Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana


GHANA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (GIMPA) GIMPA GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) EVENING PROGRAM GMBA 705: Marketing Research (September – December 2012) Group marketing research project (30%) Perception of politics and political parties: an exploratory study in Ghana Instructor: Charles Blankson, Ph.D. Presented by: 2010 MBA MARKETING GROUP II Group members


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Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana


This paper presents the results of a study conducted to determine perception of Ghanaians on political parties and their campaigns and finds congruence between perceptions and the results of content analysis of various newspapers. Respondents largely agreed with perception that politics was largely for personal gain, lacked integrity and had ethnic undertones. Though it is a qualitative research, questionnaires were developed and administered but analysis was done using excel template. The goal was to add further credence to results of the qualitative study without going into full quantitative analysis. Respondents agreed largely that political parties campaigns was full of propaganda and did not influence electoral fortunes. Rather perceptible achievements were much more important than campaigns. In all 130 articles were content analyzed and results showed congruence between the media and respondents on perception of politics being largely for personal gain, lacking integrity, full of propaganda, education and health being key in campaigns and tangible achievements being very important to electoral fortunes.

The name of modern day Ghana was culled from the ancient kingdom of Ghana, which was one of the most powerful three West African states of Mali and Songhai. Its gloried period was between the 12th to the 16th centuries. In the aftermath of its defeat by the Songhai Empire, most of its citizens, it is believed, migrated to present day Ghana (


In 1957 Ghana gained independence from the British and made history by being the first African country south of the Sahara to gain independence from colonial rule (vibeghana. It handed power to an elected civilian government in 1969. The National Redemption Council (NRC) metamorphosed into Supreme Military Council I and later Supreme Military Council II after Acheampong was overthrown in a palace coup led by Lt. Gen. Rawlings. coups and counter coups.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 Political parties became relevant as instruments in Ghana’s democratic practice as early as the 1950’s when the country was in transition from colonial rule to an independent sovereign nation state. 2006). A.A. It also handed power to a civilian administration. However. The Progress Party (PP) government of Kofi Abrefa Busia stayed in power for barely three years when it was overthrown in another military coup led by Post-independence political history of Ghana has been characterized by democratic elections. Rawlings staged another coup and overthrew the civilian government and 3 . Kutu Acheampong. (Odotei I.A Ankrah and later Gen. As many as eight political parties emerged between 1954 and 1957 to participate in the struggle for self –determination against British colonial rule (Ninsin K. Nkrumah’s CPP government was overthrown in a military-cumpolice junta. J. Lt. Akuffo.J. Ghana since independence has had five civilian administrations and four military regimes.2008) According to the author. The SMC II regime was also overthrown in another coup in 1979 which brought into power the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) led by Flt. This regime was headed by Gen. the People’s National Party (PNP) in 1971. J. Lt. in 1981 Flt. A Afrifa. the National Liberation Council in 1966. Reasons assigned for the coup included human rights abuses economic mismanagement and neglect of the army.

4 . This regime under pressure from both internal and external sources organised democratic elections in 1992 that brought in the Fourth Republic. Ghana is settling into a de facto two-party system with only NPP and NDC being the only parties with a reasonable chance of electing a President and forming a government. Political system With successful elections held in 2008 and an impending one in 2012 one can say that democratic governance is gaining roots as the preferred form of governance in Ghana. there is no dominant single party: NPP and NDC are more or less equally matched in national electoral strength According to the 2011 USAID REPORT on Ghana (USAID. With Fluid electoral majorities. Fox et al. There however seem to be an inequity in electoral fortunes . The National Democratic Congress led by Rawlings won the 1996 elections. Also there is a growing concentration of wealth among exclusive group of politicians and their supporters excluding the vast majority of Ghanaians who largely continue to wallow in poverty. Not surprisingly. 2011) Ghana politics is embodied winnertake-all system which undermines administrative accountability for the effective use of public resources to address socio-economic problems. Ghana Democracy and Governance Assessment.According to the STAR-Ghana report.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 ushered in the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC). the New Patriotic Party (NPP) led by J. the 2008 Afrobarometer report states that 79% of adult Ghanaians prefer democracy to alternative forms of government. In 2000 it lost to the major opposition party. Ghana Today. Ghana. Final Report. making party turnover increasingly likely outcome each election year. Kufuor who won another term in 2004.A.

