Voynich manuscript - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Voynich manuscript
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Voynich manuscript, described as "the world's most [3] is a mysterious manuscript", work which dates to the early 15th century, possibly from northern [1][2] It is named after the Italy. book dealer Wilfrid Voynich, who purchased it in 1912.

Voynich Manuscript
Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University MS 408

Some pages are missing, but the current version comprises about 240 vellum pages, most with illustrations. Much of the manuscript resembles herbal manuscripts of the time period, seeming to present illustrations and information about plants and One of the foldout pages in the Voynich manuscript their possible uses for medical Type Manuscript codex purposes. However, most of the Date Early 15th century [1][2] plants do not match known species, and the manuscript's Place of Possibly northern Italy [1][2] script and language remain origin unknown and unreadable. Possibly Material Vellum some form of encrypted ciphertext, the Voynich manuscript has been Size 23.5 by 16.2 by 5 centimetres (9.3 by studied by many professional and 6.4 by 2.0 in); about 240 pages amateur cryptographers, including American and British codebreakers from both World War I and World War II. As yet, it has defied all decipherment attempts, becoming a cause célèbre of historical cryptology. The mystery surrounding it has excited the popular imagination, making the manuscript a subject of both fanciful theories and novels. None of the many speculative solutions proposed over the last [4] hundred years has yet been independently verified. The Voynich manuscript was donated to Yale University's Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library in 1969, where it is catalogued under call number MS 408 and [5][6] called a "Cipher Manuscript".

1 Content 1.1 Text 1.2 Illustrations

1 of 21

10/11/12 10:22

Voynich manuscript - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


2 3


5 6 7 8 9

1.3 Purpose History Authorship hypotheses 3.1 Fabrication by Voynich 3.2 Other theories 3.3 Hoax Language hypotheses 4.1 Constructed language 4.2 Ciphers 4.3 Codes 4.4 Micrography 4.5 Steganography 4.6 Exotic natural language 4.7 Glossolalia 4.8 Hybrid language Cultural impact See also References Further reading External links

The manuscript measures 23.5 by 16.2 by 5 centimetres (9.3 by 6.4 by 2.0 in), with hundreds of vellum pages collected into eighteen quires. It is made up of, depending on how some of its unusual fold-out multi-part pages are counted, approximately 240 pages in total. The top righthand corner of each recto (righthand) page has been numbered from 1 to 116, probably by one of the manuscript's later owners. From the various numbering gaps, it seems likely that in the past the manuscript had at least 272 pages, some of which were already missing when Wilfrid Voynich acquired the manuscript in 1912. There is strong evidence that many of the book's bifolios were reordered at various points in its history, and that the original page order may well have been quite [7][8] different from what we see today. Based on modern analysis, it has been determined that a quill pen and iron gall ink were used for the text and figure outlines. Colored paint was applied (somewhat [8] crudely) to the figures, possibly at a later date.

The text was clearly written from left to right, with a slightly ragged right margin. Longer sections are broken into paragraphs, sometimes with star- or flower-like "bullets" in the left margin. There is no obvious punctuation, and no indications of any errors or corrections made at any place in the document. The ductus flows smoothly, giving the impression that the symbols were not enciphered, as there is no delay between characters as would normally be expected in written encoded text. Whoever the scribe was, he or she was practiced in writing the script. However, such writing

2 of 21

10/11/12 10:22

For instance. there are instances where the same common word appears up to three times in a row. The text seems to be more repetitive than typical European languages. On the other hand. Friedman in the 1940s. usually separated from each other by narrow gaps. except for two words in the main script. Most of the glyphs are written with one or two simple pen strokes.or two-letter words. While Semitic alphabets have many letters that are written differently depending on whether they occur at the beginning.Voynich manuscript . certain characters must appear in each word (like English vowels). some may be doubled or tripled but others may not. The lettering resembles European alphabets of 3 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . The first major one was created by cryptographer William F. etc. some only at the end. Words that differ by only one letter also repeat with unusual frequency. or in only a few pages.wikipedia. Statistical analysis of the text reveals patterns similar to those of natural languages. such as the European Voynich Alphabet. A page showing characteristics of the text Wider gaps divide the text into about 35. In the herbal section. The distribution of letters within words is also rather peculiar: some characters occur only at the beginning of a word. The text consists of over 170. where each line of the manuscript was transcribed to an IBM [9] punch card to make it machine-readable. in the middle or at the end of a word. Elizebeth Friedman in 1962 described [11] such attempts as "doomed to utter frustration". Cyrillic. the exceptions are a few dozen rarer characters that occur only once or twice each. the Voynich manuscript's "language" is quite unlike European languages in several aspects. There are very few repetitions among the thousand or so "labels" attached to the illustrations. the word entropy (about 10 bits per word) is similar to that of English or Latin [10] Some words occur only in certain sections. others texts. some characters never follow others. there are four lines of writing written in rather distorted Latin letters. There are only a few words in the manuscript written in a seemingly Latin script. e. letters of the Latin. such as a wax tablet or separate manuscript.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript fluency could also be achieved by copying prepared coded text from some other source.000 "words" of varying length. occur throughout the manuscript.g. an alphabet with 20–30 glyphs would account for virtually all of the text.. the first word on each page occurs only on that page and may possibly be the name of the plant. the free encyclopedia https://en. and Greek alphabets are generally written the same way regardless of their position within a word (with the Greek letter sigma and the obsolete long s being notable exceptions). There are practically no words comprising more than ten glyphs. yet there are also few one.000 discrete glyphs. causing single-substitution alphabet decipherings to yield babble-like text. On the last page. to equate the Voynich glyphs with Latin characters in order to help with cryptanalysis.Wikipedia. These seem to follow phonological or orthographic laws of some sort. and some always in the middle section. While there is some dispute as to whether certain glyphs are distinct or not. Various transcription alphabets have been created.

Some parts of these drawings are larger and cleaner copies of sketches seen in the "pharmaceutical" section. with spelling suggestive of the medieval languages of France. mostly showing small naked women. bathing in pools or tubs connected by an elaborate network of pipes. a hunter with crossbow for Sagittarius.). Following are the sections and their conventional names: Herbal Each page displays one plant (sometimes two) and a few paragraphs of text—a format typical of European herbals of the time. etc. Cosmological More circular diagrams. The last two pages of this section (Aquarius and Capricornus. Pharmaceutical Many labeled drawings of isolated plant parts (roots. Illustrations The illustrations of the manuscript shed little light on the precise nature of its text but imply that the book consists of six "sections". One series of 12 diagrams depicts conventional symbols for the zodiacal constellations (two fish for Pisces. Most of the females are at least partly naked. but the words do not seem to make sense in any [12] Also. etc. ten of the months (from March to December) written in Latin script. Some of these diagrams are on fold-out pages. ranging in style from the mundane to the fantastical. and each holds what appears to be a labeled star or is shown with the star attached by what could be a tether or cord of some kind to either arm. the original text or were added later. a series of diagrams in the "astronomical" section has the names of language. None of the plants depicted is unambiguously identifiable. northwest Italy or the Iberian [13] However.Wikipedia. Each of these has 30 female figures arranged in two or more concentric bands.). some of them with "biological" section of the suns. leaves. which contains only text. some wearing crowns. almost every page contains at least one illustration. moons. objects resembling apothecary jars. suggestive of astronomy or manuscript astrology. Except for the last section. Recipes 4 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . it is not known whether these bits of Latin script were part of Peninsula. the free encyclopedia https://en. while Aries and Taurus are split into four paired diagrams with 15 women and 15 stars each. with nine "islands" or "rosettes" connected by "causeways" and containing castles. one of them spans six pages and contains a map or diagram. but of an obscure nature.wikipedia. a bull for Taurus. and a few text paragraphs. and stars. some of them strongly reminiscent of body organs. Biological A dense continuous text interspersed with figures. This section also has foldouts. Astronomical A detail from the Contains circular diagrams. with different styles and subject matter.Voynich manuscript .org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript the late 14th and 15th centuries. roughly January and February) were lost. as well as what may possibly be a volcano.

