Lucretius as a Student of Roman Religion Author(s): George Depue Hadzsits Source: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological

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28I. 805. 962. 804. 998. 705.. 628. 38I f. 920. 360. 159-214. 86. 927. 1423. 1091. 766. 825. ii6. 727. a Student Vol. 327. 445-58. ioo8. 655. 120. 870. 764. i8o. 398-407. 86o. 308. 1076. 577. V. 930. I156. 94. 793. 38I. 255.. 626. f. I4.g. 107I. 73. 737. 926V. 48-93. 391. 996. 762.. many on the other hand a personalexperience. IOIl. 5I6. 900. IIO-28. 894. I65-75. IIOO. 293. 414. 25. 69. 832. 326. 251. 683. 311. 259. 757. 176 f. I70. doubtless employed in Lucretius' literarysources. 128I f. 1339. 1053. 75. 432. I52-60. 849. 68i. 1iioi ii68. 154. ii60 f. 7I3-40. VI. 470-8. 777-8I7.. 1241. 148. 6oo. xlix] Lucretius of RomanReligion as a Student X.82 on Tue. Preaching this philosophy with the earnest zeal of an evangelist. I236. 464. 250. 417. 66i. 848. 795. 417. 912. 1362. 3I6. 387. 443.. 469. 507. I302. 208. 173. II.. 347. 685.142. 946. 468.. i-6i. II4. 656. 282. 897..2 No I E. I044. 478. 985. 306. I09. Yet while the de Rerum Natura abounds in evidences of Ireaction to the poet's physical and ethical environment illustrations that illumine evidencesfoundin the innumerable a natural philosophy and exalt an ethical aspiration. 38I-97. 35. I410. 925.still in matters of religionthe Lucretian exposition manifestsa haughty scorn of the phenomenologyof Roman life. IV. 478-52I. 37. 7I2. I038. 731 f. 384. 737.. 38. IOO. 877 999 f. 312.. 524. 935. 514. 862. 404. 400. 58o f. 7i6. 426. 305. 263. 1030. 104-9. 80-14I. 54. 522-68. 460. 980. 896. 622. 1121-40. II. 199. 252. 494. 22I. 1154. 878. ii6o f. 750.the dissenterbelieved that adoption of his highestideals of worshipand conduct would accomplish a revolutionin religious thoughtand a reformation in political and social life. 598. I402.. 906. I17.. I02. 1073. I 40-3. II17. 759. 669. 6o8. 352. This content downloaded from 93. 1077 f. .as a protestant against religious and ethical conditions in Rome. 7. 870. 21.I 063. 103-45. 1408. 776-829. I. I84-215. 400. theydeservespecial studywhich clearlyseem to reflect mightthrowlighton Lucretius'life. 405. 75 f.38. 323.Lucretius of RomanReligion BY PROFESSOR GEORGEDEPUE HADZSITS UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA I45 LUCRETIUS. III. io8o. 397. 408-43. 439. 1150 f. 315. VI.. I96. 37. f. 936-58. 750. 4I9. II2. 420.. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 970. 1105 f. 915.. 978 f. espoused a system of religious and ethical philosophy in which he doubtless thought there resided a universal validity. 722 f. II. 472. 40I. 652). Many of these ilustrations were 1-43.. 991. 639. 52I. 58i-66o I037 (637. 932. 387.. 970. 949. 444-77. 349. 455. 663. 521. 1024. I398. 739. i9i.. 617. 752. 738. 584. 1007. 459-525. 43 f. 2I. 978 f. IV. 739. 228.

i65. 434. 580-94. Sen. 1276. 77. ii. no definitionof the Epicurean conceptionsof worshipand prayerwere under any obligation to dwell upon the facts of orthodoxRoman beliefsand practices in these directions. no suggestion This content downloaded from 93. 379-422. and the irrato Greek rereferences I have included here. Philodemus. 69. 8o-ioi. Liv. of the true natureI of the gods rest Lucretius' descriptions absolutely upon his Greek originals. 136. or by implication directly 4 The Venus invocationaffords a notable exception. II. 7I-4. L. In these 82-90. 20. 232-244. I-54.4 Jupiter figuresin two passages. no Epicurean refutationof a supposedly false theological interpretationof nature. i9.D. i. i8-i. the significance 3 I. of the Roman religionof his own day. pp.whom he followedwith exact fidelity. pp. 85. We are in a genuine Greek literaryatmosphere throughoutthese numerouspassages. ligionalso. 45. 46. II6l-1240. Greekelements. with all known genuine Epicurean theology. I68. 646-51.7repl Eo-ej#eias. but these are passages of intense. There is (probably) not a quality attributedto the gods forwhich he did not find full authorityin Epicurus' own compositionsor in other Epicurean sources. passages Lucretius' opinion as to the nature of the gods is expressedeither and contrast. iii. 64. 88. Epicurea. I27. Cic. I45. 1387. I39 (K6pLac A6atu.on Lucretius' part. 878 f. 123 (Usener. Gomperz (i866). L. (I887). Cic. 309-IO. Usener. 59-60). ii. x. N. 195-234. 122. and crime. 178. xxviii.Ep. v.guilty of cowardice. 172. folly.I46 Depue Hadzsits George [i9i8 expositionof the Epicurean theoryof the nature of the gods.revealing a god of might and terror. 146-55. Lucretius' detachment fromthe Roman religious environmentis almost complete. iv.142. 17. 978 f. Diog. I8-25. passim. forcompleteness. 1-43. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But an undue concentrationof mind upon Greek literary sources of inspirationprevented an adequate appreciation. 56. I28. 8. II. 73 f-. There is scarcely any of the many noble attributeswhich in time had recognition become associated with the Roman Pantheon and which were fullyrecognizedin Roman cult and ceremony. x.. 8. I23. Lact. The Lucretian account corresponds. N. Div. of thesepassages is discussedlater. IOI5. Diog. bitter irony. Inst.I).82 on Tue.. III. VI.38. point for point. Cf. 1272. yet even here thereis of Roman vs.Q. 56. blind to justice. pp. I090-II04.

