Garment

Hijab Niqab

Purdah
What’s And Why
Compiled and Edited by

Akm Fakhrul Islam New York, U.S.A.

Garment What’s And Why 2

© All Rights Reserved by the author.

Garment Hijab Niqab Purdah What’s and Why
Compiled and Edited by: Akm

Fakhrul Islam

First Edition: April, 2008
Published by:

Akm Fakhrul Islam 161 Park Ave # 1 Brooklyn, NY 11205, USA. Tel: 646-610-3804(cell) E-mail: islamakm@yahoo.com

In the words of Qur’an:

Nothing from me Except with the help of God Almighty SiFi Dhaka, Bangladesh. Printed at:

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Garment Hijab Niqab Purdah What’s and Why

Contents
Sl. No. 01.00.00: 02.00.00: 03.00.00: 04.00.00: 05.00.00: 05.01.00: 06.00.00: 06.01.00: 06.02.00: 06.03.00: 06.03.01: Subject Page Garment of the First man and woman ‘Adam and Eve’ 07 Why Allah sent down to the Children of Adam a garment 15 Garment is an important dictate of human nature 18 Clothing and Adornment 27 Children of Adam have to have adornment at every time of Prayer 22 Surely Allah never enjoins any indecency 24 Ordained the Believing men to restrain their gaze 26 Ordained to guard their (men’s) private parts 40 Ordained the Believing women to restrain their gaze 42 Ordained to guard their (women’s) private parts 47 Believing women must have guard their private parts 48

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Contents
Sl. No. 06.03.02: 06.03.03: Subject Page Believing women should not display their adornment 49 The women should not display their adornment except that which is displayed of itself 53 The veil (Niqab) assumed the position of an indispensable part of the female attire 54 Muslim women have to have draw their veils over their bosoms 56 The Muslim women should not display their adornment except before the followings 62 Hijab with the close relatives 64 Hijab with their female associates 72 Hijab with them who are in their possession 76 Hijab with the male attendants incapable of sex desire 80 The women have to have observed hijab with the eunuch 82 Hijab with the boys 84 The women should not stamp their feet on the ground 85

06.03.04:

06.03.05: 06.03.06:

06.03.07: 06.03.08: 06.03.09: 06.03.10: 06.03.11: 06.03.12: 06.03.13:

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Contents
Sl. No. 06.03.14: Subject Page The women are not approved of unnecessarily making men hear their voice 88 The wives of the Prophet have ordained not to talk in a soft voice 89 O Believers, turn all together towards Allah: It is expected that you will attain true success. 94 The women have ordained to stay at their houses 108 The women should not make a dazzling display out side of the houses 110 Allah wishes to remove all abomination from the members of the Prophets’ family and to make pure and spotless The women should conceal their faces keeping only the eyes uncovered Covered faces other than the eyes the women will thus be recognized and not molested

06.03.15: 06.04.00:

07.00.00: 07.01.00:

07.02.00:

08.00.00: 08.01.00:

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Contents
Sl. No. 08.02.00: Subject Page Veil or covered faces or Niqab Have been practiced at the time of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) To enter other houses until ascertained the approval strictly prohibited 163 Do not enter other people's houses until you have taken their permission 167 Before enter the house say Salam 168 Do not enter until you have been given permission 177 Should not feel offended if someone refuses a meeting 178 The virtue of Hijab 180 Ruling on covering the face with detailed evidence 185 Niqab in the light of Quran and sahih Hadith 199 Chastity and Hijab in the Teachings of Prophets Muhammad and Jesus 2/5 A Veiled Woman's Response to the Niqab Debate 258 A Japanese Woman's Experience of Hijab 269

09.00.00: 09.01.00: 09.02.00: 09.03.00: 09.04.00: 10.00.00: 11.00.00: 12.00.00: 13.00.00:
14.00.00:

15.00.00:

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Contents
Sl. No. 16.00.00: 17.00.00: 18.00.00: 19.00.00: 20.00.00: 21.00.00: 22.00.00: 23.00.00: Subject New Muslims and hijabs Tips for Beginning to Wear Hijab Special Focus on Hijab Evidences for Jilbab Examining the Dalils for Niqab What is the Final Rule on Hijab? Top 11 excuses of Muslim Women who don't wear Islamic Hijaab! Glossary Page 291 307 317 324 349 377 406 426

ِ‫ِبسمِ الِ ال ّحمٰنِ ال ّحِْيم‬ ‫رْ ر‬ ْ

Garment What’s And Why 8 In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate

Introduction
Islam permits, and in fact requires, that the Muslim be careful about his appearance, dress decently, maintain his dignity, and enjoy what Allah has created for the purpose of clothing and adornment. From the Islamic point of view, clothing has two purposes: (1) To cover the body; and (2) To beautify the appearance. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala counts His bestowal of clothing and adornment upon human beings as one of His favors to mankind: Allah says: O children of Adam! Verily, We have bestowed upon you clothing to cover your shame as well as to be an adornment to you.... (7:26) Whoever neglects either of these two aspects, covering or adornment has deviated from the way of Islam toward the path of Satan. Accordingly, Allah warns people concerning both nakedness and neglect of good appearance, as these are snares of Satan, in the following verses: Allah says: O children of Adam! Do not let Satan seduce in the same manner as he expelled your parents (Adam and Eve) from the Garden, stripping them of their raiment in order to expose their shame.... (7:27)

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O children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at every place of worship, and eat and drink, but do not be wasteful.... (7:31) Islam has made it obligatory on Muslims to cover their private parts, which everyone naturally feels a sense of shame at exposing in order that they may be distinguished from the naked animals; in fact, it instructs them to avoid uncovering these parts of their bodies even when they are alone so that they may attain perfection in morals and religion. All most all the non-Muslims in the western modern and civilized countries keep open their private parts in general. They wear shorts, skirts, very thin and tight sexy clothing so that their private parts exposed to all. Most of the Muslims of these countries are trying to follow them to be a civilized and cultured humanity of the society. But they don’t want to understand their beauty, values, dignity, respect, and honor. The women should preserve their beautification, their private parts and their entire bodies for themselves and for their husbands and not for all the human beings. Each and every where people could see the oral sex of men amd women in these countries which should not be happened in the open space other than their own beds. The animals have no shame. They can do sex openly. But human being must not do that openly either legal or illegal. O valuable and respectable muslima! Cover your beauty, your body, chest and private parts and don’t

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wear so thin and tight soft clothing so that all of your private parts will be exposed and this is obligatory for you, mom! Allah bless us bless the Muslim Ummah bless all the human beings from all sorts of sins and guide us to the right and correct path. Ameen! Akm Fakhrul Islam 161 Park Ave#1, Brooklyn, New York, USA. Phone: 646-610-3804

ِ‫ِبسمِ الِ ال ّحمٰنِ ال ّحِْيم‬ ‫رْ ر‬ ْ
In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate

01.00.00

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Garment of the First man and woman ‘Adam and Eve’
Allah said to Adam and Eve:

‫﴿11:7﴾ وَلَقَدْ خلَقنَا ُمص ُم ّ صصّرنَا ُمْ ُم ّ ُلْن َا‬ ‫َو ْ ك ث ق‬ ‫َ ْ ك ْث‬ ْ‫لِلْ َلئِكَةِ ا سْ ُ ُواْ لدَ مَ فَ سَجَ ُواْ إِ ّ إِبِْي سَ لَ م‬ ‫د ل ل‬ ‫جد‬ ‫م‬ َ‫يَ ُن منَ ال ّاجِ ِين‬ ‫ك ّ س د‬
(7:11) We initiated your creation, then We gave you each a shape, and then We said to the angels: 'Prostrate before Adam.') *10 They all prostrated except Iblis: he was not one of those who fell Prostrate.

ْ‫﴿21:7﴾ قَالَ مَا منَعَ كَ أَ ّ تَ سْ ُدَ ِإذْ أَمرُْ كَ َالَ َأنَا‬ ‫َت ق‬ ‫ل ج‬ َ ٍ‫خيْ ٌ منْ ُ خَلَقَتنِي مِن ّارٍ وَخلَقتَهُ مِن طِي‬ َْ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫َر ّه‬
(7:12) Allah said: 'What prevented you from prostrating, when I commanded you to do so?' He said: 'I am better than he. You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.'

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َ‫﴿31:7﴾ قَالَ فَاهبِ طْ منْهَا فَمَا يَكُو نُ لَ كَ أَن َتتَكَّبر‬ ِ ْ َ‫ِيهَا فَاخ ُجْ إِّكَ منَ ال ّاغ ِين‬ ‫ْر ن ِ ص ِر‬ ‫ف‬
(7:13) Allah said: 'Then get you down from here. It does not behove you to be arrogant here. So be gone. You will be among the humiliated.' *11

َ‫﴿41:7﴾ قَالَ فََنظرنِي إِلَى َيوْمِ ُيبْعَُون‬ ‫ث‬ ِْ ‫أ‬
(7:14) Satan replied: 'Give me respite till the Day they shall be raised.'

