CONNECTORS and LINKERS (= Conectores y nexos

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 Having one’s mind made up (with your ideas, clear) is one thing, but another, more difficult thing is to express them properly, signalling the right relationship between the different sentences and parts of a sentences (or clauses). That’s what connectors and linkers are used to: to establish the right meaning of sentences with other sentences or within each sentence. Using the wrong word may lead to misunderstanding, if not a complete loss of what we are saying. That is why mastering as many connectors as you can, may help you improve your understanding and expression in English.  Most of these relationships or functions are achieved by means of clauses (= proposiciones), which are parts of sentences that would be “shaky and weak” (somehow semantically unfinished) without a main clause to accompany. Some other times they are introduced by phrases (= sintagmas), which are simply groups of words that do not belong to the sentences, syntactically speaking.  Expressing PURPOSE or AIM (= Propósito o finalidad):

STRUCTURE “ to ” + infinitive

TRANSLATION EXAMPLES para - He went to Scotland to learn English. - Ann stayed at home to rest. - She came to Spain in order to learn Spanish. - She left China in order not to speak Chinese. - She went to France so as to learn French. - She left Brazil so as not to hear Portuguese. para que - There is a fire exit so that people will/can leave. - I’m buying some food so that we can/will have the fridge full. - I’ve lit the fire so that the house will warm. - They’ll make an appointment so that we won’t have to wait. - I left a note so that he would know where to find me.

“ in order (not) to ” + para (no) infinitive “ so as (not) to ” + para (no) infinitive “ so that ” + sentence

“ for ” + gerund (V-ing)

para

- A knife is used for cutting. - Newspapers are used for reading

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” + (adjective) + tan…que .I think. ya que. . debido a We couldn’t go because of the storm. por consiguiente . . Expressing REASON or CAUSE (= Razón o causa): STRUCTURE “ because ” + sentence “ since ” + sentence “ as ” + sentence “ for ” + sentence TRANSLATION porque ya que. a causa de.They had such a big dog that nobody dared to go near their house. As a result of the war. pues He isn’t allowed to smoke for he is still a kid. countable noun + “ that ” ” + (singular) tanto/a…que uncountable noun + “ that ” así pues. “ for ” + gerund (V-ing) “ because of ” + noun/pronoun “ due to ” + noun/pronoun por They put him in prison for stealing forbidden books. noun + “ that ” “ so many “ so much “ so ” ” + plural tantos/as…que There were so many people that we couldn’t get into the pub. debido a a causa de. Since there wasn’t enough show. “ as a result/consequence como/a consecuencia de of ” + noun phrase “ therefore ” por lo tanto.They had such big dogs that nobody went near their house. He drank so much wine that he got drunk.They saved the prize money from the 2 . so I left early.  Expressing RESULT or CONSEQUENCE (= Resultado o consecuencia): STRUCTURE “ so ” + adjective/adverb + “ that ” “ such TRANSLATION tan…que EXAMPLES We were so impatient that we couldn’t wait for them. Due to his bad attitude. the prices of oil and bread went up enormously. I won’t go with you. como EXAMPLES I couldn’t go then because I had to study. así que. he lost his job. por eso The party was boring. they didn’t go skiing. puesto que. therefore I am. como As I am very busy studying for my exams.

I don’t know whether we’ll stay or we’ll go home. consecuentemente  Expressing CONDITION (= Condición): STRUCTURE “ if ” “ if not ” “ unless ” “ whether … or…. but he got a ticket. they were rich. . Even if he started studying now. de este modo. “ thus ” por lo tanto.I was only 16 and thus unable to vote or drive. consecuencia. EXAMPLES If you drink. however. I’m hungry. he got a ticket.lottery. ésa es la I’ve been ill. “ as long as ” “ providing that ” “ even if ” sólo si. they may be unfamiliar. . como . thus provoking her classmates. Unless you study. . be ready for the exam  Expressing CONTRAST or CONCESSION (= Contraste o concesión): STRUCTURE “ but ” “ however ” TRANSLATION pero sin embargo EXAMPLES He hadn’t any money. incluso si As long as you study. For this reason. Therefore. She can come providing that you sleep in separate rooms. don’t drive. If you don’t study. siempre y cuando mientras que. ” TRANSLATION si si no a menos que Si …o …. you won’t pass. he still 3 .It should be applied thus. así. he wouldn’t tomorrow. por esta/esa razón. . and consequently. you won’t pass. siempre y cuando aunque. However. “ for this/that reason ” “ that’s why ” “ consequently ” por esta/esa razón I haven’t eaten in 2 days. you may pass. por consiguiente . That’s why I didn’t call.Many of the university subjects available are not taught at high schools.She refused to go along with it.He spent all his spare money.He hadn’t any money. razón por la que/cual… en consecuencia.

