199. Culture Contact and Schismogenesis Author(s): Gregory Bateson Source: Man, Vol. 35 (Dec., 1935), pp.

178-183 Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2789408 Accessed: 06/07/2010 19:05
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leads by extension are alike in theirmajor functions. theselines. of a set of (2) From this it followsthat our immediateneed is not so much the construction of the formulation but ratherthe schematic whichwill throwa lighton all the problems. 24thSeptember. leave theirproblems the Committee (3) Although theyare askingofthe material. Culture Contact and Schismogenesis. categories are offered my criticisms understand.-Ingeneralit is unwiseto construct (1) The uses of such systems and so whichtheyare designedto elucidatehave been clearlyformulated. John's College. such headings or politicaldominance. It is as ifin the conof contactwillnot follow ofthe problems formulation the scientific into of individuals we startedwitha dichotomy forthe studyof criminology of categories struction fora long whileby this indeed.. A. If we grantthis. sort until the problems to not in reference have been constructed drawnup by the Committee faras I can see.' [ 178 ] ..' veryattemptto define under the traitsof a culture is based upon a fallacy: that we can classify (5) The Memorandum three into traits to for classify are example. 1935. 198-199] MAN [December. " " of on the problem light a general to throw but defined problems. be separately that may they in a such way problems readingof we may froma careful undefined.The weaknessof bundleof traitswhichmake up one institution and his by Malinowski demonstrated a culturehas been conclusively this methodof sub-dividing for as a mechanism may be seen variously of a culture pupils. and modifying satisfying 1 In any case it is clear that in a scientific study of processes and natural laws this invocation of free will can have no place. ' acceptproblems. and (c) ethicaland religious about conformity of bringing the whichovertops or at least someone function a singlefunction This idea.M. prevalent systemsof this of categories.and. We etc. 162) has stimulated I wish oftheir Memorandum. In responseto thistype of questionwe find in culturebetweenthe groupsin contact an emphasisupon difference of acculturation the definition as that between"elements forcedupon a changes. though any seriousattemptto devise to make it clear fromthe outset that I regardas a real contribution since thereare severalpassages in the Memoforthe studyof culturecontact. and such dichotomies and upon the resulting ofthisthinking as symptomatic be regarded by them"1 may likewise voluntarily " peopleor received V. Moreover. criminal a ' criminal type. By Gregory (MAN. categories investigable. St. But it is almostcertain that a studyof culture further. B. as a matter given a make we can How " " contacts? culture in use force Is it a to thing good anthropologists-" in " people accept a certainsortof trait? " and so on. and C. (4) We may agree that answersare badly needed to these questionsof administration that contactsis likelyto give theseanswers. asked. 1935. whichI do not perfectly randum(amongthemthe Definition) errors as againstcertain and are directednot so much againstthe Committee withsome hesitation. Council Research Sciences the Social of by a Committee written The Memorandum from considerably a pointof viewwhichdiffers me to put forward 1935. amonganthropologists. however. bark canoe would seem to range of the African Pungwe canoe.that curioussciencewas hampered and non-criminal-and.been influenced mittee have. to values of donorgroup. of the Pungwe type broughtabout by long continuedcontact withforeign to and modifications by Asiatic and European seamenfor influence at a port (Mozambique)whichhas been frequented withthe a commonorigin many centuries.who have shownthat almostthe whole of norms the of enforcement the or for the the of sexual needs individuals.the geographical East Africa.A.' ' adaptation' and ' reaction. the categories acculturation. ofthisarticlemayappearto be critical thebeginning theirs. South Rhodesia (PungweRiver) eastwardsto the coast of Portuguese extendfrom JAMES HORNELL. thateach traithas either the where 'institutions' into subdivided be can a culture that to the idea rest.presented considerations. Cambridge. any specifically whilethe problemitselfremainsvague.(b) desirability profit because of: (a) economic respectively classes. The same maybe said ofthecategories ofadministrative in terms and. ance. The basal designand its materialmust have. religious. as economic.Nos. Bateson. It seemsthat the Comwhat questions roughly gather the categories ask of whichadministrators by the sortof questions of fact.