which did not later escape the ironicalobservationof Lactantius. 9 I.Q. Decharme. II. Sen. V. Mor.XI.vetius as a Student of RomanReligion I47 of his own holy temples. Lucretius' referenceto the Fetial priestsI is (prayer and symbolism).. It is not only from these that he derived his inspiration. surely. 42. of the courage with which Lucretius releases nature fromthe controlof divine powers. This content downloaded from 93.Veteres (I904). 43-95.). 6 Usener. Cf. 261-262. XII. Fr. 245-257. 205 f. 750 f.. Plut. I42 (K6pLaL A6bu. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . iv. I67-83. See G. Lucretius' mention of the Roman augural college is purely incidental.but it is also to these that he virtually limited his attention.146-58. II.pp. 38I. I do not find a single original idea. 76 (Usener.and control of the universeI are of Roman directassaults upon some of the veryfundamentals religious belief and organization.a partial presentional destroyer tation of the case. 878 f. 1223-80. Usener. x. La critique des traditions religieuses H. II6I-1240. The numerous eloquent passages that vehementlydeny a divine creation. Stoic. Schmidt. condition. Epicurean.142.Ep.Ep.novaereligionis auctore (i888). 110-45. Acad. P. 7 vi. Lucretius' presentation of Epicurean arguments can be paralleled either in fragments of Epicurus or in Stoic-Epicurean controversy.82 on Tue.. IV. L. N. unless Lucretius employs a novel one in the picture of the baby's utter helplessness at birth as proof that the world was so full of fault that thought of divine protectionwas excluded as utterlyincredibile. F. Opuscula academica ("De Epicuri theologia"). 120 (with note in Reid's ed. Without minimizing the importance. and Peripatetic. passim. 580-94. first and last. I090-1104.Vol. pp.. it none the less is true that Lucretius' expositionis grounded. x. 38.38. 58I-660. Cic. xiii). caverint deprecibus (I907). which needs must have passed away with the surrenderof an ancient theological interpretationof nature. 41-42). pp. Picavet.7 Mention of the Tuscan rolls8 merely betrays Lucretius' failure as a real student of Roman religious organization. 5 I. 55-90. Diog. Aen. Epicurus was unalterably opposed to divination 6. X. 8 VI. 146-94.I871. II. I95-234. 27-28). 379-422. xlix] Luc.De Epicuro. Verg. 96 (Usener. upon Greek sources. pp.. quomodo philosophi iudi. VI. 923 A. L. 731 f. Diog. to the advance of science. I-43 II48-74. 86. Sch6mann. 823-57. 968 f.

and images fires. 878 f. I20. III. cf. 25I. 7I. 946. 3 f. I54. groves. Neptune.705. Lucretius' claim to originalityin this respect seems as slight as that of the Epicurean Torquatus...I48 George Depue Hadzsits [I9I8 veiled in a poetic passage of great beauty. 12 Cic. Festivals. Scylla.. Flora. Although this strikingavoidance of application of Epicurean theoryto Roman cults. II7. 138.temples. the Giants. I believe. 3 I. 739.. 912. 45.. 2I. I-40. 40I.shrines. which to the minds of Cicero 1] and Varro seemed central and of supreme importancein Roman religion. The only gods appearingunder Roman names 13 are Venus. Greek Aphroditewho appears resplendent 10 II6 II6o f. Bacchus.may have in part been dictated by discretion. VI. 637. are ignored unless one passage 10 conveys a concealed allusion to the Vinalia. all figure ism. and Pan.for all of the Lucretian verses. IV. Summanus. 2. 387. I. 173.the Pythia. I. 14. the Golden Age. Fin. 64. 877 f. Vestal virgins and all the elaborate Roman machineryof worshipmight. Magna Mater. 292(?). never have existed.sacrifices in the poem. 400. Pallas. 122 f. 949. 65. Calliope.. 624-34. 200. 52I. 996. 25. the Centaurs. in the invocation. 221. 978 f. and especially28. On the other hand. 22I. and goi f. 580 f. Saturnus. ii. 737. 6oo f. Liber. II54.142. all too feebleand frailto expressdivine immortality. I. 94. Pontiffsand haruspices. 925. too. II. I.. and Iupiter. VI. Phoebus. but appear as a poor symbolof gods. 750. 6I. Fast. 793-82I. I09I(?). Faunus. 655. 472. 11N.. 14. on the Vinalia.82 on Tue. IV. in large part due to a zealous exploitationof Greektheory.Matuta. the Greek Acherusianquarters. II2. 14 I. 764. This content downloaded from 93. Cerberus. 962. Ov. III. Volturnus.73I f. II5. 228.'2 Lucretius was obviously content with the iconoclast's greater prize of destroyingbelief in a Providentiaupon which the whole system of ius divinumwas built. 1-43.D. on the Robi- galia. 762. I6. IV. Ceres. the Nymphs. Altars and altar and was. V. I076.38. 739 f. I70. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and Phaethon part in explanationof the Epicurean play a farmoreimportant it is not the Italian Venus at all but the system. 652. V.14 Besides. Greek myths of the Chimaera. 915. 58o f. II26. Satyrs.. 439.897. 44.