it has a huge impact.Kwahu) and NDC enjoying support from Ewes and ethnic groups of the three Northern regions. 2. The CDD afrobarometer report on Ghana states that “perception of corruption among elected officials 5 . and listen to constituents. They give speeches and Politicians who actively campaign to generate support among the public. Thus by deductive reasoning we can state that the perception of the public towards a particular party or candidate or politics based on public opinion can have an effect on electoral fortunes. Literature Review Perception of Politics Public opinion consists of the views held by the population of a state that influence those in power. politicians must listen to public opinion if they wish to keep their jobs(www. then that presidential candidate is likely to have a political mountain to climb up to the election (www. Perception of Ghanaians about politicians has largely being unfavorable.Akim.historylearningsite. public opinion is a dominant force in American politics and especially so during the long electoral process. If a presidential candidate fails to hit it off with the media at the first primary. In a democratic state. especially with Twi-speaking subgroups ( of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 Further STAR-Ghana report (GHANA TODAY) identifies that competition and electoral outcomes exhibits growing polarization along ethnic lines with NPP strongly identified with Akan. The news media which covers all major political events extensively.In According to the author’s influences on public opinion includes: 1.sparknotes. stage rallies. Because the vast majority of people get their political information from the media.

Telephone campaigns and Online campaign. 2007) According to Kajo W & Svenja.The ground newspaper. (2011) According to Lindberg. print. Politics Parties Campaign In campaigning for political positions.The classic distribution campaign . Desires wall or wailing wall . In Ghana the most popular campaign methods include Media work. whether or not one is capable of being a leader is not the key to success. TV) . with 95 per cent of the citizens perceiving that some tax officials and police officers are corrupt”. The strategies include Street campaign . H.Street tango .Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 and governments has witnessed persistent rise since 2002. 2006. but what seems to be the important thing is how one can use an effective campaign strategy to drum home ones message (Kajo W & Svenja. organization of advocates and supporters and street campaigns. Since few citizens are able to attend campaign rallies. The report further revealed that perception of corruption among public officials was as high as 58 per cent for officials at the presidency and some members of parliament while 56 per cent observed that governments were corrupt. H. Phone campaigns are also gradually becoming popular and some Presidential Candidates send wholesale campaign messages via SMS outlining salient points in their manifesto. majority of voters get messages about candidates mostly from alternative media.Media work (radio.Organize advocates and supporters. (Ridout & Mellen. presidential campaigns are very hotly contested because they determine who is selected as the head of state and to whom majority of the people would entrust guardianship of their sovereignty. (2011) various campaign strategies can be adopted by political parties to maximize their effect. 6 .

not much work has been done on Political party’s campaign. as well as use of money and other material incentives. In Presidential elections. Literature on perceptions of Ghanaians about politicians as well as political parties and their campaigns has not been cited by the authors. The tactics include appeal to political tradition. These policy issue statements can be obtained from newspaper articles and communicated extensively during campaigns. knowledge about where the candidates stand is vital and can influence voter’s perception and choice of candidates (Amponsah. Apart from Peter N. appeal to other identities such as settlers versus indigenes. Also since positive tone of campaign coverage could be favorable to democracy. by national issues like the economy.Amponsah work in 2012 which discusses the Daily Graphic Coverage of Presidential campaigns in Ghana. The influence of these factors in determining the outcome of elections depends on the constituency and whether it’s parliamentary or presidential. 7 . ethnic identity and religion. Though the paper addresses the influence of campaigns on voter choice it fails to discuss the congruence between what the newspapers address in campaign messages and the perception of voters on political campaigns and thus provides the impetus for this research. often heavily. candidates adjust the tone of their comments in order to appeal to the electorate. 2012). these local factors are weighed. Politcal parties through their campaigns employ various tactics to mobilize voters for their course. From the foregoing it could be inferred that campaigns generally influence voting behavior and that candidates try to project a positive image in the mind of electorates in order to influence electoral fortunes.According to the author. policy issue statements contribute to better voter knowledge and voting decisions.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 According to Ninsin (2006). Of all information voters obtain through the mass media during a presidential campaign.