g.we may now consideran alternativescheme for the study of contact phenomena.in such cultures.In thesecases the contactis betweendifferentiated groupsof individuals.g.etc.and (b) an emphasis.. (a) the division of labour and differentiation of norms of behaviour between different groups of individuals in the same community.g.groups in approximate whichlive together equilibrium. and consists in regarding behaviour as classifiable according to the impulses which inspire it.-I suggest underthe head of ' culture contact' not onlythosecases in whichthe contactoccursbetween two communities withdifferent cultures and results in profound disturbance of the culture of one or bothgroups..'' economic. . especially in the contexts of the moulding of the individual. (c) the persistence of both groupsin dynamicequilibrium withinone major community. Sexual Life and Crime and Custom. (8) If we considerthe possibleend of the drasticdisturbances whichfollowcontactsbetween different profoundly communities. I believe that the London School still adheres to a theorythat some such division is practicable. confusionresults fromthe fact that not only the psychologist..2 From this exhaustivedemonstration behaviour.December. It is likely that confusion arises from the fact that certain native peoples-perhaps all. e.1935.] MAN [No. but a closely analogous scheme might be constructed for the study of psychopathology. Malinowski. This question of the subdivision of a culture into 'institutions' is not quite as simple as I have indicated. too. we see that the changesmusttheoretically resultin one or otherof the following patterns: (a) the complete fusionof the originally different groups. that our categories (6) Fromthisit follows 'religious.betweenclans. An analogous fallacy occurs in psychology. but to partakeofall thesequalitiesaccording to thepointofviewfrom which we look at it.3 but forthe presentwe may confine ourselvesto contactsbetweengroupsof individuals. but also in assimilating the normal individual to his group. If thisbe trueof a cultureseen in synchronic thenit mustalso apply to the section. sexual. These phenomena lead to the possibility. but also cases of contactwithin a singlecommunity. Richards. into such categories as self-protective.are not real subdivisions whichare present in the cultures whichwe study. but also the individual studied. Hunger and Work. is prone to think in terms of these categories. They are not phenomena own convenience present but are labels forvariouspointsof view whichwe adopt in our studies.." abstractions a fallacy forexample. and the processes of schismogenesis would be seen to play an importantpart not only in accentuating the maladjustments of the deviant. Various cultural phenomena also contribute something towards such a subdivision.It may be easy to obtain a knowledge of the factors from 2 Cf. acceptance ofeverytraitthereare simultaneous causes of an economic. fallwhentheymaintain ' phenomena' that economic are ' primary.30 on Sundays as 'religious. Here. between the sexes. ofculture contact and change.30 and 12.and we mustexpectthatfor diachronic processes theoffering. with different culturalnormsof behaviourin each group. e. acquisitive. Here the idea of 'contact' would be studied. but in any case those of Western Europe-actually think that their culture is so subdivided. etc. e.' etc. I.the Marxianhistorians intowhich. upon the subdivisions of place and time upon which behaviour is ordered.but are merely whichwe make forour abstractions whenwe set out to describecultures in words.or for supplying we must expectthat any singletraitof a culturewill prove on examination to be not simplyeconomic or religious or structural. or refusal sexual and religious structural. such we mustbe careful to avoid Whitehead's" fallacyof misplacedconcreteness. and. In handling in culture. 199 the individualswith food. The psychologists would do well to accept the probability that every bit ofbehaviour is-at least in a well integratedindividual -simultaneously relevant to all these abstractions. for example. that we shouldconsider (7) Scope oftheinquiry.' But even in the study of such cultures the anthropologistmust look with some suspicion upon his classificationof traits into [ 179 1 institutionsand must expect to find a great deal of overlapping between various institutions. 3 The present scheme is oriented towards the study of social rather than psychological processes. (9) My purposein extending the idea of contactto coverthe conditions of differentiation insidea singleculture is to use our knowledge of thesequiescentstatesto throwlightupon the factors which are at workin states of disequilibrium. assertive. betweenaristocracy and plebs. in spite of their own works.' With this preamble.I wouldeven extendthe idea of ' contact' so widely as to includethoseprocesses a childis mouldedand trainedto fitthe cultureintowhichhe whereby was born. present in certain cultures.. (b) the elimination of one or both groups. takes place in church between 11. A. nature.of dubbing all behaviour which.between old and young.