. 392. 705 f.'5 It is toward a Greek religious world that Lucretius. and Pan. Hann. and Nep. 26. IV. 37I. This content downloaded from 93. 405. 750. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . m.. Admiration for Epicurus resultedin adoration and deification. 866. Carthaginelovi optimomaximohostias immolavit. 823-57. The following are fromGreekliterary VI. It is Athens. It is a Graeco-Roman pantheon that Lucretius recognized as regnant in Rome. Aen.. I9. Cf.xlix] Lucretius as a Student of RomanReligion I49 despite the Roman touch of Aeneadum genetrix. and his unquesdevotionto Epicurus resulted. Nymphs. VI.. 635. I7.ratherthan Rome. and Hercules.and Giussani): I. Neptune. I223-62. Anaxagoras. likewise. It is not the Roman Saturnus but the Greek Cronos whom Lucretius. and Thucydides.' 16 I. 662. 464 f. least.Aristotle.. also Verg. Hippocrates. 8.notes in Munro. Plato. under the compellingspell of Epicurus. 326.. 124. 8). 37I. 6ii. 18 VI. quite in the best fashion of Ovid or of Nigidius Figulus. 6I5. 93. v. II. Euripides. 548. The brief Lucretian discussion of the origins of false 15 Cf. Ceres. VI. V. namely. I-42 (6. I. 62 f. also praise of Epicurus. Cf. had in mind. ardentproclamation of Epicurus' divinity17 introducedanother Greek factor. 298. I-43. ii8. 635 f. 830 f. 399."8 that provoked. II64. on Greekgods and myths. I-54 (6.. 45. 17 III. 903. in additionto those given in n. I44. 629.' inquit. V. . also Faunus with Greekgoat-footedSatyrs. iv.Heraclitus. 622. 629. V. despite the Latin name. II.Vol. 729-33. the true savior of suffering humanity. 99I f. I204.even. I-30 (I5). 44. 5I). These passages. 736-39. 6oo. Democritusand Epicurus werenot his sole sources. I8-24. 99I. iii6. a panegyricas the worthyhome of Epicurus. the Stoics. Lucretius' belief in Epicurus mounted into the realm of faith. 878-9I4. init. 908. I042. 'Hamilcar . clearly were: LucretiusknewHomer. sources(cf. 6o6. that of apotheosis. and Bacchus are associated without discrimination. show how great the Greekinfluences Empedocles. this book ought to be rewritten. I3. Epicurus is the peer of some erroneous tioning conclusionsabout Roman religion. II94.'6and it is slight wonder that he made no specific study of Roman religious conditions. 754. Liber.82 on Tue. 226.Lucretiiphilosophiacumfontibus comparata(I877). was turned. I. 786. ii66.142. 507.into the religiousworld in which Lucretiuslived and thought. III. 424. I4.Merrill. Woltjer. II: 'Pater meus.38. 307-22.. J.

.38. His dependenceupon his predecessoris complete.the explanationas applied to the origins of Roman religion is. Sext. Cic. 24.clouds.and lightning.not heavenly portentsat all . I4.A77A6KpL7OS]. apOVT-S eKhXetie (Kav Ka'l Xvb (V 5Lardrrovros X. KaTa Tobs view of the fact that the Epicurean Philodemus and Velleius were aware of 19 V. incorrect.I50 George Depue Uadzsits [I9I8 religiousbeliefsfollowsthe text of Epicurus without dissent. (Zeno) interpretatur. 36. hail. deorum.) 's KaOd raap' X 6LCaT- &/Ca r' v KacOd fXOVTOs /eTr& doftap0ias. for Epicurus had discussed the importantpart played by dreams in the genesis of religiousevolution19 and doubtless natural had also recognizedthe significance of awe-inspiring phenomena. Wya'XWv -yap v7rvovs OavTcaLwz' or'erua ToVS adv0pC6VrovS o-rvoUs 7pO7rLrT6VTwv 'rA\aov Kal adv9pw7rop6pqv.82 on Tue. N.. Junonem haec docet atque mutisperquandam significationem sed rebusinanimis numero. but. Xatq3cavgo-Ow onar'peioO &7 a i Odea e60S 7rV T&a 7rpos TcaVTa /laKapt6T'7TL. eCowV. 25 f. As all students of Roman religionknow. rpoaazy0W. in part at least. ib. of meteors. associated with. L. Cum tollit id est originemdeorum.'E7rKOVpOS E'VOLav eaO7raKevaL 0eoi. neque enim Jovem neque omninousitatas perceptasquecognitiones in deorumhabet neque Vestam neque quemquam. KaOd7rep 7Te dorpa7r&s Kal Oeobs ol'6teVOL roi5rwv alTrovs /ieTe($bpoLS CavroS Kal TcrdLS Kal /Opa'V Kal TpO7r'V raiav rep /7'Te 7o1TOVOLS XELTOvpyoVVTos eTvaL . Epicurus doubtless supposed that the theoryof divine controlhad AaraTaIC rV XOv rrepTr oU Ovarov Tp67rov This content downloaded from 93. II6I-I240. rain.vTEs TrV 'XOV -yIp. and located near . thunder. 9'y9vero -yVvTrat. adv. A7eTe(poLS cepcwVO's 7raO'/7aT Te Kal Sextus. fromthe beginning tgvots. -raL. the numina were in the main suggestedby. Math. vero Hesiodi Oeo-yoviav. even in the enumerationof such phenomena as the regularsuccession of night and day. U eKTWY KaTa 7ovs Cf. I. x. qui ita appelletur. T'V> Oi7 0V'LTTOLXXa E'KXeLl/LV Kat dVacTO7vX V Kai -yevegoOac Kal 5OLV KaiL Ta T7LVOS VOtdeCLV /aKapL6rT7Ta fVLCa Kal Atq5aA. more than that. the wondersof the sun and moon. fVLOL U e' TrV TLVas TOLO0TOVS Oeois avOpwroL6poovs. 'LV V TUXvVTX6vV rpaXO'eTacL. oe 56 EL1IaaToUvro. snow. Kal Diog. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . KcL TeX'vfS TJ eV TOLS VOpUS7rVW.but those loci of home and field that were of most immediate importance to domestic and discussion on the part countrylife. q577ot [.142. Lucretius truly followsin the footstepsof his master. IX. 97. The absence of further of Lucretius is all the more remarkable. 76. Kai racs aX79eIaLS v&7r6apXeLv a7rcp3acroV Kal evJraKTOV TCV oOpcLJJL KaV10V rapaoyvoyevo bao T'V 7p7v 7ats TWV Oez' &7-LvolaLSah7r7aTr7s 7ye-yovgvaL prpTov. tributa nomina. ol o7TpwV raXaLoL oVV65ovs 'p. ETL TE repLMov.D.cXX' A' aXenroip'y'qoS a Ical {V el 7oiro 1 TC /eTeLp'V 0a4/a- aclTLOXo'yca caused false notionsof God.

