ZX Spectrum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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ZX Spectrum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Sinclair ZX Spectrum) The ZX Spectrum (pronounced "Zed-Ex") is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. Referred to during development as the ZX81 Colour and ZX82,[2][3] the machine was launched as the ZX Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared with the black-and-white of its [4] The Spectrum was predecessor, the ZX81. ultimately released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level model with 16 kB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 kB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987; together they sold in excess of 5 million units worldwide (not counting numerous [5] clones). The Spectrum was among the first mainstream audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the USA. The introduction of the ZX Spectrum led to a boom in companies producing software and [6] the effects of hardware for the machine, [1] some credit it as the which are still seen; [7] machine which launched the UK IT industry. Licensing deals and clones followed, and earned Clive Sinclair a knighthood for "services to [8] British industry".

ZX Spectrum

An issue 2 1982 ZX Spectrum Type Generation Release date Retail availability Discontinued Media Operating system CPU Memory Predecessor Successor Z80 @ 3.5 MHz and equivalent 16 kB / 48 kB / 128 kB ZX81 QL 1992[1] Cassette tape Sinclair BASIC Home computer 8-bit 23 April 1982 1982–

The Commodore 64, BBC Microcomputer and later the Amstrad CPC range were major rivals to the Spectrum in the UK market during the early 1980s. Over 23,000 software titles have been released since the Spectrum's launch and new titles continue to be released, with over 90 new ones in 2010.

Contents
1 Hardware 2 Firmware 3 Sinclair Research models

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the free encyclopedia https://en. heat sink removed) contemporary portable television sets.Wikipedia. An "attribute" consists of a foreground and a background colour.4 ZX Spectrum +3 5 Clones 6 Peripherals 7 Software 7. [10] To conserve memory. from a palette of 15 shades: [9] The image resolution is seven colours at two levels of brightness each. 32×24 grid overlay.2 ZX Spectrum +2A 4.5 MHz (or NEC D780C-1 clone). The original model Spectrum has 16 kB (16×1024 bytes) of ROM and either 16 kB or 48 kB of RAM.wikipedia.3 ZX Spectrum+ 3. corresponding [11] to the character cells.1 ZX Spectrum +2 4. causes the two colours to swap 2 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . separate from the pixel bitmap in a low resolution. for a simple colour graphic display.2 ZX Spectrum 16K/48K 3.1 Distribution 7.ZX Spectrum . plus black.4 ZX Spectrum 128 4 Amstrad models 4. a brightness level (normal or bright) and a flashing "flag" which. Hardware design was by Richard Altwasser of Sinclair Research. colour is stored 256×192 with the same colour limitations.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum 3. and the machine's outward appearance was designed by Sinclair's industrial [6] designer Rick Dickinson.2 Copying and backup software 7. Video output is through an RF modulator ZX Spectrum 48K motherboard (Issue 3B — and was designed for use with 1983. Text can be displayed using 32 columns × 24 rows of characters from the ZX Spectrum character set or from a set provided within an application.4 Notable developers 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Hardware The Spectrum is based on a Zilog Z80A CPU running at 3. Altwasser received a patent for this design.3 ZX Spectrum +2B 4.1 Pre-production designs 3. when set.3 Community 7.

for example the Amstrad CPC. similar to calculator keys) is marked with BASIC keywords. the contents of the screen memory. This is capable of producing one channel with 10 octaves.5 mm audio in/out ports for the connection of a cassette recorder for loading and saving programs and data. This became a distinctive feature of the Spectrum and an in-joke among Spectrum users. the Spectrum could in addition save the contents of arrays. which did not feature lower-case letters. The Spectrum's chiclet keyboard (on top of a membrane. ZX Spectrum 16K/48K The original ZX Spectrum is remembered for its rubber keyboard. Firmware The machine's Sinclair BASIC interpreter is stored in ROM (along with fundamental system-routines) and was written by Steve Vickers on contract from Nine Tiles Ltd.[10] This scheme leads to what was dubbed colour clash or attribute clash with some bizarre effects in the animated graphics of arcade style games. FORE [2] becoming INK and BACK becoming PAPER.ZX Spectrum . Sound output is through a beeper on the machine itself. as [citation needed] Other machines well as a point of derision by advocates of other systems.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum at regular intervals. and the contents of any defined range of memory addresses. Sinclair Research models Pre-production designs Rick Dickinson came up with a number of designs for the "ZX82" project before the final ZX Spectrum design. The BASIC interpreter was developed from that used on the ZX81 and a ZX81 BASIC program can be typed into a Spectrum largely unmodified. A number of the keyboard legends changed during the design phase including ARC becoming CIRCLE. The machine also includes an expansion bus edge connector and 3. Spectrum BASIC included extra keywords for the more advanced display and sound. The cassette interface was also much more advanced. saving and loading around four times faster than the ZX81. did not suffer from this limitation. As well as being able to save programs. and much more reliably. diminutive size and distinctive rainbow motif. the free encyclopedia https://en. The Commodore 64 used colour attributes in a similar way. The ZX Spectrum character set was expanded from that of the ZX81.Wikipedia. but Spectrum BASIC included many extra features making it easier to use. pressing "G" when in programming [12] mode would insert the BASIC command GOTO. so that. hardware sprites and hardware scrolling were used to avoid attribute clash.wikipedia. It was originally released in 1982 with 16 kB of RAM for 3 of 17 ZX Spectrum 16K/48K (Dimensions (mm): 233×144×30 (W×H×D) @ 20/07/12 09:48 . and also supported multi-statement lines. but a special multicolour mode. for example. available around the same time.

