u08d1 Historical Perspectives of Motivation Drive, conditioning, cognitive consistency, and humanistic theories are all historical motivation

perspectives. 1. Compare and contrast these early views on motivation. 2. Refer to your readings on Attribution Theory. For the following examples, how would you attribute success to maximize future achievement; in other words, what is the proper attribution to use? (Note: Use the attribution you believe Weiner would use.) a. Your eighth-grade son, who has a 130 IQ, receives a B grade on a paper. b. Your high school daughter tells you she wants to be "just an average student," meaning she will keep her grade point average around 2.00 (or earning mostly C grades). c. Your sixth-grade son, who has a 100 IQ, earns an A on a paper. 3. Define self-concept and contrast it with self-efficacy. 1. Compare and contrast early views on motivation. According to Weiner (2000), there is no collaborative or succinct definition of motivation that epitomizes the variant dimensionality of this intrinsically subjective concept. However, most researchers agree that the study of motivation involves the explication of why humans and nonhumans initiate, select, and endure specific actions within various situational contexts. Historical shifts in the study of the theory of motivation since the 1930s resulted in a variety of hypothetical conceptualizations and formulations of motivation which also included statements regarding an individual‟s intentionality, goal orientations, as well as environmental incentives. Schunk (2012) posits that motivation is a cognitive construct that essentially involves animating and maintaining “goal directed behavior”. Over several decades, various investigative trends have been resident throughout the panorama of experimental research in the field of motivation. Between 1930 and 1960, the perceived goal of motivational research was to develop collaborative and ubiquitous theories of motivation and behavior that captured and transcended extrinsic references to situational contexts and human instinctual variation. The conceptualization of motivation derived from a functionalistic view of a non-human organism‟s instinctual responsiveness to the deprivation of basic need states resulted in a Darwinian approach to understanding motivation and its corresponding mechanisms of drive, arousal, and latent energy dispersions. In essence, early motivational researchers were concerned with what moved an organism with resting potential into action. Two concepts that formed the basis for this exploration: 1) the hedonistic principle that organisms strive to reduce pain and increase pleasure, and 2) acceptance of an organism‟s cyclical pattern of response to the deprivation of need states that invokes an inherent tendency to strive for internal equilibrium or homeostasis.

it is difficult to experimentally verify how dissonance is reduced. Your sixth-grade son. Cognitive consistency theory was based upon the belief that individual‟s have an intrinsic homeostatic need to maintain equilibrium or balance in cognition and behavior. Weiner posited that learners basically attribute learning outcomes to four factors: ability.Guided by the work of psychologist Clark Hull and his physiological and psychological postulates of drive theory. Other factors such as mood. in other words. psychological and self actualizing needs and was later applied by Rogers to learning and instruction as well. b. This approach emphasized the inherent desire of individuals for fulfillment of physiological." meaning she will keep her grade point average around 2. 2012). it became readily apparent over time that individuals implement cognitive dimensions of motivation which were beyond the theoretical underpinnings of conditioning theory. earns an A on a paper. c. personality. task difficulty. irrelevant or dissonant states. Later research on motivation led to the development of cognitive consistency theory. Research involving the behavioral theories of classical and operant conditioning and the experimental determinants of stimulus. Refer to your readings on Attribution Theory. 2012). and luck (Schunk. receives a B grade on a paper. . 2012). 2000). However drive theory did not offer sufficient explanation for variations in drive states. Your eighth-grade son. what is the proper attribution to use? (Note: Use the attribution you believe Weiner would use. 2. Cognitive dissonance suggests that individuals with internal cognitive conflict seek to maintain a consonant relationship in beliefs. but represent general factors that predict learning outcomes. It exemplified a taxonomic hierarchy that serves as a guide to understanding the holistic nature of human existence as a multifaceted and dynamic interaction of need states acting as correlates of motivation. animal studies were conducted on the deprivation effects on need states or drives in maintaining homeostasis as well as response time and intensity (Schunk 2012. Your high school daughter tells you she wants to be "just an average student. long term goal orientations or academic motivation. effort. response and contingency reinforcements led to the development of a conditioning theory to studying motivation and behavior.00 (or earning mostly C grades). Humanistic theories soon developed to explain why individuals make choices and exercise control of their circumstances. Dissonance leads to a reduction in internal conflicts to maintain consonance. For the following examples. However. attitudes and behaviors (Schunk. Weiner.) a. who has a 100 IQ. While this partially explains motivational initiatives of cognition. who has a 130 IQ. Humanistic theorists such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers emphasized that motivation is driven by the necessity of attaining basic needs and maximizing one‟s potential (Schunk. Weiner. how would you attribute success to maximize future achievement. Cognitions may retain consonant. 1990. These are not comprehensive factorials.