ir. II2. pp. ii8: Quid? Prodicus Cius.D. 123: 7rp&Top AtV TOV Oeov P4ov &0OapTov Kal taKdptov voziodwv. L. Evioe/3eias. quae prodessent hominumvitae. 42. I. 23). &)S i KOLVP TOU Oeov v6oqts 7reeypd6. pp. 4I. Gomperz (i866). KaOd7rep AL-Y67rrTLOL TOV NeXov . Lucretiusdoes not engage in controversy. and fails to reveal any real knowledgeof the developmentof the god-idea in Rome.82 on Tue. Cic. I.false knowledge of the gods had come to man froma fearful. a quibus magna utilitas ad vitae cultum esset inventa. ix. he is entirely satisfied withEpicureanism. ipsasque res utiles et salutares deorum esse vocabulis nuncupatas.38.Kal MIL TOVJTO TOV /L&V dpTOV A7'7iL'TpaV KX'q0jvaL. I5. Nor does he even mentionthe important ontologicalargumentwhich appea'rsin the letterof Epicurus to Menoeceus. N. ut ne hoc quidem diceret. Math. deorumin numerohabita esse dixit. as it for applied to Roman experience. ii6i f. Lucretius took no ye'ypaAeva. which of course Epicureanismrejected. 75-76: )'LVC50KWPV llepoaios deois /7Oev v7rap a6VToO t TprpovTa Kal HpOUiKOV U 57M6s a Student Vol. 75. 71. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Greeksourcesare before him. qui ea. Cic. Philod. Leg.L . illa inventa esse deorum.quam tandemreligionem reliquit? Sext.. acOav1wPv TO 8at16vLov. fOO-eL50ca. 21 II. adv. ignorantobservaand terrorizing tion of awe-inspiring natural phenomena. At the same time this at once constitutedfor him a sweepingcondemnation of the Roman religioussystemas being foundedon error and perpetuatedby superstition. 60-62. I. 38: At Persaeus. U wp gKaco-ToV. KaclT Tr V7rO TaJTa TObs e'p6OVTas ? TpO/AS ? 0 iKras T&S &rXxas This content downloaded from 93. But it was sufficient Lucretius to have learnedfromEpicurus that. ii. 8raV eV TrJ repl TpV Oe2v X9y rLveoa Ta 7rep cbeXoGvTa eTw r pains to analyze this or discover its bearingsupon Roman religion. TOV U OlVOVAL6vo-oV. and which is repeated in Cicero's de Natura Deorum.D. 43: Solus enim vidit Terxpas. i8: lp659KO9 O6 Kedos iXt60 077 Kal a2ex'vP-v Kal 7roTrajLoS Kal 7raXaLol KppVag Kal KaO6XOv 7rdVTa Tr& WeXoUVTa TOV gloV '/iCiV ol Oeovs ev6Uo-av o& Tr'V acr avcTov CbXePav. xlix] Lucretius of RomanReligion i5i the theoriesof Prodicus and Persaeus. . Ta KacL X77 TrY e6Xp77OTo6V7Jp HoaLoTOV. N.142.D. Lucretius' statementabout the birth of the Magna Mater 21 concept betrays no independent investigationbeyond the Epicurean limitations.confirmedby the falsity of misleading dreams. N. 22 Diog. eitherhere or in v. N. 58i-66o. 76.20who actually came much closer to a correct explanation of the problem. x.22 This was the fundamental Epicurean argument 20 Cic. 6s AtArTpa Kai At6vvooov-a Stoic argument(Cic. TOb TwV TO 7repZ U Philod. III.a vevopioOca Kal TeTrL/770OaL7rp&TOV. i6. sed ipsa divina. eiusdem Zenonis auditor eos dicit esse habitos deos.