Both machines had 16 kB of onboard ROM. conversion-kit for older machines was also available. ZX Spectrum+ Planning of the ZX Spectrum+ started in June 1984. 4 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . to the Spanish market after the Spanish government introduced a special tax on all [22] and a law which obliged all computers sold in computers with 64 kB RAM or less. some retailers reported a failure rate of up to 30%. It retailed for £179. Early on. they can be distinguished from later models by the colour of the keys (light grey for Issue 1.wikipedia.000 "Issue 1" ZX Spectrums were manufactured. the 32 kB extension used eight faulty 64 kilobit chips with only one half of their capacity working and/or available.[13] ZX Spectrum+ (Dimensions (mm): 319×149×38 (W×H×D))[13] ZX Spectrum 128 The Sinclair models all had audio line in and out. Users could mail their 16K Spectrums to Sinclair to be upgraded to 48 kB versions. Either socket could also be connected to headphones or an amplifier as an audio output.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum £125 or with 48 kB for £175. that mounted in the rear expansion slot were also available from third parties. [23] Spain to support the Spanish alphabet and show messages in Spanish. the machine outsold the [18] however. An external tape recorder was needed to load the majority of software released. 16 kB model could purchase an internal 32 kB RAM upgrade.Wikipedia. About 60. It was possible to change the system boards [20] A DIY between the original case and the Spectrum+ case. introduced a new QL-style case with an injection-moulded keyboard and a reset button that was basically a switch that shorted across the CPU reset capacitor. To reduce the price. Electronically. though this would not disable the internal speaker. it was identical to the previous 48 kB model. rubber-key model 2:1. Later issue machines required the fitting of 8 dynamic RAM chips and a few TTL chips.95. which for early "Issue 1" machines consisted of a daughterboard. [19] compared with a more usual 5-6% for the older model. in the form of an "ear" and "mic" socket.[14] these prices were later [15] Owners of the reduced to £99 and £129 respectively. [17] blue-grey for later models). ZX Spectrum 128 Sinclair developed the ZX Spectrum 128 (code-named Derby) in conjunction with their [21] Investrónica had helped adapt the ZX Spectrum+ Spanish distributor Investrónica.ZX Spectrum . the free encyclopedia https://en.[18] and the machine was released [19] This 48 kB Spectrum (development code-name TB[18]) in October the same year. Links on the PCB were configured accordingly so as to place these faulty memory locations in the other [16] External 32 kB RAM packs (unused) half of each IC. ~552 grams).

The main menu screen lacked the ZX Spectrum +2 5 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . The machine was simultaneously presented for the first time and launched in September 1985 at the SIMO '85 trade show in Spain. with the exception of a large external heatsink for the internal 7805 voltage regulator added to the right hand end of the case. Because of the large number of unsold Spectrum+ models. The machine featured an all-new grey case featuring a spring-loaded keyboard. Amstrad models ZX Spectrum +2 The ZX Spectrum +2 was Amstrad's first Spectrum. The Spanish version had the "128K" logo in white while the English one had the same logo in red. The ZX Spectrum 128 had no internal speaker like its predecessors.ZX Spectrum . keeping the current BASIC program intact (although there is no way to switch back to 128K mode).org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum The appearance of the ZX Spectrum 128 was similar to the ZX Spectrum+. MIDI compatibility. three-channel audio via the AY-3-8912 chip. with a price of 44. available for the UK release. although the ROM routines to use it and the port itself remained.95. and a built-in cassette recorder dubbed the "Datacorder" (like the Amstrad CPC 464). The sound was [25] produced from the television speaker instead. the free encyclopedia https://en. replacing the internal heatsink in previous versions. dual joystick ports. To enable BASIC programmers to access the additional memory. an RGB monitor port. Sinclair decided not to start [24] No external keypad was selling in the UK until January 1986 at a price of £179. an RS-232 serial port. New features included 128 kB RAM. but was in most respects identical to the ZX Spectrum 128. The new commands took the place of two existing user-defined-character spaces causing compatibility problems with some BASIC [citation needed] programs. which means only 64 kB of memory can be directly addressed. and an external keypad.Wikipedia. coming shortly after their purchase of the Spectrum range and "Sinclair" brand in 1986. To facilitate the extra 80 kB of RAM the designers used bank switching so that the new memory would be available as eight pages of 16 kB at the top of the address space.wikipedia. The Z80 processor used in the Spectrum has a 16-bit address bus. The new sound chip and MIDI out abilities were exposed to the BASIC programming language with the command PLAY and a new command SPECTRUM was added to switch the machine into 48K mode.250 pesetas. 32 kB of ROM including an improved BASIC editor. a RAM disk was created where files could be stored in the additional 80 kB of RAM. The same technique was also used to page between the new 16 kB editor ROM and the original 16 kB BASIC ROM at the [citation needed] bottom of the address space.

CODE and RUN which were useful for loading software. ZX Spectrum +2B The ZX Spectrum +2B and ZX Spectrum +3B were functionally similar in design to the [29] The main electronic differences being simply changes to the Spectrum +2A and +3.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum Spectrum 128's "Tape Test" option. Despite these changes.wikipedia. ZX Spectrum +2A The new keyboard did not include the BASIC keyword markings that were found on earlier Spectrums.Wikipedia. The ZX Spectrum +2 power supply was a grey version of the ZX Spectrum+ and 128 [citation needed] power supply. If an external disk drive was added. 6 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . Amstrad planned to introduce an additional disk interface for the +2A/+2B called the AMSTRAD SI-1. as the +2 boasted a menu system. This was not a major issue however. These changes resulted in minor incompatibility problems with software that accessed ROM routines at certain addresses. and 128k BASIC programming in which all words (keywords and otherwise) must be typed out in full (although the keywords are still stored internally as one character each). The Spectrum +2B motherboard (AMSTRAD part number Z70833) does not have provision for floppy disk controller circuitry so cannot be assembled as a +3B. except for the keywords LOAD.ZX Spectrum . Production costs had been reduced and the retail price dropped to [26] £139–£149. the free encyclopedia https://en. generation of the audio output signal to resolve problems with clipping. where one could ZX Spectrum +3 switch between 48k BASIC programming with the keywords. The power supply of the ZX Spectrum +2A used the same pinout as the +3. However. the layout [citation needed] remained identical to that of the 128. the "+2A" on the system OS menu would change to a +3. almost identical to the ZX Spectrum 128. No documented discovery of a Spectrum +3B has been made so it is unknown whether the computer was ever produced. controller or associated logic and a +2 style "datacorder" connected. and the ROM was altered to account for a new 1986 Amstrad copyright message. the power supply purchased with the +2A/B had "Sinclair +2" written on the [citation needed] case. ZX Spectrum +2A The ZX Spectrum +2A was a variant of the Spectrum +3 housed a black version of the Spectrum +2 case mouldings.[28] however this never appeared. The Spectrum +2A/+3 motherboard (AMSTRAD part number Z70830) was designed such that it could be assembled without the floppy disk [27] Originally.

