Coral Reef Research in the Philippines and Beyond…

Hazel O. Arceo

Philippines… Philippines…
CHINA

Fast Facts:
Composed of 7,107 islands Total area: 300,000 km2

LUZON
Manila

N-S: 1,850 km E-W: 1,127 km) Total coastline: 36,289 km

VISAYAS
Cebu

Population: 88.5 M (NSO
2007)

Tropical wet climate (wet and dry seasons)
MINDANAO

How it was formed

Tracks of tropical cyclones that entered the PAR during the period period 19481948-2005 (1128 tropical cyclones)

Marine Biodiversity
Coral Reefs
North Philippine Sea

25,819 km2 (Burke et al. 2002) 464 coral species (Licuanan & Capili
2003; Veron & Fenner 2002)

LUZON
South China Sea

915 reef fish species (Hilomen et al. 2000) [>3,000 fish species (FishBase 2007) ]
Visayan Seas

VISAYAS
South Philippine Sea Sulu Sea

Algae - 820 species (Trono 1999) Seagrass - 16 species (Fortes & Santos
2004)

Mangroves - 30 species (WRI 2003) Other species (Pan et al. 2008):
Annelida – 57 Arthropoda – 582 Bryozoa – 56 Cnidaria – 669 Echinodormata – 90 Mollusca – 1,982 Mammalia - 31 Porfiera – 64 Reptilia - 27

MINDANAO
Celebes Sea

Marine biogeographic regions (modified from Aliño and Gomez 1994)

The Philippines is at the center of marine biodiversity in the world world .

000 existing MPAs in the country (Arceo et al. 2002) Over 1. 2008) Only about 25-30% are effectively managed .Philippine MPAs “Hottest” of the marine biodiversity hotspots in the world (Roberts et al.

Cebu City .) Department of Biology . Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) and Horn Shell (Rhinoclavis sp. Cd. Zn. Hg) on Milkfish (Chanos chanos).Previous Research Work Bachelor of Science in Marine Biology (1993(1993-1997) The Effects of Heavy Metals (Pb.Marine Biology Section University of San Carlos.

Diliman .Previous Research Work Master of Science in Marine Science (1999(1999-2004) Patterns and Role of Recruitment on the Community Dynamics of Reef Fishes in the Philippines Marine Science Institute University of the Philippines .

MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To examine the role of recruitment on coral reef fish dynamics . To investigate patterns of recruitment in Philippine reef fishes Spatial (3 scales) Temporal 2.

0 6.0 19.0 20.0 117.0 CELEBES SEA 4.0 Bolinao (23) Balingasay (45) Masinloc (44) Anda (37) Alaminos (3) Casiguran (3) Dinalungan (7) Baler (7) ☯ 5 biogeographic regions ☯ 31 localities in 50 provinces PHILIPPINE SEA 15.0 SOUTH CHINA SEA Masbate (7) 12.0 121.0 127.0 128.0 123.0 8.0 STUDY AREAS: Aparri (3) 21.0 16.0 116.0 Latitude (°N) Mabini (10) Twin Rocks (40) Calauag Bay (31) Lagonoy Gulf (27) Ragay Gulf (44) • 26 (database) • 5 (primary data) 13.0 17.0 125.0 10.0 14.0 118.0 122.0 124.0 Kalayaan Island Group (9) 9.0 115.0 126.0 18.0 Longitude (°E) ☯ LIT (secondary data) ☯ Video Transects (primary data) .22.0 SULU SEA Tukuran (7) Tabina (7) 7.0 ☯ 514 transects ☯ Fish Visual Census • Juveniles (100 m2) • Adults (500 m2) North Palawan (7) El Nido (20) San Vicente (9) Cordova (10) Honda Bay (17) Puerto Princesa Bay (17) Zamboanga (2) Danjugan (35) Talibon (7) Calape (10) Loon (10) Sibulan (8) 11.0 120.0 Kiamba (8) 5.0 119.

of juveniles/100m2 250 200 150 100 50 0 SCS (n=83) NP (n=40) VIS (n=54) SS (n=32) CEL (n=22) KruskalKruskal-Wallis ANOVA *p<0.Spatial Pattern: Biogeographic Region Abundance no.001 SS (n=32) CEL (n=22) . of species/100m2 20 15 10 5 0 SCS (n=83) NP (n=40) VIS (n=54) KruskalKruskal-Wallis ANOVA *p<0.05 Species Richness no.