I. III. L.ignored in favor of the two more special and particularexplanations. quod in omnium animis eorumnotionem quod non habeat sine natura. E: 77 TO6TwV pd7rof5v7' /laK&pLOV KacLt7Xwr-6V. but this Lucretius. 734. I. I2I2. I42 f. 58i-660. 5. i6. 622-34. also N. 365. II6I-I240. 20. 5. I2. 62-79. 4. I.142. I4. II. N. I9.and prayers. 43-95. x. 25 I. Liv. TOr # B: erel U T7-OS zv ToOVwepl Oe6iVX67ov ['ErLKoVPY] 24 Mor. 945.38. Fear that power. As Plutarch pointed out. 9 (on Hannibal). The same passion possessed Lucretius. 78-79- This content downloaded from 93. Cf. I223-80. II. 278 (on Numa). fear of their cruelty and the gods possessed infinite and ubiquiwrath. (760). I040. IIO-45. II50-74. T. 8o-ioi. I. I46-58. note in Mayor's ed.and fear pervaded the whole historyof cults. IV.82 on Tue. proofof the existenceof gods. The theme is one that recurs constantly in all Epicurean literature. I9-20. 54. 379-422. 48. I092 TOLS o0vo /oo3eZoOaL o6Pv dXXI& ra6oaoOaL ' V TOLP PO vOOOOVL 5XWS e1 TraparTTOIdVOvsi. Kal rapdirreofat Ib. Vi7rdpXCeV I09I TO dX7yev KaL fooeZfOat r& Oea ro?s epVAtoV KaK6V. of Cic. I-30. fromfear. III. II. Cf. 5 and Ov.satisfied with these because they bore the stamp of his great predecessor's approval. VI. 33-4I. 55-90. XXI. 878 f.D. Fast.D.continuedfearof an omnipresent vengeful tous exerciseof theircontrolover all the forcesof nature had ipsa impressisset primumesse deos. 38. Acad. 52-3.I52 George Depue Hadzsits [I9I8 which recognized the universal element of the-religiousinstinct in all mankind23. 73I 932. N. I55). Liv. ritual. I2I. 43. Fin. quae est enimgens aut quod genus hominum.D.25 It was fear that begot religion. the passages on the f. freedom and explicit the implied with the gods.. 978-I023. 23 Lucretiusmay have plannedto elaborateon thisas wellas on otherthemes But Stoics also held the view that universalbeliefwas the strongest (V. 59. VOE V PP17 3e/367epov ollauL 73O0' 3XabrrovTpra /Le/LacO7K6oCV. I090-II04. (K6ptat A6at). cuius rationis ex illo caelesti Epicuri de regula et iudicio volumineaccepimus. I02-35. cf. I95-234.D. ceremonies. doctrinaanticipationem sine qua nec intellegi id est anteceptam animo rei quandam informationem.24the supreme end of Epicurus' argumentationabout religionwas to dispel the fear which he evidentlyregarded as a veritable laceratingirony innate in orthodox religion's brutal fact. vim atque utilitatem quicquam nec quaeri nec disputaripotest. Diog. whose keen insight cut throughsham and conventionality. 750 3I-93. V. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 44. of truenature also Cic. quandam deorum? quam appellat 7rp6Xo/a Epicurus. I. No expositionof Epicurus made a more profoundappeal to the sensitivemind of Lucretius. and passages quoted there..

71. 2 (on Roman background). but is written without due recognitionof the truth of religious conditions in Rome in the firstcenturyB. Constant fear of punishmentskept the gods in power as harsh taskmasterstoward whom the only recognized sentimentwas that of dread. his ille clamat omniummortalium mentesesse perterritas.ut haruspices. 1. as allusions to groves. I.D. si vos audire vellemus. 27 V. mortem dico et deos. I. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . However that may be. nisi ut deos pie coleremus et ut superstitione satis erat dictum (speech of Velleius).festivals. quibus mediocres hominesnon ita valde moventur. liberaremur. Roman consuls. qui magis ea. 3I. Lucretius' explanation of conventionalRoman pietas27 is quite correctin its insistence of details of cult.vol. ib.28 throughthe veil of his fiercetirades.C. vates.charged with deepest Lucretian passion .vows. an elaboration of the thesis of Epicurus. conjectoresnobis essent colendi (Velleius). This fear of the gods .fasces.however. II7: Nam superstitione. A real Roman upon proper performance political and religious. it was our emotionstoward death and the gods which Epicureanism particularlymaintained must be freeof fear. N. I. 55: Sequitur . 86: Ille vero deos esse putat.D. II. Cf. lb. but these are all of minor importance and quite negligible in a picture of a terror-ridden religious community. 45: Si nihilaliud quaereremus.the themeof wonderful poetry.aUUTLCrK vestra. shrines. ib.legions. 28. quod gloriari soletis. 29 Cic.represents.38. to the latter of these concepts there con26 Cic. quae timenda esse negaret.timeret.harioli. incidentally appears background. See references in n. facile est liberari.cum sustulerisomnem vim deorum (Cotta's reply). ThseLucretian developmentof the theme far exceeds the originalin violence. 42.142. II98-I 28 203. N. as did Cicero.82 on Tue. qua tanta imbueremursuperstitione. of whom Cotta said 26 that he knew no one who himselfshowed a greaterdread of death and of the gods. nec quemquam vidi. quae Latine divinatio dicitur. xlix] Lucretius as a Studentof Roman Religion I53 crushed mankind to a conditionof intolerableservitudeand of base humility. Lucretius did not distinguish. augures.the veiled head of the priest.and references to numina and augural divisions show.betweenreligio and superstitio 29. 20. Cultus autem deorumest optimus This content downloaded from 93. I 7.

