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4.0 REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH 4.1 Analysing Gamete Formation Necessity for Organisms to reproduce 1.

Reproduction is important to ensure the . of organisms. 2. It is achieved through two strategies: a) Produce new offspring for the . of the species in habitats. b) Contribute the .. among the new individual. 3. Types of reproduction: a) Sexual Reproduction - Involves the fusion of two gametes - Involves .. organism, male & female - .. occurs among the offspring - Common among .. b) Asexual Reproduction - Gametes are not involves - Only organism is involved - Offspring are with their parent - Common among invertebrates - Various ways such as: Binary fission e.g.: ..... , Budding e.g.: ., Sprolution e.g.: ..

Necessity for the Formation of Gametes 1. Each gamete that will fuse should be containing .. chromosomal number of parent cell. 2. This is to ensure that zygote contains .. number (2n) of chromosomes which is equal to parent cells. 3. During meiosis, occurred in the gamete cells. Hence, the fusion of these two gametes (sperm & ovum) will produce offspring which is . from their parent. (variation happen)

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Comparison between Sperm & Ovum Formation Spermatogenesis Similarities Oogenesis


Differences Gametes produced Place of formation Size of gametes No. of gametes produced during meiosis Shapes of gametes Condensation of mitochondria Volume of cytoplasm


Primordial Germ Cells

Meiotic division

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4.2 Analysing the Role of Hormones in the Menstrual Cycle The functions of hormones involved in the menstrual cycle HORMONE PLACE OF SECRETION FUNCTIONS

1. FSH

Pituitary gland

2. LH

Pituitary gland

3. Oestrogen

Follicle cells of the ovary

4. Progestron

Corpus Luteum

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Answer the questions below. The graphs below show a concentration of gonadotrophin & sex hormones in the blood during menstrual cycle. a) Label the hormones below at the graphs: i) ii) Oestrogen Progestrone iii) iv) LH FSH

Hormone concentration




Hormone concentration

DAYS 0 14 28

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b) In the space below, draw a diagram to show the follicle development & corpus luteum in the ovary as the effect from FSH, LH, oestrogen & progesterone.

Hormone concentration

DAYS 0 Common physical symptoms: - Headache - Fatigue - Feel bloated - Breast tenderness 14 28

- Abdominal . - Sleep - Appetite changes

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) PMS is a cyclical disorder of severe physical, mental & emotional distress in certain women. It is related to the menstrual cycle due to hormonal imbalance. It occurs in a week or two before menstruation PMS could be due to the imbalance in the oestrogen & progestrone

Common emotional symptoms: - Irritability - T - D. - Confusion

- Mood swings - Lack of concentration - Oversensitivity

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Menopause Definition Age 1. 2. Why & how it happened 3. 4. ..


4.3 Understanding the Early Development of a Zygote in Humans STAGES Fertilisation (36 hours) Development of Embyo (36 hours 4 days) Blastocyst / Blastula (5-6 days) Implantation (7 14 days) EXPLANATION - . begins to divide repeatedly by as it travels along the . tube (oviduct). - Mitotic division repeatedly to formed embryo with two cell, four, eight & the solid mass of cells called . The size is remained. - The with about .. cells. Now, it is a hollow sphere & become blastocyst @ blastula which is contains .... - Seven days after fertilization, the blastula attaches & embedded itself into .. The process called implantation. - The . at blastula develops into the embryo. - The outer layer @ will develop into the foetal portion of & chorion, a protective membrane which enclosing the embryo. - Embryo size reaching 2.5 cm long. It has all the main tissues & look alike the real human being & is called foetus - Sexes distinct & complete placentation - Heart beat starts - Birth

8 weeks 12 weeks 16 weeks 38 weeks

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Formation of Twins Comparison between Identical & Fraternal Twins Identical Twins Similarities Fraternal Twins

Identical Twins

Differences Fertilization

Fraternal Twins

Formation of zygote

Genetic constitution

No. of placentae


Physical characteristics

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1. The placenta begins to develop when the embryo fully implanted. 2. The trophoblast develops into . which has finger-like projections called .. 3. The blood .. of the chorion & mother grow & expand together to form the placenta. 4. The placenta is connected to the foetus by the .. 5. The umbilical cord contains umbilical . & umbilical .. 6. The umbilical vein carries .. blood from placenta to the foetus while umbilical arteries carry blood from the foetus to the placenta.

2. Site of the exchange of

1. Act as

, respiratory gases & wastes between the foetus & its mother.

Umbilical veins

Carries : Oxygen Water Glucose Amino Acids Lipid Mineral salts Vitamins Hormones Antibodies


gland that secretes .. & progesterone after 3 @ 4 months Umbilical arteries

Carries : Carbon dioxide Nitrogenous waste (urea)

5. To differ

maternal & fetal blood pressures from one another

3. Placenta provides a partial protection

4. Prevent the

as substances like drugs, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, HIV virus & rubella virus are able to penetrate it thus will affect the development of foetus

of fetal & maternal blood.

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The advantages of having a separate circulatory system from that of the Mother
1. Prevents the mixing of blood groups of mother & the foetus which may caused blood

.. 2. Prevents certain .. bacteria & their toxins from entering the foetus. 3. Prevents the action of .. in mothers blood from harming the developing foetus. 4. Ensures that the fine blood vessels of the foetus does not .. as a result of high pressure caused by the flow of mothers blood.