Research Methodology Due to the exploratory nature of this research it was decided that a qualitative research was most appropriate.2002). Determine public perception about politics in general 2. Deletion of duplicate statements. (see Blankson &Omar. scale development and purification. Initial collection of perception. This method was adapted by Blankson & Kalafitis(2004) and Blankson &Strutton (2011).In order to achieve the research goal. This framework was used with some modifications to fit our purpose.In their research they adapted a modified version of Parasuraman et al. evaluation of the reliability and validity of the positioning typology and positioning typology. More specifically the objectives of this paper are to: 1. Our modified framework is as follows: Step 1: Initial generation of statements from in-depth interviews Step2: Deletion of duplicate statements 8 .framework with the following steps (see fig.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana Research Aims and Objectives 2012 The aim of this research is access public perceptions of political parties and their campaigns during elections. identification of main factors/dimensions. a multistep process demanding that thorough attention be paid to every step of the process has been adapted in the questionnaire design process.1):Initial generation of statements. By means of content analysis of various newspaper commentaries and communications from political parties determine the congruence between the strategies and tactics adopted by political parties and the aforementioned. final collection of perceptions. Determine public perception of political parties campaign and 3.

Gordon and Langmaid (1988) and Loos(1995).Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana Step 3: Design of questionnaires Step 4: Pilot test of questionnaire Each of the steps is now debated in detail: Initial generation of statements from in-depth interviews (Step 1) 2012 Each member of the team (5) conducted an in-depth interview to elicit views on politics and political parties and their campaigns. What is your perception of political parties and their campaigns? The interview lasted typically for about 30 minutes per session and took place in natural noncontrived settings. (2012) who adapted McCracken’s precept of adding additional interviews to dataset until no incremental insights are generated with each new informant.In their research.2004. After interviewing 12 people we felt we had reached a saturation point since successive new respondents after the 10th interview gave no new perceptions. In all we collected a total of 56 statements. Deletion of duplicate statements (Step 2) This stage was done by adaptation of Blankson and Kalafitis. Our choice of sample size was informed from Parmentier. they followed suggestions of Kirk and Miller (1986). Questions were open-ended and were phrased as follows: 1.We thus examined the list of 56 generated statements and identified 9 . Selection of the interviewees was purely judgmental and the only requirement was one had to be 18 years of age.(1987) . What is your perception of Politics in Ghana? 2. Fisher et al.Bliss et al.

The exercise resulted in 16 statements which were used as the variables for the questionnaire. The statements were measured on a 7 point likert scale where 1 stood for “I do not agree at all with the statement” and 7 “I very much agree with the statement”. Questions were designed to reduce measurement and non-response errors. which were viewed as potential discriminators across respondent’s perception.Tortora.After the exercise the questionnaires were modified a.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 and deleted duplicate/overlapping statements by means of inductive reasoning.Though this article was on principles for conducting web surveys we surmise that a number of the principles could be adapted for our purposes . (See Appendix 1) Pilot test of questionnaire (step 4) The questionnaire was pre-tested to remove ambiguous statements. Ghanaian to Ghanaian. The process resulted in the retention of only those statements/items. correct any typographical errors and improve on response rate.Some of the suggestions include: correction of word Politcal to political.Bowker(99). addition 10 . Questionnaires began with very simple introductory questions that could easily be answered by respondents. For each statement the respondents were requested to indicate the degree to which they agreed with perception of politics and political parties campaigns. Design of questionnaire (Step 3) The questionnaire was designed based on Dilman. A total convenience sample of ten people was chosen for the pilot study. The questionnaire was completed with questions on the demographic profile of respondents. The y had a minimum of a first degree and were working in our respective companies .As per the Dilman approach we introduced the questionnaire with a motivational consent statement that emphasizes the ease of responding .