َ‫﴿51:7﴾ قَالَ ِإّكَ منَ ا ُنظرِين‬ َ ‫ن ِ ل‬
(7:15) Allah said: 'You are granted respite.'

َ‫﴿61:7﴾ قَالَ فبِمَا أَغويَْنِي لقْ ُدَنّ َله ص صِرَاطَك‬ ‫ُم ْ ص‬ ‫َْت َ ع‬ َ َ‫الْ ُستَ ِيم‬ ‫م ْق‬
(7:16) Satan said: 'Since You have led me astray, I shall surely sit in ambush for them on Your Straight Path.

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ْ‫﴿71:7﴾ ُمّ لِتَيّهُم ّ ن بَيْ نِ َأيْ ِيهِ مْ وَمِ نْ خَلْفهِ م‬ ِ ‫د‬ ‫ن م‬ ‫ث‬ ْ‫وَعَ نْ أَيْ َانِهِ مْ َعَن شَمَآئِلهِ مْ وَلَ تَجِ ُ أَكَثرَ ُ م‬ ‫د ْ ه‬ ِ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ َ‫شَاك ِين‬ ‫ِر‬
(7:17) Then I will come upon them from the front and from the rear, and from their right and from their left. And You will not find most of them thankful.' *12
call for any refutation, and hence God took no notice of it.

‫﴿81:7﴾ قَالَ اخ ُجص منْه َا مذ ُوم ًا ّد ُورًا ّم َن‬ ‫ْر ْ ِ َ ْؤ م ْح ل‬ َ‫َتبِعَكَ مْن ُمْ لَمْل ّ جهَّمَ ِن ُمْ أَجمَعِي‬ ْ ‫ن َ ن مك‬ ‫ِه‬
(7:18) Allah said: 'Go away from here - disgraced and expelled. I shall fill the Hell with all those that follow you.

َ‫﴿91:7﴾ َيَا آدَ ُ ا سْكُنْ َن تَ وَزوْ ُ كَ الْجّةَ فَكُل‬ ‫َن‬ ‫َج‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و م‬ ‫مِنْ حيْ ُ شْئُمَا وَلَ تَقْربَا هَصذِهِ ال ّجرَةَ فتَ ُونَا‬ ‫ش َ َك‬ َ ‫َث ِت‬ َ‫منَ ال ّالِمِي‬ ‫ِ ظ‬
(7:19) 0 Adam! Live you and your spouse in the Garden and both of you eat from it wherever you

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will, but never approach the tree or you shall become wrongdoers.'

‫﴿02:7﴾ فوَسصوسَ َل ُمَا الشيْطَانصِليُبْدِيصَل ُمَا مَا‬ ‫َ ه‬ ُ ّ ‫َ َْ ه‬ ‫ُور ص عْن ُمَا مِن سصوْ َاِتهِمَا وقَالَ مَا َنهَا ُمَا‬ ‫ك‬ َ ‫َء‬ ‫و ِي َ َ ه‬ ِ‫رّ ُمَا عَ نْ هَ صذِهِ ال ّجرَةِ إِ ّ أَن تَ ُونَا مَلَكيْ ن‬ َ ‫شَ ل ك‬ ‫َبك‬ َ‫َأوْ تَ ُونَا منَ الْخَالِ ِين‬ ‫د‬ ِ ‫ك‬
(7:20) But Satan made an evil suggestion to both of them that he might reveal to them their shame that had remained hidden from them. He said: 'Your Lord has forbidden you to approach this tree only to prevent you from becoming angels or immortals.'

َ‫﴿12:7﴾ وقَاسَم ُمَا ِإّي لَ ُمَا لَمنَ الّاصِحِي‬ ‫َ َه ن ك ِ ن‬
(7:21) And he swore to them both: 'Surely I am your sincere adviser.'

‫﴿22:7﴾ فَدَ ّ ُمَا بِغ ُورٍ فَلَ ّاص َاقَا ال ّجرَةَ بَدَتص‬ ْ َ ‫له ُر م ذ ش‬ ِ‫َل ُمَا سوْ َاُت ُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلْيهِمَا مِن وَرَق‬ َ ‫ه َءه‬

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‫الْجّةِ وَادَا ُمَا رّب ُمَا أَلَمصأَْنهَ ُمَا عَن تِلْ ُمَا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ْ ك‬ ‫َن َن ه َ ه‬ ‫ك ُو ّ ي‬ ٌ ِ‫ال ّجرَةِ وَأُل ّ ُمَا إِنّ الشيْطَآنَ لَ ُمَا عَد ّ مب‬ ّ ‫ش َ َ ق لك‬
(7:22) Thus Satan brought about their fall by deceit. And when they tasted of the tree, their shame became vislible to them, and both began to cover themselves with leaves from the Garden. Then their Lord called out to them: 'Did I not forbid you from that tree, and did I not warn you that Satan 'is your declared enemy?'

‫﴿32:7﴾ قَالَ رّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَن ُسصنَا وإِن ّمص تَغْفرْ َنَا‬ ‫ف َ َ ل ْ ِ ل‬ ‫َب‬ َ‫وَترْحَمنَا َلنَ ُونَ ّ منَ الْخَاسِ ِين‬ ‫ر‬ ِ‫َ ْ ك ن‬
(7:23) Both cried out: 'Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You do not forgive us and do not have mercy on us, we shall surely be among the losers.' *13

‫﴿42:7﴾ قَالَ اهِب ُواْ بَع ُ ُ مْ ِلبَعْ ضٍ عد ّ وَلَ ُ مْ فِي‬ ‫َ ُو ك‬ ‫ْ ط ْضك‬ ٍ‫الَرضِ ُستَق ّ وَمتَا ٌ إِلَى حِي‬ ‫ْ م ْ َر َ ع‬
(7:24) Allah said: 'Go down; *14you are enemies one of the other. For you there is dwelling and provision on the earth for a while.'

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‫﴿52:7﴾ قَالَ ِيه َا تَحَيوْنص وفِيه َا تَ ُوُونص وَمنْه َا‬ ِ َ ‫مت‬ ََ ْ ‫ف‬ َ‫ُخرَ ُون‬ ‫تْج‬
(7:25) He continued: 'You shall live there, and there shall you die, and from it you shall be raised to life.' [Surah Al-A’raf,v.7:11-25] Adam and Eve both cried out: 'Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You do not forgive us and do not have mercy on us, we shall surely be among the losers.' *13 *13The narrative sheds light on the following significant points: (1)Modesty and bashfulness are inherent in human nature. The primary manifestation of this instinct is seen in the sense of shame that one feels when one is required to expose the private parts of one's body in the presence of others. According to the Qur'an, this bashfulness is not artificial, nor an outcome of advancement in human culture and civilization. Nor is it something acquired as some misguided thinkers contend. On the contrary, modesty has been an integral part of human nature from the very beginning. (2) The very first stratagem adopted by Satan in his bid to lead man astray from the Right Path

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consisted of undermining man's sense of modesty, to direct him towards lewdness and make him sexually deviant. In other words, Satan as the most vulnerable aspect of human nature took the sexual instincts of man. Accordingly, he sought to weaken man's natural instincts of modesty and bashfulness. This devilish stratagem is still followed by the disciples of Satan in our time. For them, progress is inconceivable without exposing woman to the gaze of all and making her strip before others in one form or another. (3) Such is human nature that man scarcely responds to an unambiguous invitation to evil. Those who seek to propagate evil are, therefore, forced to present themselves as sincere well-wishers of humanity. (4) Man is naturally, drawn towards lofty ideals such as the attainment of superhuman positions and the securing of immortality. Satan achieved his first victory in his bid to mislead man by appealing to the latter's inherent desire to attain immortality. Satan's most effective weapon is to promise man a more elevated position than his present one, and then set him on a course that leads instead to his degradation.

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(5) Here the Qur'an refutes the fairly popular view that Satan first misled Eve and later used her as an instrument to mislead Adam. (See Ibn Kathir's comments on verses 22-23 - Ed.) The Qur'anic version of the story is that Satan attempted to mislead both Adam and Eve, and in fact both fell prey to his guile. At first sight, this might seem of trivial significance. However, all those who are acquainted with the impact of this version of Adam's fall on the moral, legal and social degradation of women will appreciate the significance of this Qur'anic statement. (6) There is hardly any basis to assume that the forbidden tree had certain inherent qualities, which could result in the exposure of Adam and Eve's private parts as soon as they had tasted its fruit. Instead of the forbidden tree possessing any extraordinary qualities, it was rather man's disobedience to God, which led to his fall from his original state. Initially, Adam and Eve's private parts had remained hidden on account of special arrangements made by God. Once they disobeyed, they were deprived of that special Divine arrangement, and were left to themselves to cover their nakedness if they so wished.