caused many external devices problems.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum ZX Spectrum +3 The ZX Spectrum +3 looked similar to the +2 but featured a built-in 3-inch floppy disk drive (like the Amstrad CPC 6128) instead of the tape drive. Although still accounting for one third of all home computer sales in the UK at the time. Such core changes brought incompatibilities: Removal of several lines on the expansion bus edge connector (video. games were incompatible with the machine. some such as the VTX5000 modem could be used via the "FixIt" device. graphics and other modifications was marketed in the USA by Timex as the Timex Sinclair 2068. some of the RAM banks were now contended causing high-speed colour-changing effects to fail The keypad scanning routines from the ROM were removed move 1 byte address in ROM Some older 48K. Production of the +3 ceased in December 1990. The +3 saw the addition of two more 16 kB ROMs.wikipedia. the power supply purchased with the +3 had "Sinclair +3" written on [citation needed] the case. [citation needed] therefore it was not possible to connect and use the Microdrive units. the free encyclopedia https://en. caused some games such as Arkanoid to be unplayable Memory timing changes. This was a modified version of Amstrad's AMSDOS. It [30] and then later £199[31] and was the was launched in 1987. and was in a black case. production of the model was ceased [citation needed] by Amstrad at that point. Timex's derivatives 7 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . to disable both ROMs Reading a non-existent I/O port no longer returned the last attribute.ZX Spectrum . Clones See also: list of ZX Spectrum clones Sinclair licensed the Spectrum design to Timex Corporation in the United States. An enhanced version of the Spectrum with better sound. Dividing ROMCS into 2 lines. called +3DOS. The ZX Spectrum +3 power supply provides the same voltages as the one supplied with +2A/B. power. One was home to the second part of the reorganised 128 ROM and the other hosted the +3's disk operating system. allowing the ROM to be paged out for another 16 kB of RAM. which requires RAM at the bottom of the address space. and a few older 128K. This power supply has the same DIN connector so can also be used with the +2A/B.Wikipedia. the bank-switching was further improved. These two new 16 kB ROMs and the original two 16 kB ROMs were now physically implemented together as two 32 kB chips. and IORQGE). To be able to run CP/M. However. The ZX Interface 1 was incompatible due to differences in ROM and expansion connector. initially retailed for £249 only Spectrum capable of running the CP/M operating system without additional hardware.

There were also a plethora of third-party hardware addons. CIP 3. Sinclair also released the ZX Interface 2 which [37] added two joystick ports and a ROM cartridge port. Dubbed the "db Spectrum+".[39] interface.wikipedia. produced. However. RAM pack. several models were produced (Tim-S. launched in 1987. Sinclair QL. by this point. a proprietary LAN interface (called ZX Net). Decibells Electronics introduced a licensed version of the Spectrum+ in 1986. In the UK. The better known of these included the Kempston joystick interface. whose ULA had the high resolution video mode pioneered in the TS2068.g.g. and it evolved into the [32] Cambridge Computer Z88. Spectrum peripheral vendor Miles Gordon Technology (MGT) released the SAM Coupé as a potential successor with some Spectrum compatibility. Microdigital TK 90X and TK 95). whose storage format was electrically compatible but logically incompatible with the Spectrum's. Keyboards were Multiface. Jet). some featuring CP/M and a 5. compatible with that of the ZX81. HC85. leaving [citation needed] MGT in eventual receivership.[40] a drum machine. the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST had taken hold of the market.5" floppy disk) and South America (e.ZX Spectrum . Cobra. and an interface for the connection of up to eight ZX Microdrives – somewhat unreliable but speedy tape-loop cartridge storage [35][36] These were later used in a revised version on the devices released in July 1983. After Amstrad bought the computer business of Sinclair Research. such as the Pentagon and ATM Turbo. 8 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . it did reasonably well in the Indian market and sold quite a few thousand until 1990 when [citation needed] the market died away. HC91.Wikipedia. The ZX Interface 1 add-on module included 8 kB of ROM. the Cheetah Marketing SpecDrum. [42] especially popular in view of the original's notorious "dead flesh" feel. and the [41] a snapshot and disassembly tool from Romantic Robot. especially in the former Eastern Bloc countries (e. In the Soviet Union. in Romania.25"/3. A case in point was the abortive Pandora portable Spectrum. However. an RS-232 serial port. Over 50 such clone models existed. Sir Clive retained the rights to the Pandora project. Peripherals Several peripherals for the Spectrum were marketed by Sinclair: the ZX Printer was [34] as the ZX Spectrum expansion bus was backwardsalready on the market. some of the Timex innovations were later adopted by Sinclair Research. the free encyclopedia https://en. the Morex Peripherals Centronics/RS-232 [38] Videoface Digitiser. Many unofficial Spectrum clones were produced. In India. ZX Spectrum clones were assembled by thousands of small start-ups and distributed through poster ads and [33] Some of them are still being street stalls.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum were largely incompatible with Sinclair systems. Pandora had a flat-screen monitor and Microdrives and Didaktik M was intended to be Sinclair's business portable. CIP . the Currah Microspeech unit (speech synthesis). Junior.

