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http://www.groundloss.com/theory/

Links Prediction of building damage due to tunneling

Content Analyses in program Ground Loss Analysis of subsidence trough Volume loss Recommended values of parameters for volume loss analysis Classical theory Analysis for layered subsoil Shape of subsidence trough Coefficient of calculation of inflection point Subsidence trough with several excavations Analysis of subsidence trough at a depth Calculation of other variables Analysis of failure of buildings Tensile cracks Gradient damage Relative deflection Failure of a section of building

**Analyses in program Ground Loss
**

Analyses performed in the program "Ground Loss" can be divided into the following groups: analysis of the shape of subsidence trough above excavations analysis of building damage The failure analysis of building is based on the shape of subsidence trough.

**Analysis of subsidence trough
**

The analysis of subsidence trough consists of several sequential steps: determination of the maximum settlement and dimensions of subsidence trough for individual excavations back calculation of the shape and dimensions of subsidence trough providing it is calculated at a given depth below the terrain surface. determination of the overall shape of subsidence trough for more excavations post-processing of other variables (horizontal deformation, slope) The analysis of maximum settlement and dimensions of subsidence trough can be carried out using either the theory of volume loss or the classical theories (Peck, Fazekas, Limanov).

Volume loss

The volume loss method is a semi-empirical method based partially on theoretical grounds. The method introduces, although indirectly, the basic parameters of excavation into the analysis (these include mechanical parameters of a medium, technological effects of excavation, excavation lining etc) using 2 comprehensive parameters (coefficient k for determination of inflection point and a percentage of volume loss VL). These parameters uniquely define the shape of subsidence trough and are determined empirically from years of experience.

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5 overconsolidated clay clay slate quartzite 0.groundloss.Theory .com/theory/ Settlement expressed in terms volumes The maximum settlement Smax .Settlement Analysis.excavation radius VL .depth of center point of excavation k .percentage of volume loss The roof deformation ua follows from: where: r . http://www. and location of inflection point Linf are provided by the following expressions: where: A .8 0.6-0.6-0.9 2 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM ..3 normaly consolidated clay 0.coefficient to calculate inflection point (material constant) VL .percentage of volume loss Recommended values of parameters for volume loss analysis Data needed for the determination of subsidence trough using the volume loss method: Coefficient to calculate inflection point k Soil or rock cohesionless soil k 0.excavation area Z .8-0. settlement prediction and building damage a..7 0.

Limanov).6 a large plastic zone develops around excavation and for N = 6 the loss of stability of tunnel face occurs. for N < 4.Theory .geostatic stress in center of excavation Kr .coefficient of pressure at rest of cohesive soil The roof ua and the bottom ub deformations of excavation follow from: 3 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM .verall stress along excavation axis t . For N < 2.5 Several relationships were also derived to determine the value of lost volume VL based on stability ratio N defined by Broms and Bennermarkem: where: v . When calculating settlement the program first determines the radial loading of a circular excavation as: where: z .groundloss. http://www. Fazekas. The subsidence trough analyses then differ depending on the assumed theory (Peck.excavation lining resistance (if lining is installed) Sn .4 local plastic zones begin to develop in the vicinity of excavation. settlement prediction and building damage a. Classical theory Convergence analysis of an excavation and calculation of the maximum settlement in a homogeneous body are the same for all classical theories. Figure shows the dependence of stability ration and lost volume VL..Settlement Analysis.5-1 Sequential excavation method 0.8-1..com/theory/ Percentage of volume loss VL Technology TBM VL 0.undrained stiffness of clay For N < 2 the soil/rock in the vicinity of excavation is assumed elastic and stable.

depth of center point of excavation r .com/theory/ where: Z . Next (as shown in Figure) the program determines the length of subsidence trough L at the terrain surface.tunnel roof displacement .depth of center point of excavation r .groundloss.excavation radius E . 4 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM .excavation radius ua .Poisson's number of rock/soil in vicinity of excavation When the tunnel roof displacement is prescribed the maximum settlement is provided by the following expression: where: Z .modulus of elasticity of rock/soil in vicinity of excavation .Settlement Analysis.modulus of elasticity of rock/soil in vicinity of excavation . http://www. In this case the approach complies with the one used for a homogeneous soil.Poisson's number of rock/soil in vicinity of excavation The maximum terrain settlement and the length of subsidence trough are determined as follows: where: Z ...depth of center point of excavation r .Theory .excavation radius E . settlement prediction and building damage a.Poisson's number of rock/soil in vicinity of excavation Analysis for layered subsoil When determining a settlement of layered subsoil the program first calculates the settlement at the interface between the first layer above excavation and other layers of overburden Sint and determines the length of subsidence trough along layers interfaces.