Pair the terms below with their descriptions.

O Ovulation P Syphilis Q Contraception R Placenta S Umbilical Cord T Implantation U IUD V Vasectomy W Menstruation X Progestrone

The structure that attaches the embryo to the placenta. The structure that is formed partly from embryonic tissue and partly from the uterine wall Prevention of pregnancy A sexually transmitted disease The process by which the ovum is released from the ovary The process by which an embryo attaches itself to the uterine wall The period of bleeding that occurs when the broke down lining of the uterine wall is discharged through the vagina A device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent implantation of the embryo Prepares the uterus for implantation of embryo.
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4.4 The Contribution of Science & Technology to Human Reproduction

Infertility: Due to either the male @ female partner being .. CONTRIBUTION

Family planning: Enables the married couples to limit the family size. Allows the married couples to limit the birth of children.

Common causes: Blocked . Tube Failure of an embryo to itself on the endometrium / fibrocyst The inability to produce ova. Blocked . ducts / vas deferens sperm count Unhealthy sperm Inability to erect penis (impotence) An irregular . cycle

Birth control methods

Rhythm method IUD



Withdrawal method

Contraceptive pills

Overcome with
Common causes: Artificial insemination (AI) Sperm Bank Surrogate mother In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) Gamete intra-fallopia transfer (GIFT) Zygote intra-fallopia transfer (ZIFT) Cloning Vasectomy

Contraceptive implant


Tubal ligation



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The sexual transmitted diseases (STD) Definition Diseases that are .from one person to another through contact. STDs caused by bacteria: Chlamydia Syphilis Gonorrhea Caused STDs caused by virus: Hepatitis B Genital herpes AIDS Treatment Bacterial STDs can be treated with antibiotics but viral STDs cannot. Not engaging in promiscuous sexual behavior. Being faithful to sex partner


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4.5 The Concept of Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 4.6 Growth in Multicellular Organisms 4.7 The Growth Curve 4.8 Primary & Secondary Growth in Plants

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6.0 6.1

VARIATION Variation in Organisms

Definition : Differences in particular characteristic () found within members of species.

.. from one another


Chances of ..

Formation of new species

Helps organisms to adapt to their environment

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CONTINUOUS VARIATION No distinct categories into which group the individual should be grouped Tends to be . range of values (intermediate phenotype between two extreme) Controlled by genes (polygenic) Caused by or environment factors @ both Examples: , weight, skin colour & intelligence (IQ) Producing a distribution (bell shaped curve)

DISCONTINUOUS VARIATION Appears for a few discrete categories where individual in a population can be placed. Tends to be The characteristics fall into distinct categories with no . Controlled by . gene Caused by . factor only Examples: Tongue rolling, blood group fingerprints, earlobes

Producing a .. distribution.

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Causes of Variation

Factors causing Variation 1. 2.

Effect of Genetic factors on Variation 1. 2. 3. 4. Genetic recombination by .. during meiosis. Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes Random fertilisation ..

Types of Mutation 1. I. Mutation Involve changes in: a. The structure of chromosomes b. No. of chromosomes during .. The structure of chromosomes can be changed by the process: a. c. b. Duplication d. Translocation Changes in the no. of chromosomes occur when homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. There is either an .. or loss of chromosomes in the gametes & causes genetic diseases such as ..... syndrome, . Syndrome & syndrome. Chromosomal mutation cant be seen through microscope.





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2. I.

Mutation Occur when there is a change in the structure of the . Caused by . such as: a. (x-rays, gamma rays & ultraviolet light) b. (pesticides, caffeine, formaldehyde, food preservatives, drugs & some components of tobacco smoke such as benzo pyrene) There is an alteration in the base sequence of the DNA thus changing the genetic code. As a result, when cell synthesis protein the order of amino acids in polypeptide chain is changed. Causes genetic diseases such as sickle-cell anemia, ..& hemophilia




Effects of Environmental Factors on Variation 1. 2. 3. 4. Environmental factors can influence variation. Environmental factors that cause variation in plants: water supply, light intensity, temperature, minerals & diseases Environmental influence can change the . of plants resulting in acquired characteristics which cannot be .. Different environmental factors give rise to different variation in plants. For example: Plants which receive better supply of water & more light can grow better that the plants that do not receive water & light. Hydrangaea sp produces pink colour of flowers when the soil is alkaline & blue colour when the soil is acidic 5. Continuous variation in humans such as height, physical & intelligence are the products of environmental influence.

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Effects of Interaction between Genetic factors & Environmental factors on Variation 1. 2. 3. The traits of an organism are controlled by Some traits are controlled by a single pair or several pair of alleles. Traits that are controlled by several pairs of alleles are influenced by the These alleles interact with one another & with the environment, resulting in continuous variation. 4. For example : A person may inherit a mixture of tall & short genes, leading to average height. However, this height is also affected by the environment factors like nutrition, causing further change to the height

Importance of Variation in the Survival of a Species 1. 2. 3. Variation within the species causes some individuals to better to environmental conditions for survival. They will survive & transmit the advantageous to their offspring. Overtime, there will be changes in the individual of a particular species, with the better adapted ones increasing in population & resulting in a new species called . @ Natural Selection 4. Examples: The snail, Cepaea nemoralis exists in a variety of .. & banding depending on the alleles present. Different phenotypes are selected in different habitats to camouflage them from their ..

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