chamomile. and one diagram possibly showing the classical planets. no one has been able to interpret the illustrations within known astrological traditions (European or otherwise). Purpose The overall impression given by the surviving leaves of the manuscript is that it was meant to serve as a pharmacopoeia or to address topics in medieval or early modern medicine. antiquarian William Romaine Newbold [14] interpreted as a picture of a galaxy. In fact.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript Many short paragraphs. with flowers from a third. which includes the common daisy. each marked with a flower. [15] Newbold's analysis has since been dismissed as overly speculative. A circular drawing in the "astronomical" section depicts an irregularly shaped object with four curved arms. either with actual specimens or with the stylized drawings of contemporary herbals. the plant could be many other members of the same family. the resemblance is slight.wikipedia. except that missing parts were completed with improbable-looking details. apart from the obvious Zodiac symbols. and many other species from all over the world. which could only be obtained with a telescope. which would help date the manuscript and open up intriguing possibilities for its origin. the free encyclopedia https://en. and the purpose for which it was intended. he interpreted other drawings as cells seen through a microscope. The first section of the book is almost certainly herbal. However. in 1928.Wikipedia.or star-like "bullet". However. Astrological considerations frequently played a prominent role in herb gathering. Brumbaugh believed that one illustration depicted a New World sunflower.Voynich manuscript . the puzzling details of illustrations have fueled many theories about the book's origins. However. and. especially when compared to the original wild species. Those herbal pictures that match pharmacological sketches appear to be clean copies of these. many of the plant drawings in the herbal section seem to be composite: the roots of one species have been fastened to the leaves of another. the contents of its text. bloodletting and other medical procedures common during the likeliest dates of the manuscript. yet bear little obvious resemblance to the alchemical equipment of the period. Similarly. but attempts to identify the plants. A three-page foldout from the manuscript including a chart that appears astronomical 5 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . which. since the scale of the drawing is not known. Few of the plant drawings (such as a wild pansy and the maidenhair fern) can be identified with reasonable certainty. have largely failed. However. The basins and tubes in the "biological" section are sometimes interpreted as implying a connection to alchemy.

University of Arizona researchers performed C14 dating on the manuscript's vellum. the book once belonged to Emperor Rudolf II (1552–1612). Research Institute in Chicago found that the paints in the manuscript were of materials to be expected from that period of European history. the head of Rudolf's botanical gardens. which they assert (with 95% confidence) was [2][17][18] In addition. he was interested enough to try to acquire the book. It was brought to modern attention in 1912 when it was purchased at the Villa Mondragone. Tepenecz's name can be seen faintly on the first page of the manuscript. the free encyclopedia https://en. Horcicky de Tepenecz (died 1622). but the official report contains no statement to this [8] effect. who a few years later sent the book to Kircher. It is not known whether Kircher answered the request.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript History Much of the early history of the book is unknown.Wikipedia. Athanasius Kircher. When Voynich first discovered the manuscript. his longtime friend and correspondent. Upon Baresch's death. asking for clues. Baresch sent a sample copy of the script to Kircher in Rome (twice). but apparently. Joannes Marcus Marci (1595–1667) sent the manuscript to Athanasius Kircher in 1666 In 2009. the manuscript passed to his friend Jan Marek Marci (1595–1667) (Johannes Marcus Marci). Father in Christ: This book.Voynich manuscript .[16] though the text and illustrations are all characteristically European. Based on a 1666 letter that accompanied the manuscript when it was being sent from Johannes Marcus to Athanasius Kircher. With modern ultraviolet lighting methods. His 1639 letter to Kircher is the earliest confirmed mention of the manuscript that has been found so far. by antique book dealer Wilfrid Voynich. the McCrone made between 1404 and 1438. I destined for you. Baresch apparently was just as puzzled as modern scientists about this "Sphynx" that had been [19] On learning that "taking up space uselessly in his library" for many years. which Baresch refused to yield. a Jesuit scholar from the Collegio Romano. an obscure alchemist in Prague. It has also been suggested that the McCrone Research Institute found that much of the ink was added not long after the creation of the parchment. near Rome. The next confirmed owner is Georg Baresch. who paid 600 gold ducats (approximately [citation needed] The book was then given or lent to Jacobus USD $80. bequeathed to me by an intimate friend. then rector of Charles University in Prague.wikipedia. and the handwriting is consistent with Tepenecz's name in other books [citation needed] that he owned. Marci's 1666 cover letter (written in Latin) was still with the manuscript when Voynich purchased [14] it: Reverend and Distinguished Sir. 6 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 .000 in 2011) for it. his first impression was that it dated from the 13th century. had published a Coptic (Egyptian) dictionary and "deciphered" the Egyptian hieroglyphs. my very dear Athanasius.

but in all likelihood it was stored with the rest of Kircher's correspondence in the library of the Collegio Romano (now the Pontifical Gregorian University). — At the command of your Reverence. Frascati. Joannes Marcus Marci of Cronland [14] Prague. to whose favor and kindness I unreservedly commit myself and remain. for I was convinced that it could be read by no one except yourself. copying and sending you a portion of the book from which he believed you would be able to read the remainder. Beckx's "private" library was moved to the Villa Mondragone. The former owner of this book asked your opinion by letter. after his death. Wilfrid Voynich (1865–1930) acquired the manuscript in 1912 Around 1912. It probably remained there until the troops of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy captured the city in 1870 and annexed the Papal States. the Englishman. with your wonted success. for such Sphinxes as these obey no one but their master. as is apparent from attempts of his which I send you herewith. if there are any. Kircher. To its deciphering he devoted unflagging toil. many books of the University's library were hastily transferred to the personal libraries of its faculty. Ethel Lilian Voynich (known as the author of the novel The Gadfly and daughter of famous mathematician George Boole). which were exempt from confiscation. the Collegio Romano was short of money and decided to discreetly sell some of its holdings.wikipedia. On this point I suspend judgement. But his toil was in vain. including the library of the Collegio. The new Italian government decided to confiscate many properties of the Church. 1666 There are no records of the book for the next 200 years. She died in 1960 and left 7 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 .Wikipedia. Accept now this token. as it still bears the ex libris of Petrus Beckx. just before this happened. head of the Jesuit order and the University's Rector at the time. told me the said book belonged to the Emperor Rudolph and that he presented to the bearer who brought him the book 600 ducats. among them the manuscript that now bears his name. a tutor in the Bohemian language to Ferdinand III. and burst through its bars.Voynich manuscript . a large country palace near Rome that had been bought by the Society of Jesus in 1866 and housed the headquarters of the Jesuits' Ghislieri College. such as it is and long overdue though it be. the free encyclopedia https://en. and he relinquished hope only with his life. it is your place to define for us what view we should take thereon. He believed the author was Roger Bacon. 19th August. the manuscript was inherited by his widow.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript as soon as it came into my possession. According to investigations by Xavier Ceccaldi and others. Wilfrid Voynich acquired 30 manuscripts. In 1930. of my affection for you. Dr. then King of Bohemia. Raphael. but he at that time refused to send the book itself. Kircher's correspondence was among those books—and so apparently was the Voynich manuscript.