groundloss.settlement of respective interface Solution after Fazekas Fazekas described the horizontal displacement above excavation using the following expression: where: L ..length of subsidence trough F .volume loss of soil per 1 m run determined from: where: Lint . settlement prediction and building damage a. http://www.com/theory/ Analysis of settlement for layered subsoil The next computation differs depending on the selected analysis theory: Solution after Limanov Limanov described the horizontal displacement above excavation with the help of lost area F: F L where: L .Settlement Analysis.settlement of respective interface Solution after Peck Peck described the horizontal displacement above excavation using the following expression: 5 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM ..Theory .length of subsidence trough Lint .length of subsidence trough along interfaces above excavation Sint .length of subsidence trough along interfaces above excavation Sint .

Based on a series of FEM calculations the following values are recommended: gravel soil G1-G3 sand and gravel soil S1-S5.com/theory/ where: Lint .groundloss. This assumption then allows us to determine the horizontal displacement at a distance x from the vertical axis of symmetry as: where: Si .distance of inflection point Curve based on Aversin Aversin derived.G5. in overburden – literature offers the values of k inf in the range 2. Curve based on Gauss A number of studies carried out both in the USA and Great Britain proved that the transverse shape of subsidence trough can be well approximated using the Gauss function.settlement at point with coordinate xi Smax .settlement at point with coordinate xi Smax .maximum terrain settlement L . In this case the coefficient k inf represents a very important input parameter strongly influencing the shape and slope of subsidence trough..5 kinf = 2.4. settlement prediction and building damage a. rocks R5-R6 fine-grained soil F1-F4 fine-grained soil F5-F8 kinf = 3. based on visual inspection and measurements of underground structures in Russia. the following expression for the shape of subsidence trough: where: Si . http://www.0 kinf = 2.settlement of respective interface Linf .Theory .G4.5 kinf = 3.1 6 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM .1 . respectively.maximum terrain settlement Linf .Settlement Analysis. Its value depends on the average soil or rock.length of subsidence trough along interfaces above excavation Sint .0..reach of subsidence trough Coefficient of calculation of inflection point When the classical methods are used the inputted coefficient k inf allows the determination of the inflection point location based on Linf =L/k inf .distance of inflection point of subsidence trough from excavation axis at terrain surface Shape of subsidence trough The program offers two particular shapes of subsidence troughs – according to Gauss or Aversin.

Analysis of subsidence trough at a depth The width of subsidence trough at an overburden l is provided by: where: L .depth of center point z . Subsidence trough with several excavations The principal of superposition is used when calculating the settlement caused by structured or multiple excavations. Based on input parameters the program first determines subsidence troughs and horizontal displacements for individual excavations.length of subsidence trough at terrain surface r .Theory . settlement prediction and building damage a. The overall subsidence trough is determined subsequently.. Analysis of subsidence trough at a depth A linear interpolation between the maximal value of the settlement Smax at a terrain surface and the displacement of roof excavation ua is used to calculate the maximum settlement S at a depth h below the terrain surface in a homogeneous body.Settlement Analysis. Other variables..excavation radius Z . In such a case the horizontal displacement of the soil is provided by the following equation: 7 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM . horizontal strain and gradient of subsidence trough.com/theory/ The coefficient for calculation of inflection point is inputted in the frame "Project". The horizontal displacement can be derived from the vertical settlement providing the resulting displacement vectors are directed into the center of excavation. are post-processed from the overall subsidence trough. http://www. Calculation of other variables A vertical settlement is accompanied by the evolution of horizontal displacements which may cause damage to nearby buildings.groundloss.analysis depth The values l and S are then used to determine the shape of subsidence trough in overburden above an excavation.