Garment What’s And Why 19

This was a way, of conveying to mankind for all time that whenever he disobeys God, he will sooner or later be exposed; that man will enjoy God's support and protection only so long as he remains obedient to Him. Once man transgresses the bounds of his obedience, he will be deprived of God's care and protection and left to his own self. This idea is also embodied in many traditions from the Prophet (peace be on him). According to a tradition, the Prophet (peace be on him) prayed: 'O God! I seek Your Mercy. Do not leave me to my own care even for the wink of an eye!' [Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, P.42 - Ed.] (7) Satan wanted to prove that man did not deserve, not even for a moment, the superior status, which had been granted to him by God. However, Satan failed in the very first round of his efforts to discredit man. Granted, man did not fully succeed in obeying God's command; rather, he fell prey to the machinations of his archenemy, Satan, and deviated from the path of obedience. Nevertheless, it is evident even in the course of this first encounter that man is a morally superior being. This is clear from many a thing:

Garment What’s And Why 20

a. Whereas Satan laid claim to superiority, man made no such claim rather God bestowed a superior status upon him. b. Satan disobeyed God out of sheer pride and arrogance. But far from openly revolting against God out of his own prompting, man was disobedient under Satan's evil influence. c. When man disobeyed God, he did so unwittingly, not realizing that he was committing a sin. 'Man was beguiled into disobedience by Satan, who appeared in the garb of man's well wisher. It was Satan who persuaded him to believe that in the fruit of the forbidden tree laid his good, that his action would lead him to the heights of goodness, not to the depths of evil. Fourth, when Satan was warned, rather than confessing his mistake and repenting, he clung even more adamantly to disobedience. But when man was told that he had sinned, he did not resort to continued transgression as Satan did. As soon as man realized his mistake, he confessed his fault, returned to the course of obedience and sought refuge in God's mercy. (8) This story draws a clear line between the way of Satan and the way that befits man. Satan's way is

Garment What’s And Why 21

characterized by rebellion against God, by arrogantly persisting in that rebellion even after having been warned, and by trying to mislead the righteously disposed towards sin and disobedience. As opposed to this, the way that befits man is to resist the evil promptings of Satan and to be constantly vigilant against Satanic machinations. But, if in spite of all these precautions, a man does swerve from the course of obedience, he should turn, as soon as he realizes his fault, to God in penitence and remorse and make amends. This is the lesson that God conveys to man through this anecdote. The Qur'an seeks to impress upon the opponents of the Prophet (peace be on him) that the way, they are following is the way of Satan. To become indifferent to God's Guidance, to take satans among men and jinn as their protectors and to persist in disobedience despite repeated warnings, amounts to adopting a Satanic attitude. It demonstrates that they have fallen prey to the snares of the archenemy and have been totally overpowered by him. This attitude will lead to their total undoing just as it led to Satan's undoing. Anyone who has even an iota of understanding should heed and emulate the example

Garment What’s And Why 22

of his fore parents - Adam and Eve - who repented and made amends after their disobedience. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah Al-A’Raf, v.7:11-25, n.13, p.7, 12-14, Vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

02.00.00
Why Allah sent down to the Children of Adam a Garment

Garment What’s And Why 23

Garment covers shame, provides protection and adornment of the men and the women. The Qur’an says:

‫ي َا َن ِي آدَمص قَدْ َنزَلْن َا عَليْ ُمص ِلب ًا يُوَارِي‬ ‫َ ك ْ َاسص‬ ‫َ أ‬ ‫ب‬ َ‫سوْ َاتِ ُمْ وَ ِيشًا وَِلبَا ُ الّقْوىَ ذَلِ كَ خيْ ٌ ذَلِ ك‬ ‫َر‬ َ ‫س ت‬ ‫َءك ر‬ َ‫منْ آيَاتِ الّهِ لَعَل ُمْ يَ ّك ُون‬ ‫ل ّه ذ ّر‬ ِ
O Children of Adam!15 Indeed We have sent down to you a garment, which covers your shame and provides protection and adornment. But the finest of all is the garment of piety. That is one of the signs of Allah so that they may take heed. (Surah Al-A’raf, v.7:26) By referring to an important aspect of Adam and Eve's story, the attention of the people of Arabia of those days was drawn to the evil influence of Satan upon their lives. The purpose of dress to the Arabs: Under Satan's influence they had begun to see dress merely as a shield of protection against the in clemencies of the weather and as a means of adornment.

Garment What’s And Why 24

The basic purpose of dress: The basic purpose of dress to cover the private parts of the body - had receded into the background. People had no inhibition about the immodest exposure of the private parts of their body in public: (a) To publicly take a bath absolutely naked; (b) To attend to the call of nature on thoroughfares were the order of the day. (c) To crown it all, in the course of Pilgrimage they used to circumambulate around the Ka'bah in stark nakedness. (d) Women even surpassed men in immodesty. (e) In their view, the performance of religious rites in complete nudity was an act of religious merit. Immodesty, however, was not an exclusive characteristic of the people of Arabia. Many nations indulged in it in the past, and many nations continue to indulge in it even now. [You can see, most of the women are very close to nakedness as if to showing their private parts in any way and youth boys are dam care for their dress going down in each and everywhere of the moderate community and of the highly cultured and civilized countries-Compilation]

Garment What’s And Why 25

Hence the message embodied in these verses is not directed just to the people of Arabia. It is rather directed to all men. Mankind, which is the progeny of Adam, is warned against this particular aspect of Satanic influence on their lives. When men show indifference to God's Guidance and turn away from the Message of the Prophets, they virtually place themselves at the mercy of Satan. For it is Satan who makes them abandon way's that are consistent with true human nature and who leads them to immodesty in the same way he did with Adam and Eve. Were man to reflect on this, it would become quite evident that when he is deprived of the guidance of the Prophets, he cannot even appreciate, let alone fulfill, the primary requirements of his true nature. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah Al-A’Raf, v.7:26, n.15, p.15-16, Vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

03.00.00
Garment is an important dictate of human nature

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The Qur’an says in the next verse:

َ‫﴿72:7﴾ يَا َبنِي آدَمَ لَ يَفتَِنّ ُمُ الشْيطَانُ كَمَا أَخرَج‬ ْ ّ ‫ْ نك‬ ‫َأَبوَيْكُم ّ نَ الْجّةِ يَنِ ُ عْن ُمَا ِلبَا س ُمَا ِليُرَي ُمَا‬ ‫َه ِ ه‬ ‫م َن ع َ ه‬ َ‫سصوْ َاِتهِمَا إِّهص يَرَا ُمص هوَ وقَبِيلُهص مِنص حيْثص ل‬ ُ َ ْ ُ َ ُ ْ ‫نُ ك‬ ‫َء‬ َ‫َتروَْن ُمص إِّاص جَعَلْن َا الشيَاطِي َ َأوِْليَاء لِّ ِينص ل‬ َ ‫لذ‬ ّ ‫َ ه ْ ن‬ َ‫ُيؤْمنُون‬ ِ
Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you in the manner he deceived your parents out of Paradise, pulling off from them their clothing to reveal to them their shame. He and his host surely see you from whence you do not see them. We have made satans the guardians of those who do not believe.16 (Surah Al-A’raf, v.7:27) These verses bring into focus several important points: First: That the need to cover oneself is not an artificial urge in man; rather it is an important dictate of human nature. Unlike animals, God did not provide man with the protective covering that He

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provided to animals. God rather endowed man with the natural instincts of modesty and bashfulness. Moreover, the private parts of the body are not only, related to sex, but also constitute 'sawat' that is, something the exposure of which is felt to be shameful. Also, God did not provide man with a natural covering in response to man's modesty and bashfulness, but has inspired in him (see verse 26) the urge to cover himself. This is in order that man might use his reason to understand the requirements of his nature, use the resources made available by God, and provide himself a dress. Second: Man instinctively knows that the moral purpose behind the use of dress takes precedence over the physical purpose. Hence the idea that man should resort to dress in order to cover his private parts precedes the mention of dress as a means of providing protection and adornment to the human body. In this connection man is altogether different from animals: Animals: With regard to the latter, the natural covering that has been granted serves to protect them from the in clemencies of weather and also to beautify their