831. Mathematician John Dee (1527–1608) may have sold the manuscript to Emperor Rudolf around 1600 Fabrication by Voynich 8 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . the late Raphael Mnishovsky. because Dee's meticulously kept diaries do not mention that sale. the book had once been bought by Rudolf II. where it was catalogued as "MS 408". (Mnishovsky had died 22 years earlier. Dee and his scrier (mediumic assistant) Edward Kelley lived in Bohemia for several years. it is sometimes also referred to as "Beinecke MS 408". he claimed to be able to invoke angels through a shewstone and had long conversations with them. If the Voynich manuscript author is not Bacon. after Enoch.20 as of 2011). which Dee dutifully noted down. Kraus donated the [20] In manuscript to Yale University in 1969. the free encyclopedia https://en. In 1961. and the deal must have occurred before Rudolf's abdication in 1611—at least 55 years before Marci's letter. a mathematician and astrologer at the court of Queen Elizabeth I. However. Authorship hypotheses Many people have been proposed as possible authors of the Voynich manuscript. was a self-styled alchemist who claimed to be able to turn copper into gold by means of a secret powder that he had dug out of a Bishop's tomb in Wales. the Biblical father of Methuselah. according to legend. Hans P . The assumption that Roger Bacon was the author led Voynich to conclude that the person who sold the manuscript to Rudolf could only have been John Dee (1527–1608). in 1644. this seems quite unlikely. around US$80. he had been taken on a tour of heaven by angels and had later [citation needed] written a book about what he saw there.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript the manuscript to her close friend.42 troy ounce actual gold weight.Wikipedia. it was taken quite seriously by Wilfrid Voynich. for 600 ducats (66. It is possible that Dee himself may have written it and spread the rumor that it was originally a work of Bacon's in the hopes of later selling it. Miss Anne Nill.Voynich manuscript . His conviction strongly influenced most deciphering attempts for the next 80 years. this claim. Edward Kelley. Several people have suggested that Kelley could have fabricated the Voynich manuscript to swindle the emperor (who was already paying Kelley for his supposed alchemical expertise). discussions. Dee's companion in Prague. a supposed connection to Dee is much weakened. Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia (1552–1612). according to his friend. where they had hoped to sell their services to the emperor.) According to the letter. As Dee's scrier. The angels' language was called Enochian. This theory is also conveyed by Voynich manuscript scholar Gordon Rugg. Unable to find a buyer. Marci's 1666 cover letter to Kircher says that. Kraus. who did his best to confirm it. known to have owned a large collection of Bacon's manuscripts. Mnishovsky (but not necessarily Rudolf) speculated that the author was the Franciscan friar and polymath Roger Bacon [21] Even though Marci said that he was "suspending his judgment" about (1214–94). Nill sold the book to another antique book dealer.wikipedia.

It has therefore been speculated that political animosity against the Jesuits led Marci to fabricate Baresch's letters. who was also known by his Latin name: Jacobus Sinapius (1575–1622). while. the chemicals applied by Voynich have so degraded the vellum that hardly a trace of the signature can be seen today. and Kircher was an easy target. 9 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . showed some faint writing that had been erased.Voynich manuscript . there is also the suspicion that the signature was fabricated by Voynich in order to strengthen the Roger Bacon theory. and later the Voynich manuscript. that writing does not match Jacobus's signature. In spite of those efforts. (In the Jesuit history books that were available to Kircher. these letters could possibly have been the motivation for Voynich to fabricate the manuscript (assuming he was aware of them). taken by Voynich sometime before 1921. This is taken to be Jakub Hořčický of Tepenec. Rudolph II's personal physician. the free encyclopedia https://en. He was a specialist in herbal medicine. With the help of chemicals. Indeed. Marci's trip was part of a continuing struggle by the secularist side of the university to maintain their independence from the Jesuits. possible that the writing on page f1r was added by a later owner or librarian and is only this person's guess as to the book's author. he probably had the necessary knowledge and means. Tycho Brahe is barely mentioned.) Moreover. thus. rather than as proofs authenticating it. Marci's personality and knowledge appear to have been adequate for this task. and many other people after him. the two scholars exchanged many letters on a variety of scientific subjects.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript Some suspected Voynich of having fabricated the manuscript himself. in an attempt to expose and discredit their "star" Kircher. the text could be read as the name "Jacobj à Tepenece". Other theories A photostatic reproduction of the first page of the Voynich manuscript. and a "lost book" by Roger Bacon would have been worth a fortune. In other words.Wikipedia. Jesuit-educated Jacobus is the only alchemist or doctor from Rudolf's court who deserves a full-page entry. However. who ran the rival Clementinum college in Prague. as [23] It is found in a document located by Jan Hurych in 2003. under Jesuit control. and over the next 27 years. However.wikipedia. and curator of his botanical gardens. Baresch's letter (and Marci's as well) only establish the existence of a manuscript. the two universities were merged in 1654. might have created the manuscript as a fraud. Others have suggested [citation needed] that Jacobus himself could be the author. Jan Marek Marci met Kircher when he led a delegation from Charles University to Rome in 1638. Voynich.[22] As an antique book dealer. Baresch's letter bears some resemblance to a hoax Edward Kelley (1555–97). not that the Voynich manuscript is the same one spoken of there. many consider the expert internal dating of the manuscript and the recent discovery of Baresch's letter to [22] Kircher as having eliminated this possibility. Furthermore. concluded from this "signature" that Jacobus owned the Voynich manuscript before Baresch and saw in that a confirmation of Mnishovsky's story. for example.