Snowball techniques were used in certain cases to identify respondents. 99). survey mode effects and/or the ability of the respondent to answer the questionnaire (Dilman et al. 18years and above. items and words.It’s a quasi-quantitative and qualitative method and involves analyzing information contents by considering key trends.2011) Content analysis was used in this study because it involves investigating the congruence between individual perceptions and themes obtained from newspaper articles and advertisement.identified content analysis as a multipurpose 11 .e. the sampling unit was made up of male and Female Ghanaians of voting age. themes characters.Blankson. For our purposes. of sound mind and who had a at least a post-secondary education .2011).We believe these sampling unit would reduce the incidence of measurement errors. A convenience sample of 80 people made up of 19 males and 61 females was used for the survey. (Blankson & Strutton. Content analysis Content analysis is a multipurpose methodology developed specifically for investigating any problem in which information content serves as the basis for inference. their names were written down and the questionnaires were collected after 24 hours.(Blankson & Strutton.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 of likert scale instructions on page 3 of questionnaire and further explanation of the word “propaganda” Data Collection method The population of interest was the population of Ghanaians of voting age i. Measurement errors are from inaccurate answers to questions that stems from poor question wording. In all a total of 80 questionnaires were administered with a response rate of 75%.Strutton (2011).. poor interviewing.The questionnaires were handed to respondents.

Consistent with Nelson and Pack (2007). A template was developed by the team for collation of results obtained from content analysis(see Table 2) Coding Procedures The team adapted the coding procedure used in Blankson. Since identification of themes from newspapers involves exploring information content. written jargon and headlines and social situations and behaviors displayed in the ad. written jargon and headlines in articles. 12 . photos accompanying articles and social situations and behaviors displayed in the ad. In all 60 newspapers were content analyzed. ad character.The frequency of occurrence was recorded in the content analysis table.Strutton (2011).In this article the authors in an attempt to identify typology of positioning strategies used the frequency system. they identified various position strategies by means of ad character.Themes introduced in the initial stages of the research and incorporated in questionnaire were identified using inductive reasoning. character of the language. Using an emic approach and inductive reasoning.exhaustive and reliable categories based on identified typology of positioning strategies.We adapted parts of this framework and tailored it to our needs . A total of 130 articles from the newspapers were content analyzed for the presence of final themes identified and included in the questionnaire. nature of the ad in the photo background.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 methodology which is used for exploring any problem in which information content serves as the foundation for inference.they trained coders to detect and classify advertisement content into mutually exclusive . content analysis would be suitable.

a large number of respondents (84%) agreed that politics had ethnic undertones.Perception of politics a.No advantages f. Percentage of respondent s who agreed or disagreed with particular themes was then determined. Instead responses were analysed using excel.Improper planning g. Here congruence was determined by the level of agreement between newspaper articles and general perceptions.Does not influence voting behavior d.Education and health central themes b. responses between 1-3 was considered as disagreement with a particular theme and 5-7 scale considered as agreement with a particular theme.Ethnic undertones e. Congruence was determined if content analysis results gave almost similar results with respect to articles covering such themes.Manipulation of illiterate population 2. If perception for a particular theme was above 60% it was considered high.9% of articles covered that theme. The results of content analysis was also analysed similarly.Tangible achievments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FREQUENCY 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 2012 18 19 20 Table 2:Template and themes used content analysis.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana CONTENT ANALYSIS THEME 1. However only 15. Results Ideally questionnaires had to be coded and analysed using SPSS software but this was not done due time constraints. With respect to perception on politics .Negative tone e.Lacks integrity(corruption) d.4 was considered a neutral response.Propaganda c. In likert scale. 78% of respondents agreed that politicains engaged in politics largely for personal gain and over 36% of articles content analysed agreed largely with this assertion.Personal gain b.Supporters under influence f.Unfulfilled promised c. 13 .Perception of political campaigns a.