38.3" Lucretius evoked the powers of evil existingin superstitio and dormant in the sub-consciousness of Roman society where. solum.e. there continued to survive the hobgoblinsof an ancient instinctand the spectreof fear.). 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ut cos semper plenissimusque idemque castissimusatque sanctissimus pura. Pastorumgaudere manu.(andServ.e. Mor. the long history of organized Roman religionhad determinedthe relations between gods and men by means of which each was reasonablysecure. case of Scipio (Fowler. the cult of gods such as Saturn.verumetiammajoresnostrisuperstitionem 30 Fr. 31See the finechaptersin Plut. illustrate 33The Venus invocationremainsthe exception. the I9..I54 GeorgeDepue Hadzsits [1918 tinued to cling all the evil associations of a remote past. Palemque Palmitibusplenis Bacchum vincire.30 originatedin fear. of theRoman People. although the finer and more inspiring pietatis. the Genius.142. Verg. integra. 347f. cf. But while religio.III. 27 Buecheler: ardua caelo Primusin orbe deos fecittimor. are absolutely ignored. Aen.. Fast. Atque ictus flagraret Profecit vitiumiamque erroriussitinanis AgricolasprimosCereridare messishonores.. 5.g.32 But not the slightestsuggestionof the affection and love that many a cult and festivalcalled forth. Castor.. the Parilia. festivalslike the Petroniuscorrectly thought. Fulmina. This content downloaded from 93. on joy in worship. 32 The Lemuria.33 The Lares and Penates. doubtless. which even an enlightenedand sophisticatedcivilization did not whollydiscard. Ov. 278. and Jupiter Optimus was not only the Epicurean worshiperwho obtained high rewards of peace. 240).cum caderentdiscussaque moeniaflammis Athos. I.. of goddesses such as Minerva and Diana.Liv.VIII.incorruptaet mente et voce veneremur.82 on Tue. It was not only the Epicurean gods who were withoutanger. Cf. non enim philosophi etc. the Vesta worshipof home and state are not so much as mentioned. ReligiousExperience this.g. the Saturnalia. a religione separaverunt. iioi C ff. appears in the de Rerum Natura.

neglect of many Roman deities and festivals is not mentioned with approval or rejoicing. I.triumphi.I. !. Serv. 58. on the relation of templesto the people and theirorganizations: Ceres.L. Cic.Jupiter. u. Mercuryand the mercatores. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .38. III. I. ch. 26. Jupiter OptimusMaximus and theLudi Romani. Castor. Leg. ii.op.L. Genius: Censor. IO. Juno. (sacraprivata). I. Epicurean and Poet (I907). Minerva: Ov. II. e. Liv. Ov.4.I. 92. the togavirilis ceremony: Ov. der Rdmer(I9I2). LIV. iv. I. 36 V. op. 36.etc. and crises in the national life broughtto the surfaceevidences of religiousalarm. p. I. I2. III. Hor. Cf. Cic. 35 Jno. 27 f. Trist. op.82 on Tue. The Religionof Numa (I906). Carm. Rel. Roman Festivals). 3. 69 f.Liber. Hor. 38 V. cit. 9. Lucretius does not condemn priesthoods that were corrupt.and Libera. Plin. i-S. Wissowa. 37 Fowler. 82I f. IV. 3. the Dioscuri and the equites. and the plebs. Dio.27. I233 and Munro's note.II. I. I. cit. auspices. Claudius Marcellus 36 was not credited by the thinkingRoman to offendedgods. 3. Hor. Saturn and the Saturnalia: Macr. Exp.Vol. 253. VI.II.De Marchi. Liv. Fast. 2. Masson. Vesta: Fowler. 720 f.C. But "in the fashionable and artificiallife of Rome of the first centuryB. Suet. Tac.142. Epist. III.L. ii6o f. Rel. III. the AventineDiana and slaves. The glimpse we have of a flourishingstate 38 is not in accord with our knowledgeof crumbling religion temples and abandoned sacrifices. L. I3. Leg.. I. XL. Aug. It is just in a period of decline. i8. of theRom. Leg. XLIII. V. 43.34 To be sure the divinationidea penetratedthe whole fabric of the Roman state and society. IOI f. Herm. I9 (Falacer and Furrina). II.D.S. Ep. 70-72. ad Geor. vi (on the Vestalia). Mur. Div. I44. Carter. and 55 f. 57. VI. 25 (auspicia). patron of the equites: Helbig. Fast. Fast.Minerva. (308 is an interesting contrast). 4I 7. ch. 29 (pontifices). op. N. 46 f. 24. for their corruption37. I3. 27. H. p. xxii. De Marchi. This content downloaded from 93.. 70. 29 f. Ann. (Fowler. v.. People. 639 f.). Dion. A. and the wholepeople.whenVarro fearedthat the gods mightperishthrough 34Lares and Penates: Fest. 3I (flamen). II culto privatodi Roma antica. C. 40I. Mart. Fast. 7. pp. I. I9.xlix] Luoretius as a Student of RomanReligion I55 aspects of these cults and festivals entered into the life of the people in many a way to win deep regardand esteem. disbeliefwas natural" 35and the ancient disaster that had befallen M. Kult. and priesthoods is not recorded with satisfaction. 6. xv and xvI. 84. (Fowvler. the neglect of prodigies. Terminalia: Ov. Diana: Varro. I7. cit. Cic. 333. II. I87 f. cit.g. p. XIV. Lucretius. Varro. II. the AventineMinerva and the artifices. I-4 (templa). Cic. Sat. See Wissowa. Parilia: Ov. Fest.