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bodies. However, that natural covering is altogether unrelated to the purpose of concealing their sexual organs. The exposure of those organs is not a matter of shame for them and hence their nature is altogether devoid of the urge to cover them. Men: However, as men fell prey to Satanic influences, they developed a false and unhealthy notion about the function of dress. They were led to believe that the function of dress for human beings is no different from that for animals, viz., to protect them from the in clemencies of weather and to make them look attractive. As for concealing the private parts of the body, the importance of that function has been belittled. For men have been misled into believing that their private parts are, in fact, like other organs of their body. As in the case of animals, there is little need for human beings to conceal their sex organs. Third: The Qur'an emphasizes that it is not enough for the dress to cover the private parts and to provide protection and adornment to the human body. Man's dress ought to be the dress of piety. This means that a man's dress ought to conceal his private parts. It should also render a man reasonably presentable - the

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dress being neither too shabby and cheap nor overly expensive and extravagant relative to his financial standing. Nor should dress smack of pride or hauteur, or reflect that pathological mental state in which men prefer characteristically feminine dresses and vice versa: or that the people belonging to one nation mimic people of other nations so as to resemble them, thereby becoming a living emblem of collective humiliation and abasement. Those who truly believe in the Prophets and sincerely try to follow God’s Guidance can only achieve the Qur’anic ideal. For as soon as man decides to reject God's Guidance, Satan assumes his patronage and by one means or another manages to lead him into error after error. Fourth: The question of dress constitutes one of the numerous signs of God, which is visible virtually throughout the world. When the facts mentioned above are carefully considered it will be quite clear as to why dress is an important sign of God. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah Al-A’Raf, v.7:27, n.16, p.15-17, Vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

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04.00.00 Clothing and Adornment
[Compiled and edited from www.turntoislam.com]
Islam permits, and in fact requires, that the Muslim be careful about his appearance, dress decently,

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maintain his dignity, and enjoy what Allah has created for the purpose of clothing and adornment. From the Islamic point of view, clothing has two purposes: to cover the body and to beautify the appearance. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala counts His bestowal of clothing and adornment upon human beings as one of His favors to mankind: O children of Adam! Verily, We have bestowed upon you clothing to cover your shame as well as to be an adornment to you.... (7:26) Whoever neglects either of these two aspects, covering or adornment has deviated from the way of Islam toward the path of Satan. Accordingly, Allah warns people concerning both nakedness and neglect of good appearance, as these are snares of Satan, in the following verses: O children of Adam! Do not let Satan seduce in the same manner as he expelled your parents (Adam and Eve) from the Garden, stripping them of their raiment in order to expose their shame.... (7:27) O children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at every place of worship, and eat and drink, but do not be wasteful.... (7:31) Islam has made it obligatory on Muslims to cover their private parts, which everyone naturally feels a sense of shame at exposing in order that they may be distinguished from the naked animals; in fact, it

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instructs them to avoid uncovering these parts of their bodies even when they are alone so that they may attain perfection in morals and religion. Bahaz ibn Hakim, on the authority of his grandfather, reported the latter as saying: I asked, 'O Messenger of Allah! What should we conceal and what can we show of our private parts?' He replied, 'Let no one see them except your wife or your bondwoman.' I then asked, 'What if some people live together (e.g., during travel, or camping)?' He replied, 'If you can manage it, try not to let anyone see them ' I then said, 'And what if no one is present (meaning if one is alone)?' He said, 'Allah Tabarak wa Ta'ala is most deserving of your modesty.' [Reported by Ahmad, Abu Daoud, alTirmidhi, and Ibn Majah]

Cleanliness and Beautification Are Characteristics of Islam:
Before directing its attention to the questions of adornment and good appearance, Islam addressed itself in considerable depth to the question of cleanliness, for cleanliness is the essence of good appearance and the beauty of every adornment.

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It is reported that the Prophet (peace be on him) said: "Cleanse yourself, for Islam is cleanliness." [Reported by Ibn Hayyan] ‘Cleanliness invites toward faith, and faith leads its possessor to the Garden.’ [Reported by alTabarani] The Prophet (peace be on him) placed a great emphasis on keeping the body, clothing, houses, and streets clean, and he laid special stress on cleaning the teeth, hands, and hair. This emphasis on cleanliness is not to be wondered at in a religion which makes cleanliness the key to its principle form of worship, salat, for the Muslim's salat is not acceptable unless his body, clothing, and the place where he performs his salat are all clean. In addition to this requirement' there are the obligatory types of cleansing, either of the entire body in the form of ghusl (total washing), or of those parts of the body which are exposed to dirt, in the form of wudu (ablution for salat). The desert environment of Arabia and the nomadic life of its people were not very conducive to cleanliness and refinement, and most of them neglected these aspects. The Prophet (peace be on him), with his lively instruction and to-the-point admonition, gradually led them out of their uncouth habits and taught them refinement and civil manners. Once a man approached the Prophet (peace be on him) with his hair and beard disheveled. The Prophet (peace be on him) made some gestures as if asking

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the man to comb his hair. He did so, and when he returned the Prophet (peace be on him) said to him, "Is not this better than that one should come with disheveled hair, looking like a devil?" [Reported by Malik in Al-Muwatta] On another occasion the Prophet (peace be on him) saw a man with unkept hair and remarked, "Does he have nothing with which to comb his hair?" [Reported by Abu Daoud] Upon seeing another man with dirty clothes he remarked, "Cannot he find anything with which to wash his clothes?" [Reported by Abu Daoud] A man came to the Prophet (peace be on him) wearing cheap-looking garments. "Do you have property?" the Prophet (peace be on him) asked him. "Yes," the man replied. "What kind of property?" asked the Prophet (peace be on him). "Allah has given me all kinds of wealth," he said. The Prophet (peace be on him) then said to him, "Since Allah has given you wealth, let Him see the effects of His favor and bounty upon you.'' [Reported by al-Nisai] The Prophet insisted that people come to general gatherings, such as the Friday and the 'Eid prayers, nicely dressed and well groomed. He said, If you can afford it, it is befitting that you wear garments other than your working clothes to Friday prayer. [Reported by Abu Daoud]

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Gold and Pure Silk are Haram for Men:
Beautification and elegance are not merely permitted but are required by Islam, and in general it repudiates any attempts to prohibit them. Say: Who has forbidden the adornment of Allah, which He has brought forth for His servants, and the good things of His providing? (7:32) Islam has, however, prohibited two kinds of adornment for men, while permitting them to women. These are, first, gold ornaments and, second, clothing made of pure silk. 'All reported that the Prophet (peace be on him) took some silk in his right hand and some gold in his left, declaring, "These two are haram for the males among my followers." [Reported by Ahmad, Abu Daoud, al-Nisai, Ibn Hayyan, and lbn Majah, who reports the additional phrase, "but halal for the females."] 'Umar reported that he heard the Prophet (peace be on him) say, "Do not wear silk, for those who wear it in this life shall not wear it in the Hereafter." [Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim. They report a similar hadith on the authority of Anas] On another occasion, referring to a silken garment, he said, "This is the dress of a man who has no character.'' [Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim]

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The Prophet (peace be on him) once saw a gold ring on a man's hand. He immediately took it from him and threw it down saying, 'Does a person pick up a piece of burning coal and hold it in his hand?' After the Prophet (peace be on him) had left the place, someone asked the man, 'Why do you not pick it up and benefit from it?' He replied, 'No, by Allah! I shall not pick it up after the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) has thrown it away.' [Reported by Muslim] The same prohibition which applies to the gold ring likewise applies to what we observe among conspicuous spenders, i.e., the gold pen, gold watch, gold cigarette case and lighter, gold teeth, etc. The Prophet (peace be on him), however, permitted men to wear silver rings. On the authority of Ibn'Umar, al-Bukhari reported the former saying, "The Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) wore a silver ring. After him, Abu Bakr and then 'Umar and 'Uthman wore it, until it fell off his finger into the well of Arees." [Reported by al-Bukhari in the chapter on "Clothing" (Al-Libas)] As for other metals such as iron, there are no sound texts prohibiting them. On the contrary, in the Sahih of al-Bukhari we find that the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) advised a man who wanted to marry a woman to, "Present her with a gift, even if

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it be ring made of iron." On the basis of this hadith al-Bukhari inferred the permissibility of iron rings. The Prophet (peace be on him) made concessions in the wearing of silken garments for medical reasons, as he gave 'Abd al-Rahman bin 'Auf and al-Zubayr bin al-'Awwam, both of whom suffered from scabies, permission to wear silk. [Reported by al-Bukhari]

The Wisdom of These Two Prohibitions Concerning Men:
By means of these two prohibitions, which concern men, Islam's aim is to achieve certain noble educational and moral objectives. Since it is the relof jihad (striving) and strength, Islam must safeguard the manly qualities of men from any show of weakness, passivity, and lethargy. Allah has made the physique of the man different from that of the woman, and it does not befit a man to wear clothes made of fine material or to adorn his body with costly ornaments. There is, however, a social aim underlying these prohibitions. The prohibition of gold and silk to males is part of a broader Islamic program of combating luxuriousness in living. From the Qur'anic point of view, luxurious living leads to weakness among nations and to their eventual downfall; the existence of luxury is also an expression of social

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injustice, as only a few can afford luxurious items at the expense of the deprived masses of people. In addition to this, luxurious living is an enemy of every call towards truth, justice, and social reform. The Qur'an says: And when We intend that We should destroy a township, we permit its luxury-loving people to commit wickedness therein. Then the word is proved true against it, and We then destroy it utterly. (17:16) And again, And We did not send a warner to any township without its luxury-loving people saying, 'Assuredly we are disbelievers in that with which you have been sent.' (34:34) In keeping with the spirit of the Qur'an, the Prophet (peace be on him) forbade Muslims any indulgence in conspicuous consumption. He not only forbade the use of gold and silk to men but also forbade men and women alike the use of gold and silver utensils. Finally, economic considerations also carry some weight here. Since gold is a universal medium of exchange, using it to make household utensils or ornaments for men does not make sense in economic tenn6.