the library includes programming language 9 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . This bundle. The most popular floppy disk systems (except in East Europe) were the DISCiPLE and +D systems released by Miles Gordon Technology in 1987 and 1988 respectively. Telemap Group Ltd launched a fee-based service allowing users to connect their ZX Spectrums via a Prism Micro Products VTX5000 modem to a viewdata service known as Micronet 800.wikipedia. including the Abbeydale Designers/Watford Electronics SPDOS. the free encyclopedia https://en. which made porting existing software much [43] simpler. The SPDOS and KDOS interfaces were the first to come bundled with office productivity software (Tasword Word Processor.ZX Spectrum . introduced many small businesses to a streamlined. hosted by Prestel.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum ZX Printer ZX Interface 1 ZX Interface 2 ZX Microdrive Kempston joystick interface There were numerous disk drive interfaces. together with OCP's Stock Control. They were also both compatible with the Microdrive command syntax. computerised operation. During the mid-1980s.000 titles had been released for the Spectrum family. [44] While most of these are games. [citation needed] Software Main article: ZX Spectrum software As of August 2006. over 23. This service pre-dated the World Wide Web. Abbeydale Designers/Kempston KDOS and Opus Discovery. Masterfile database and OmniCalc spreadsheet). Both systems had the ability to store memory images onto disk snapshots could later be used to restore the Spectrum to its exact previous state. but offered many of the services now considered commonplace. Finance and Payroll systems.Wikipedia.

the software loading process was quite reliable. Although the ZX Microdrive was initially greeted with good reviews. Magazines also printed long lists of checksummed hexadecimal digits with machine code games or tools.g. The ZX Spectrum +3 enjoyed much more success when it came to commercial software releases on floppy disk. the free encyclopedia https://en. spreadsheets (e. word [46] ). most software released for them took the form of utility software.g. the host would describe a program. usually utilities piracy.ZX Spectrum . if somewhat slow (by today's standards). VU-File[45]). No games are known to be exclusively released on Microdrive. magazines[57] and books.g. a variant of regular vinyl [60] These disks were known records which could be played on a standard record player.g.[51] The early Spectrum models' great success as a games platform came in spite of its lack of built-in joystick ports. Software was also distributed through print media.[58] The reader would type the Sinclair BASIC program listing into the computer by hand. Some magazines distributed 7" 33⅓ rpm flexidisc records. The [54] and Spectrum was intended to work with a normal domestic cassette recorder. Another software distribution method was to broadcast the audio stream from the cassette on another medium and have users record it onto an audio cassette themselves. instruct the audience to connect a cassette tape recorder to the [59] radio or TV and then broadcast the program over the airwaves in audio format. and niche products like the Tasword word processing software and Trans Express. primitive sound generation. The software distributed in this way was in general simpler and slower than its assembly language counterparts. [55] it never took off as a distribution method due to worries about the quality of the cartridges and [56] Hence the main use became to complement tape releases. run it. and could save it to tape for later use. databases (e.wikipedia. [48][49] ) and archaeology software[50] VU-3D amongst many other types. Despite the popularity of the DISCiPLE and +D systems. and The space exploration game Elite colour support that was optimised for text [52] the hardware limitations of the platform display: [53] required a particular level of creativity from video game designers. Distribution Most Spectrum software was originally distributed on audio cassette tapes.Wikipedia. despite differences in audio reproduction fidelity. More than 700 titles were [44] released on 3-inch disk from 1987 to 1997. (a tape to microdrive copying utility). Tasword II [45] ). drawing and painting tools (e.g. OCP VU-Calc [47] Art Studio ). and even 3D-modelling (e.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum implementations. In radio or television shows in many European countries. processors (e. 10 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 .

it allows connecting a cassette tape player to the line in port of a sound card. the software can be executed on one of many emulators. Lenslok as used in Elite. Early on they were very technically oriented with type-in programs and machine code tutorials. including [62] Other methods for copy prevention were also used different loading schemes. Rebelstar.000 titles. and Spectrofon (Russia). others have given their permission for their games to be archived as part of the preservation [64] project. entirely circumventing the copy protection systems. many in Russian. the free encyclopedia https://en. been converted to current media and is available for download. Other prominent games developers include Julian Gollop (Chaos. Copying and backup software Many copiers—utilities to copy programs from audio tape to another tape. microdrive [61] As a response to tapes. Popular Computing Weekly. in recent years. X-COM series). The legality of this practice is still in question and while a number of copyright holders have explicitly objected to the posting of their software. ZX-Format (Russia). and Tim and Chris Stamper (founders of Ultimate Play The Game. Computer and Video Games. Computing [65] Today.g. was able to dump a copy of the ZX Spectrum RAM to disk/tape at the press of a button. One popular program for converting Spectrum files from tape is Taper. with more than 21. Your Sinclair (1983) and CRASH (1984). Your Computer and The Games Machine. [66] More than 80 electronic magazines existed.ZX Spectrum . They included Computer Gamer. [63] Once in files on or—through a simple home-built device—to the parallel port of a PC. Special hardware. including David Perry of Shiny Entertainment. on virtually any platform available today. now known as Rare. Several dedicated magazines were released including Sinclair User (1982). Most notable of them were AlchNews (UK). The Spectrum is affectionately known as the Speccy by elements of its fan following. Most Spectrum software has. Community The ZX Spectrum enjoyed a very strong community early on. such as Romantic Robot's Multiface. The largest on-line archive of ZX Spectrum software is World of Spectrum. publishers introduced copy protection measures to their software. Matthew Smith 11 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . maker of many titles for Nintendo and Microsoft game consoles). a host machine. this.Wikipedia. Several general contemporary computer magazines covered the ZX Spectrum in more or less detail.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum as floppy ROMs. Later on they became almost completely game-oriented. and later on diskettes—were available for the Spectrum. Notable developers A number of current leading games developers and development companies began their careers on the ZX Spectrum.wikipedia. including asking for a particular word from the documentation included with the game—often a novella like in Silicon Dreams trilogy—or another physical device distributed with the software—e.

