drive all imaginative people is whose judgment Frank Crane's not temporarily aberrant. those with imagination and talent find it some unbearable. Marsden Hartley explodes ] [ 93 . to various conditions of relief. fancied to a frank pandering to market — holding — to a spiritual spittoon. properly produced and correctly acted. O'Neill has turned his back on America to write of the sea.

the Mississippi is mentioned. yet. and the romantic growth of railroads. Moby-Dick. Alfred Kreym- borg has gone to Italy.vindicative fire crackers in Montmartre.* art. those who are doing worth the results while things really labor infinitely more than achieved would show. and Ezra Pound furiously toys with spurious bronze in London. for consideration as the greatest American book. Material does aid that person who does not possess quite enough driving force to create living figures out of his of material does enable own brain. tricked out a few of the old proven "sure fire" literary skeletons with sufficient local color to intrigue the superficial and the lazy. Mark who Twain alone comes to mind: a hack writer who would not have been considered fourth rate in Europe. though. All have found America aesthetically impossible. being of America.C. Two when sources occur to any one: the old Mississippi river days. a few into dyspeptic joyously for the movies. exile. No one America — no writer — can detach himself from the national literary shibboleths and pogroms to do this. an inexhaustible fund of dra- matic material. does not depend on the quality or quantity of available material: a finds sufficient man with real ability what he has to hand. in America. Sound however. others to write —2— We have. — [ 94 ] . until in recent years he has called The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn a candidate. wealth him in to build better than he otherwise could. for the reason that they must over* Faulkner's opinion of Twain subsequently rose. And yet. with C. will some day return.

psycho-analysis and the aesthetic attitude are profitable as well as popular. for some time. so long will such conditions obtain. the the painter. disthat. An apt instance was re- lated to Robert covered me by a dramatic critic on a New York magazine: Edmund Jones. thorough knowledge of material. have raised. he had been subject to an intangible ailment. must first slay the dragons which they. and his old zest in stage designing." and immediately recovered his appetite. simplicity and strength of language. that appetite were being undermined. his un- troubled slumber. so long as socialism. He found that the quality of his work and had been mysteriously deteriorating. This is what all writers who are exposed to the prevail- ing literary tendencies in America must combat.e. and the German the musi- cian. themselves. of the new He "siked. In comparison with a Sunday night affair of bread and milk — as it. was one who assisted dition — him in discovering his alarming con- advised him to repair to a certain practitioner therapeutic psycho-analysis. Other tongues are not considered here: the Northman Frenchman is is essentially the poet and playwright.come all this self torture. a designer of stage settings. and clarity of plot will — be a good play as a result. the his sleep A friend — perhaps did so. It does not always follow that a play built according to sound rules — i. else play writing would be- come a comparatively simple process. melodious but slightly tiresome nightingales in a formal clipped hedge. and. (Language [ means 95 ] . One rainbow we have on our dramatic guage British as is it is horizon: lan- spoken in America.

a mass of subtleties for the reason that [ it is employed 96 ] . language is our logical savior. forgetting the need of a steel skeleton within it. Very few authors are able to say anything simply.) In America. and they frankly and naively all upon near them to see and admire. however. these extremists fluctuate between the manners of various dead-and-gone stylists — achieving therefrom a vehicle which might well serve to advertise soap and cigarettes — and is sheer idiocy. a language that seems.nothing to Shaw: except for the accident of birth he might well have written in French. lustiest who have fundamentals of the language of modern times. to the newly arrived foreigner. and to supply them from any source. Those who realize that language our best bet employ slang and our "hard" colloquialisms in order to erect an edifice which resembles that of a mason who endeavors to build a skyscraper with brick alone. men of ideas take their thinking con- a matter of mental agility like an inverted call Swedish exercise. even our language action rather than communication between minds: those who might be justly called sciously. This is the Hydra which we have raised. with our paucity of mental balance. we are a people of action (the astounding growth of the is moving picture is industry a proof). and which the we become pessimists or idiots slaying. Our wealth to the of language and our inarticulateness (in- ability to derive any benefit from the language) are due racial chaos same cause: our and our instinctive quickness to realize our simpler needs. As a nation.

ranging from the Harvard professor. by all classes. through the gardeniaed aloof young liberal.only as a means of relief. when physical action is im- possible or unpleasant. [ 97 ] . to the lowliest pop vendor at the ball park. W. F.