Composition of Reef Fish Families SOUTH CHINA SEA (11 localities) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Masinloc Anda Balingasay Twin Rocks Bolinao Alaminos Mabini San Vicente El Nido KIG NW Palawan SULU SEA (4 localities) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% VISAYAN SEA (7 localities) Danjugan Honda Bay PPC Bay Zamboanga Ragay Masbate Cordova Sibulan Talibon Loon Calape NORTH PHILIPPINE SEA (6 localities) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% CELEBES SEA (3 localities) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Calauag Lagonoy Dinalungan Baler Casiguran Aparri Kiamba Tabina Tukuran Acanthuridae Anthiinae Labridae Scaridae Plotosidae Pomacentridae Other Families .

Spatial Pattern: Locality Abundance One-way ANOVA 20 Species Richness One-way ANOVA 20 **p<0.001 **p<0.001 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 4 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 High (>200 ind/100m2) Medium (51(51-200 ind/100m2) Low (<50 ind/100m2) High (>15 species/100m2) Medium (5(5-15 species/100m2) Low (<5 species/100m2) .

One North Wall (NW) Bamboo Bridge (BB) Danjugan West 2 (DW2) Danjugan West 1 (DW1) Species Richness One-way ANOVA)) (*p<0.Spatial Pattern: Island Abundance One-way ANOVA) (NS at p<0. Occidental .05. Neg.05. One North Wall (NW) Bamboo Bridge (BB) Danjugan West 2 (DW2) Danjugan West 1 (DW1) Hillary's Third Lagoon (3L) Hillary's Third Lagoon (3L) Twin Peaks 1 (TP1) Twin Peaks 2 (TP2) Twin Peaks 1 (TP1) Twin Peaks 2 (TP2) Danjugan Island. Cauayan.

of individuals/100m2 200 160 120 80 40 0 Aug-01 BALINGASAY 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 DANJUGAN 1600 no.001 NS p<0.001. of species/100m2 no.05. of individuals/100m2 1200 800 400 0 Sep-01 Apr-02 no data Mar-03 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Jan-02 Sep-02 Jan-03 160 120 80 40 0 Sep-01 Jan-02 Sep-02 Feb-03 25 20 15 10 5 0 no. of individuals/100m2 200 no.001 Sp Richness p<0. of individuals/100m2 160 120 80 40 0 Aug-01 ANDA *p<0. of species/100m2 no. T-test TWIN ROCKS 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1600 1200 800 400 0 Sep-01 Dec-01 Sep-02 Jan-03 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Jan-02 Sep-02 Jan-03 no. of individuals/100m2 200 MASINLOC 30 ANOVA Area Season Area x Season Abundance p<0. of species/100m2 no. of species/100m2 no. of species/100m2 LEGEND: Abundance Species Richness no. T-test **p<0.001 NS p<0.Temporal Patterns no.001 .

90 – 1.20 – 0.645* 0.514* 0.70 – 0.726** 0.AdultAdult-Juvenile Relationships & MPAs Correlation Analyses (Pearson r.00 – 0.40 – 0.89 0.39 0.622* 0.00 Very weak Weak Modest Strong Very strong Fowler and Cohen 1990 FAMILY (26 families/subfamilies) Anthiinae Pomacentridae Cirrhitidae Scaridae Labridae 0.454* .69 0.05) 0. p<0.19 0.

p<0. Duration of study insufficient to detect changes Protection ineffective. poaching Depleted sources of fish stock (e. p<0. Adult Reef Fish No significant changes in abundance and biomass over time (3-way ANOVA & Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA.g.05).05). Balingasay & Anda) Duration of the study insufficient to detect changes Abundance showed an increasing trend over time in Twin Rocks Due to increasing number of adult conspecifics Biomass significantly higher inside than outside the MPA (NE data set. p<0.05). Protection effect Choice of sites during MPA establishment Fish feeding activities inside the MPA . KruskalWallis ANOVA.SpatioSpatio-Temporal Trends in the MPAs Juvenile Reef Fish No significant differences in abundance over time (3-way ANOVA & Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA.