Chris.com/photos/9574086@N02/696932215/in/set-72157600607571866/. Jeff Minter ported some of his Commodore VIC-20 games [68] to the ZX Spectrum. 3. ^ Williams. Head Over Heels). http://news. Computer Museum.htm) .flickr.50megs.htm. Retrieved 19 April 2006.htm. "ZX Spectrum 16K/48K" (http://www. "SINCLAIR ZX SPECTRUM : the good. a Google doodle honoured the 30th anniversary of the Spectrum. Jet Set Willy).flickr. Retrieved 24 July 2007.com/photos/9574086@N02/697783938/in/set-72157600607571866/. "specModel01" (http://www.no/sinclair/computers /zxspectrum/spec1648.stm. Rick. Erik.com/brands/zxspectrum. 2.flickr. January 2000. ^ "Videogaming: The Odyssey". 23 April 2007. BBC. Retrieved 24 July 2007.no/sinclair/computers /zxspectrum/spec1648.co. Retrieved 14 September 2008. "specLOGO02" (http://www. Clive Townsend (Saboteur). ^ a b "How the Spectrum began a revolution" (http://news. See also History of computing hardware (1960s-present) List of ZX Spectrum games ZX Spectrum graphic modes References 1.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum (Manic Miner. Planet Sinclair. The Oliver Twins (the Dizzy series). The first screen of Treasure Island Dizzy by The Oliver Twins Legacy On 23 April 2012.uk/2/hi/technology/6572711.50megs. Batman: The Caped Crusader. Pete Cooke (Tau Ceti). Chris (23 April 2007). EDGE Magazine (Future Publishing): 76. 7. Rick. 4. the free encyclopedia https://en. ^ Klooster. http://www.bbc.[67] Although the 48K Spectrum's audio hardware was not as capable as chips in other popular 8-bit home computers of the era.stm) . ^ a b Dickinson.com/photos/9574086@N02 /696932215/in/set-72157600607571866/) .War In Middle Earth).bbc.com/brands/zxspectrum. Sandy White (Ant Attack. As it coincided with St George's Day.wikipedia. Mikie. Jonathan "Joffa" Smith (Ping Pong. Jon Ritman (Match Day.ZX Spectrum . ^ Dickinson.ntnu. http://computermuseum.htm) . Sinclair Spectrum development. ^ a b Owen. and Alan Cox. computer musicians David Whittaker and Tim Follin produced notable multi-channel music for the machine. HyperSports).co.uk/2/hi/technology /6572711. Mike Singleton (The Lords of Midnight. 5.flickr. old 'speccy'" (http://computermuseum.nvg. I of the mask). Retrieved 5 June 2007. http://www.com/photos/9574086@N02 /697783938/in/set-72157600607571866/) . "Sinclair ZX Spectrum: 25 today" 12 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . http://www.nvg. the logo was of St George fighting a dragon in an [69] 8-bit style. 6.ntnu.Wikipedia. Sinclair Spectrum development.

worldofspectrum. ^ Owen. http://www. "The Secret That Was Spectrum+" (http://www.html) .html.uk/~jg27paw4/yr10/yr10_a4. "ZX Spectrum" (http://www.sincuser. ^ EP patent 0107687 (http://worldwide. http://www.nvg. "Display for a computer".org/ZXBasicManual/) .html. issued 1988-07-06.co.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum /zxspectrum. Simon (September 1984).co. http://www.nvg.no/sinclair/computers /zxspectrum/specplus. Retrieved 21 August 2006.globalnet. ^ Bourne. "ZX Spectrum+" (http://www.gondolin.worldofspectrum.org/ZXBasicManual/zxmanchap16.uk/2007/04/23/spectrum_zx_25/) .htm.co. February 1983. Retrieved 21 August 2006. 17.users.uk/015/news.wikipedia.html.ntnu. Retrieved 14 September 2008. Sinclair User (15): 13.f9. ^ "The High Street Spectrum" (http://www. http://www.uk/033/news. Sinclair User (44): 5. ZX Computing: 43. December 1984.co. "Spectrum 48K Versions" (http://www.worldofspectrum. assigned to Sinclair Research Ltd ^ Vickers. http://www.org /showmag. http://www. ^ Vickers.org/ZXBasicManual /zxmanchap16. Sinclair User (33): 11.sincuser.uk/033/news.co.org/ZXBasicManual /zxmanchap1.jpg) . 10.jpg. Sinclair ZX Spectrum BASIC Programming (http://www. Retrieved 15 August 2006.co.org. Sinclair ZX Spectrum BASIC Programming (http://www. ^ "News: Spectrum prices are slashed" (http://www.globalnet.co. ^ Owen.f9.htm) .html.no/sinclair/computers /zxspectrum/spec48versions.htm) .users.no/sinclair /computers/zxspectrum/spec48versions. Sinclair Research Ltd. 21. "Introduction" (http://www. http://www. Register Hardware. 9. "Basic programming concepts" (http://www.htm) . Steven (1982). ^ "News: New Spectrum launch" (http://www. Chris (November 1985).htm.reghardware. the free encyclopedia https://en. http://www. 20.users.worldofspectrum.worldofspectrum.worldofspectrum.f9.uk/044/news. 13 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . "News: Launch of the Spectrum 128 in Spain" (http://www. (http://www. Retrieved 19 August 2006. http://www.uk/2007/04/23/spectrum_zx_25/.htm) .htm) . Situation Publishing. http://www. Chris.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8302/Pages/ZXComputing830200043.reghardware. it's the 64K Spectrum!" (http://www.sincuser.uk/~jg27paw4/yr10/yr10_a4.org /showmag.htm.f9.sincuser. Planet Sinclair.nvg.html) .html) .no/sinclair/computers /zxspectrum/specplus.nvg.org/ZXBasicManual/) .htm.worldofspectrum. Retrieved 14 September 2008. ^ a b c Denham.globalnet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=EP0107687) . ^ a b Vickers.ntnu.uk/hchof/machinelist. Retrieved 5 August 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2006. Chris.htm. Retrieved 20 May 2007.org/ZXBasicManual/) .nvg. Richard Francis Altwasser.uk/~jg27paw4/yr07/yr07_33.worldofspectrum. 15. June 1983.uk/~jg27paw4/yr07/yr07_33. Sinclair Research Ltd.gondolin.htm) .worldofspectrum. 13.uk/015/news.org/ZXBasicManual/zxmanchap1.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum /zxspectrum.worldofspectrum.ntnu.ntnu.htm) . Planet Sinclair.co. http://www.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8302/Pages/ZXComputing830200043. "Suddenly. 19.globalnet.co.htm. http://www. 12. Retrieved 23 August 2006. Sue (December 1984). The Home Computers Hall of Fame. Sinclair Research Ltd. Chris.uk/hchof/machinelist. http://www.Wikipedia. Retrieved 24 April 2006.htm) . Your Spectrum (10): 104.org/ZXBasicManual/zxmanchap2.users.worldofspectrum.ZX Spectrum .org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum 8.co. 14. Planet Sinclair.nvg. Sinclair ZX Spectrum BASIC Programming (http://www.ntnu. 11. Steven (1982).org. "Colours" (http://www.espacenet. ^ a b "The Machines" (http://www. Steven (1982). 16.f9. ^ a b Owen. Retrieved 21 August 2006. 18.sincuser. ^ Goodwin. Your Spectrum (7): 33–34.ntnu.html) .co. Retrieved 23 August 2006.org /ZXBasicManual/zxmanchap2.htm.