.

my hand your small breast softly lies. Repeat a broken conversation. this And frankly you believe street. darkened [ 99 ] . lightly Aloofly talk of profound in youth And simple also. Against You are so young. to your face. tonight's movie. This world. The darkness scurries. Of friends. Come. Let us lightly speak at random. checked with shadow. your tiny scrap of mouth mobile on your dim white face. And talk of careful trivialities. this shadowed wall Are dim with beauty you passionately know Cannot fade nor cool nor die at all. And your laughter breaks the rhythm of our feet. and happiness. And draw the opaque curtains on your softly eyes. word for word. Young and white and strange You walk beside me down this shadowed street. So lift your eyes. Let us walk here. And we hear again a music both have heard Singing blood to blood between our palms. life.Portrait By WILLIAM FAULKNER Raise your hand between us.

is Profoundly speak of of simple truths. [ 100 ] . And draw the opaque curtains on your eyes.Raise your hand. to your scarce seen face. then. life. The while your voice clear with frank surprise.

Linda Condon —Cytherea—The What Bright Shawl. howcuriosity has by words as has Hergesheimer. A strange case of sex crucifixion turned backward Mirandola and Cardinal Bembo become ges- upon itself: tures in tinsel. forever beyond the reach of time like music. and troubling the heart His people are never life actuated from within. more like a lovely Byzantine frieze: a few unforgettable figures in silent arrested motion. fair He is subjective is enough to bear life with equanimity. of man in his sorry clay braving chance and circumstance. in Poe. No one since Poe has allowed himself to be enslaved was. He has never written the a novel word for each unit of his his apex. they do not create about them. and hold[ 101 1 . It is yet to coin in which he reached not a novel. a morbid but masculine emotional degenerated with the age to a deliberate pandering to the emotions in Hergesheimer.BOOKS AND THINGS JOSEPH HERGESHEIMER. like an attenuation of violins. ever. but he afraid of living. they are like puppets assuming graceful but meaningless postures in answer to the author's compulsions. is work — someone has — Linda Condon.

like Cytherea. for a space into a quiet region of and shadow. But skilful. the apostle James trying to carry off a top hat and a morning coat. though. one of whom all one has not yet directly looked though conscious the time of his presence. as though one were waked from light a dream. at. One can imagine Hergesheimer submerging himself in Linda Condon as in a still harbor where the age cannot hurt him and where rumor of the world reaches him only sound of rain. the tricks of the trade effect. the shadow of an insistence. Rather. The induction to The Bright Shawl good is — he talks of the shawl for a page or so before one aware of the presence of the shawl as a material object.ing these attitudes until he arranges their limbs again in other gestures as graceful and as meaningless. as a far faint Perhaps he wrote the book of his delicacy for this reason: surely a man and per- ception would never suffer the delusion that Linda Con- don is a novel. with morbid men and ob- women. Famorosa is figlia della l'idea. is delicate and flawless — always a social grace. it is like being in a room full of people. this For faintest reason the book troubles the heart. Cytherea nothing — the apostle James making an obscene gesture. before the word itself is said. were never employed with better unless is by Conrad. novel peopled. The Bright Shawl scene is better. soundless and beyond despair. to the opposite These two books have swung [ extreme 102 ] . A palpable and bootless The sublimated dime attempt to ape the literary colors of the day. La sua mente. His tact.

103 . cities. W. describing trees or marble fountains. tried to enter with disastrous results. Hergesheimer has life. he must write. houses or Here his ability to write flawless prose his would not be tortured by unfortunate reactions to race. He should never to write if about people at all. F. the apish imbecilities of the like human As it is. he is an emasculate priest surrounded by the puppets he has carved and clothed and painted — a terrific world without motion or meaning.from Linda Condon. Sinclair Lewis and the New try York Times have corrupted him. he should spend his time.

.

.

.

Appendix .

.

but pleasant pastime changing his [ 109 ] . (thus robbing criticism of even its emotional value — and how its else are you to control the herd. Thus there is no tradition.On By Criticism WILLIAM FAULKNER Walt Whitman bound said. except through logical emotions? is Was there ever a mob?). what have the periodicals and lecturers done to create either great audiences or great writers of us? Do these Sybils take the neophyte gently in taste? hand and instruct him in the fundamentals of They do not even try to inculcate in him a rever- ence for their mysteries. no esprit de corps: All that necessary for admission to the ranks of criticism is a typewriter. And yet. not to speak of the personal touch of the lecture platform. that to great audiences too. If Walt Whitman realized this this it should be universally obvious in day of radio to in- form us and the so-called high-brow magazines to correct our information. is scarcely worth while moulding anyone's it is opinions for him. it mould his opinions for him. try to They do not even True. among bombast and musclehave great poets there must be platitudes.