and. an Italian Renaissance architect. Indeed. there is no definite evidence for this theory. Mnishovsky (so the theory goes) may have thought that stumping him would be a much better trophy than stumping Baresch and convinced the alchemist to ask the Jesuit's help. shortly before his death in 1667. However. whose works include A Little Herbal. Although the Voynich manuscript does contain sections resembling A Little Herbal. Echoing John Tiltman's analysis. From a 1465 letter by Francesco Filelfo. Averlino . reportedly.wikipedia.constructed the Voynich manuscript to carry his own books of engineering and military secrets. the friend of Marci who was the reputed source of Bacon's story. produced one at once.according to Pelling's hypothesis . This has led to the theory that he produced the Voynich manuscript as a practical demonstration of his cipher and made poor Baresch his unwitting test subject. was himself a cryptographer (among many other things) and apparently invented a cipher that he claimed was uncrackable (ca. After Kircher published his book on Coptic.Wikipedia. Some pages of the manuscript fold out to show larger diagrams. Leonell C. He would have invented the Roger Bacon story to motivate Baresch. the disclaimer in the Voynich manuscript cover letter could mean that Marci suspected a lie. Marci's secret grudge against the Jesuits is pure conjecture: a faithful Catholic.Voynich manuscript .org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript that orientalist Andreas Mueller once played on Kircher. He asked Kircher for a translation. he was granted honorary membership in their Order. 1618). the Venetian border guards in Crete had sent Matteo di Andrea de' Pasti back to Venice in chains for carrying a copy of Roberto Valturio's De Re Militari on a similar journey East on behalf of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. a cancer research scientist and amateur cryptographer. To avoid this outcome on his own journey to the Ottoman Empire. the main argument against this theory is that it is unknown where Ascham would have obtained such literary and cryptographic knowledge. it is known that Averlino intended travelling to Constantinople: yet not long before in September 1461. he himself had studied to become a Jesuit. The only proofs of Georg Baresch's existence are three letters sent to Kircher: one by Baresch (1639). Strong. and Kircher. the free encyclopedia https://en. Mueller concocted an unintelligible manuscript and sent it to Kircher with a note explaining that it had come from Egypt. Strong claimed that the plaintext revealed the Voynich manuscript to be written by the 16th-century English author Anthony Ascham. [7] Nick Pelling proposed that the Voynich manuscript was written by In his 2006 book. published in 1550. believed that the solution to the Voynich manuscript was a "peculiar double system of arithmetical progressions of a multiple alphabet". Antonio Averlino (also known as "Filarete"). precisely with the Voynich manuscript "cover letter". Pelling conjectures that the manuscript was enciphered using a broad set of simple cryptographic and steganographic components appropriate to the mid-15th century: and that these were consciously arranged in a complicated system so as to 10 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . However. Raphael Mnishovsky. It is also curious that the correspondence between Marci and Kircher ends in 1666. and two by Marci (about a year later).

In other words. the suspicious contents of its illustrations (such as the chimeric plants) and its lack of historical reference support the idea that the manuscript is a hoax. their incorrect guesses at what these had originally read caused them to become unreadable.Voynich manuscript . if no one in the expected audience (that is. He also concludes that most of the marginalia were added by the original author. which would have been selected and combined by means of a [28][29] The latter device. [24] Italian artist Luigi Serafini Between 1976 and 1978.wikipedia. His Codex Seraphinianus also contains pictures of imaginary plants. perhaps this is because the document contains no meaningful content in the first place. is that the manuscript appears too sophisticated to be a hoax. the creator's contemporaries) could tell the difference? Various hoax theories have been proposed over time: In 2003. and the grille method could be used to emulate any language to a certain [30] degree. and suffixes. with enough determination. proved that. but that when later owners tried to physically restore the badly faded text. the free encyclopedia https://en. a study by Austrian researcher Andreas Schinner published in [31] Schinner showed that the statistical Cryptologia supported the hoax hypothesis. The colors are still Voynich manuscript exhibits many subtle characteristics vibrant. was perforated paper overlay. if no one is able to extract meaning from the book. and a language that has [25][26][27] been studied by linguists for decades. and some of the complexities are only visible with modern tools. more than 100 years after the estimated creation date of the Voynich manuscript. on the other hand. The argument for authenticity. In April 2007. such a text can be created.Wikipedia. Some maintain that the similarity between the pseudo-texts generated in Gordon Rugg's experiments and the Voynich manuscript is superficial. computer scientist Gordon Rugg showed that text with characteristics similar to the Voynich manuscript could have been produced using a table of word prefixes. These fine touches require much more work than would have been necessary for a simple forgery. Hoax The bizarre features of the Voynich manuscript text (such as the doubled and tripled words). the 32. The question then arises: why would the author employ such a complex and laborious forging algorithm in the creation of a simplistic hoax. invented around 1550 as an encryption tool. stems.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript produce ciphertext resembling a medieval document in an unknown language. known as a Cardan grille. which show up only after careful statistical analysis. properties of the manuscript's text were more consistent with meaningless gibberish 11 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . A floral illustration on page While hoaxes of the period tended to be quite crude. complete with apparent consonant-vowel pairing of letters and fake page references.

My analysis [14] seemed to me to reveal a cumbersome mixture of different kinds of substitution". the Voynich manuscript contains a meaningful text in some European language. 12 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 .Voynich manuscript . This has been the working hypothesis for most twentieth-century deciphering attempts.Wikipedia. categories are subdivided by adding suffixes.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript produced using a quasi-stochastic method such as the one described by Rugg. including an informal team of NSA cryptographers led by William F. as attested by John Wilkins's Philosophical Language (1668). etc. It was clear that the productions of these two men were much too systematic. Friedman to conjecture that the text could be a constructed language. Friedman disclosed to me his belief that the basis of the script was a very primitive form of synthetic universal language such as was developed in the form of a philosophical classification of ideas by Bishop Wilkins in 1667 and Dalgarno a little later. Ciphers According to the "letter-based cipher" theory. In 1950. In most known examples. However. all plant names would begin with similar letters. but Tiltman did not share this conclusion. Mr. "After reading my report. written in an unknown script even Roger Bacon knew about ciphers. The concept of an artificial language is quite old. than with Latin and medieval German texts. In a paper in 1967. Brigadier Tiltman said. the free encyclopedia https://en. but still postdates the generally accepted origin of the Voynich manuscript by two centuries. that was intentionally rendered obscure by mapping it to the Voynich manuscript "alphabet" through a cipher of some sort—an algorithm that operated on individual letters. and likewise for all diseases. a text in a particular subject would have many words with similar prefixes—for example. as a consequence. and anything of the kind would have been almost instantly recognisable. Indeed.wikipedia. and the estimated date for the manuscript roughly coincides with the birth of cryptography in Europe as a relatively systematic discipline. This feature could then explain the repetitious nature of the Voynich text. Friedman asked the British army officer John Tiltman to analyze a few pages of the text. Friedman in the early 1950s. no one has been able yet to assign a [citation needed] plausible meaning to any prefix or suffix in the Voynich manuscript. The main argument for this theory is that the use of a strange alphabet by a European author is awkward to The Voynich manuscript is explain except as an attempt to hide information. Language hypotheses There are many theories about the Voynich manuscript's "language": Constructed language The peculiar internal structure of Voynich manuscript "words" led William F.