0 SOUTH CHINA SEA 12.0 118.0 123.0 6.0 115 .0 Bol ina o (2 3) 16.0 15.0 121.0 S ibul an (8) 8.0 19.0 PHILIPPINE SEA 14.0 C ord ova (10) S a lc e d o C al ape (1 0) Lo on (1 0) 9.0 Reef monitoring in 8 MPAs No significant changes in coral cover Fish density increased by 5050-200% Fish biomass increased by 100100-900% Initial biomass value influenced rate of accumulation (Nanola et al.0 1 17.0 126.0 1 25.0 11.0 CELEBES SEA Project funded by: UNDP-GEF-SGP & USAID/DENR-CRMP Longitude (°E) 4. 0 127.0 SULU SEA 7. 0 124.0 Ki am ba (8 ) 5.0 18. 0 122.0 13.0 116.0 Sa n Vi c ent e (9) 10.Project Involvements Participatory Evaluation of the Effectiveness of MPAs in Maintaining Reef Functional Biodiversity (1997(1997-2003) 22. 0 119.0 128 .0 20. 2007) Latitude (°N) 17.0 12 0.0 .0 21.

Manual for Coral Reef Monitoring .

2001 .1998 Massive Coral Bleaching Event Arceo et al.

Pangasinan (n=3) Jun-98 Aug-98 Jun-99 a b Western Palawan (n=3) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 MEAN % COVER Apr-98 Nov-98 May-99 MEAN % COVER a a b ab a b ab a a b b ab ab b May-98 Nov-98 May-99 Sulu Sea (n=6) Arceo et al. Changes in major benthic attributes. before. 2002 HC SC DC DCA AA OT ABIOTIC UNID 21 Slide courtesy of MC Quibilan .An evaluation of the coral reef benthic assemblages suggests that that exacerbated combined effects of human and natural induced disturbances dictate their recovery and/or denouement. 2-6 months after and a year after the coral bleaching event 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 MEAN % COVER a a b a ab b b a b b b ab a Bolinao.

0 119.Project Involvements Enhancing Sustainable Fisheries through Improved Marine Fishery Reserves (2000(2000-2003) 22.0 21.0 118.0 5. 0 Project by: 122.0 19.0 128 . fisheries monitoring) 15.0 1 17.0 LongLong-range effects Genetic studies 6. fish tagging & tracking.0 8.0 115 .0 14.0 123.0 .0 18.0 12 0.0 13. 0funded 124. DA-BAR 0 127.0 12.0 B ali nga sa y M a sinl oc Spillover effect (FVC.0 ShortShort-range effects Latitude (°N) 17.0 126. fecundity.0 Anda 16.0 SULU SEA Z a m boa nga 7.0 20.0 Da nj uga n 9.0 CELEBES SEA 4.0 1 25.0 116.0 Guim a ra s 10.0 121.0 PHILIPPINE SEA Tw i n Rock s SOUTH CHINA SEA MediumMedium-range effects Ichthyoplankton surveys (fish larvae and eggs) Oceanographic studies 11.

3% recapture rate • All caught outside Reef fish sedentary Evidence of crossing boundaries → Spillover ? Flux rates of crossing over? 1o Emigration rate (potential spillover) ~ 23% Aurellado et al. Negros Occ. April 2001 – May 2003 530 fish tagged 99 species. 2009 Source: AFMA-MFR Project .5%) 108 tagged outside reserves • 10/108 = 9. Cauayan. 22 families 422 tagged inside reserves • 34 recaptured = 8.1% recapture rate • 8 of 34 tagged inside caught outside (23.Movement of reef fish Tagging • • • • Danjugan.