holding what he says. and still how much he can it let get eye. and stops. like the prestidigitator. Their minds fly shut before the eye-filling meretricity of pyrotechnics.. . Who . The American critic blinds. I think . tries to find the spectator see. With this difference: the cornetist gets tired after a while. uh. do you remember fly what he said about someone: 'A parrot that couldn't and had never learned to curse'?" And yet. Do they.. then One can as easily imagine not only his audience barbers shaving each other for fun. (suit yourself)? Jones Brown some thetic is good this time. . His trade be- comes mental gymnastics: he becomes a reincarnation of the side-show spell-binder of the yokelry enravished. The amazing possibility here occurs that the critic enjoys his enjoy reading each other? own music. I will: Brown always good.. when you ask him [ the author's name.. or the no ] ." as an aes- boy scout. but himself as well. Jones refers to him it. What is that book? by a novel. . he . Anyway. to the prime essential. so useless. away with — the superiority of the hand over the He takes the piece under examination for an instrument to upon which run difficult arpeggios of cleverness. but how this he says it. This seems so sophomoric. fellow. for his soul's sake. like the cornetist per- forming aural acrobatics while waiting for the band to assemble. The American just critic. not with happy memory. on It's the end of my tongue .opinion from one fallacy to another. has not heard conversation? "Have you seen the last . good: you must read is "Yes.

but the author may read with at this? profit. Noyes? One in a hundred.. he cannot tell you! He either it has not read or has not only been unmoved by but has waited to read Brown to form an opinion. without a . it is about. or what it. Gerald Gould." or something sophomoric and irrelevant? the And what reader could then pick up faint un- book with an unbiased mind. with his And what own writer.book's. It will not do to set down ordinary speech of ordinary people.. they ignore the magazines and live abroad. To is give the deadly detail is misleading. ease of patronage and pity for his not for the book. . So just is and clear and complete: there said. And Brown has offered no opinion whatever. nothing more to be A criticism which not only the public. as well. but with a few exceptions they have no status: the magazines which set the standard ignore them. reviewing "The Hidden Player" by Alfred Noyes. In a recent number of "The Saturday Review" Mr.. But what American our critic would let it go this Who among literary arbiters could miss aesthetic chance of referring to Mr. with urge to dis- figure paper harrying him [ like a gad-fly. . own compulsions to suffer. that would generally be dull . or finding con- ditions unbearable. Noyes as "an else as boy scout. Perhaps Brown Eng- himself has none.. could get any HI ] ." Here the essential of criticism. says: "People do not talk like that . How much critics as better they do this sort of thing in land than in America! Of course there are in America sane and tolerant and as soundly equipped. but Mr.

[ 112 ] . The readers. The writer critic. is Saneness. criticise with taste for a criterion. As it is. and his contact is with them direct enough to allow him always last it the last carries word. competition becomes cutthroat. The American critic foists upon the reading public a distorted titles buffoon within whose shadow the of sundry uncut volumes vaguely in lurk. weight. they are prostitution and literature. would his be unfair. Surely. Live and let live. cannot begin to compete with the writing and also he is he is too busy organically unfitted for the contest.profit or nourishment from being referred to as an aes- thetic boy scout? Not one. is once he becomes a habit with considered infallible by them. it And if he had time and were properly armed. the American the author. critic. and not tongue. if there are two professions which there should be no professional jealousy. The English re- view criticises the book. that the word. And is with the American the word gives culminative. Probably because him a chance to talk some himself.

Dying Gladiator
By

WILLIAM FAULKNER

What
Man's

sorrow, love, that the wind and the raining wake?
life is

but an April without a

Between

a

snow and

a season of snow.
his

morrow What sorrow

That winter again about

head must break?
Gods!

Man's

life is

short, nor lingers.

What April knew thee, Caia, in thy young whiteness! The shepherd lad of thee had a new lightness To magic him, a clod among other clods.
This was youth, the world a star and a
hill:

Rome

but an echo, untroubled of us, the immortals;
less,

Torches were
Ringing
his

and trumpets

aloft in the portals
it

blood to a flame, that

might

spill.

What

sorrow, love? Bronze in an age of bronze
is

And life

but the gesture of a caesar,
that dying, alone, could please her,

Death the mistress
Dying, he

may

force her bastions.

Briefer, love, briefer than all the pain

Of April and youth, are garland and leaf and What sorrow, love, that a field for a space lay What sorrow, love, for drouth, after the rain?
[

swallow.
fallow?

113

]

Verse Old and Nascent:

A
By

Pilgrimage

WILLIAM FAULKNER

At the
rather,

age of sixteen,

I

discovered Swinburne.

Or

Swinburne discovered me, springing from some

tortured undergrowth of

my

adolescence, like a highway-

man, making me

his slave.