cit. Civ. pp. Plut. to say the least. Plin.4' by which he undoubtedlymeant to satirize the religionof his own day. N. xxx. a contemporary educated time against a false theology. pp. Masson. his dog.3. criminal 43 Liv. xxII. Dei. is as eloquent a passage as is to be found in the entirede Rerum Natura. XLIII.H. Cf.Cic. 12-13. 30 (exceptionmade of a who was sacerto a god). 24.44 the Empire is sufficiently to call forthsuch an extreme instances were not sufficient praccondemnationof Roman religionas would have befitted 39Aug. 31. and appeared somewhatout of harmonywith the tendencies of the age. 112.40 If Lucretius h. Lucretius' paradoxically exquisite account of the sacrifice of lphigenia. 107. Wissowa. Dio. Marcell. 2: (Varro) dicit se timerene pereant(di) non incursu hostilised civiumneglegentia. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . That thepracticelasted into but the rare and sporadic attested. n.I56 Depue Hadzsits George [I9I8 protestant that the voice of the indignant man's indifference.42the stingis somehowtaken out of a passage of intensebitterness. VI. 31. This content downloaded from 93. 44 Fowler. Under the stressof the Punic wars 43this most un-Romanritewas carriedout. his mind wholly matic indictment of an institution wrong. n.would seem to us more reasonable.op. 44. 28. xxvin. N. 42 owler. Jno. fora different Iphigeniaepisode. Cf. 8o-ioi. Yet if we reflectthat human sacrificein the name of religionwas unknown under the ancient Roman religiousor civil law.op. I2.82 on Tue. 4. cit. closing with a line that expressesburningindignationand contempt. cit. broughtabout many another It was not until Greekinfluences and degradation of Roman religiousinstitutransformation tions that human sacrificeswere allowed under the Roman ius divinum. 420 f..H. Roman the exalted praise of Epicurus for his conquest over religiomust have seemed somewhatbelated.39 of lowerreligio a spectre was raised against fancied frightful ing with dreadful mien from above upon mortals lived during the Augustan revival. 40 I.38. cit. Plin.. 434 f.142. 6. Font. Howsoever valuable a clear enunciationof natural laws may be at any . 57. versionof the 41 i. 33. 62 f. p. n. op.

We need 45 Eur. striking. xlixj Lucretius as a Student of RomanReligion 157 tices among the Taurians.46 but this was not sufficient to make the myth of past ages applicable in any real sense or degree to the present. I98 f. 47 It is to be taken as evidenceno more than such passages as Ov. whose gods under no circumstancescould condone such an act. Lucr. 58I-660. See also Merrill's note on Lucr. If Lucretius thought of the Magna Mater cult as typical of Rome. though we may surmiseit. Howsoever cruel the practice inherently was and howsoever repellant to an Epicurean. to the or to Aricia. Ov. The latter we cannot prove. 84 fordiscussionof paintings(cf.. to say the least. models than by religious I believe. 102.'45. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .45 if he did practice. choice of the cult of Magna Mater to serve The surprising as the basis of an analysis for demonstrating the essentially natureof Roman cults and theology48 also seems to erroneous illustrateLucretius' dependence upon Epicurus and his lack of a' thorough acquaintance with Roman religion.Aesch. If Lucretius had been a real student of Roman religion. It provoked no known response. 12. i. m.142.moreinfluenced by literary him the theme.82 on Tue. Greek tragedyfurnished not find the suggestionin Epicurus. on paintings). There is 'deep irony' in the use of the Roman formula felix faustusque.A. the seeming consistencyof such a procedure gives weight to the belief that it was intentional. 8.38. II.Ag. I doubt festival of the sacrariaArgeorum. 27. he was extraordinarily wide of the mark. Liv. we mighthave expected allusion at least to the ceremonyof devotio. Fast. Fast. Why avoid the whole body of genuine Roman cults and ceremonies. 342. III. whetherthe religiousrealitiesof his own day came sufficiently under his observation to provoke this satire of unparalleled fierceness. or the Carthaginians. x.47It is a literary tourde forcethat was quite harmless with all of its lack of moderation. the Britons. I. 46 Cic. Lucretius was. 48 II. I. 629.if Lucretius was interestedin disprovingthe validity of the religionof his own day? Such an avoidance is.Vol. 857. This content downloaded from 93. Div.perse. the Gauls. iIoO f.

107. the orgiasticcharacterof the cult must have been 70.82 on Tue. 50 I.142. oftheGods (1901). Magna Mater's cult. V.the goddess Magna Mater repreof sented.was almost inevitable. 821..38. The Romans characterof this took particularcare to keep up the foreign cult. 77. Festivals Roman 49Fowler. ideahadon Lucretius' 54 Showerman. 1402 (terrammatrem)." 52 That there should appear. cf.whichhe sedulouslyavoided. 279). Ellis on Cat. in the de Rerum Natura. but other reasons are deducible which may explain his choice of the Cybele cult. 795-6. (I908). of a false theological doctrine. 297. 328.5" "In Greece she (Cybele) early became all but completely blended with Rhea. cit. 63 (also Merrill'sedition). an atomic explanation of the Earth as the mother of human and animal life. 52 Showerman. if he lived in Rome (cf. 1117 (natura creatrix). 629. 991 f. V. II. 1362. VI. and Ops 54 indicates the opportunitiesthat existed for Lucretiusto make anotherchoice. Lucretius accepted the Graeco-Romanreligion of his day as the established religionof Rome. These passages clearly show how stronga hold the seealsoI. Duff. 21. imagination. as the source of all vegetation. Tellus. Even so. 297. But the Great Mother's identificationwith Aphrodite was a furtherGreek recommendation.. and made no effort to distinguish the genuine Roman element. The GreatMother 63 I.Literary of Rome[1909].betterthan any otherdivinity.49 Lucretius probably had personal knowledge of the Megalesia. and is not clearly distinguishablefrom the GreekMother exceptwhen she is designatedby an Asiatic name or mentionedin connectionwith Attis. op. 259-60. History 51 U.53 In religion.e.the false deification the Earth as the source of manifold bounteous products. 6oo. It was the Graeco-Romancharacterover against which he set the whole systemof his Epicurean philosophyof religion. This content downloaded from 93. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .while her kinshipwith the Roman Ceres.I58 GeorgeDepue Hadzsits [I9I8 not attributesuch a grossblunder to him. 31.50 and he acknowledges his Greek sources of informationfor explanation of all of the details of worship. 250. togetherwith that of the god of the was the most complete illustration heavens and lightnings.