00 122.80 122.40 16 15 14 13 24 12 1 11 Spatial scale of 100 km 2 10.80 121.80 PANAY 22 21 10.LARVAL & EGG DENSITIES IN PANAY GULF.00 4 >100 ≤100 ≤ 50 ≤ 10 6 7 5 NEGROS 122.20 122.60 19 20 23 Guimaras 18 17 10.60 122. larvae = red 9.20 9 10 3 8 10. MAY 2002 10.40 Source: AFMA-MFR Project .80 Eggs = blue.

2000 with marine biogeographic regions (Alino and Gomez 1994) Celebes Sea Project funded by: USAID through DAI Inc.500 ha) South China Sea North Philippi ne Sea Visayan Seas Sulu Sea South Philippine Sea Map from Ong et al.700 ha of coastal area under improved management 20 new marine sanctuaries established (400 ha) 50 existing marine sanctuaries managed (2.Project Involvements Philippine Environmental Governance 2 Project (2004(2004-2009) Target outcome: Reduced overfishing & destructive fishing 106. .

Coastal Resource Management Planning & Implementation .

MPA Establishment and Management MPA networks .

Current Research Work Thesis (2009(2009-present) Performance Indicators to Assess the Effectiveness of MPAs in Sustaining Fisheries ECOMERS Université de Nice .Sophia Antipolis .

UPV .Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or Marine/Fish Sanctuaries Recruitment Protected Area or sanctuary FISHERY BENEFITS OF MPAS Spillover Slide courtesy of W Campos.

particularly on density and mortality of recruits. specifically: a. and. To determine the effect of protection on fish recruitment. b.MAIN OBJECTIVES: 1. To investigate densitydensity-dependent exportation of fish to adjacent areas outside of the MPAs. the movement of adults (spillover (spillover) spillover) the potential export of reproductive propagules . 2.

METHODOLOGY Cap Roux MPA (Saint Raphaë Raphaël) No-take zone 450 hectares extending up to the 80-meter isobath Established in Dec 2003 by the Prud’homie de Peche Initially closed for a 4-year period but was extended to 6 years in Jan 2008 Managed by the city of Saint Raphaël .

Determining Protection Effects on Fish Recruitment 1.) Rocky substrates (Serranus cabrilla) . Monitoring Juvenile Fish Abundance Seagrass beds Shallow coves (Diplodus spp.METHODOLOGY A.

Juvenile Fish Mortality Experiment Photo by: Marine Clozza Photo by: Marine Clozza .METHODOLOGY A. Determining Protection Effects on Fish Recruitment 2.

Full cage Inside Reserve Open setset-up Outside Reserve Partial cage = Mortality rate .

The Residents… Residents… Serranus scriba Serranus cabrilla Serranus hepatus Pagrus pagrus .

Symphodus roissalli Pagellus bogaraveo .Pagellus bogaraveo Symphodus sp.

Pagellus erythrinus .

The Predators… Predators… .

Unexpected guests… guests… .

The risk… risk… .

Exportation of adult fish (“spillover effect”) Experimental Fishing Fish Tagging/Tracking 3.GENERAL METHODOLOGY B. Adult recovery (“reserve effect”) Fish Visual Census (Transect. Determining Protection Effects on Fish Recovery and Exportation 1. Exportation of reproductive propagules (“recruitment effect”) Fecundity Study – proxy estimate for potential egg/larval outputs . FAST) 2.

Experimental Fishing Design 3-4 100-meter nets deployed at 10-40 m depths Number of stations inside MPA = 3 stations (approximately 400m distance per station) outside MPA = 5 stations at varying distances from the south boundary (i. 600. 200m.e. 800 m. 1000m control = 2 stations at least >2000 m away from the south boundary Frequency: 2 seasons (spring and autumn) 2 campaigns per season . 400m.

Maraming Salamat! (Merci beaucoup!) .

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