My

mental

life at

that period

was so completely and smoothly veneered with surface
insincerity

obviously necessary to

me

at that time, to

support intact
tell

my

personal integrity

that I
stirred

can not

to this

day exactly to what depth he

me,

just

how

deeply the footprints of his passage are
It

left in

my

mind.

seems to

me now

that I
I

found him nothing but

a flexible vessel into which

might put

my own
It

vague

emotional shapes without breaking them.
later that I

was years
bright and

found

in

him much more than

bitter

sound, more than a satisfying tinsel of blood and
I

death and gold and the inevitable sea. True,
into Shelley

dipped

and Keats

— who

doesn't, at that age?

but they did not
I

move me.
it

do not think

was assurance so much, merely

complacence and a youthful morbidity, which counter[

114

]

acted them and

left

me

cold. I

was not interested

in verse

for verse's sake then. I read
for the

and employed

verse, firstly,

purpose of furthering various philanderings in

which
gesture

I

was engaged, secondly,
I

to

complete a youthful
"different"
I

was then making, of being

in

a

small town. Later,

my

concupiscence waning,

turned

inevitably to verse, finding therein an emotional counter-

part far

more

satisfactory
It

for

two reasons:

(1)

No
just
this

partner was required (2)
to close a

was so much simpler
I

book, and take a walk.

do not mean by
in

that I ever
is

found anything sexual

Swinburne: there
surely;

no sex

in Swinburne.
is

The mathematician,

and

eroticism just as there

eroticism in form and color and
that tortured sex in

movement wherever found. But not

say
It
is

— D. H. Lawrence.
as

a time-honored custom to read

Omar

to one's

mistress

an accompaniment to consummation

a

sort of stringed obligato

among

the sighs. I found that
to temporarily blind the

verse could be
spirit to

employed not only

the ungraceful posturings of the flesh, but also to
affair.

speed onward the whole

Ah, women, with
it

their

hungry snatching
often

little

souls!

With a man

is


it

quite

art for art's sake;

with a

woman

it

is

always

art for the artist's sake.

Whatever

it

was that

I

found

in

Swinburne,
inner
life.

com-

pletely satisfied

understand

me and filled my now how I could have

I

cannot

regarded the others
if

with such dull complacency. Surely,
all

one be moved
in

at

by Swinburne he must inevitably find

Swinburne's

forerunners

some

kinship. Perhaps

it is

that Swinburne,

[

115

]

I I had no opinions at that time. was subject to the usual proselyting of an older person. but the strings were pulled so casually as scarcely to influence my point of view. I would now allow verse to use me if it could.E.P. Therefore. all could is if what was about but "This the stuff. with contemporary poets impossible." I told myself. I believe I came as near as possible to apI proaching poetry with an unprejudiced mind. like so many. that one cried loudly enough to be heard above the din. I have this for which thank whatever gods may is be: that having fixed my roots in this soil all contact. dis- I approached Poetry unawed. The beauty lies in — spiritual and physical — of the South it the fact that God has done so to much for and man so little. That page is closed to [ me 116 forever. and so convinced others that one was "in the know. I read Robinson ] .having taken his heritage and elaborated of any would-be poet.O. as used water can be drunk by both hogs and gods. I joined an emotional B. as "Now. see what you have. saving by the printed word." one would be automatically accoladed. war was replaced took seriously to I I When the co-ordinated chaos of the by the unco-ordinated chaos of peace reading verse. let's later formed were all factitious if and were to say. believing. With no background whatever joined the I pack belling loudly not always tell after it contemporary poets. has coarsened of palates as well as the it it to the despair to tickle the dullest most discriminating. the opinions carded." Having used verse.

here the spiritual beauty which the moderns yet beneath it strive vainly for with trickery. but beyond these. to a nightingale. was "The Shropshire Lad" which closed the period. Conrad Aiken's minor music still echoes in my heart. and the Elizabethans. so sure of own power that is not necessary to create the illusion of force by frenzy and motion. Shakespeare I and Spenser. but curs just the same. read "Thou still still unravished bride of quiet- ness" and found a quiet with its water withal strong and potent.and Frost with pleasure. seen the writing on the wall? [ U7 ] . without bitterness. beautiful in sadness. I no longer try to read the others at It I all. In four interest. and Aldington. and one knows are I entrails. a have found but one cause of to revert to tendency among them formal rhymes and conventional forms again. in a found a paperbound copy it bookshop and when I opened I discovered there the secret after which the like curs moderns course howling dark wood. this From read. Here was reason for being born into a fantastic world: discovering the soil splendor of fortitude." etc. Take the odes urn. Occasionally years I see modern verse in magazines. and satisfying as bread. masculinity. winds of disillusion and death and despair might leaving it bleak. to a is Grecian "Music to hear.. too. it is true. that period might have never been. the beauty of being of the like a tree about which fools might howl and which strip. an occasional note clear with beauty. point the road is obvious. giving on a cold trail in a off. Have they. and Shelley I and Keats. own strength. its That it beautiful awareness.