If it does not fit. forexample.cognitively that from profoundly differs logicof one culture to findthat the inherent Here we mustbe prepared A givesa drinkto of others. the majordifferentiated within groupsas can be observed orrather-bearing suchgroups.-Here we shall see the whole body of behaviouras a mechanism objects. obtainwithin whatsortsofunity taskwillbe to ascerta-in Ourfirst withaspectsand not classesof phenomena-whataspectsof the unity in mindthat we are concerned thatthe in orderto get a wholeview of the situation. material. of houses collapsingin an earthquake. We may say that the aspectsof the personalities of the cognitive standardization appears to themlogical. I submit we mustdescribe of thebodyoftraits fiveseparableaspects: mustbe examinedin.-In studying (b) Affective ofall thedetailsofbehaviour. has upon the culture hostileactivity that so their culture into be assimilated of other elimination may groups behaviourassociatedwith moreand more.' of the individualsas orientedtowards unity. such what sortof effects that is available. Moreover. and disintegration the integration of the group. [December. at least.' we shall be in groups. whichobtainin homogeneous of the conditions (12) With thisknowledge of two diversegroupsinto one.thatthe patterns ofthe survivors. An approachto suchconditions members in Europe are in a stateof our own communities but. behaviour thattheir are so standardized oftheindividuals ofthought patterns thispointof view. but the factremains to all theseviewpoints. It is possible. Fromthispointofviewwe shall see.-Since thisis one of the possibleends of the processwe must knowwhat (10) Complete in all of behaviour homogeneous withconsistent patterns in a groupofindividuals are present factors whichis in a in any community may be found ofthegroup.-The behaviourof any one individualin any one contextis. in (a) A structural in all othercontexts. to eliminate theyare impelled [ 180 ] .No. We shall see A as givingthe drinkto B 'because it is ally orderedaccording Saturdayeveningin the Blue Boar. to them emotionally oriented (c) Economicunity.we mustexaminea number of thesevariouspointsof view in the peoplewe are studying.to determine but we shouldat least examineany material of forexample. whichwilleither promote measures to prescribe withoutotherchanges.-This end resultis perhapsscarcelyworthstudying. modifications thenwe can searchforappropriate of one or both (13) The elimination groups. We have statedabove that everybit that. scarcely thattheseconditions suchflux withstudiesofsuchhomogeneous so thatwe mustbe content bydifferentiation. relevant as probably mustbe regarded of behaviour as ' logical' or ' for to see and phrasetheirown behaviour than others somepeoplesare moreinclined the good of the State.-Here we shall see the behaviourpatternsas schematic(d) Chronological to time and place. the following to be fullyunderstood.-Here we shall see the behaviour (e) Sociological as a whole' We shall see the giving the Group of the major unit. are usuallycomplicated communities. be studiedby observation conveniently fusion.that whenindividual the group within withothernormsof behaviourobtaining is consistent B. equilibrium state of approximate theconditions communities evenin primitive occur. This aspect of the unity of the body of behaviourpatternsmay be re-statedin termsof a of the individuals. and dissatisfaction satisfaction affective towards oriented mechanism as a concerted aspects of affective in termsof a standardization may also be described This aspect of a culture by theirculturethat theirbehaviouris whichare so modified of the individuals.unfortunately. cannot to isolatethemwhentheyare violent. of all the otherindividuals withthe behaviour consistent somesense. aspectof unity. ofmaterial and distribution the production towards and spatial unity. We shallsee thewholebodyofbehaviour setting to showtheemotional oftheindividuals. the solidarity as factor promotes drinks a which of all these of the homogeneous ofmembers groupfrom the behaviour (11) In additionto studying of standardization of such groupsto discoverthe effects pointsof view. The laws ofgravity but impossible theirquietworking. that behaviour individual whichcontainsA and B. fitsthe fiveaspects of unitycan be added to a culture eitherof the cultureor of the trait.we are concemed from the culture aspectsofunity. We may even be able of fusion a positionto examinethe processes that a traitwhich and predict or retardsuch fusion. of the personalities consistent. 199] MAN 1935.