Self concept is a multidimensional subjective construct defined as “one‟s collective self perception” based upon personal and environmental experiences and evaluations by others (Schunk. 2012). Weiner (2007) emphasizes that all causes are located in this three dimensional causal learning paradigm. under (a) above “your eighth-grade son has a 130 IQ. etc were also deemed important. under (c) above.00 (or earning mostly C grades)”. Given the realm of intelligence abilities possessed by the “son”. self concept or self confidence. For example. His attribution for success in exercise general effort will lead to higher motivational states to pursue more difficult academic challenges and tasks. 1. References . stability and controllability have situational generality in academic learning. and receives a B grade on a paper”. The “daughter” may suffer from a decrement of self esteem. Assuming academic success is his goal. Attributional success for this “daughter” might involve the use of controllable scaffolding by competent others to delve into the mood and effort aspects of her decision. This may be attributed to laziness towards academics which is a stable internal causal attribution. Locus refers to location and influences affective reactions. In contrast. but also may involve an unstable. Define self-concept and contrast it with self-efficacy. earns an A on a paper” indicates the stable and controllable causal attribution of effort was extended by the “son” despite the uncontrollable causal attribution of his average IQ or ability. his motivation increases when encouraged to exert greater academic effort and better study skills. self esteem is the internal perception of one‟s value or worth. It involves perceived sense of self respect and is an evaluative subcomponent of one‟s collective self concept. Moreover. Under (b) above “your high school daughter tells you she wants to be „just an average student‟ meaning she will keep her grade point average around 2. According to Weiner (2007). 2012). stability refers to the duration of the cause of success or failure and controllability refers to the diverse effects of whether an individual has the volitional capability to control or not control situational contexts. causal properties of locus. Weiner also represented causes along two dimensions: internal and external to the learner (Schunk. Finally. who has a 100 IQ.appearance. Anthony Rhodes General Psychology PhD. internal and uncontrollable attribution of mood or affective states. “your sixth-grade son. controllable cause which may cause guilt for not failing to achieve his potential. Educators seeking to understand how human personality and functioning affect motivation and learning outcomes have a keen interest in studying constructs such as self esteem. what is the cause of failure to obtain a higher grade? This perhaps indicates a lack of effort which is an internal.

Weiner. Schunk. (2010). 12(1). The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas. p. B. Educational Psychologist. B. (2000). 43(6) p.Weiner. (1990).4. Carol S (eds). 623-636.1037/0022-0663. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Motivation.623 Heckhausen. H. 82(4).. Journal Of Educational Psychology. Guilford Press. The structure of academic self-concept: The Marsh/Shavelson model.82.4.) . 314-317). B. B. 5 (pp. 45(1). 616-622. MA: Allyn & Bacon (Pearson Education). B. History of motivational research in education. 1015-1029 doi: 10. doi:10. doi:10. 921930. B.9. Vol. American Behavioral Scientist. 73−84. doi:10.82. Metaphors in motivation and attribution. American Psychological Association. Intrapersonal and interpersonal theories of motivation from an attributional perspective. by Elliot. (1991). (2000). Encyclopedia of psychology. (2000). ISBN: 9780137071951. In A. (2012). (1990). 82(4). Journal Of Educational Psychology. In Handbook of Competence and Motivation. E. D. Andrew J. J. Dweck. Educational Psychological Review. 46(9). Learning theories: An educational perspective (6th ed.46. W.1037/0022-0663. H. 28-36.1037/10520-133 Weiner.1080/00461520903433596 Weiner. (2007). Marsh.616 Weiner. Kazdin (Ed. Motivation: An overview. doi:10. Motivation from an Attribution Perspective and the Social Psychology of Perceived Competence.). Boston.1037/0003-066X.921 Weiner. American Psychologist.1177/00027640021955739 . doi:10.

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