# Section modulus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Section modulus is a geometric property for a given cross-section used in the design of beams or flexural members. Other geometric properties used in design include area for tension, radius of gyration for compression, and moment of inertia for stiffness. Any relationship between these properties is highly dependent on the shape in question. Equations for the section moduli of common shapes are given below. There are two types of section moduli, the elastic section modulus (S) and the plastic section modulus (Z).

Contents

1 Notation 2 Elastic section modulus 3 Plastic section modulus 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Notation

North American and British/Australian convention reverse the usage of S & Z. Elastic modulus is S in North America,[1] but Z in Britain/Australia,[2] and vice versa for the plastic modulus. Eurocode 3 (EN 1993 - Steel Design) resolves this by using W for both, but distinguishes between them by the use of subscripts - Wel and Wpl .

**Elastic section modulus
**

For general design, the elastic section modulus is used, applying up to the yield point for most metals and other common materials. The elastic section modulus is defined as S = I / y, where I is the second moment of area (or moment of inertia) and y is the distance from the neutral axis to any given fibre.[3] It is often reported using y = c, where c is the distance from the neutral axis to the most extreme fibre, as seen in the table below. It is also often used to determine the yield moment (My) such that My = S × y, where y is the yield strength of the material.[3] Section modulus equations[4] Cross-sectional shape Figure Equation Comment

Rectangle

Solid arrow represents neutral axis

doubly

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symmetric Isection (strong axis) NA indicates neutral axis
doubly symmetric Isection (weak axis)
NA indicates neutral axis
Circle
[4]
Solid arrow represents neutral axis
Circular tube
Solid arrow represents neutral axis
Rectangular tube
NA indicates neutral axis
Diamond
NA indicates neutral axis
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C-channel
NA indicates neutral axis
Plastic section modulus
The Plastic section modulus is used for materials where (irreversible) plastic behaviour is dominant. The plastic section modulus depends on the location of the plastic neutral axis (PNA).Section modulus .[5] For the two flanges of an I-beam where: =width.Wikipedia. the area above and below the PNA will be equal.org/wiki/Section_modulus
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. So.wikipedia. The plastic section modulus is then the sum of the areas of the cross section on each side of the PNA (which may or may not be equal) multiplied by the distance from the local centroids of the two areas to the PNA:
Description
Figure
Equation
Comment
Rectangular section
. The PNA is defined as the axis that splits the cross section such that the compression force from the area in compression equals the tension force from the area in tension. but for composite sections. for sections with constant yielding stress. are the
http://en. this is not necessarily the case. The majority of designs do not intentionally encounter this behaviour. =thickness.

. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. 1997. 2010.org.google.List of section moduli for common beam shapes
http://en. PWS Publishing Co. G. ^ American Institute of Steel Construction: Load and Resistance Factor Design.engineeringtoolbox. and Timoshenko. 21. Sometimes Z and S are related by defining a 'k' factor which is something of an indication of capacity beyond first yield. Mp. elsever. J. Illinois: American Institute of Steel Construction. 598 EQ (iv). Inc.org/wiki/Section_modulus
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. Sydney. Mechanics of Materials 4th Ed.Steel Structures (http://www. ^ AS4100 .org/2010spec). and Grondin. 6. ^ Megson.. 16.5
See also
Beam theory List of area moments of inertia Second moment of area
References
1.
[6]
For an I Beam including the web For an I Beam (weak axis) Solid Circle Hollow Circle
The plastic section modulus is used to calculate the plastic moment.html . T H G (2005). Structural and stress analysis (http://books. Australia: Standards Australia. the free encyclopedia
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with the web excluded
distances from the neutral axis to the centroids of the flanges respectively..uk/books? id=N2WyMxutXK4C&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false). 2. Fy. The two terms are related by the yield strength of the material in question. by Mp=Fy*Z. Chicago. ^ a b Gere. ^ Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (http://www. p.aisc. G.wikipedia..
External links
http://www. Limit States Design in Structural Steel 8th Ed. k=1.Y. M. ^ a b Kulak.standards. S.au/).1–xxxiv. pp. 3. 1998.Wikipedia. 17-34.com/american-wide-flange-steel-beams-d_1318. or full capacity of a crosssection.L. p. 4. 5. 2006.co.Section modulus . 3rd Edition. k=Z/S Therefore for a rectangular section. pp.

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http://www. a non-profit organization.org/wiki/Section_modulus
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.Online Calculation for Section Modulus Retrieved from "http://en.com/samples. additional terms may apply.
http://en. By using this site. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.Section modulus .wikipedia.php?title=Section_modulus&oldid=550931584" Categories: Structural analysis
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