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Why Gold and Silk are permitted to Women:
Woman has been exempted from this prohibition out of consideration for her feminine nature, as the love of jewelry and ornaments is quite natural and becoming for a woman. However, she is not to use her adornments to attract men and arouse their sexual desires. According to a hadith, when a woman puts on perfume and goes among people so that its scent reaches them, she is an adulteress, and any eye, which is attracted to her, is that of an adulterer. [Reported by al-Nisai, and also by Ibn Khazimah and Ibn Hayyan in their respective Sahih's.] And Allah Ta'ala warns women ...that they should not stamp their feet in order to make apparent what is hidden of their adornment.... (24:31)

The Dress of the Muslim Woman:
Islam makes it haram for women to wear clothes, which fail to cover the body, and which are transparent, revealing what is underneath. It is likewise haram to wear tightly fitting clothes, which delineate the parts of the body, especially those parts that are sexually attractive. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger, of Allah (peace be on him) said,

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I will not be a witness for two types of people who are destined for the Fire: people with whips, like the tails of cows, who beat the people (i.e., tyrannical rulers who are the enemies of their own people), and women who, although clothed, are yet naked, seducing and being seduced, their hair styled like the tilted humps of camels. These will not enter the Garden nor will its fragrance even reach them, although its fragrance reaches a very great distance. [Reported by Muslim] The Prophet (peace be on him) described such women as being clothed, yet naked, since their clothing, being transparent and fine, does not do the job of concealing the body but is rather intended to reveal it; such is the dress of the women of our time. The Prophet (peace be on him) likened their hairstyle to the hump of a special breed of camel (bakht) which has very large humps, because they put up their hair in a beehive shape from the middle of their heads. It is as if the Prophet (peace be on him) were looking beyond the centuries to the present age, when dressing the hair of women and styling it in variety of shapes has become a profession dominated by men who charge top prices for their work. And this is not all. Many women, not satisfied with what Allah gave them in the way of natural hair, buy wigs made of artificial hair to add to their own in order to increase its body, beauty, and luster, imagining that this renders them better looking and more sexually attractive.

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The astonishing thing about this hadith is the connection of political oppression with moral laxity. This connection is borne out by facts, since it is the way of rulers to keep people preoccupied with their personal desires and lusts so that they have no time to think about public affairs.

Concerning Woman's Imitating Man and Vice Versa:
The Prophet (peace be on him) declared that a woman should not wear a man's clothing nor a man a woman's. He cursed men who imitate women and women who imitate men. [Reported by al-Bukhari and others] Aspects of such imitation include the manner of speaking, walking, dressing, moving and so on. The evil of such conduct, which affects both the life of the individual and of society, is that it constitutes a rebellion against the natural ordering of things. According to this natural order, there are men and there are women, and each of the two sexes has its own distinctive characteristics. However, if men become effeminate and women masculinized, this natural order will be reversed and will disintegrate. Among those who are cursed by Allah and His angels, both in this world and in the Hereafter, the Prophet (peace be on him) has mentioned the man whom Allah has made a male but who becomes

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effeminate by imitating women, and a woman whom Allah has made a female but who becomes masculinized by imitating men. [Reported by alTabarani] For this reason the Prophet (peace be on him) forbade men to wear fabric decorated with large, loud, or bold designs. In his Sahih, Muslim reported 'All as saying, The Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) forbade me the wearing of a gold ring, a silken garment, and clothing with bold designs. Muslim also reports a hadith from Ibn 'Umar, who said, "The Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) saw me wearing two garments having bold designs, and he said, "This is what unbelievers wear. Do not wear such things."

Dressing for the Sake of Ostentation and Pride:
The general rule for the enjoyment of the good things of life, such as food, drink, and clothing, is that their use should be without extravagance or pride. Extravagance consists of exceeding the limits of what is beneficial in the use of the halal, while pride is something related to the intention and the heart rather

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than to what is apparent. Pride is the intention to look superior and above others, and Allah does not love any proud boaster. (57:23) The Prophet (peace be on him) said: "On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will not look at the person who trails his robe behind him out of pride." [Agreed upon by Bukhari and Muslim] In order to avoid even the suspicion of pride, the Prophet (peace be on him) forbade Muslims to wear garments of "fame" that is, clothes which are worn in order to impress others and which generate competition in vain and idle pursuits. According to a hadith, On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will clothe the one who wears garments of fame with the garments of humiliation. [Reported by Ahmad, Abu Daoud, al-Nisai, and Ibn Majah]

A man asked Ibn 'Umar, "What kind of clothes shall I wear?" Ibn 'Umar replied, "Such as would neither invite the scorn of the weak-minded (because of their being cheap and ugly) nor the blame of the wise (because of their being immoderately expensive)." [Reported by alTabarani]

Going to Extremes in Beautification by Changing What Allah Created:

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Islam denounces such excesses in beautifying oneself as require altering one's physical features as Allah created them. The Qur'an considers such alterations as inspired by Satan, who ...will command them (his devotees) to change what Allah has created... (4:119)

The Prohibition of Tattooing, Cutting the Teeth, and Undergoing Surgery for Beautification:
Among such excesses are tattooing and shortening the teeth. [A beautification practice of the pre-Islamic Arabs. (Trans.)] The Messenger of Allah (peace beon him) cursed the tattooer and the one who is tattooed, the shortener of teeth and the one whose teeth are shortened. [Reported by Muslim] As far as tattooing is concerned, it permanently disfigures the face and other parts of the body with blue pigment and repulsive designs. Some Arabs, especially women, were in the habit of tattooing large portions of their bodies, while people of certain religious sects tattooed pictures of their deities or religious rituals on their hands and chests. To all these abominations is added the pain and agony which the person being tattooed must undergo from the pricking of the needles. Because all of this, both the tattooed and the one who is tattooed have been cursed.

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As for cutting or shortening the teeth, the Prophet (peace be on him) cursed both the men and the women who do it and the women who request it. If a man does it, he merits an even greater curse. Similarly, the Prophet (peace be on him) prohibited widening the spaces between the teeth, and he cursed ...Women who widen the gaps between their own or others' teeth for the sake of beauty, changing what Allah has created. Now, Allah obviously created some women with gaps between their teeth and others without. Some women who have no such gaps desire to create them artificially, either by filing or by cutting away parts of the adjoining teeth. Islam considers this a form of deception and excessive involvement with personal beauty, both of which it discourages. From these ahadith of the Prophet (peace be on him), we also know the ruling of the Islamic Shari'ah concerning plastic surgery. Surgeries for beautification are in vogue today as the result of the materialistic outlook of Western civilization, a civilization stressing the body and its desires. Men and women spend hundreds and thousands of dollars to reshape their noses or breasts, or whatever they consider misshapen. This behavior most certainly belongs in the category of excessive beautification, unnecessarily changing what Allah has created, and it merits the curse of Allah and His Prophet (peace be on him). It likewise involves torture, pain, and waste of money merely for the sake of one's appearance; it

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is, moreover, an expression of an individual's preoccupation with form rather than substance, with body rather than with spirit. It may happen that a person has an unusual physical defect, which attracts the attention of others to the point of inflicting physical and psychological pain every time he meets people. In this case, he may treat the defect and thus alleviate the embarrassment, which made his life miserable. Allah the Most Merciful has imposed no hardship on us in religion.... [Al Bahee al-Khooly, Al Mar'ah Bain al-Bait walMujtama', 2nd edition, p. 105] This statement is perhaps supported by the hadith concerning widening the gap between the teeth for the sake of beautification, for what is disapproved here is doing this merely for the sake of achieving good looks and artificial beauty. However, if it is needed to eliminate pain or distress, there is nothing wrong with it; but Allah knows best.