Y.P.-To this category we may referall those cases in which the behaviour and aspirations of the members of the two groups are fundamentally different. If. among themselves. classes. Thus a position is set up in which the behaviour X.Z. Thus members of group A exhibit behaviour patterns A. In reply to O.this subdivision is to some extent blurred by another type of differentiation which we may describe as reciprocal.-To this category may be referredall those cases in which the individuals in two groups A and B have the same aspirations and the same behaviour patterns. and vice versa.Q.December. If. Cases. O. but symmetryis regained over a large number of instances since sometimes group A exhibit X to which group B reply with Y. which I have studied. but are differentiated in the orientation of these patterns. but among themselves they adopt patterns R.. but on rather different lines fromthat of the Chambuli.T. for example. Thus in every single instance the behaviour is asymmetrical. clans. Margaret Mead. and exhibit the patterns O.B.Z. In this type the behaviour patterns X and Y are adopted by members of each group in their dealings with the other group. villages and the nations of Europe. which results in mutual hostility between them and must end in the breakdown of the system.g. unless it is restrained. I hope shortly to publish a book on the Iatmul with sketches of their culture from the points of view (a). 199 (14) Persistenceof bothgroups in dynamic equilibrium. and (b) cases in which the relationship is compleof social strata. in disequilibrium.Q.C. This position contains elements which may lead to progressive differentiation or schismogenesisalong the same lines. the patterns X. (16) Symmetricaldifferentiation. and. such that when certain restrainingfactors are removed the differentiation the groups increases progressivelytowards either breakdown or a new equilibrium.Z.Y. the series. This schismogenesis. Similarly. but adopt the patterns X.C. and sometimes group A exhibit Y and group B reply with X. e. since the factors active in the dynamic equilibrium are likely to be identical or analogous with those which.Y. that each group will drive the other into excessive emphasis of the pattern. it is likely that submissiveness will promote furtherassertiveness which in turn will promote furthersubmissiveness.P. Thus it comes about that O.] MAN [No. group B adopt the patterns A.P. symmetrical and complementary. (17) Complementary differentiation.V. a tribe in the same area. but exhibit X.. 1935. if boasting is the reply to boasting. (18) Reciprocity.S. [ 181 ] .Y.Q is the reply to U. may be regarded 4 Cf.W. the mentary. we shall see that there is a likelihood. is the standard reply to X. and later to consider what light these relationships throw upon what are more usually called 'contacts. a process which if not restrained can only lead to more and more extreme rivalry and ultimately to hostility and the breakdown of the whole system. leads to a progressive unilateral distortion of the personalities of the members of both groups. This differentiation may become progressive.-Though relationships between groups can broadly be classified into two categories. castes. age grades. (15) The possibilitiesof differentiation of categories (a) cases in which the relationship is chiefly symmetrical.' Every anthropologist who has been in the field has had opportunity of studying such differentiated groups. in dealings with group B. in the differentiation contain dynamic cultural differentiation between the sexes. the rela- tionship between the sexes is complementary. in the differentiation moieties.in dealing with group A.V. but instead of the symmetricalsystem whereby X is the reply to X and Y is the reply to Y. Among the latmul. 1935.Z include boasting.M. while the Tchambuli have a complementaryrelationship.W includes cultural submissiveness. Thus members of group A treat each other with patterns L. e.Z. (b) and (e) outlined in paragraph 10. but fall clearly into two of groups are by no means infinite. in their dealings with members of group B. Sex and Temperament.-This is probably the most instructive of the possible end results of contact. the members of group B exhibit the patterns U.B. in some cases. are active in cultural change.W. Of the communitiesdescribed in this book.P.Q includes patterns culturally regarded as assertive. in their dealings with each other. we find here that X is the reply to Y. the Arapesh and the Mundugumorhave a preponderantly symmetrical relationship between the sexes.V.g. for example.N.Y. in which group A sometimes sell sago to group B and the latter sometimes sell the same commodity to A. Our first behaviour task is to study the relationshipsobtaining between groups of individuals with differentiated patterns.4 Both these types of differentiation or split between elements. while U.