38. the great master was not exerting a special influenceupon his disciple.the mentalreservations Epicureans made in participating in establishedritual. despite seemingappearances. Roman cults offeredat least that character of dignityand reposeforwhichEpicurean philosophystrove. In his will Epicurus stated 58 that his deed of giftswas deposited in the temple of Cybele. 73 f56 Showerman. 179 f. 279-303.. even Ov.P.57 and the "majestic description of the Cybele cult . 66. which is too extraordinary a statement to pass over unobserved. by trulyEpicurean ethical considerations.even in this particular.Aen. si ego paria bona dico unius in convivio iacentis. x. "Without conscious deviation from the teaching of his 66 Cf. Ep. 'ye-ypa.55 Nevertheless. p.142. of course. in spite of its violentfeatures. 77-122 (especially). Claud. i65). 58 Diog. dulce esse torreri. in particular. too.tell how far Lucretius was a participantor merelyan observer. " Significance ofWorshipand PrayeramongtheEpicureans.82 on Tue. in Phalaridos tauro peruratur. led to a state of repose that must have commendeditselfto Epicurean ways of thinking.cit. L.alterius inter tormentafortissime stantis? cum quod incredibilius est. iv. I draw a distinction betweenMagna Mater herself and the Attisstory. i8: Poteram respondere: Epicurus quoque ait sapientem. and her cult. Cf. xxxix (I908). 55. 120. 128. and. dicat Epicurus. XV.A. xlix] as a Student Lucretius of RomanReligion I59 particularlyrevoltingto an Epicurean whose chief concern in life and in religionwas a placid and serene freedomfrom the choice of Magna Mater Lucretius was influenced.Vol.A. IX. 323-328." We find Lucretius followingEpicurus so closely in other religiouspassages that we wonder whether.and may suggestan interestin the cult that we have not properlyappreciated. Sen. Verg. Fast. MIrTp J dva- This content downloaded from 93.wvou4dXV BarTOev Ka't TL/LOKpdTeL AnJLflTpIOV IIOToraqy 36a0v KpdTOVs KaT& Trv' bv Tq."T.beneet eximiedisposta -reveals the profoundinfluenceof the nobler elements of the ceremonialupon the aestheticnature of Lucretius. I6-17: Kar&c Tr8c 8313W.U T&r 4wTroO irdzra 4'LXo3A.ugvv eICTKaripy (Usener. We cannot. op. Magna Mater appeared genial and benignant56 to the Roman imagination. Ep. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 57 See the articlereferred to in n. The means were of less importancethan the end. exclamaturum: 'dulce est et ad me nil pertinet': quid miraris.

84 (Usener.142. 739. 302. 28 May 2013 16:12:44 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .6" The flaw in his with all of its mightypower and tremendous performance. the religious conditions of his own day. I35 (Usener. T HPOOLTOVAj eoTELXc/aAEv. KaLXCWS 5o XOrV a6iT7& 60 Ib.the attack upon Roman religious conditions became indirect and incorrect. cit. We might pas aOcavJT6v a rpbs of a FriedrichNietzscheunder the contry to fancy the iconoclastic frenzy straintof the religiousspeculation of a Martin Luther as a partial parallel to the case of Lucretiusand Epicurus.'neitherwas the least the assurance that he spoke with more sanctity and with more certainty than the Pythia of Phoebus. L. V. 275-302.82 on Tue. 6I. the dissenter. ODV KaL T& TO7iTOL67OLS y-V4Y /YEX{Tc 55): 5i1 7rcTc CTL T7v r 5L& 'A/A71S f 62X 6 U T&Sa 7T TEpLd5EVE p. Epicurus' advice to Pythocles: 5L4XaXL3E. If "preaching apathy with fervor"60 was not the greatest paradox in the life of Lucretius. yv ovevoov. X. study of the evolutionof religion withoutmakingany further or of religious psychology.i6o George Depue Hadzsits [I9I8 master. Ep. x. p. 7rp6 IHp650Tov UOKXELS. The finalityof his master's ipse dixitilluminated his life and possessed his imaginationbeyond the possibility of recall. Diog. 66): TOaTa This content downloaded from 93. p. II2. was the inevitable result of a blind devotion to significance. with all of its explicit and implicit condemnations. His inflexible. But in so far as the Lucretian philosophy of religion was a reproductionof an older inspiration derived fromearlierspringsand forcesof life. 62Cf.intolerant dogmatism brooked no such curb as might have been imposed by a sympatheticstudy of Roman gods and Roman ceremonial.62 59 Duff. applied the religious philosophyof Epicurus. the supposed perfectionof his master's philosophy of religion. Kac CV eV 7O T( /Kpi TalTa '' Kat PVK7JT6. ii6 (Usener. 35)." 59 Lucretius.38. x.