htm. Planet Sinclair.php?coleccion=iberlex&id=1985/15611) . Your Sinclair (11): 47. April 1985. de 28 de agosto. p.htm. 1987. Rango: Real Decreto. AMSTRAD. "Tech Niche: Videoface to Face" (http://www. Sinclair User (49): 53.org/ZXSpectrum128Manual /sp128p09.co.crashonline. 27.uk/049/128lnch. AMSTRAD.htm) . Chris. Sinclair User (68): 2–3. ^ "Hardware World: Sinclair cartridges may be out of step" (http://www. 39. ^ Amstrad (November 1987). Sinclair User (21): 40. http://www. Simon (April 1987). 29.f9.org/sinclair/computers/clones/clones.htm) .htm.co.php?coleccion=iberlex& id=1985/18847) .co.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue37/Pages 14 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 .cgi?mag=YourSinclair/Issue19/Pages/YourSinclair1900022. Retrieved 29 August 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2006. 9 (http://www.htm) .worldofspectrum.18. Sinclair ZX Spectrum +2A.uk/018/news. ^ "Hardware World: Clear speech from Currah module" (http://www.org/showmag.co.co.htm) .sincuser. Planet Sinclair.f9. 36. ^ Phillips. Retrieved 5 August 2008.htm) . ^ "News: Some surprises in the Microdrive" (http://www. 23. 32.sincuser.htm) .Wikipedia. Retrieved 24 August 2006.co.co.B. Retrieved 20 August 2006. the free encyclopedia https://en. por el que se aclara el alcance del mínimo específico introducido en la subpartida 84.uk/044/news.jpg) . Sinclair User (19): 27–29. 31.sincuser. por el que se establece la sujeción a especificaciones técnicas de los terminales de pantalla con teclado.uk /021/hardwre.org. 37. http://www. 28.crashonline. http://www.htm) .sincuser.org/showmag.nvg.uk /021/hardwre.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum http://www. "ZX Printer" (http://www.htm.uk /021/hardwre.co. http://www. http://www. Stephen (October 1983). ^ Owen. 25.f9.uk/019/hardwre.uk /39/z88. periféricos para entrada y representación de información en equipo de proceso de datos (http://www. "Hardware World: Spectrum receives its biggest improvement" (http://www.nvg. Retrieved 29 August 2006.no/sinclair/computers/peripherals /zxprinter.htm.org/sinclair/computers/clones /clones. http://www.org /showmag.es/aeboe/consultas /bases_datos/doc.ysrnry.uk/049/128lnch.jpg.23841.sincuser.f9.org /showmag.f9. Ivor.htm.f9. por el Real Decreto 1215/1985 (http://www.cgi?mag=SinclairUser/Issue068/Pages /SinclairUser06800002. Retrieved 15 August 2006.ntnu.co.uk/articles /spectrumplustworeview. 22. Retrieved 29 August 2006. http://www.co. December 1983. "It's here.html) at World of Spectrum 26. ^ Owen.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc. Páginas: 27743 . Páginas: 23840 . 24.org/showmag.org.II del Arancel de Aduanas. ^ Goodwin.jpg. ^ (Spanish) Ministerio de Economía y Hacienda (BOE 211 de 3/9/1985).co. Retrieved 30 June 2011.354.htm. Phil (July 1987). AMSTRAD.htm.cgi?mag=YourSinclair/Issue19 /Pages/YourSinclair1900022. p.jpg) .f9.f9.uk/018/news.sincuser. 30.sincuser.nvg. 38. de 19 de junio. Retrieved 29 August 2006. "SINCLAIR’S Z88 — Pandora’s Box?" (http://www.htm. ^ (Spanish) Ministerio de Industria y Energía (BOE 179 de 27/7/1985).uk/019/hardwre. September 1983. the Spectrum +3" (http://www.co. ^ Frey.27744. Sinclair User (18): 15.no/sinclair/computers/peripherals /zxprinter. ^ Spectrum +3 Service Manual.worldofspectrum.htm.cgi?mag=SinclairUser/Issue068/Pages/SinclairUser06800002.uk /021/hardwre. "Clones and variants" (http://www. Max (November 1986).sincuser. http://www.wikipedia. Chris. ^ "Clive discovers games — at last" (http://www..ZX Spectrum . Real Decreto 1250/1985. "The new Sinclair has one big disk advantage" (http://www. Your Sinclair (17): 22–23.f9. ^ Spital. Referencia: 1985/18847. 35.f9. Franco (February 1987).co.53. Referencia: 1985/15611. http://www. Sinclair User (21): 35.boe.. 33. ^ South. ^ Spectrum +2B/+3B Service Manual.boe.sincuser. December 1983.f9.nvg.htm) .ntnu. Crash (39).uk/articles /spectrumplustworeview. 34. "ZX Spectrum +2" (http://www. Rango: Real Decreto. ^ ZX Spectrum 128 Manual p.sincuser.worldofspectrum.worldofspectrum.uk/39/z88. Real Decreto 1558/1985.worldofspectrum.worldofspectrum.ysrnry. http://www. Retrieved 29 August 2006. ^ Adams. http://www. Retrieved 5 August 2008.sincuser.htm) .