theMarxianhistorians pointsofview(para. The reciprocal regardthe patternas complementary. tentatively. versus ness. sell fish to A. into exaggeration. than to rather and linesofinvestigation problems articleis to suggest The purposeofthe present schismocontrolling as to the factors may be offered suggestions but. it may be noted. and commercial panied by the same type of effect.we need a studyof the factors and are readyto fly schismogenesis the nationsof Europe are faradvancedin symmetrical moment.the internalbehaviourbetweenmembersof group A must plementary of groupB. aspects(a) and (b)). complementary the groups. behaviourbetweenmembers fromthe internal differ necessarily the variouspoints of both typesfrom of schismogeneses examination (d) We need a systematic I have onlylookedat the matterfromthe ethological of view outlinedin paragraph10. and lead to whichare mutuallycomplementary (b) We need a surveyof the typesof behaviour submissiveversus onlycite assertiveness of the secondtype.whilewithineach nationare to be observedgrowing ruled in the countries Equally. schismogenesis.if we consider composing we see that the lattertendto be less and less exhibited. complementary of symptoms strata. 199] MAN 1935. the nationsof Europe becomemoreand moreinvolvedin theirsymmetrical their to a minimum reducing deliberately manner. mutual dependancebetween may in a relationship elements oftruly reciprocal of a number (c) It is possiblethat the presence which otherwise the schismogenesis mightresult eitherfromsymtend to stabilizeit. In addition and structural Europe.but if he participatein village cricket(a symrelationship always comfortable effect upon his relationdisproportionate but once a year. exhibitionism of thesepairs. [December.is compenpattern. in Western schismogenesis aspect of complementary have givenus a pictureof the economic which undulyby the schismogenesis have been influenced that theythemselves however.-But. Here we can at present schismogeneses and. At present to this. state the answers. complementary and not complementary are perhapscommon. betweenthe hostilities at each other'sthroats. that. sated and balanced withinitselfand therefore whichcan (19) Pointsforinvestigation. I think. At presentit is onlypossibleto pointto boasting of the symmetrical lead to schismogeneses to be accomwillbe found which patterns but no doubt thereare manyother rivalry. moreimportant (20) Restraining At the present both types of schismogenesis. Examples of this may go a longway towardsstabilizing relationship.-(a)We need a propersurveyof the typesof behaviour type. that whentwo groupsexhibitcom(c) We need verification behaviourto each other. Thus. variouspossiblecombinations of the generallaw assumedabove. does not tend towardsschismogenesis. whichrestrain graph. behaviourin a symmetrical the position. actually. The squireis in a predominantly typeof stabilization with his villagers. purelysymmetrical intoone ortheother according category relationships theother type.as in the case quotedabove in whichgroupA sell sago to B whilethe latter (b) It is certain a effect have a real stabilizing by promoting may sometimes patterns sell fishto A. 10. in addition. various social the behaviour schismogenesis.but it is possiblethat a very small admixtureof complementary to theirpredominant of symmetrical behaviourin a or a very small admixture relationship. sellsago to B whilethelatterhabitually but ifgroupA habitually as reciprocal.No. It is truethatit is easy to classify emphases. It is likely. as the individuals patterns international rivalries. prompted theystudiedand have been thereby of reciprocalbehaviourin relationships about the occurrence (e) We need to know something or complementary. But this would seem to be at best a veryweak defence: on metricalor complementary behaviour of symmetrical upon the reciprocal schismogenesis the effects the one hand. genesis: betweengroupsis either relationship (a) It is possiblethat. preventing elements.the offeebleness versusexpressions fostering admiration. theygraduallyleave offbehavingin a reciprocal [ 182 ] .thismay have a curiously metrical rivalry) ship with them. we may observeearly stages of complementary by new dictatorships of his associatespushingthe dictatorinto ever greaterprideand assertiveness.no healthyequilibrated of containselements but that everysuch relationship or purelycomplementary. eithersymmetrical whichare preponderantly in the previousparathan any of the problems factors. we must.