the first two lines of page f15v (the image on the right here) contain 'or or or' and 'or or oro r'. forming a second level of script that held the real content of the writing. The main evidence for this theory is that the internal structure and length distribution of many words are similar to those of Roman numerals—which. the free encyclopedia https://en. 'am'. one of the earliest efforts to unlock the book's secrets (and the first of many premature claims of decipherment) was made in 1921 by William Newbold of the University of Pennsylvania. Similarly. 'ar'. while the small number of different lettershapes used implies that we can rule out nomenclator ciphers and homophonic ciphers. first invented by Alberti in the 1460s and including the later Vigenère cipher. etc. with no reliable way to determine which was intended for any given case. it still falls well short of being able to explain all of the Voynich manuscript's odd textual properties. transposition cipher (letter rearrangement). These 13 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 .Wikipedia. Yet even though verbose encipherment is arguably the best match. because these typically employ larger cipher alphabets. These markings were supposed to be based on ancient Greek shorthand. polyalphabetic ciphers. 'ain'.) does suggest that its cipher system may make use of a verbose cipher. where single letters in a plaintext get enciphered into groups of fake letters. 'aiir'. It is also entirely possible that the encryption system started from a fundamentally simple cipher and then augmented it by adding nulls (meaningless symbols).Voynich manuscript . quite unlike the language-like letter distribution the Voynich Manuscript appears to have. but that each apparent "letter" is in fact constructed of a series of tiny markings only discernible under magnification. the Voynich manuscript "words" would actually be codes to be looked up in a "dictionary" or codebook. usually yield ciphertexts where all cipher shapes occur with roughly equal probability. For example. Micrography Following its 1912 rediscovery. 'an'. homophones (duplicate symbols). false word breaks and so on. Newbold's method also required rearranging letters at will until intelligible Latin was produced. Each shorthand character was assumed to have multiple interpretations. Codes According to the "codebook cipher" theory. 'al'. However. would be a natural choice for the codes. 'ol'. because they are very cumbersome to write and to read. His singular hypothesis held that the visible text is meaningless itself. 'air'. 'ee'. However. at the time.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript The counterargument is that almost all cipher systems consistent with that era fail to match what we see in the Voynich manuscript. However. 'eee'. book-based ciphers are viable only for short messages. simple monoalphabetic ciphers can be excluded because the distribution of letter frequencies does not resemble that of any common language. For example. 'aiin'. the presence of many tightly grouped shapes in the Voynich manuscript (such as 'or'. John Matthews Manly of the University of Chicago pointed out serious flaws in this theory. which strongly resemble how Roman numbers such as 'CCC' or 'XXXX' would look if verbosely enciphered.wikipedia. Newbold claimed to have used this knowledge to work out entire paragraphs proving the authorship of Bacon and recording his use of a compound microscope four hundred years before van Leeuwenhoek.

org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript factors alone ensure the system enough flexibility that nearly anything at all could be discerned from the microscopic markings. While those languages generally had native scripts.). This technique. the Voynich manuscript pen strokes seem quite natural. and syllables have a rather rich structure. or the number of letters in each line. the micrography theory is now generally disregarded. and substantially affected by the uneven surface of the vellum. but especially after Vasco da Gama sailed the sea route to the Orient in 1499. Thanks to Manly's thorough refutation. Khmer. as compact or complex as the shapes Newbold made out. However.Voynich manuscript . etc. including doubled and 14 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . This difficulty motivated the invention of several phonetic scripts. Perceiving significance in these artifacts can be attributed to pareidolia. Steganography This theory holds that the text of the Voynich manuscript is mostly meaningless. called steganography. and Burmese). etc. these were notoriously difficult for Western visitors. steganographic claims are hard to prove or disprove. Although evidence of micrography using the [32] it is nowhere near Hebrew language can be traced as far back as the ninth century. when examined at high magnification. In many of these languages. is very old. mainly Sino-Tibetan (Chinese. the free encyclopedia https://en. since stegotexts can be arbitrarily hard to find.wikipedia. history records hundreds of explorers and missionaries who could have done it—even before Marco Polo's thirteenth century journey. time that use letter shape (italic vs. mostly with Latin letters but sometimes with invented alphabets. The Voynich manuscript author could also be a native of East Asia who lived in Europe. Still. this argument is not hugely persuasive. written in the plain with an invented alphabet. An argument against steganography is that having a cipher-like cover text highlights the very existence of the secret message. It has been suggested that the meaningful text could be encoded in the length or shape [33] There are indeed examples of steganography from about that of certain pen strokes. Tibetan. Exotic natural language The linguist Jacques Guy once suggested that the Voynich manuscript text could be some exotic natural language. Close study of the manuscript revealed the markings to be artifacts caused by the way ink cracks as it dries on rough vellum. or who was educated at a European mission. The main argument for this theory is that it is consistent with all statistical properties of the Voynich manuscript text which have been tested so far. the "words" have only one syllable. Austroasiatic (Vietnamese. Lao. this seems somewhat unlikely because the words and letters are not arranged on anything like a regular grid. including tonal patterns. the second letter of every word. This theory has some historical plausibility.g. which would be self-defeating: yet because the cover text no less resembles an unknown natural language.Wikipedia. The word structure is similar to that of many language families of East and Central Asia. and was described by Johannes Trithemius in 1499. Though it has been suggested that the plain text was to be extracted by a Cardan grille of some sort. upright) to hide information. Although the known examples are much later than the Voynich manuscript. but contains meaningful information hidden in inconspicuous details—e.) and possibly Tai (Thai.

However he concludes that if the [36] manuscript is genuine. invented scripts for this purpose are rare. are features of the Chinese agricultural calendar (jie qi. Churchill acknowledges the possibility that the manuscript is a synthetic forgotten language (as advanced by Friedman). inverted and badly copied. Zbigniew Banasik of Poland proposed that the manuscript is plaintext written in the Manchu language and gave a proposed piecemeal translation of the first [35] page of the manuscript. Glossolalia In their 2004 book. short of deciphering the text. but consider it plausible. It also explains the apparent lack of numerals and Western syntactic features (such as articles and copulas). Also. While in glossolalia this often takes place in an invented language (usually made up of fragments of the author's own language). Kennedy and Churchill use Hildegard von Bingen's works to point out similarities between the illustrations she drew when she was suffering from severe bouts of migraine—which can induce a trance-like state prone to glossolalia—and the Voynich manuscript. Prominent features found in both are abundant "streams of stars". or a forgery to be preeminent theories. The main argument against the theory is the fact that no one (including scholars at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing) has been able to find any clear examples of Asian symbolism or Asian science in the illustrations. which have been compared to a Chinese-style book title. Gerry Kennedy and Rob Churchill hint to the possibility that the Voynich manuscript may [36] be a case of glossolalia. In the culminating chapter of their work. the apparent division of the year into 360 degrees (rather than 365 days). Kennedy states his belief that it is a hoax or forgery. the free encyclopedia https://en. and the repetitive nature of the "nymphs" in the biological section. then the author felt compelled to write large amounts of text in a manner which somehow resembles stream of consciousness. In 1976. or due to his own urge. Another possible hint is two large red symbols on the first page.Voynich manuscript . A page from the biological section showing "nymphs" The theory is virtually impossible to prove or disprove.Wikipedia. either due to voices heard. In late 2003. If this is true. mental illness or delusion seems to have affected the author. in groups of 15 and starting with Pisces. Kennedy and Churchill are themselves not convinced of the hypothesis.wikipedia. channeling or outsider art. and the general inscrutability of the illustrations. Hybrid language 15 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . James Child of the National Security Agency proposed that the manuscript was [34] written in a "hitherto unknown North Germanic dialect". 節氣).org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript tripled words (which have been found to occur in Chinese and Vietnamese texts at roughly the same frequency as in the Voynich manuscript).