Plucking the Eyebrows:
Among the extremes of beautification prohibited by Islam is al-nams, which denotes removing the hair of the eyebrows by plucking in order to thin or shape them. The Prophet (peace be on him) cursed both the women who do the plucking and those who seek to have it done. [Narrated by Abu Daoud on good

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authority] This practice is particularly frowned upon because prostitutes customarily do it. According to some Hanbali scholars, if the husband approves it, the removal of facial hair (other than that of the eyebrows) and the use of powder, creams, and other beauty aids are permitted to women, as this is part of feminine adornment. Al-Nawawi is somewhat stricter, considering the removal of facial hair to be al-nams and hence forbidden. In contrast to his opinion, we may, however, mention Abu Daud's statement in his Sunan that "al-nams is plucking the eyebrows in order to thin them," from which we may conclude that al-nams does not include the removal of facial hair. Al-Tabari reports a narrative concerning the wife of Abu Ishaq, who loved to beautify herself. Once she visited 'Aisha and asked, "What if a woman removes the hair from her forehead to please her husband?" 'Aisha replied, "Remove what is harmful from yourselves whenever possible."[Fath al-Bari, under the explanation of the hadith by Ibn Mas'ood in the chapter entitled "Pluckers of Eyebrows," in the book Clothing]

Wigs and Hairpieces:
In the category of female adornments, the addition of any other hair, real or artificial, to one's own hair—

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that is, the wearing of wigs and hairpieces—is also prohibited. It is reported by al-Bukhari on the authority of 'Aisha, her sister Asma, Ibn Mas'ood, Ibn 'Umar, and Abu Hurairah that "The Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) cursed al-wasilah and al-mustawsilah," al-mustawsilah," wasilah denoting a woman whose profession is making wigs and hairpieces' and mustawsilah a woman who uses them. Men are prohibited such things to an even greater degree, whether they are a wasil (coiffeur or hairdresser) or a mustawsil, like today's effeminate, long-haired young men of the "hippie" mould. The Prophet (peace be on him) was very strict in combating such deceptions, so much so that if a woman lost her hair due to some illness, he did not permit her to add other hair to that on her head, even if she were soon to be married. Al-Bukhari reports 'Aisha's narrative concerning a girl of the Ansar who was married and subsequently fell ill, losing her hair. Some people wanted to add other hair to her own, but when they asked the Prophet (peace be on him) about this he replied, Allah has cursed the wasilah and the mustawsilah [Reported by al-Bukhari, in his book Clothing, in the chapter entitled "Adding to the Hair"] Al-Bukhari also reports Asma's narrative concerning a woman who said to the Prophet (peace be on him),

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"O Messenger of Allah, since my daughter has had measles, her hair has fallen out, and I am about to give her in marriage. Shall I add some strands of hair to her hair?" and the Prophet (peace be on him) replied, ‘Allah has cursed the wasilah and the mustawsilah.’ [Reported by al-Bukhari] Sa'id ibn al-Musayab narrated that Mu'awiyah delivered a public address during his last visit to Madinah. In the course of it he took out a strand of hair, saying, "I have not seen anyone using this besides the Jews. Indeed, the Prophet (peace be on him), referring to the adding of hair to one's own hair, called it forgery." According to another report, he said to the people of Madinah, "Where are your scholars? I heard the Prophet (peace be on him) prohibiting the use of this and saying, 'The Children of Israel were destroyed when their women started using this.' " The Prophet's terming the use of false hair "a forgery" indicates the reason for its prohibition. It is, in fact, fraud, falsification, and deception, and Islam condemns deception and dissociates itself from those who practice it either by material or psychological means, for "The one who deceives us is not of us." [Reported by a number of sahabah (Companions of the Prophet)] Khattabi said, Harsh punishments are promised (in the Hereafter for such practices because they involve deception and fraud. If any of these is allowed, the door will be open for other types of forgeries.

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Moreover, this involves the alteration of God-given features, as mentioned in the hadith of Ibn Mas'ood concerning 'The alterers of Allah's creation.[Fath alBari, in the chapter entitled "Adding to the Hair"] What is prohibited in these ahadith is the addition of other hair whether natural or artificial, to one's own, as this is a form of deceit and fraud. What is not included in this prohibition is the use of material other than hair, such as thread or cloth, which can be interwover with natural hair. On the authority of Sa'id ibn Jubair, we have the saying of the Prophet (peace be on him): There is nothing wrong with tawamil, [Mentioned in Fath al-Bari on the authority of Abu Daoud] meaning the use of wool or silk to make braids. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal haalso commented on its permissibility. [Fath al-Bari]

Dyeing the Hair:
Another aspect of beautification relates to dyeing the gray hair of the head or the beard. It was reported that the Jews and Christians refrained from dyeing the hair, regarding such beautification and adornment as contrary to piety and devotion, and not befitting rabbis, priests, and ascetics. The Prophet (peace be on him) forbade Muslims to imitate these people or

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follow their ways, in order that Muslims might develop their own distinctive and independent characteristics in appearance and behavior. Al-Bukhari, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, reported the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) as saying, "The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair, so be different from them." (Reported in alBukhari's chapter on "Dyeing the Hair" in his book Clothing.) This is, however, not a command but only a recommendation, as is evident from the actions of the sahabah, such as Abu Bakr and 'Umar, who used to dye their hair, while others, such as 'All, Ubay ibn Ka'b, and Anas did not. The question now remains as to what type of dye is to be used. Should its color be black or can there be other colors? Or should black be avoided? If a man is of a very advanced age, with white hair and beard, it would hardly be appropriate for him to use black dye. On the day of the conquest of Makkah, Abu Bakr brought his aged father, Abu Qahafah, carrying him until he had seated him in front of the Prophet (peace be on him). On seeing Abu Qahafah's snow-white hair, the Prophet (peace be on him) said, "Change this, but avoid black." [Fath al-Bari, in explaining the above-mentioned hadith (in the chapter on "Dyeing] however, if a man is not of such advanced age or feebleness as Abu Qahafah then was, there is no harm in his using black dye. In this regard alZuhri said, "We dyed our hair black when the face looked young, but discarded it when the face became

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wrinkled and the teeth decayed."[Reported by Ibn Abu 'Asim in the book on "Dyeing the Hair."] Some of the early Muslims, including some sahabah such as Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, 'Uqbah ibn 'Amr, alHassan, al-Hussein, Jarir, and others permitted the use of black dye. Some scholars, on the other hand, do not consider the use of black hair dye as permissible except during time of war, when the enemy might be impressed by the fact that all the soldiers of the Muslim army look young. Abu Dharr narrated the hadith, the best thing with which to dye gray hair is henna and katm. (Mentioned in Fath al-Bari.) Henna makes the hair red, while katm, a plant from Yemen, colors it black tinged with red. Said Anas, "Abu Bakr dyed his hair with henna and katm, and 'Umar dyed it with henna only."

Letting the Beard Grow :
The growing of beards is also related to our topic. AlBukhari, on the authority of Ibn 'Umar, reported the Prophet (peace be on him) as saying, "Be different from the polytheists (mushrikeen): let the beard grow and trim the moustache." The purpose here, as the hadith states, is to be different from the polytheists, who, in the particular instance cited, were

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Zoroastrians, the worshippers of fire, whose practice was either to clip or shave their beards. The Prophet's command to be different from them was intended to train the Muslims in developing an independent personality, distinct in its inner reality as well as in outward appearance, in substance as well as in form. At the same time, shaving the beard is an affront to the masculine nature, as it is an attempt to resemble women, while the beard is an integral part of masculinity and a distinctive feature of the male sex. However, letting the beard grow does not mean letting it grow wild or so long that it becomes a nuisance. One should certainly trim it in both length and breadth. This has been recommended in a hadith reported by al-Tirmidhi; moreover, the Muslims of the first generations did so. Said 'Ayyad, [The twelfth century author of a well known hook about the characteristics of the Prophet. (Trans.)] "It is makruh to shave the beard or to drastically cut or shorten it, but it is mustahab (commendable) to remove something from its length and breadth if it grows big." Abu Shamah voiced the complaint that "Some people have started shaving their beards, and that is a step further than the Zoroastrians, who used only to trim them." [Fath al-Bari, in the chapter entitled "Growing Beards."] In my view it is regrettable that at the present time the majority of Muslims shave their beards in