“ nevertheless ” no obstante . “ even though ” + sentence aunque . . “ despite the fact that ” + a pesar de que sentence . noun/gerund/pronoun “ in spite of the fact that ” a pesar de que + sentence . . . 4 . he still had his credit card. nonetheless. . he got a ticket. he got a ticket.Although /Though he hadn’t any money.He spent all his spare money.He hadn’t any money. he got a ticket. he got a ticket.He got a ticket in spite of {not having any money/having no money}. . . he got a ticket.He got a ticket in spite of the fact that he hadn’t got any money.Despite the fact that he hadn’t any money.He got a ticket despite {not having any money/having no money}. he still had his credit card. “ nonetheless ” no obstante . Nonetheless. “ “ (al)though ” + sentence aunque in spite of ” + a pesar de .He got a ticket even though he hadn’t any money. . noun/gerund/pronoun “ despite ” + a pesar de .had his credit card. nevertheless.In spite of the fact that he hadn’t any money. he got a ticket.In spite of {not having any money/having no money}.He spent all his spare money.He got a ticket although /though he hadn’t any money.Even though he hadn’t any money.Despite {not having any money/having no money}. hers is more distant and colder. he got a ticket. Nevertheless. . .He hadn’t any money.He got a ticket despite the fact that he hadn’t got any money. “ unlike ” a diferencia de Unlike your mum. he got a ticket.

American ones are long. moreover.While British cars are small. “ furthermore ” además. Moreover. Furthermore. we want to ask 5 .We want some more books in addition to our previous order. On the other hand. besides I was feeling very (eso) /excepto tired. .We can’t judge him only by what we have heard. reading is very enriching. American ones are long. she hates raw fish.Whereas British cars are small. I like eating them too. she hates raw fish. it can also be boring when you don’t like what you must read. .British cars are small while American ones are long.In addition to our previous order. “ besides ” además /a parte de .We made a previous order. “ in addition [to] ” además [de] . es más EXAMPLES I like eating pizza and vegetables. . we need to look into his motives. Do they like eating them as well? I like eating pizza as well as vegetables. es más .  Adding MORE INFORMATION (= Añadir más información): STRUCTURE “ and ” “ also ” “ too ” “ as well ” “ as well as ” “ moreover ” TRANSLATION y también también también además de además.She doesn’t like eating any meat. . mientras que . .I wasn’t interested in the talk.It seems.British cars are small whereas American ones are long. we want some more books. I also like eating them. . furthermore. .“ on the one hand ” “ on the other hand ” “ while ” por un lado/una parte por otro lado/otra parte On the one hand. “ whereas ” mientras que .No one knows besides you. In addition.She doesn’t like eating any meat. that they were related. .