Franco (March 1987). ^ "Hardware World: Emperor Looks Good" (http://www.org. CRASH (27): 100.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum 40. the free encyclopedia https://en.jpg. and Bradbeer.worldofspectrum. ^ Brown.worldofspectrum.html) . http://www.org/ZXSpectrumIntroduction /contents. http://www.org /showmag.htm) .pitcalc. "Retrospectrum" (http://www.worldofspectrum. Retrieved 9 August 2007. http://www.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue38/Pages/Crash3800082. ZX Computing: 76–77.uk/Spectrum/vu-3d.org/ZXSpectrumIntroduction/chapter_six.htm) .uk /031/hardwre.org /infoseekadv.org/showmag. Sinclair Research Ltd.co. "Tech Niche: Pure Gospel" (http://www.crashonline.sincuser. Alasdair (October/November 1983).jpg. "Archive!" (http://www. http://www.ntnu.worldofspectrum. ^ McCandless.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/spec_sst. Retrieved 5 August 2008.html) . 50. Retrieved 10 August 2007. 54.nvg. Sinclair and the "Sunrise" Technology: The Deconstruction of a Myth (http://www.com/. Retrieved 18 January 2007. http://www. ^ Frey.pitcalc.f9.bioeddie.crashonline.worldofspectrum.org /showmag.worldofspectrum.jpg.org/archive.. 52.jpg) .uk /043/sftwreb.htm) . Sinclair ZX Spectrum: Introduction (http://www. Penguin Books Ltd. Steven. Ian. 53.jpg) .f9. John (October 1985).uk /031/hardwre.jpg) .jpg) .cgi?mag=Crash/Issue38/Pages /Crash3800082. Daily Telegraph. Paul N.no/sinclair/computers /zxspectrum/spec_sst.org/showmag.co.jpg. ^ Carter.worldofspectrum. Retrieved 5 August 2008. Sinclair User (31): 31.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue05/Pages /Crash0500126.worldofspectrum.wikipedia.co.com/) . 45.uk/27/specdrum.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8210/Pages/ZXComputing821000075.org/archive.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue05/Pages/Crash0500126.Wikipedia.jpg) . Nick (October/November 1982).org /showmag. World of Spectrum. Martijn. ^ Vickers.worldofspectrum. 41. Retrieved 16 September 2008. http://www.sincuser.htm. http://www. David (17 September 1998).html) .no/sinclair /sinclair/clive_dt170998. /Crash3700086.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue26/Pages/Crash2600086. "VU-3D" (http://www.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8210/Pages/ZXComputing821000076.htm) .worldofspectrum.ntnu. "Zap! Pow! Boom!" (http://www. ^ a b Pearce. http://www. 43. "Pitcalc — simple interactive coordinate & trigonometric calculation software" (http://www. Retrieved 5 August 2008. "6. Retrieved 11 August 2006. "Tech Niche: SpecDrum" (http://www. ^ Adamson.htm) .sincuser.cgi?type=Astro) . http://www. ^ Bates.ZX Spectrum .nvg.htm. ^ "Psion Vu-3D" (http://www. "World of Spectrum" (http://www.org. Retrieved 5 August 2008. Franco (March 1986).worldofspectrum.sincuser. Steven (June 1984). p.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue37/Pages/Crash3700086.org /infoseekadv.cgi?type=Astro.worldofspectrum.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8210/Pages /ZXComputing821000075.no /sinclair/sinclair/clive_dt170998. ISBN 0-14-008774-5.co. 42.org /showmag. ZX Computing: 75. Robin (1982). http://www. Retrieved 16 September 2008.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.jpg) .org /showmag.org /showmag. CRASH (37): 86–87.ntnu. CRASH! (5): 126.f9.nvg. ^ Frey.org/showmag.co.htm. 20/07/12 09:48 15 of 17 . "Art Studio" (http://www.uk/043/sftwreb.ntnu. Sinclair User (43): 28.worldofspectrum. 21.cgi?mag=ZXComputing /Issue8210/Pages/ZXComputing821000076. http://www. http://www. CRASH (38): 82–83. ^ a b van der Heide. ^ Wetherill. Retrieved 30 October 2007.htm.org /ZXSpectrumIntroduction/chapter_six.uk /27/specdrum.html. Richard Kennedy (30 October 1986).worldofspectrum.jpg.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue26/Pages /Crash2600086.org/showmag. Martijn.jpg. 48. Jon (April 1986).worldofspectrum. Retrieved 18 January 2007. 47.nvg. 49.htm) . http://www. 44. http://www. October 1984. Retrieved 5 August 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. "Tasword Two: The Word Processor" (http://www. CRASH (36): 86.uk/Spectrum/vu-3d.bioeddie.htm. ^ van der Heide.worldofspectrum. 46. ^ Gilbert. "Tech Niche: Multifaceted device" (http://www.htm.worldofspectrum. http://www. 51.co.html. Using the cassette recorder" (http://www. http://www.f9.