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imitation of the foreign elements who have occupied their lands. It is an unfortunate fact that the conquered always imitate their conquerors. Today's Muslims have ignored the Prophet's command that they be different from non-believers and avoid imitating them. Indeed, anyone who "imitates a people is one of them." [A hadith reported by Abu Daoud on the authority of Ibn 'Umar] A large number of jurists consider shaving the beard to be haram on the basis of the Prophet's command. This command to let the beard grow renders it an obligation, especially because it is for the purpose of being different from non-Muslims, since maintenance of this distinction from those who do not believe is obligatory for Muslims. It has never been reported that any of the Muslims of the earliest generations neglected this obligation. However, some modern scholars permit the shaving of the beard under the impact of events in response to public opinion, arguing that the growing of the beard was a personal preference of the Prophet (peace be on him) which was not related to religious practice, and hence it need not be followed. But the truth of this matter is that growing the beard is required not merely because the Prophet (peace be on him) had one but because he explicitly commanded it in order to maintain the distinction from non-believers. Ibn

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Taymiyyah has convincingly argued that to make the Muslims different from non-believers was the aim of the Lawgiver, for resemblance in appearance produces love, friendship, and affinity in feeling, just as love in the heart produces resemblance in outward appearance. This psychological fact is borne out by experience and observation. Says Ibn Taymiyyah: The Qur'an, the Sunnah, and the consensus of Muslim scholars all teach Muslims to be distinct from nonbelievers and in general to avoid resembling them. Anything, which is likely to cause corruption in a hidden and diffuse manner, is related to this matter and is likewise prohibited. The imitation of the appearance of the non-believers will lead to imitation of their immoral behavior and evil qualities—indeed, even of their beliefs. Such influences can neither be brought under control nor easily detected, and consequently it becomes difficult or even impossible to eradicate them. Accordingly, the Lawgiver has prohibited whatever is a cause of corruption. [Refer to Kitab Iqtida al-Sirat al-Mustaqeem] Thus, we note that there are three opinions with regard to the shaving of the beard: one, that it is haram, which is the opinion of Ibn Taymiyyah and others; two, that it is makruh, the opinion of 'Ayyad as mentioned in Al-Fatah al-Bari but of no one else; and three, that it is permitted, which is the opinion of some modern scholars. Perhaps the second opinion,

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that it is makruh, is nearer to the truth and more moderate. As the stated reason for growing the beard is to be different from the non-believers, it is similar to the matter of dyeing gray hair in order to be distinct from the Jews and Christians; it is known that some of the sahabah did not dye their gray hair, signifying that it was commendable rather than obligatory. Similarly, growing the beard may be regarded as commendable but not obligatory, and, accordingly, shaving it would be classified as makruh rather than haram. It is true that none of the sahabah was known to have shaved his beard. Perhaps there was no need to shave, and perhaps growing the beard was a custom among them.

05.00.00
Children of Adam have to have adornment at every time of Prayer
Allah says:

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ٍ‫﴿13:7﴾ يَا َبنِي آدَ مَ ُ ُواْ زِيَنتَ ُ مْ ِندَ ك ّ مَ سْجِد‬ ‫ك ع ُل‬ ‫خذ‬ ‫و ُُواْ وَاشربُواْ وَلَ ت صرُِواْ إِن صُ لَ ُحِبّص‬ ‫ُسص ْ ف ّهص ي‬ َْ ‫كل‬ َ‫الْ ُسرفِي‬ ِْ ‫م‬
Children of Adam! Take your adornment at every time of Prayer; *20 and eat and drink without going to excesses. For, Allah does not like those who go to excess. *21 (Surah Al A’raf, v.7:31) Allah says: Children of Adam! Take your adornment at every time of Prayer: The word zinah, which occurs in this verse, refers to full and proper dress. While performing Prayer people are required not only to cover the private parts of their body, but also to wear a dress that serves the two-fold purpose of covering and giving one a decent appearance. The directive to pray in a proper and decent dress is aimed at refuting the misconception entertained by ignorant people down the ages that man should worship God either in a nude or semi-naked state, or at least have a shabby and unkempt appearance while worshipping. In this verse people are being told the opposite of this. At the time of worship they should

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not only be free from all kinds of nudity and indecency, but should also be in a decent dress. Allah does not like those who go to excess: God does not want to subject man to want and misery or starvation or to deprive him as such of the good things of this worldly life. On the contrary, it pleases Him that man should appear in good decent dress and enjoy the clean food provided for him by God. There is nothing sinful in that. As for sin, it consists in transgressing the bounds set by God. This transgression could be committed in both ways: by making the unlawful lawful, or by making the lawful unlawful. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah Al-A’Raf, v.7:31, n.20-21, p.19-20, Vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

05.01.00
Surely Allah never enjoins any indecency

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The Qur’an says:

‫﴿82:7﴾ وإِذَا فَعَُواْ فَاحِشَةً قَاُواْ وَجَدنَا عَلْيهَا آبَاءنَا‬ َ ْ ‫ل‬ ‫َ ل‬ ‫وَالّهص أَم َن َا ِه َا قلْ إِن ّ الّهص لَ يَأْم ُ بِالْفَحْشَاء‬ ‫ل َ ُر‬ ُ ‫ل ُ َر ب‬ َ‫َأتَ ُولُونَ عَلَى اللهِ مَا لَ تَعْلَ ُون‬ ‫م‬ ّ ‫ق‬
(7:28) And when such people commit an indecent act they say: 'We found our fathers doing that, and Allah has enjoined it on us. *17 Say: 'Surely Allah never enjoins any indecency. *18 Do you say things regarding Allah that you do not know?' *17 This refers to the pre-Islamic Arabian practice of circumambulating around the Ka'bah in stark nakedness. The people of that day are thought that God had enjoined nakedness during circumambulation. *18 The simple and succinct Qur'anic statement that 'Allah never enjoins any, indecency' (verse 29) stands as the overwhelming argument against many false beliefs that were entertained by the people of Arabia. For a fuller appreciation of this argument the following points should be kept in mind: First, that the people of Arabia totally stripped

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themselves while performing certain religious rites under the mistaken notion that it had been so enjoined. But on the other hand they were agreed that nudity was a shameful thing so that no Arab of any standing could ever approve of appearing naked in any respectable assembly or market place. Second, notwithstanding their reservation about nudity, they stripped themselves totally while performing certain religious rites on the ground that religion was from God. Hence there was nothing objectionable about performing a religious act in a state of nakedness for God had so enjoined them regarding the performance of that rite. Here the Qur'an confronts them with a clear question: How can they believe that God could order them to do something, which involves nakedness and which, they know to be inherently shameful? What is implied is that God could not command them to commit indecency, and if their religion contained elements of indecency then this is positive proof of its not being from God. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah Al-A’Raf, v.7:28, n.18, p.16,18, Vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi,

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Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.00.00 Ordained the Believing men to restrain their gaze

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Allah says regarding the men:

ْ‫﴿03:42﴾ قُصل ّلْمؤْمنِيَص يَغ ّوا مِنص َأبْص َارِهِم‬ ‫ْ ص‬ ‫ُض‬ ِ ُ‫ل‬ ‫ل َي‬ ٌ ِ‫ويَحْف ُوا فُ ُوج ُ مْ ذَلِ كَ أَزكَى َل ُ مْ إِنّ الّ هَ خب‬ ‫ْ ه‬ ‫َ َظ ر َه‬ َ‫بِمَا َيصنَعُون‬ ْ
And O Prophet, enjoin the Believing men to restrain their gaze *29 and guard their private parts. *30 This is a more righteous way for them: Allah has knowledge of what they do. (Surah An-Nur, v.24:30) O Prophet, enjoin the Believing men to restrain their gaze *29: *29 The words used here are ‘yaghuddu min absarihim’. Literally the word ‘ghadd’ denotes reducing, shorten or lower down something. The words ‘ghadd al-basar’ therefore, are usually translated as `lowering one’s gaze' or 'keeping one’s gaze downward or lowered'. This Qur’anic directive does not mean, however, that one should always gaze downwards or be kept lowered. What it really means is that one should not look thoroughly at a certain thing; that one should not allow one’s eyes to be unfettered in looking. That is,

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if it is not desirable to see a thing, one should turn the eyes away and avoid having a look at it. In other words, one should avoid looking at things, which it is improper to look at. The restriction of a 'restrained gaze' is applicable only in a limited sphere. This may be achieved either by avoiding looking at something by turning one’s gaze away or by lowering it. Once again, the words ‘min absarihim’ signify that some, rather than every kind of looking needs to be avoided. The use of the preposition ‘min’ implies this. In other words, God does not intend that people should not look thoroughly at anything. God only wants that they should exercise restraint in looking at certain things. It becomes evident from the context that this directive is addressed to those men who focus their gaze on women, or who cast their glances at others’ private parts, or who intentionally look at obscene objects. Let’s see then how this Qur’anic injunction or Divine Commandment as explained in the Sunnah of the