. and. inasmuch as the economic aspect of the matter is not here being considered.. is not very likely to occur since anthropology and social psychology lack the prestige necessary to advise.also refer to the Flatheadsby somevariantofthisword. Bureau of American Ethnology. and areof Plateau type culture. 199-200 formerreciprocal commercial behaviour. His firsttask is to decide which of the end results outlined in paragraph 8 is desirable and possible of attainment. For manycenturies theirprincipal homehas been in the BitterRoot Valley of western Montana. the effectsof the slump upon the schismogenesis are ignored.' 45th Annual Rept. there is one other possibility-a special case of control by diversion of attention to outside circumstances. Thus. (d) It is certain that either type of schismogenesisbetween two groups can be checked by factors which unite the two groups either in loyalty or opposition to some outside element. Such an outside element may be either a symbolic individual.D. an enemy people or some quite impersonal circumstance -the lion will lie down with the lamb if only it rain hard enough. The peoplethemselves vigorously objectto theterm Flatheadin reference to themselves.. -Where formerlyboth groups exhibited both X and Y. (e) In the case of the European situation. governmentswill continueto react to each other's reactions ratherthan pay attention to circumstances. State University ofMontana. (21) In concluLsion. the following note of reviewis offered. if we consider the effectsof complementary schismogenesisupon the reciprocal behaviour patterns. A complete study would be subdivided into separate sections. without such advice. Ph. Theycall themselves the Salish (se* lic). then he must contrive to establish a system in which the possibilities of schismogenesis are properly compensated or balanced against each other. By Harry Turney-High.. we may turn to the problems of the administrator faced with a black-white culture contact. particularly thoseto theeast. but to the very basis of our understanding of human beings in society. Examination of multiple systems of this kind is badly needed and especially we need to know more about the systems (e. however. 1 Teit. It is possible that those responsible for the policy of classes and nations might become conscious of the processes with which they are playing and co-operate in an attempt to solve the difficulties. Most of the tribesto the west speakingmember languagesof the Salishan stock. Perhaps it is impossibleto solve this question. as in the other examples given. although manyother Indiansso call them. and that I have used many informantsin comparison with Mr. James A. Teit has published material indicating thattheir original homewas east on theGreatPlains. while the other exhibits only Y.] MAN [Nos. Teit's extremelyshort visit. M.A. If he chooses that both groups shall persist in some form of dynamic equilibrium. Introductory Note. military hierarchies) in which the distortion of personality is modified in the middle groups of the hierarchyby permittingthe individuals to exhibit respect and submission in dealings with higher groups while they exhibit assertiveness and pride in dealing with the lower.not only to applied sociology. no attempt is made to consider the schismogenesis from all the points of view outlined in paragraph 10. At sometimelongago theyseemto have migrated from another locale.even as faras the PacificOcean.speakinga languagewithin theSalishanfamily. This decision he must make without hypocrisy. GREGORY BATESON. The Diffusion of the Horse to the Flatheads. This.-For the benefit ofthoseworkers whosefields ofconsistent endeavour are distant fromNorth-west United States. But it must be noted that where the outside element is a person or group of persons. then he must endeavour to contrive every step so as to promote the conditions of consistency which are outlined (as problems for investigation) in paragraph 10.g. Teit's almost completerelianceon the late NlichelRevais. [ 183 ] . If he chooses fusion.December. we see that one-halfof the reciprocal pattern is liable to lapse. I Salishan Tribes of the Western Plateaus. the relationship of the combined groups A and B to the outside group will always be itself a potentially schismogenic relationship of one or the other type. behaviour which was formerly reciprocal is reduced to a typical complementarypattern and is likely after that to contribute to the complementary schismogenesis. All that I can say for my own position is that I have lived with the Flatheads fornine years in contrast with Mr.The UU Flatheadsare a peopleofwestern Montana. 1935. 5 In this. 1927-1928.' The greatmajority ofmyinformants. a system gradually evolves in which one ofthe groups exhibits only X. But at every step in the scheme which I have outlined there are problems which must be studied by trained students and which when solved will contribute.5 On the other hand. In fact.. each treating one of the aspects of the phenomena.

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