the Cult of Isis (1987). See also 16 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . The Book of God and Physics: A Novel of the Voynich Mystery by Enrique Joven. First. The manuscript was featured in Season 1. This theory is questioned on several grounds. Second. Rollins. asserts that he has identified in the manuscript a "skeletal syntax several elements of which are reminiscent of certain Germanic languages". [citation needed] constitute a proper facsimile edition. "The Book of Blood and Shadow" by Robin Wasserman. The Voynich Enigma by Baz Cunningham. the Endura ritual involved fasting. to produce a series of syllables that form a mixture of Middle Dutch with many borrowed Old French and Old High German words. Levitov offered no evidence beyond his translation for this theory. The constellations with no celestial analogue are representative of the stars in Isis's mantle. The first facsimile edition was published in 2005. Episode 2 of the National Geographic Channel's TV show Ancient X-Files. which he believed involved venesection: the cutting of a vein to allow the blood to drain into a warm bath. Leo Levitov declared the manuscript a [37] This he defined as "a literary plaintext transcription of a "polyglot oral tongue". this theory places the book's origins in the twelfth or thirteenth century. Jim Child. and PopCo by Scarlett Thomas. including The Voynich Cypher by Russell Blake. The manuscript has also inspired several works of fiction. while the content itself is expressed using "a great deal of [38] obscurity". The women in the basins with elaborate plumbing represent the suicide ritual itself.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript In his book Solution of the Voynich Manuscript: A liturgical Manual for the Endura Rite of the Cathari Heresy. Le Code Voynich: the whole manuscript published with a [39] Because of heavy image cropping this does not quite short presentation in French. He explains that the chimerical plants are not meant to represent any species of flora. which is several centuries earlier than most experts believe based on internal evidence. Episode 3 of the TV show Weird or What?.Voynich manuscript . The Voynich Project: Nephilim Rising by James K. language which would be understandable to people who did not understand Latin and to whom this language could be read". a linguist of Indo-European languages. the free encyclopedia https://en. but are secret symbols of the faith. Third. Time Riders: The Doomsday Code by Alex Scarrow. the Cathar faith is widely understood to have been a Christian gnosticism.wikipedia. the rite of Endura was the assisted suicide ritual for people already believed to be near death. and not generally associated with Isis. Codex by Lev Grossman. not venesection. famously associated with the Cathar faith (although the reality of this ritual is also in question). The manuscript was featured in Season 2. According to Levitov. His proposed decryption has three Voynich letters making a syllable. Cultural impact Many books and articles have been written about the manuscript.

. 2011). ciphermysteries. Post.html) .dtc.com/voynich 17 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . ^ a b c d Stolte. Nicholas John.physorg. Andreas (2011).php?iid=413203&pid=1) (video).library.com/news/2011-02-experts-age.edu/pre1600ms /docs/pre1600.yale.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript Asemic writing Book of Soyga Codex Seraphinianus Constructed script European Voynich Alphabet False document False writing system Fictional language Oera Linda Book Rohonc Codex Rongorongo References 1. http://www.php?iid=413203&pid=1. Retrieved November 2.newyorkfestivals.pdf.library. 2009).edu/digitallibrary/voynich.Wikipedia.findarticles. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Beinecke Library. 1994) (PDF). 5.com /the-voynich-manuscript/voynich-theories. ^ "Palmer.ms408. http://www. 9. E1.wikipedia. Washington D. (2004). Klaus. 2011. (1977). Jim (September 7.pdf) .yale. Beinecke Library.edu /digitallibrary/manuscript/voynich_analysis. 5 August. PhysOrg.yale. Sean B. "Voynich theories" (http://www. Retrieved 2006-11-06. 2011. Friedman's Transcription of the Voynich Manuscript (http://www. 2011. AT&T Bell Laboratories.com/the-voynichmanuscript/voynich-theories) . ^ Brumbaugh.ms408. ^ Landini. 1962.27 (section 4. 10.yale.doi.umn.htm.library. "The Voynich Code — The World's Mysterious Manuscript" (http://www.C.umn. ^ Reeds.4) 12. Compelling Press. The World's Most Mysterious Manuscript.com. 6.com/winners/tvf2011winners /pieces. ^ a b c Barabe. 4. Retrieved February 10. 7.com/winners /tvf2011winners/pieces. Retrieved December 4. Retrieved December 6.Voynich manuscript .ciphermysteries.1080%2F0161-110191889932) . http://brbl-net.edu/~reedsj/voynich/wff. 2.htm) . ^ a b Pelling. Daniel (February 10. the free encyclopedia https://en. Robert S.com/news/2011-02-experts-age.html. William F.dtc. Elizebeth.pdf. 2011. Sulzer.html) . http://beinecke.html. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. "The Most Mysterious MS. ^ a b c Steindl. 11. doi:10. http://beinecke.1080/0161-110191889932 (http://dx.yale.findarticles. E5. Joseph G.org/10. Quoted in Mary D'Imperio's "Elegant Enigma".library.ciphermysteries.com/p/articles/mi_qa3926/is_200110/ai_n8973053/pg_1. 2006. "Materials analysis of the Voynich Manuscript" (http://beinecke.Still an Enigma".edu/digitallibrary/manuscript /voynich_analysis.edu/~reedsj/voynich/wff. Retrieved December 4. 2011. ISBN 0-9553160-0-6 8. (McCrone Associates) (April 1. "Evidence of linguistic structure in the Voynich manuscript using spectral analysis" (http://www. "Experts determine age of book 'nobody can read'" (http://www.yale.physorg. Nick. Gabriel (October 2001).library. 2011. "The Curse of the Voynich: The Secret History of the World's Most Mysterious Manuscript". http://www.edu/digitallibrary/voynich. ^ "MS 408" (http://brbl-net. p. ^ "Voynich Manuscript" (http://beinecke. Cryptologia 25 (4): 275–295. http://www.library.newyorkfestivals. ^ Pelling. "Notes on f116v's Michitonese"" (http://inamidst. 3.edu/pre1600ms/docs/pre1600.pdf) (pdf). http://www.com/p/articles/mi_qa3926 /is_200110/ai_n8973053/pg_1) . ^ Friedman. Retrieved November 6.