However most people disagreed with the perception that campaigns were not properly planned. 65% of respondents were of the opinion that campaigns were not necessary and that tangible achievements was a better influencer of positive voter behavior.there was congruence between the media (content analysis) and respondents on the perception that politicians were in politics largely for personal gain. Over 30% of articles also content analysed expressed similar sentiments.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana han of newspapers content analysed expressed similar sentiments. Considering the issue of congruence . 2012 With the perception that politicians largely did not fulfill their promises to electorates there was only a marginal difference between those who agreed and disagreed.28% of articles content analysed expressed similar sentiments. Largely respondents agreed with most of the perception themes elicited from the in-depth interviews. These sentiments were identified in relatively large percentage of newspaper content analysed and was a dominant theme in most of the newspaper articles. On the issue of perception of political parties and their campaigns.44% disagreed with the statement. did not really influence voting behavior and the large crowds seen at campaign rallies were usually under influence and created a false impression of popularity. The highest percentage of respondents agreed with the fact that ethnicity played a central role in politics but most newspaper articles did not cover that theme. Whilst 56% of respondents agreed . This was in congruence with content analysis where 35% of articles talked about education and health. This was the only perception where respondents disagreed with. 14 . However there was incongruence on the issue of politics having ethnic undertones. Over 70% of respondents also agreed that Politcal parties campaigns was full of propaganda. most respondents (87%) greed that health and education were central themes. There was also congruence on the issue of corruption and lack of integrity in politics.

This might be because of the issue of ethnicity 15 . 58% of respondents were of the opinion that multi-party democracy did not offer any advantage compared to military rule. I believe the media has to do more to address this issue. With regards to political party’s campaigns. This is in sharp contrast to the 2008 Afrobarometer report which states that 79% of Ghanaians preferred democracy. These responses are not surprising because most respondents also think that politicains are largely corrupt and lack integrity Majority of respondents also think that politics in Ghana has ethnic undertones. Unfortunately this issue is not discussed broadly in the media. There was congruence on issue of education and health being central themes of campaigns. I believe the media has a cardinal role to play in the development of multi-party democracy . This perception is largely supported by the media where a large number of articles discuss this theme. Over 70% of respondents agreed with that assertion but this only 23 of 160 articles content analysed identified such a theme. It seems a lot of electorates do not believe politicians whose main mantra is “we want to serve you”. Discussions There was a high level of agreement among respondents that politicains engaged in politics largely for personal gain. I believe politicians in Ghana have a lot of work to do to convince voters that the welfare of the ordinary Ghanaian is their credo. We need to identify it as antagonistic to democracy and put in place measures to mitigate its effect. Ethnic based politics on the other hand has the tendency to destroy the gains obtained from democracy and/or prevent us from full benefit of democratic governance. The reason for this might be that people prefer democracy just because of peace and stability it offers but when it comes to economic and other issues they do not think democracy is any better. This supports the research by STAR-Ghana which identified that electoral outcomes exhibit growing polarization along ethnic lines.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 Also there was incongruence on issue of politics based largely on manipulation of illiterate population. most respondents were of the opinion that campaigns did not influence voting behavior. Campaigns full of propaganda and on issue of tangible achievements being more important to positive electoral fortunes than campaigns.