"World of Spectrum — Software — Copyrights and Distribution Permissions" (http://www. Jim. http://equ. Retrieved 11 August 2007.html) 16 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 . Retrieved 18 January 2007.sunderland. Retrieved 10 September 2008.htm) . Retrieved 12 September 2008.sunderland. TV Cream's Top Shelf.in/ox/spectrum/music/.html) .uk/016/news.crashonline. http://newton.globalnet.htm) .htm) . 63.wikipedia. http://www. Cathy (November 1985).worldofspectrum.uk/lshistory8. Retrieved 16 September 2008.The Dawn of Llamasoft" (http://www.htm. Retrieved 13 June 2007." (http://tv.org/permits/. the free encyclopedia https://en. http://www. ^ van der Heide. CRASH (4): 46–47. Retrieved 16 September 2008. ^ "The YS Top 100 Speccy Games Of All Time (Ever!)" (http://www.users.llamasoft. World of Spectrum.worldofspectrum.org /specialassignments/topshelf/arjcomp. "Books" (http://www.llamasoft.theoldcomputer. Retrieved 12 September 2008. 62. http://www. http://www.cream. 60.org/taper.co.crashonline.softpanorama.uk/articles /ystop100.htm.globalnet.org. http://www.com.uk/~specfreak /Schemes/schemes.org. ^ "St.co.com /roms/index. ^ van der Heide.htm. ^ Barker. World of Spectrum.org/books. ^ "News" (http://www.ZX Spectrum . Retrieved 8 May 2012.php?folder=Sinclair/Spectrum) World of Spectrum (http://www.uk/articles /ystop100. 64.htm.google.com /doodles/st-georges-day-the-30th-anniversary-of-the-zx-spectrum) . http://www. Retrieved 19 August 2006.cream. "Llamasoft History — Part 8 .ysrnry. Google.co.uk/04/microdv.f9. Retrieved 10 August 2006. Sinclair User (16): 17. Portraits of Open Source Pioneers.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum 55. "Epicventuring and Multiplayer Networking" (http://www.org/Computers/Systems/Sinclair/ZX_Spectrum/) at the Open Directory Project Online Games (http://www. Martijn.uk /~specfreak/Schemes/schemes.sincuser.org/People/Cox/index.worldofspectrum.worldofspectrum. July 1983. External links ZX Spectrum (http://www. http://tv. ^ Grimwood.ac.worldofspectrum.co.html) .crashonline. 58.shtml.uk/22/opinion.worldofspectrum. Your Sinclair (70): 31.ru/zx.f9. 65.htm.htm.uk/~jg27paw4/typeins/typehome.php) . "Sinclair Inforseek" (http://www.co.org/taper. ^ Minter.dmoz.org /infoseekadv.uk/~jg27paw4/type-ins/typehome. comics and papers of the near past.es/) ZX Spectrum Software and Games (http://www. Retrieved 18 September 2008.shtml) . World of Spectrum.org.co. Nikolai.uk/lshistory8. October 1991.org/permits/) . http://www.uk /22/opinion. 56. Martijn. 61. ^ Foot.html.co. 67. ^ van der Heide.org /infoseekadv. ^ "The Top Shelf — magazines.uk/04/microdv. 57. ^ Collins. 68.crashonline. http://www.org/People/Cox/index.co.worldofspectrum.ysrnry.Wikipedia. "Alan Cox: and the Art of Making Beta Code Work" (http://www.com/doodles/st-georges-day-the-30th-anniversary-of-the-zx-spectrum.htm) .html. Martijn.ac. Paul Equinox. CRASH (22): 8. ^ Bezroukov.zxspectrum.html.htm) . http://www. ^ van der Heide. "Taper" (http://www.cgi?type=Copy. Martijn. "Spectrum references in popular music" (http://equ.users. "The Type Fantastic" (http://www. Retrieved 26 September 2007.org/) Page on site VRCP Soft for ZX Spectrum (http://vrcp. World of Spectrum.php.cgi?type=Copy) . 59. http://www.org /specialassignments/topshelf/arjcomp.worldofspectrum.org. "ZX Spectrum Loading Schemes" (http://newton. 66.org/books.html) . http://www.in /ox/spectrum/music/) . Retrieved 17 September 2008. http://www.sincuser.google. Jeff. Retrieved 18 September 2008. Andy.uk/016/news. 69. Franco (May 1984).worldofspectrum. ^ Frey.htm) . George's Day / The 30th Anniversary of the ZX Spectrum" (http://www.softpanorama. "Microdrive revisited" (http://www.

worldofspectrum.wikipedia.nvg. 17 of 17 20/07/12 09:48 ..com/) Retrieved from "http://en. Edit -> Escape) (http://www. Inc. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. iPod Touch) (http://ispeccy.Wikipedia. Online ZX Spectrum emulator in Javascript for iOS devices (iPhone.org/ZXBasicManual/) iSpeccy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.zxspectrum.ntnu.ZX Spectrum .no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum /zxspectrum.co.uk/) Sinclair Spectrum development (http://www.wearmouth.com/photos/9574086@N02 /sets/72157600607571866/) The Anatomy/Dissection of a Spectrum +2B (http://deviate.net/) ZX Spectrum Basic Handbook (http://www. additional terms may apply.org/w/index.org/wiki/Sinclair_ZX_Spectrum Planet Sinclair (http://www.demon. a non-profit organization.htm) The Incomplete Spectrum ROM Assembly and actual assembly listing (http://www.wikipedia.flickr.php?title=ZX_Spectrum& oldid=496587593" Categories: ZX Spectrum English inventions Home computers Products introduced in 1982 Sinclair Research This page was last modified on 8 June 2012 at 12:10.html) ZX Spectrum online emulator in Java (Symbol Shift -> Windows. iPad. See Terms of use for details. the free encyclopedia https://en.fi/~uridium/speccy /speccy.