someone who is will tune his lute to the beauty of the world? Life it not different from what a swallow southward living was when Shelley drove like from the unbearable English winter. impossible for the creation of poetry? Is there nowhere among us a Keats in embryo. Here in the same air. ferent. this decade. may be difself Time changes is us. but Time's does not change. but not life. not among us someone who can write something beautiful and passionate and sad instead of saddening? [ 118 ] . the same sunlight which Shelley dreamed of golden men and women im- mortal in a silver world and in which young John Keats wrote "Endymion" trying to gain enough silver to marry Is Fannie Brawne and there set up an apothecary's shop.Can one still hope? Or is this age.

does incite To strip the musiced leaves upon her And from a cup unlipped. breast unguessed. to remain And taste his bitter thumbs 'till May again Left bare by wild vines' slipping. Or. undreamt. By WILLIAM FAULKNER When laggard March. leafed close and passionate.L. Out-pace waned moons to May hand shapes and grieves. ring mute And yet unwombed of the moist flanks of spring. [ 119 ] . Within the green dilemma of faint leaves His panting puzzled heart is wrung and blind: To run the singing corridors of wind.The Faun To H. Sip that wine sweet-sunned for Jove's delight. a faun whose stampings And ripple the leaves with hiding: vain pursuit Of May's anticipated dryad.

[ 120 ] .

Notes on the Text .

.

Drawing of woman and bald man dancing: Ole Miss. 1917-1918. a woman standing before a checker- background: Ole Miss. reproduced here verbatim: [ 123 ] . introducing a section of "Social Activities. Vol.Notes on the Text In the following notes William Faulkner's drawings. p. this poems. Ill. somewhat difpoem. Vol. ferent. "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune": The gust 6. XXII. XX (Au- 1919). version of this Faulkner published the following. introducing a section of "Social Activities. The Mississippian. 113. p. p. and prose pieces which listed in the volume reprints are order of their in the first published appearance — and therefore order of their appearance in this this volume as well. a page listing members of the Red and Blue Club. When reprinting has altered the original texts the alterations have been noted here. Later. New Republic. 1919." Drawing of woman and man standing before a background lettered "Red and Blue": Ole Miss. XXII. XXI. on October 29. 24. page 4. 1917-1918. in the University of Mississippi newspaper. a dancing society. Vol. Vol." Drawing of two men and board p. 163. 1916-1917.

and ere she sleep The dusk In silent will take her by some stream meadows. and brows fingers of the boughs. Where lonely streams whisper and flow And sigh on sands blanched by the moon. pale row on row Like ghostly hands. but not her eyes — A hot quick spark. She pauses. until at last is Their hair And Are their sad slow limbs powdered bright with dew. Now hand in hand with her I go. She whirls and dances through the trees That lift and sway like arms and fleck Her with quick shadows. Shakes down her blown and vagrant hair To Or veil her face.L'Apres-Midi D'un Faune I follow through the singing trees hair and face dreaming knees Like gleaming water from some place Her streaming clouded lascivious And Of sleeping streams. or autumn leaves Slow shed through still love wearied air. and the breeze Lies on her short and circled breast. as the wild brown bee that flies Sweet winged. each sudden glance. — I have a sudden wish to go To some far silent midnight moon. on all of these A sound. dim and deep In dreams of stars and dreaming dream. petals drifting with the breeze. a sharp extravagance Of kisses on my limbs and neck. Shed from the Then suddenly. like some great deep [ bell stroke 124 ] . The green night in the silver west Of virgin stars. And blond limbed dancers whirling past The senile worn moon staring through The sighing trees. and as one who grieves.

Line 6: Line 14: "LANDING IN LUCK. sentence 3: "though he had taken" appeared as "thought he had taken.": 1919. William Faulkner of University of Mississippi. sentence 4: "it's your neck" appeared as "its your neck." Paragraph 11. The Mississippian indented this line. pp. especially November set in 12. Line 15: "spawn" appeared in The Mississippian as "span. sentence 2: "He gained speed" appeared as "He gained Paragraph sped. 2 and 7. 1919. 7.and they dance." Paragraph 9.": The poem was Mississippian. 1919. in a column SHORT STORY Edited by Professor This story appeared : Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph 3. the New Republic. 8. the first of the two commas tells. unclad and cold was the earth's great heart that broke For springlbroke before the world grew Falls." sentence 2: sentence 9: sentence 1: "climbed" appeared as "climed. "CATHAY." "WEEKLY sentence 1 The Mississippian. It — old. 6." Line 17: The Mississippian printed "thee" as "the" and made "nor will" into a two-word succeeding line. Line 1 : The Mississippian printed only in this line. November 26." "A silence hung" appeared as "A silence that hung. p. headed Erwin." Line 3: "foretells" appeared in The Mississippian as "for- The Mississippian ended this line with a semicolon." 11. 8. Aug." [ 125 ] . "barracks" appeared as "barrack's." "devilish" appeared as "devilsh. Part of the emendation here derives not only from an attempt to estimate what alterations are logical but from examination of the three other versions of the poem mentioned in the introduction to this volume. From 6. This badly The Mississippian.