Conclusions There was a high agreement among respondents that politicians were in politics largely for personal gain and that there was corruption in politics. However due to time constraint this was not done. a reliability analysis should be done when conducting content analysis. full of propaganda. Also politics in Ghana was influenced by ethnicity and politicains took advantage of the large illiteracy rate and manipulated electorates for personal benefit. They however were of the opinion that campaigns were generally well planned. Finally the was a high agreement among respondents that tangible achievements were more effective at winning votes as compared to campaigns which they perceive to be full of propaganda. lacking integrity. accuracy and reproducibility respectively. 16 . The tests should assess stability. We developed and administered questionnaires but could not analyze in SPSS. There was congruence between respondent opinions and content analysis on politics being largely for personal gain. education and health being key in campaigns and tangible achievements being very important to electoral fortunes Limitations According to Blankson.We however analyzed data in excel to get insights into the perceptions. Respondents also agreed largely that education and health were the central themes in most campaigns and campaigns were mostly full of propaganda. A detailed quantitative analysis of the results was not done due to time constraints.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 discussed earlier.Strutton(2011) . rather what were more important were tangible achievements. This was done to add a little more credibility to the qualitative study. They believed that campaigns did not have much influence on voting behavior. It’s known that some ethnic regions would still not vote for a particular party irrespective of the degree of campaign done by the party they do not support.

53(1). D. 1(2). (2011). Wiley 17 . C. & Bowker. Kajo W & Svenja. & Omar. 5. N. 123-134. 1(1). A longitudinal examination of positioning strategies in a liberalized developing African economy: The case of Ghana.Democracy and elections in Africa.. C. & Strutton. Journal of political science. Tortora. Journal of marketing management.S.Effective political communication in Ghana.11-15 3. Marketing practices of African and caribbean small businesses in london. Principles for constructing web surveys. 5(2).. (1999). E. & Kalafitis. Lindberg . Amponsah. Also the influence of the media/campaigns on voting behavior in Ghana will make for interesting reading References 1. 52-65. 1-3. Retrieved from http://scholar. 6. First knowledge of the degree of ethnic influence on Ghanaian body politics will be reasonable area of study worth considering. for constructing web surveys. Blankson. The daily graphic coverage of presidential campaigns in Ghana. government and politics. The John Hopkins university press. D. doi: DOI 10. R.1108/13522750210423823 4. H. 2. P. The development and validation of a scale measuring consumer/customer-derived generic typology of positioning strategies. O. (2004). C.. (2002). D. Blankson. S..I (2006). P. Blankson.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 Further research This exploratory research gives insights into further topics of interest. Qualitative market research:an international journal. FriedrichEbert-Stiftung Ghana 7. (2012).

M.Does the media agenda reflect the candidates agenda?.N & Mellen . Ninsin ..Ghana democracy and governance assessment.M. Press/politics.Study of political parties and political participation in 15.44-62 12.B. Journal of the academy of marketing science.B.A.. Star-Ghana. Ridout T.political history of Ghana. (2011).org/content/history-ghana 18 .3-19 16.Anyimadu . Retrieved from vibeghana. Vibeghana. F. Positioning brands in established orgnizational fields.Keshishian . Institute of African studies university of Ghana. Fisher.3-62 14.css.12.K. Ghana Today: A political economy analysis 13.History of Ghana. A..Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 8.Hoffman .(2006). Parmentier. (2012)..history learningsite. Odotei I.. www. R. Retrieved from http://irenekodotei. USAID. www.(2008).Konrad adenauer stiftung.(2007).K. & Reuber.

It will take approximately 10 minutes to complete the survey questionnaire. You are assured of complete confidentiality. If you have any questions concerning this study.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 Appendix 1-Questionniare CONSENT STATEMENT Dear Participant. Thank you for taking the time to fill out the questionnaire. There are no foreseeable risks involved in this study. Again we value your input. and request that you kindly participate in the study by responding to the questions. If you are under 18 years of age. please contact the principal investigators whose details are given below: 19 . This study seeks to find the congruence between public perception of political parties. and your anonymity will be maintained in all report results from this research study. their campaigns and the communication strategies and tactics they employ. The data will be kept confidential. It’s purely an academic exercise being carried out by a group of MBA students as part of their study curriculum. please don’t complete the questionnaire. This research deals with the public perception of Ghanaian Political Parties and their campaigns. We value your opinion as a respondent.