you don’t trust me. . . She’s 60 years old.Both Mark and Jennifer like reading. “ apart from ” “ what’s more ” aparte de . además solo …. . she must be 18 to pass the driving license. he like little else. “ neither … nor … ni … ni…. dogs and parrots. Make up your mind now!  PARAPHRASING (= Parafrasear o decir las cosas de forma diferente): STRUCTURE “that is (to say) ” “in other words” TRANSLATION es decir EXAMPLES I like using eco-vehicles. por lo menos.  QUALIFYING what you are saying (= Matizar las cosas que se dicen): STRUCTURE “ more or less ” “ approximately ” “ at least ” TRANSLATION más o menos aproximadamente al menos. “ above all” “ that is (to say) ” “ in particular” “ basically ” “ especially ” sobre todo es decir I put honesty above all other virtues. en particular básicamente especialmente I like animals. and what’s more. that is (to say).We can eat either meat or fish.She must be 18 at least to pass the driving license. lo que es más. I like using eco-vehicles. . but he also he killed her.Neither Mark nor Jennifer like smoking.He loves pasta. bicycles and skateboards. en otras palabras You have serious doubts about what I am saying. . That’s basically the point she transmitted. The film will be released approximately by that date. ” “ either … or … ” o … o …. “ not only …. but no sino . in particular. . . that is (to say).My grandmother likes neither pizza nor chicken. . como mínimo EXAMPLES She is more or less old. Apart from that.Not only did he hit her. he owns an Italian restaurant. bicycles and skateboards. I am especially fond of her among all my friends.Children like eating both pizza and chiken.Either you go or you stay.She must be at least 18 to pass the driving license. 6 . . also … ” “ both … and … ” también… tanto … como…. .for some more books. in other words.At least.I like all kinds of pasta.

[tal] como I have read authors such as Dan Brown. football. Rowling. I have to mention the sources I used to get the information. She underwent several illnesses. pero no por ello menos importante And last but not least I want to show my acknowledgement of the vast collaboration of my parents and wife. the aims of my work must be introduced. en segundo lugar In the second place. “ Finally ” finalmente. Stephenie Meyer and J. In the first place. flu. [lo] primero [de todo] ante todo. for instance. Giving EXAMPLES (= Dar ejemplos para clarificar alguna idea): STRUCTURE “ for example ” “ for instance ” “ such as ” “ like ” TRANSLATION por ejemplo por ejemplo EXAMPLES I like playing sports. en segundo lugar Secondly. I am thankful for all the people who supported my decision. for example. Noah Gordon. you will say hello and introduce yourself. lo primero y más importante en primer lugar primeramente. I want to end by quoting a famous saying: “Long absent. Firstly.  Ordering logically YOUR IDEAS (= Ordenar lógicamente tus ideas): STRUCTURE “ First of all ” “ First and foremost ” “ In the first place ” “ Firstly ” “ To start with ” “ In the second place ” “ Secondly ” “ last but not least” TRANSLATION antes que nada. smallpox and chickenpox. First and foremost. I will mention why this information is important for me. soon forgotten” 7 . basketball and volleyball.K. I will mention why this information is important for me. para empezar To start with. como A man like him belongs on the stage. en primer lugar EXAMPLES First of all. I am going to establish the advantages of a smoke-free environment. por último And finally. por ultimo.

“ I think/believe/guess/consider ” pienso. as a matter of fact. life generally treats people unfairly. SUMMARISING (= Resumir lo que se ha dicho): STRUCTURE “ in conclusion ” “ in general ” “ to sum up ” “ to conclude ” “ in short ” TRANSLATION para concluir en general para resumir. life is difficult. In general. I never eat them. As far as I am concerned pet owners are accountable for their pets’ behaviour. in fact. 8 . To sum up. treat others like you would like to be treated. considero que + (that) + sentence  Expressing FACTS (= Expresando hechos): STRUCTURE “ as a matter of fact ” “ in fact ” “ actually ” TRANSLATION de hecho EXAMPLES I don’t like vegetables. supongo.  Expressing YOUR PERSONAL OPINION: STRUCTURE “ in my opinion/view ” “ from my point of view ” TRANSLATION en mi opinión desde mi punto de vista EXAMPLES In my opinion terrorists should be prosecuted. en realidad I don’t actually like vegetables. life is a gift we must spend wisely. I never eat them. resumiendo para concluir en resumen EXAMPLES In conclusion. creo. To conclude. I consider (that) everybody can make their own choices. de hecho I don’t like vegetables. but funny. tal como yo lo veo. From my point of view serious criminals should be punished according to their crimes they have committed. “ {as/the way } I see it ” “ as far as I’m concerned ” a mi modo de ver.. being polite and nice is what matters. a mi entender/parecer por lo que a mi respecta As I see it you are wrong. In short.