and "three lesser lights" appeared as "thre lesser lights. Paragraph 28. sentence 1: the third set of quotation marks." which idiom and paragraph 25 indicate is a typographical error. sir" appeared as "'ere sir. Paragraph 36." Paragraph 16. [ 126 ] .CO's. and "dogs meeting" appeared originally as "dogs meetin. being reversed in the original. this volume prints some of these letters without much textual justification and the quotation marks and the apostrophe without any textual justification whatever. being reversed in the original. sentences 2. sentence 2: "edge" appeared as "elge. sentence Paragraph 36. Paragraph 35." Paragraph 23. sentence 1: the second set of quotation marks. erroneously closed a quotation instead of opening one. sentence 3: Though the question mark end- ing this sentence could have been a typographical error in the original. erroneously opened a quotation instead of closing one. sentence 15: "followed cautiously by" appeared as "following cautiously by. it has been retained here. Paragraph 18. Paragraph 50: in the original this sentence did not begin with quotation marks. 1: "he stared into" appeared as "he Paragraph 36." Paragraph 19. sentence 4: "N. sentence 2: in the original this sentence did not begin with quotation marks." Paragraph 20: in the original a comma immediately followed the question mark.Paragraph 15." Paragraph 39.'s" appeared as "N." appeared as "CO". 4. sentence 1: the quotation marks preceding this sentence did not appear in the original. 3. sentence 4: "he was all staring eyes" appeared as "he was al lstaring eyes. sentence 1: "'ere. sentence 1: "CO." Paragraph 42. Paragraph 33.CO." 1: the end of this sentence appeared without the question mark and closing quotation marks." Paragraph 18. sentence 1: the original omitted the quotation marks before "thinks. sentence satred into. Paragraph 21. and 5: Because the only available original text lacks the top of parts of these lines of type.

1920.": The Mississippian. perhaps improperly. this line in perhaps improper." "AFTER FIFTY YEARS. sentence 4: "You're" appeared as "Your'e. The Mississippian.Paragraph 52. decorated gift booklet. 1919. sentence in the original before 5: double quotation marks appeared after the letter "f. "love songs" in line 10. I got" appeared as "Why I got." Paragraph 52. p. and "star dust" in line 20. Paragraph 55. Line 23: "Lethean" appeared as "Lethan. p. of the Mississippian. of the period which ended The Mississippian. erroneously opened a quotation instead of closing one." [ 127 ] . The The quotation from les Villon: this appeared as "'Mais ou sont nieges d' antan' " in The Mississippian. sentence 1 : the second set of quotation marks. this title appeared in as "UNE BALAD HEDES FEMMES PERDUES" Mississippian. February 4." "NAIADS' SONG. p. Title: The Mississip- because of typographical error. with which The Mississippian ended this "UNE BALLADE DES FEMMES PERDUES": pian. 3. 4. December 10. being reversed in the original. The Mississippian printed in a in " —Ca ne fait rein! Helas" as the first part of this line. Line 4: the period which ends this line is an emendation. comma which ended ends this The Line 8: the comma which line is an emendation. perthis line in haps improper. Line 2: this reprinting. sentence 5: "Why. 3. November 26. a holograph version of this poem dated January 1. "boarding school" in line 7. January 28. Line 9: "Amorous" appeared as "Amourous.": The Mississippian. 3. omits the period line. Line 4: Line 6: 1920. p.": 1919." Paragraph 54. Line 14: "there" appeared as "here. Faulkner hyphenated "lute strings" in line 6. 1920." and "SAPPHICS.

": The Mississippian." Line 6: "conqueror" appeared as "conquerer.": the printer of The Mississippian. Line 5: "skull cap" appeared as "skull cup." "FANTOCHES. who presumably changed one of these two traditional male figures into a woman. because no such word seems to exist. though in Verlaine's poem. retains here. 2. "a Paul Verlaine.": The Title: in Mississippian." Line 6: "eye" appeared as "eyes. The Mississippian. 6. Perhaps the reader would prefer to substitute here some such word as "fantasy. in March 3. 3." Line 12: "garde" appeared as "grade. this title appeared as "FANTOUCHES." perhaps improperly." But "franchise" fails to fit his otherwise rather regular rhyme scheme. this reprinting has changed the spelling to that of Verlaine's title. p. retains The Mississippian text's "of Bogona" on the ground that though "of Bologna" is the translation of Verlaine's "Bolonais" Faulkner may have altered this name deliberately just as he may have altered the poem's two other proper names on the ground the first line (see note next above). p.") uses the traditional spellings. Faulkner. The Mississippian spelling of "Scaramouches" and "Pucinella" that. is Line 4: "fanchise. just possibly may have deliberately changed the traditional spelling of their names also. printed "a Paul Verlaine. February 25." ("Scaramouche et Pulcinella. 1920. presumably a typographical error." "CLAIR DE LUNE. though The Mississippian ended the exclamation in line and lines 13 and 17 with periods. 1920. presumably through typographical error. March 17.". if so. Faulkner may have written "franchise." which appeared The Mississippian. perhaps improperly.Line 44: "glides he is in forgetful ness" appeared as "glides he forgetfulness." "STREETS. it seems reason[ 128 ] .": The Line this 1 : Mississippian. following his practice of using no accents. "Fantoches. 1920. Line 1 : this reprinting. Line 4: this reprinting. p.