The presidential candidate d.Door-door campaign (3) Have you ever voted? (a)Yes (b) No (4) If you were eligible to vote this year what will likely influence your voting pattern? a.Radio adverts b.The vice presidential candidate 20 .Tick only one answer per question.The party c.Television adverts c.Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 PERCEPTION OF POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS IN GHANA Please complete all sections of the questionnaire Section A: General Questions (1) For the following statements indicate your opinion by ticking the appropriate choice from the list .Outdoor billboards d.The campaign message b. (2) Which of the following do you believe is the most effective communication tool for political campaigns? a.

Please check below the statements that fit your perceptions about politics in Ghana I do not agree at all with the statement I very much agree with the statement 1 Largely for personal gain 2 3 4 5 6 7 Manifesto pledges(promises) are largely unfulfilled Lack integrity Politicians are not knowledgeable about issues affecting Ghana Has ethnic undertones(support for a particular party influenced by ethnic background ) Does not offer any advantages as form of governance 21 .Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana 2012 Section B : Issues related to your perceptions about politics in Ghana (5)Please consider the following descriptors (statements) located below these instructions: (6) . (7) Indicate to what extent you believe each statement corresponds (fits) with your perceptions of politics in Ghana Use a scale of 1 to 7 where: 1=”I do not agree at all with the statement” 2= “I disagree with the statement” 3= “I somewhat disagree with the statement 4= “Neutral” 5= “I somewhat agree with the statement” 6= “I agree with the statement” 7= “I very much agree with the statement” 8.

(11) Use a scale of 1 to 7 where: 1=”I do not agree at all with the statement” 2= “I disagree with the statement” 3= “I somewhat disagree with the statement 4= “Neutral” 5= “I somewhat agree with the statement” 6= “I agree with the statement” 7= “I very much agree with the statement” (12) Please check below the statements that fit your perceptions about political parties and their campaigns in Ghana I do not agree at all with the statement I very much agree with the statement 1 Education and economy are central themes Full of propaganda (one sided arguments for political gain) Does not influence voting behavior Speeches full of personality and party attacks and lacks substance Regular use of intemperate language 2 3 4 5 6 7 22 .Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana Based on manipulation of largely illiterate population 2012 Section C : Issues related to your perceptions about political parties and their campaigns in Ghana (9)Please consider the following descriptors (statements) located below these instructions: (10) Indicate to what extent you believe each statement corresponds (fits) with your perceptions of political parties and their campaigns in Ghana.

........ d...... etc...... 41 to 50..... Commercial or Vocational School Certificate. Ewe ………………………… 23 ............ Are you? 2.... What is your main Ghanaian cultural/tribal group? Akan……………………… Dagbani…………………….... 31 to 40............... g..........................D.... 4..... e... What is your level of formal education? a............. Training College or Post-Secondary Training College .. Polytechnic/University Diploma or Degree........... What is your age? Female…………… Male ……... Professional or Doctoral Degree (ACCA......... MD... 20 or under ... f............ c........ Please state... please check the appropriate space 1...... Other....... 21 to 30............Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana Funded mostly with tax payers money Supporters at rallies are usually influenced with money and gifts Lacks proper planning Ghanaians are influenced by tangible achievements rather than campaign promises 2012 Section D : Information about yourself........ b....... ........ Master’s Degree/Post-Graduate Diploma…............ CIMA.... 61 and over... Secondary School Certificate or equivalent.. 51 to 60...... 3............... Ph.........

..... Thank you very much for your help in completing this questionnaire..................... 24 .................. please kindly state below................... 2012 Please state……………………..................Perception of political parties and their campaigns: An exploratory study in Ghana Ga/Adamgbe…………………………… Nzema……………………… Hausa……………………… Other........

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