Recommended values for masonry buildings from one to six floors are given in the following table.groundloss. The program highlights individual parts of a building with a color pattern that corresponds to a given class of damage..depth of center point of excavation The horizontal displacements are determined in a differential way along the x axis and in the transverse direction they can be expressed using the following equation: where: x .settlement at point x Z . The program offers predefined zones of damage for masonry buildings.distance of inflection point Analysis of failure of buildings The program first determines the shape and dimensions of subsidence trough and then performs analysis of their influence on buildings.. 8 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM .settlement at point x Z .depth of center point of excavation Linf . These values can be modified in the frame "Settings". settlement prediction and building damage a.distance of point x from axis of excavation s(x) . sagging) analysis of the inputted section of a building Tensile cracks One of the causes responsible for the damage of buildings is the horizontal tensile strain. Considerable experience with a number of tunnels excavated below build-up areas allowed for elaborating the relationship between the shape of subsidence trough and damage of buildings to such precision that based on this it is now possible to estimate an extent of compensations for possible damage caused by excavation with accuracy acceptable for both preparation of contractual documents and for contractors preparing proposals for excavation of tunnels.Settlement Analysis.com/theory/ where: x . The program offers four types of analysis: determination of tensile cracks determination of gradient damage determination of a relative deflection of buildings (hogging.distance of point x from axis of excavation s(x) .Theory . The maximum value of tensile strain is provided in the text output. http://www.

groundloss. These values can be modified in the frame "Settings". Considerable experience with a number of tunnels excavated below build-up areas allowed for elaborating the relationship between the shape of subsidence trough and damage of buildings to such precision that based on this it is now possible to estimate an extent of compensations for possible damage caused by excavation with accuracy acceptable for both preparation of contractual documents and for contractors preparing proposals for excavation of tunnels. The program highlights individual parts of a building with a color pattern that corresponds to a given class of damage. (per mille) Damage Microcracks Little damage ..500 1:500 . Recommended values for masonry buildings from one to six floors are given in the following table.8 1.5 0.2 – 0. problems with windows and doors Large damage Wide open cracks in bearing walls and beams Relative deflection Definition of the term relative deflection is evident from the figure.0 Little damage . Clearly.Theory .8 – Medium damage.800 Microcracks 1:800 .75 – 1. from the damage of building point of view the most critical is the relative deflection upwards leading to "tensile opening" of building. functional Cracks in walls.75 0.Settlement Analysis. settlement prediction and building damage a.superficial Little damage Medium damage.300 1:300 . Gradient Gradient Damage Description Microcracks Cracks in plaster Small cracks in walls 1:1200 . functional Cracks in walls. The program searches regions on buildings with the maximum relative deflection both upwards and downwards. The maximum value of tensile strain is provided in the text output.0 – 1.150 1:150 .superficial Little damage Microcracks Cracks in plaster Small cracks in walls Description 0.0 1. http://www.com/theory/ Horizontal strains (per mille) Proportional h. 9 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM .5 – 0. problems with windows and doors Large damage Wide open cracks in bearing walls and beams Gradient damage One of the causes leading to the damage of buildings is the slope subsidence trough.s. The program offers predefined zones of damage for masonry buildings..

Settlement Analysis.0004 SN 73 1001 0.0.groundloss.0002 For L/H = 5 .0015 – – – Failure of a section of building In a given section the program determines the following variables: maximum tensile strain maximum gradient maximum relative deflection relative gradient between inputted points of a building Evaluation of the analyzed section is left to the user – the following tables list the recommended ultimate values of relative rotation and deflection. Type of structure Ultimate relative deflection /l Type of damage Burland and Wroth Meyerhof Polshin a Tokar Cracks in walls Unreinforced bearing walls Cracks in bearing structures For L/H = 1 .0004 For L/H = 5 .0015 Unreinforced bearing walls Cracks in bearing structures – – – 10 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM .0.0008 For L/H = 1 .0002 For L/H = 5 .com/theory/ Relative deflection Verification of the maximum relative deflection is left to the user – the following tables list the ultimate values recommended by literature.0.0004 0. http://www.0004 0. Ultimate relative gradient Type of structure Type of damage Skempton Meyerhof Polshin a Tokar Bjerrum Structural Frame structures and reinforced bearing walls Cracks in walls 1/300 1/500 1/500 1/500 1/500 1/150 1/250 1/200 1/150 SN 73 1001 Type of structure Ultimate relative deflection /l Type of damage Burland and Wroth Meyerhof Polshin a Tokar Cracks in walls For L/H = 1 . settlement prediction and building damage a.0.0008 For L/H = 1 .0004 0..0.0.Theory .0004 For L/H = 5 .0004 SN 73 1001 0.0.0..0004 0.

com/theory/ 11 11 4/30/2013 1:51 PM .groundloss. http://www..Theory .Settlement Analysis.. settlement prediction and building damage a.

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