p. 2004-09-29. 2011. 29. 19.it/pdf/domenica/2006/05022006.dtic. Pierre (2008). "Voynich Manuscript: Months"" (http://inamidst.com.math.bas. ^ Gordon Rugg. (1978) (PDF).arts.pdf) . ^ a b c d Tiltman. 22.google.gov /public_info/_files/tech_journals/Voynich_Manuscript_Mysterious. ^ "Palmer. The Voynich Manuscript: An Elegant Enigma (http://www.repubblica. 353 ^ D'Imperio. Retrieved 2011-11-17.highereducation) . 24. IT: La Repubblica. ^ "Philip Neal's analysis of Marci's grammar" (http://www.voynich. Georg Baresch to Athanasius Kircher. John H. Google.repubblica.voynich.edu/people/1800s /newbold_wm_romaine. ISBN 1‐4027‐2833‐6.com/voynich/michitonese. M. http://www. http://download. ^ Corrias. (Summer 1967). http://www.org /node/37825) . http://www. 16.keele.com /group/rec.Evidence in 2009 showing that the manuscript is indeed old as had been suspected ^ "University of Arizona announcement of radiocarbon result" (http://uanews.ca/books?id=F9q8BAsXTWEC& pg=PA300&dq=Codex+Seraphinianus%2Bbase+21&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved October 30.mil/cgi-bin /GetTRDoc?AD=ADA070618&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.html) Archives of the Pontificia Università Gregoriana in Rome.pdf) .edu/people/1800s/newbold_wm_romaine. Retrieved 2011-11-17.guardian. http://www.edu.arts.pdf) . 1926-09-06.google.nsa.nu/letters.html) . ^ Letter. ^ Berloquin.html) .math. 27. ^ a b "Origin of the manuscript" (http://www.htm) .html) .com/users/philipneal/seventeenthcentury /raphael_sentence.uk/staff/g_rugg/voynich/.scm. 23. Retrieved 2011-11-17.html. Voynich MS.html) .html) .pdf. http://www. 18.cz/CVM/b12. UK: Keele.voynichcentral.php/Mysterious-Voynich-manuscript-is-genuinescientists-find) .uk/staff /g_rugg/voynich/) .books. http://uanews. Hidden Codes & Grand Designs: Secret Languages from Ancient Times to Modern Day (http://books.dtic.books/msg/25e55b7771903c1d?rnum=1. L'enciclopedia dell'altro mondo (http://download. ^ "Codex Seraphinianus" (http://groups.co. 17. NSA Technical Journal.html. p. 15. 1639 (http://www.bg/~iad/serafin. (2004). ^ "Voynich MS — Long tour: Known history of the manuscript" (http://www. ^ "The New Signature of Horczicky and the Comparison of them all" (http://hurontaria. Retrieved 2011-11-17. UK: The Observer. rec.ac. Retrieved October 31.it/pdf/domenica/2006/05022006. Retrieved 2008-08-21.keele.nu/origin. Robin (Sunday 25 January 2004). 2006) (in Italian) (PDF).htm.html. Inamidst.com. BG: Bas.com/group/rec. ^ "University of Pennsylvania archives" (http://www. 26. 21. Sean B.monstersandcritics.voynichcentral.books /msg/25e55b7771903c1d?rnum=1) .nu /history. 10/11/12 10:22 18 of 21 . Sterling. http://inamidst. http://inamidst. the free encyclopedia https://en. Voynich. Retrieved 2011-11-17. /michitonese) .Wikipedia.google.html. "Replicating the Voynich Manuscript" (http://www.archives.uk/uk/2004/jan/25/arts. http://www.ac. http://hurontaria.cz/CVM/b12.upenn. 39. http://groups.archives. 300. ^ Mysterious Voynich manuscript is genuine (http://www. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 28.bg/~iad/serafin. 14.gov/public_info/_files/tech_journals /Voynich_Manuscript_Mysterious. XII.bas. Retrieved 2011-11-17.com/voynich /months) . shelfmark APUG 557.Voynich manuscript . Archives. Retrieved 2011-11-17.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript 13. National Security Agency.wikipedia.E. Voynich Central. 2011. "Secret of historic code: it's gibberish" (http://www.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA070618&Location=U2& doc=GetTRDoc.upenn. http://www.com/voynich/months. Inamidst.pdf.google.nsa.upenn. fol.html.voynich.voynich.pdf.nu/origin.nu/history. The Voynich Manuscript: "The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World" (http://www. http://www. Pino (February 5. ^ "Codex Seraphinianus: Some Observations" (http://www.com /news/europe/news/article_1516863.scm.org/node/37825. http://books.com/users /philipneal/seventeenthcentury/raphael_sentence.nu.ca/books?id=F9q8BAsXTWEC& pg=PA300&dq=Codex+Seraphinianus%2Bbase+21&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false) .arts. 25. Retrieved 2011-11-17.voynich. 20. ^ McKie.baf.baf.

Lawrence. The Voynich Manuscript Revisited. 34. "Scientific Method Man (http://wired-vig.org. CA: Aegean Park Press. 32.nsa.geocities.html) ". Churchill. ISBN 0-8093-0808-8. 2009-06-16.pdf) (PDF). http://www-users. Fort George G. 19 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . Rob Churchill (2004). ^ "Critical analysis of Levitov's book" (http://web.highereducation. http://www.org /oclc/50929259) .archive. Web.edu/prebuilt/exhib/microg/index. http://www.pdf.uk/uk/2004/jan/25/arts.archive.com/ctesibos/voynich/levitov2. Again.br.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript http://www.htm.org /10.com/smpp/title~content=t725304178~db=all) . 33. 35. 30.archive. ed. Carbondale.br/~stolfi /voynich/04-05-20-manchu-theo/.com/smpp/title~content=t725304178~db=all. ^ "Michael James Banks. ISBN 0-7679-1473-2.cs. James R.informaworld.doi. A Search-Based Tool for the Automated Cryptoanalysis of Classical Ciphers" (http://www-users. (1978). ^ Andreas Schinner (April 2007).org /issn/0161-1194) .09/rugg. ^ Child.york. Robert S.shtml) .net /voynichpaper. Retrieved 2011-11-17. ISBN 0-7528-5996-X. Wired. Kennedy.1080/01611190601133539 (http://dx.wired.wikipedia.pdf) .1080%2F01611190601133539) . NSA Technical Journal. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 37.org/web/20090616205410/http://voynichmanuscript.co.cs. Goldstone. Retrieved on March 10.worldcat.archive. Retrieved 2011-11-17.com/wired/archive /12. Laguna Hills. The Voynich Manuscript. Meade. ^ a b Gerry Kennedy. E.archive. ^ "Micrography:The Hebrew Word As Art" (http://www. Retrieved 2011-11-17. Nancy (2005).edu/prebuilt/exhib/microg /index. 38. D'Imperio. ^ D'Agnese.archive. M.gov/about/_files/cryptologic_heritage/publications /misc/voynich_manuscript. ISSN 0161-1194 (//www. The Voynich Manuscript.uk/~mbanks/pub/mjb503_report.org.pdf. The Voynich Manuscript The Unsolved Riddle of an Extraordinary Book Which Has Defied Interpretation for Centuries.jtsa. 39.unicamp.unicamp. (1978). Retrieved 2011-11-17. The Voynich Manuscript: An Elegant Enigma. M.gov/about/_files/cryptologic_heritage/publications /misc/voynich_manuscript.guardian.pdf. Joseph.org /web/20090616205410/http://voynichmanuscript. 2007" (http://web. ^ Le Code Voynich. Goldstone. Web.unicamp. (Summer 1976). OCLC 50929259 (//www. Ic. Gerry. Rob (2004).br/~stolfi/voynich /04-05-20-manchu-theo/) . E.uk/~mbanks/pub/mjb503_report.worldcat. London: Orion. 2004-05-21. http://web.york. XXI. 36. MD: National Security Agency/Central Security Service. IL: Southern Illinois University Press.org/web/20091028075703/http: //www.pdf) . Jtsa.shtml. Jean-Claude Gawsewitch. doi:10. (1978). Retrieved 2011-11-17. The Voynich Manuscript: An Elegant Enigma (http://www. D'Imperio.net/voynichpaper. The Most Mysterious Manuscript: The Voynich 'Roger Bacon' Cipher Manuscript.htm) .Voynich manuscript . ^ "Zbigniew Banasik's Manchu theory" (http://www.nsa. 2009-10-28. Jim. "The Voynich Manuscript: Evidence of the Hoax Hypothesis" (http://www.ic.com/ctesibos/voynich /levitov2. ISBN 0-89412-038-7.ic. London: Orion. the free encyclopedia https://en. (2005) ISBN 2-35013-022-3 Further reading Brumbaugh. Retrieved 2007-08-22. ISBN 0-7528-5996-X.edu. September 2004. http://web.jtsa.informaworld. http://www. 31. Cryptologia 31 (2): 95–107.org/web/20091028075703/http://www. The Friar and the Cipher: Roger Bacon and the Unsolved Mystery of the Most Unusual Manuscript in the World.geocities.ac. 2008. http://www.ac. ^ "Child. New York: Doubleday.Wikipedia.