1920. Line 8: "ecstatic" appeared as "extatic. XXIV. Club. 7. May 12. April 14. March 17. p. April 21. is omitted in this reprinting on the assumption that it is a typographical error because all other lines in the poem except the five repetitions of the exclamation end without punctuation though some of them ation as much — or as little — call for punctu- as this line does. as well as in all Line 12: The Mississippian ended this line with a period which. 1919-1920. Drawing of woman and army officer: Ole Miss. 1920. practice of using no accents. 3.F. XXIV. 4.": The Mississippian. 29. p.E. 1920. "A POPLAR. 3. Drawing of four men facing the reader above the caption "CLASSES": Ole Miss. XXIV. in high wind beneath the caption Ole Miss. correctly or not. 1920. Drawing of two men and a woman before candelabra beneath [ 129 1 ." Line 16: "silver" appeared as "ALMA MATER. in the style charac- of the four drawings Faulkner did sign in this vol- ume of the annual.able to assume that the periods are typographical errors and should be replaced by exclamation points like those which end this same exclamation in lines 5 its five appearances in Verlaine's and 9 poem. 1919-1920. Drawing of woman and man "Organizations": 105." "A CLYMENE. 1919-1920. p. The Mississip- pian printed this as "A CLYMENE. Though this drawing is unsigned it is teristic Vol.": The Mississippian. in the original this line did not end with a period. "silvtr. Vol.": The Title: following its Mississippian. p. 145. p. p.": Line 14: The Mississippian. on a page listing members of the A. Vol." "STUDY. p.

Vol. Vol. line 3 of the poem by Percy: The Mississippian did not end this line with Percy's comma. XXIV. In April "BOOKS AND THINGS" : [review of Once]: The Mississippian. The excerpt from Aiken's "Discordants": in The Mississippian. November 10. Miss. p. "To a Co-ed": Ole Miss. Paragraph 3. 5. XXV. 157. Drawing of woman and man dancing beside the caption "Red a & a Blue": Ole Miss. Line 9: "lov'st" appeared as "love'st. 1921. a graduate" apParagraph 2." Drawing of sailor. p. line 8 of the poem by Percy: The Mississippian did not follow "alone" with Percy's comma. 174. 1919-1920. "Mississippian. FLESH. The lines have been unscrambled here. sentence 3: "His muse" appeared as "His His muse". sentence 1 peared as "Mississippian a graduate. February 16." "CO-EDUCATION AT OLE 4. put parts of each of these paragraphs in the other." Paragraphs 2 and 3: The Mississippian. XXIV. 155. and airman above the caption "FISH. the fifth line did not end with Aiken's comma and in the seventh line his "beloved" appeared as "beloved. MISS. soldier.": The Mississippian. members of the University's post of the American Legion. Activities": Ole Miss. W. printing several lines of type out of their proper order. p. on page listing members of the Red and Blue Club. on a page listing 1920-1921. 5. [ 130 ] . May 1921. Vol." Paragraph 3. Paragraph 3. 1919-1920. 1919-1920.the caption "Social p. A. Vol. "BOOKS & THINGS" [review of Conrad Aiken. dancing society. p. 1920. and "ecstasies" appeared as "ecstacies. 5. p. FOWL": Ole 129. Turns and Movies]: The Mississippian. Line 4: the original did not end this line with a period. Percy. p. XXIV.