Yale University The Voynich Manuscript (http://www.nu/index. Nicholas (2006). The Cipher of Roger Bacon. Wilfrid Michael (1921). Il Codice Voynich. doi:10. Manly. Solution of the Voynich Manuscript: A Liturgical Manual for the Endura Rite of the Cathari Heresy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-533-04181-3.google. Nick Pelling's historical cipher research site Voynich Manuscript Mailing List HQ (http://www.Pages / Folios (http://www.doi.nu/refs. John Matthews (1931). Spain: Ed.voynich. Manly. Surbiton.2307%2F2848508) . Mario M. Speculum 6 (3): 345–391.harpers. The Curse of the Voynich: The Secret History of the World's Most Mysterious Manuscript. The Archaic Revival. including a Voynich MS . the Cult of Isis.html) from the digital collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. New York: Vantage Press.net/) 20 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . Harper's Monthly Magazine (143): 186–197. William Romaine (1928). Newbold.voynich.nu/folios. External links The Voynich Manuscript (http://beinecke. Terence (1991). ISBN 978-0-06-250613-9.Voynich manuscript . Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia 3 (43): 415–430.wikipedia.library. McKenna. Aegean Park Press. El ABC del Manuscrito Voynich. 172–184. ISBN 84-7556-216-7. "Roger Bacon and the Voynich MS".ciphermysteries. (2003) (in Spanish). Pelling.html) Cipher Mysteries (http://www.voynich.harpers. Violat-Bordonau. JSTOR 2848508 (http://www.Wikipedia. Asesores Astronómicos Cacereños. Foti. Francisco (2006) (in Spanish). Leo (1987).html) gallery.html) about the Voynich Manuscript.com/books?id=tNcCAAAAYAAJ& lpg=PA415& dq=%22A%20Preliminary%20Sketch%20of%20the%20History%20of%20the%20R oger%20Bacon%20Cipher%20Manuscript%22&pg=PA415#v=onepage& q&f=false) .jstor.archive.yale. http://books. Voynich. and a bibliography (http://www.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript Levitov.com/) . http://www.org/details/TheVoynichManuscript) online at Internet Archive René Zandbergen's Voynich Manuscript Page (http://www.com/books?id=tNcCAAAAYAAJ&lpg=PA415& dq=%22A%20Preliminary%20Sketch%20of%20the%20History%20of%20the%20R oger%20Bacon%20Cipher%20Manuscript%22&pg=PA415#v=onepage& q&f=false.org/archive/1921/07/0004969. Barcelona: Océano Ambar.voynich. "The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World: Did Roger Bacon Write It and Has the Key Been Found?" (http://www.google. Cáceres.org /archive/1921/07/0004969) . El Manuscrito Voynich. "A Preliminary Sketch of the History of the Roger Bacon Cipher Manuscript" (http://books. Stojko. ISBN 0-89412-148-0. Letters to God's Eye. ISBN 0-9553160-0-6. ISBN 978-88-89713-17-4. John (1978).org/stable/2848508) . Roma: Eremon Edizioni. Pérez-Ruiz.2307/2848508 (http://dx. Surrey: Compelling Press. the free encyclopedia https://en. John Matthews (July 1921).org/10. pp. Claudio (2010) (in Italian). San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.edu/digitallibrary /voynich.

com/winners/tvf2011winners /pieces. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.dmoz.Wikipedia. Scientific American.isi.org/wiki/Voynich_manuscript Voynich Manuscript Bibliography (http://www. 19 mars 1999 The Voynich Code: The World's Mysterious Manuscript (http://www.wikipedia.sciam.php?iid=413203&pid=1) . See Terms of Use for details. an Austrian documentary film on the manuscript Retrieved from "http://en.cfm?chanID=sa006&colID=1&articleID=0000E3AA-70E1-10CFAD1983414B7F0000) . 'Université PARIS VIII'. "méthodes d’analyse du langage crypté: Une contribution à l’étude du manuscrit de Voynich" (http://voynich.edu/natural-language/people/voynich.html) A summary of Gordon Rugg's paper directed towards a more general audience Gordon Rugg.edu/~knight/) The Voynich Manuscript (http://www.pdf) .pdf) by Kevin Knight (http://www.com/nsu/031215/031215-5. a non-profit organization..nature.free. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.net/reeds/bib.fr /a_casanova_these_19mars1999. 2004 Antoine Casanova. Inc.org//Science /Anomalies_and_Alternative_Science/Voynich_Manuscript//) at the Open Directory Project Nature news article: World's most mysterious book may be a hoax (http://www. 21 of 21 10/11/12 10:22 . June 21. "The Mystery of the Voynich Manuscript" (http://www.html) by Jim Reeds The Voynich Manuscript (http://www. the free encyclopedia https://en.php?title=Voynich_manuscript& oldid=521300795" Categories: Voynich manuscript Constructed languages History of cryptography Scientific illuminated manuscripts Uncracked codes and ciphers Manuscripts written in undeciphered writing systems This page was last modified on 4 November 2012 at 03:12.wikipedia.newyorkfestivals.voynich.isi. additional terms may apply.com /article.org/w/index.Voynich manuscript .

Related Interests