2: the end of this paragraph appeared without a Paragraph sentence 2: "simplicity of the court house 3. Paragraph 1. 1922. 1920-1921." Paragraph 5. Ole 1920-1921. 131. p. border of and the caption "MARIONETTES": p. February 3. 1 and 2. pp.Drawing of non-commissioned officers officer and four commissioned under the caption "A. Mississippian." [ 131 ] . Vincent Millay. sentence 2: "invisibility" appeared as "invis- Paragraph period. 5. Aria da Capo]: The Mississippian. 137." 1. columns was discolored" appeared as "simplicity of the court house columns were discolored. Though drawing unsigned is in Faulkner's characteristic Drawing of man and woman dancing before Ole Miss. pp. decorative border: Ole Miss. is a drama society. Vol. sentence 3: the quotation marks before the "Gold" appeared as a single quotation mark. title "THE HILL": The Paragraph ability. p. "BOOKS & THINGS" [review of Edna St.E. on a page listing members this style. The Marionettes. p. it 135. dancing "NOCTURNE. on a page a members of the Red and Blue Club. Though this poem and drawing are un- signed they are in Faulkner's characteristic lettering and style. jazz orchestra: list- XXV. "BOOKS & THINGS: AMERICAN DRAMA: EUGENE O'NEILL. XXV. 214-215. CLUB": Ole Miss. sentence 2: "Rhone valley in the nineteenth century" appeared as "Rhone valley in the eighteenth century. Decorative Miss. p. ing the society.": The Mississippian. XXV. 1920-1921. Vol. 1920-1921. Vol. 1922. 1922.F.": and Vol. In Ole Miss the plates appeared in inverted order. 5. March 10. XXV. January 13.

1922." inhibitions": "BOOKS & THINGS: American Drama: sissippian. We hereby mak [sic] amends. 3. the next issue of 17. 1922. paragraph paragraph 1. XXVI. "BOOKS AND THINGS" [review of Joseph Hergesheimer. p." 132 ] . sentence 5: ended in the original without a period. Vol. p. sentence 3: "the tieless casual" appeared as "the Tieless casual. p. sentence 3: "graceful" appeared as "fraceful. sentence 1: "twenty-five" appeared as "twenty five. December 15. Section Section 1.F. Though this drawing and joke are unsigned they are in Faulkner's characteristic lettering and "Portrait": p. 1922. 5. 3. 188. Double Dealer (New Orleans)." 2." at the conclusion: though the original was without The Mississippian (March Through some error the initials 'W. sentence 2: "to Frank Crane's market" appeared as "to Frank Crane market." and "stratum" appeared as "strata. 337. 1." 1. The Mis24. as "literary shibboleth and pogroms. 5. 1922. paragraph "Kreyemborg.Paragraph Initials 4." Section as 1. 5) printed this statement: "Correction: Mississippian. 2. sentence 3: "literary shibboleths and pogroms" appeared Section Section 2. Ill (June. Drawing of woman and man at rail of ship: Ole Miss. Paragraph Paragraph 2." sentence 2: "La figlia" appeared as "La [ figlio. 1922). on a page listing the members of the French Club. style." paragraph paragraph 2: the March 17 installment with this paragraph." ended with extra space after "shibboleth. sentence 3: "Kreymborg" appeared Section 2. and March 1922. March 17. Vol. 5. p. p. paragraph 2. Linda Condon. Cytherea.' were omitted from the sketch entitled The Hill' which appeared in the last issue of The these initials. and The Bright Shawl]: The Mississippian.

sentence 4: Paragraph 11. Ill. 1925). 1925). Paragraph 4.Paragraph 5. p. 15. No. Paragraph 1. pp. 5. VII (April. 1927. 1925. sentence 3: "skilful" appeared as "skilfull. 83-84. sentence 9: "Shelley" appeared as "Shelly. No." Drawing of women boarding a streetcar while two men The Scream. May. 5. p. No. I. I. de corps" 1925). VII (January-February. 5. Vol. where the section showing the three women appears on p. Vol. 1925)." [ 133 ] . Line 13: "undreamt" appeared as "undreampt." p. "On Criticism": Double Dealer. three watch: Drawing of one man supporting another before Scream." "enough" appeared as "enought. VII (January-February. Vol. sentence 1: "Spenser" appeared as "Spencer. 148. sentence 4: "discriminating" appeared as "disciminating. 1925." Paragraph 10. 14. No. sentence 6: "esprit "espirt-du-corps. Vol. "Verse Old And Nascent: A Pilgrimage": Double Dealer. p. May. "The Faun": Double Dealer." "nightingale" appeared as "Night- Paragraph ingale. sentence 4: appeared as "Its. I. May. Vol. 14. in The Scream. Vol. Vol. 129-131. Later the plate was cut in two and used again. 11. Vol. pp. sentence 4: "It's" 10. a statue: The Drawing of two men and an automobile: The Scream. VII (April. May. 85. 1925. p." "Dying Gladiator": Double Dealer." appeared as Paragraph Paragraph 4. 12 and the section showing the two men appears on p. 8." 10.

No. p. [ 134 ] . judging by its style ings signed by other contributors to is and the styles of the drawThe Scream. Vol. 1925.Drawing of an aviator hanging to an airplane by one hand: The Scream. 1. II. This unsigned drawing. 12. possibly by William Faulkner.

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Date Due Due t Returned Due Returned JA V A 2 2004 .

t William Faulkner: early prose main 8l8.5F263wC5 3 12bE 0330*1 27T1 .

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