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Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) are given below: (i) It is not permissible for a man to cast a full gaze at the other women other than his own wife or on women who are forbidden him in marriage or the mahram women of his family. If he sees someone accidentally, then he is not blameworthy. What is reprehensible, however, is that he should cast his gaze at women towards whom he feels attracted, and that he repeats this act. That is the first chance look is pardonable but not the second look which one casts when one feels the lure of the object. The Holy Prophet has termed such gazing and glancing as wickedness of the eyes. That is in the Prophet’s view; this is tantamount to adultery of the eye. He has said that man commits adultery with all his sensory organs or senses. The evil look at the other woman is the adultery of the eyes; To woo and cajole a woman constitutes or lustful talk an act of sex or adultery of the tongue; To seek enjoyment or relishing the other woman's voice is adultery of the ears; To touching her body with the hand or walking for an unlawful purpose or under the influence of sexual passion represents adultery of the hands and

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feet. After these preliminary acts comes the role of the sexual organs; they either go forth to the stage of culmination of the sexual act or adultery or they abstain from doing so. [Bukhari, K. al-Isti’dhan, ‘Bab Zina at-Jawarih dun al-Farj’; Muslim, K. al-Qadar, ‘Bab Qadar ‘ala ibn Adam Khatar min al-Zina wa Ghayrih’; and Abu Da'ud, K. al-Nikah, ‘Bab fi ma yu’mar bih min Ghadd al-Basar’-Ed.]. • According to a Tradition related by Hadrat Buraydah, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) instructed Hadrat 'Ali bin Abi Talib: "O 'Ali! Let the first glance not be followed by the other. You may cast the first glance that is pardonable but not the second.’ [Ahmad; Abu Da'ud, K. al-Nikah, Bab fi ma yu’mar bih min Ghadd al-Basar’; and Tirmidhi, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab maja’fi al-Nazar min al-Mufaja’ah-Ed.] • Hadrat Jarir bin 'Abdullah Bajali said that he asked the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), ‘What should I do if I see a woman by

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sheer chance that is happen to cast a chance look?’ The Holy Prophet(peace and blessings be upon him) replied, ‘Turn your eyes away or lower your gaze.’ [Abu Da'ud, K. al-Nikah, ‘Bab fi ma yu’mar bih min Ghadd al-Basar’; Tirmidhi, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab ma ja’fi al- Nazar min al-Mufaja’ah; Muslim, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab Nazar al-Faj’ah; Ahmad; and Nasa'i] • It is narrated on the authority of Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘Allah says that the gaze is one of the poisonous arrows of Satan; that is, Glance is one of the deadly arrows of Satan. He who forsakes it out of fear for Me, I shall grant him in lieu of that a faith whose sweetness he shall find in his heart.’ (Tabarani) • Abu Umamah narrates that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘There is not a Muslim who, after observing the attractions of a woman turns his gaze away, but Allah will cause his worship to become palatable to him.’

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It is in other way: ‘If a Muslim happens to glance at the charms of a woman and then turns his eyes away, Allah will bless his worship and devotion and will make it all the more sweet.’ [Ahmad ibn Hanbal; Musnad, volume 5, p.264Ed.] • According to a tradition on the authority of Imam Ja'far Sadiq ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ansari narrated by Sadiq and his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, the Prophet’s cousine, Fadl ibn ‘Abbas, who was a young man at that time, was riding a camel with the Prophet while turning from al-Mash’ar alHaram on the occasion of the Prophet’s Farewell Pilgrimage. When women began to pass, Fadal started looking at them. Thereupon the Holy Prophet put his hand on his face and turned it to the other side.’ [Abu Da'ud, K. al-Manasik, ‘Bab al-Rajul Yahujj’an Ghayrih’-Ed.] • Another tradition states that during the same Pilgrimage, a woman of the clan of Khath'am stopped the Holy Prophet on the way and asked him to clarify a point about Pilgrimage while Fadl ibn ‘Abbas fixed his gaze on her. The Prophet

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(peace and blessings be upon him) thus held him by the face and turned it in the other direction. [Bukhari, K. al-Hajj, ‘Bab Wujub al-Hajj wa Fadlih…; Abu Da'ud, K. al-Manasik, ‘Bab al-Rajul Yahujj’an Ghayrih; and Tirmidhi] (ii) This should not, however, give rise to the misunderstanding that the Qur’anic Command to lower one’s gaze was prescribed at a time when women were allowed to move around freely with faces uncovered. Some have argued, for example, that if the faces of women were already covered, the directive would be pointless or the question of restraining or not restraining the gaze would not have arisen. Such a view is both irrational and contrary to the actual facts. The assumption underlying this argument is not tenable because even in a society where women kept their faces covered, there were occasions when a man and a woman might quite accidentally come face to face. Moreover, even Muslim women who kept her face covered might uncover it for one reason or another. Furthermore, even if Muslim women covered their faces, nonMuslim women were likely to move around with uncovered faces. Hence, the injunction that people

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should lower their gaze does not warrant the conclusion that the injunction concerned could have been given only in a society in which women did not keep their faces covered. Our contention that such a presupposition is incorrect is established by the fact that the covering of their faces by women was a part of the lifestyle, which came into vogue in Muslim society after the revelation of the injunctions about hijab in Surah alAhjab. Moreover, sufficient historical evidence is available to show that Muslim women practiced women covering their faces in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). This point is borne by an authentic tradition narrated by Hadrat ‘A’ishah in connection with the slander incident. • Chains of reliable narrators have also reported this tradition. Hadrat `A'ishah says that after her return from the open space, away from the camp, where she had gone to answer the call of nature, she discovered that she had been left behind and the caravan had moved ahead. She sat down and was so overcome with fatigue that she lay down and slept.

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Safwan bin Mu`attal passed that way in the morning and spotted someone lying on the ground as he drew closer. As soon as he saw her he recognized her, for he had seen her before the Commandment of purdah (revelation of the injunction regarding hijab) had been sent down. When he recognized her and exclaimed: ‘Inna lillahi wa inna ilaihi raji`un’: `To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return'; and she woke up and covered her face with her hijab (sheet). (The Arabic text quoted here does not mention inna lillah-Ed.) [Bukhari, K. al- Maghazi, ‘Bab Hadith al- Ifk’; Muslim; Ahmad; Ibn Jarir; Ibn Hisham-Ed.] • According to the tradition, the son of Umm Khallad had attained martyrdom (was killed) in a battle. To enquire about him, she went to the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) a veil covering her face. This amazed some Companions who said to her in astonishment: ‘Even in this state your face is covered?’ What they meant was that the calamity with which she had been afflicted usually makes a woman oblivious to such things as dressing herself properly. That is it was natural to presume that on such a sad occasion one

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is liable to lose one's balance and ignore the restrictions of purdah. But when questioned she replied, ‘I have lost my son, not my modesty.’ [Abu Da’ud, Kitab al-Jihad, ‘Bab Fadl Qital alRum ‘ala Ghyrihim min al-Umam’-Ed.] • There is yet another Tradition narrated by Hadrat `A'ishah that someone (a woman) presented a paper to the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) from behind a curtain. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked: ‘Is it a man's hand or a woman's?’ She replied that it was a woman's. Thereupon the Holy Prophet said: ‘if it is a woman's hand, the nails at least should have been colored with henna!’ [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Tarajjul, ‘Bab fi al-Khidab li al-Nisa’-Ed.] As for the two incidents during the Farewell Pilgrimage or occasion of Hajj, which we have mentioned above, they cannot be used as an argument to prove that the veil was not in vogue in the time of the Holy Prophet. For in state of ihram, it is forbidden to use niqab (veil) to cover the face. In fact some women who are sensitive about veiling do not

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uncover their faces before unrelated males even during the state of ihram. • Hadrat ‘A’ishah narrates that during the Farewell Pilgrimage while they were on their way to Makkah in the state of ihram, they covered their faces when other pilgrims passed by but once they had gone they uncovered their faces. However, even in that state pious women did not like to uncover their faces before the other men. [Abu Da'ud, K. al-Manasik, ‘Bab fi al-Mahramah tughatti Wajhaha’-Ed.] (iii) The only exceptions to this rule are those circumstances in which there is a genuine needs to see a woman, e.g. seeing a woman whom one intends to marry. In this case, it is not only permissible to see her; it is in fact desirable that one should do so. • Mughirah bin Shu'bah narrates: ‘I proposed to someone to marry in a certain family. The Holy Prophet(peace and blessings be upon him) asked me whether I had seen the girl(the prospective bride) or not. When 1 replied in the negative, he said: `You better see at her; for it might prompt a better understanding between the two of you or

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this will enhance harmonious relationship between you two'.’ [Ahmad; Nasa'i; Ibn Majah; Darimi; and Tirmidhi, K. al-Nikah, ‘Bab ma ja’fi al-Nazar ila alMakhtubah’-Ed.] • According to a Tradition related by Abu Hurairah, a man wanted to marry in a family of the Ansar. The Holy Prophet asked him to have a look at the girl, for the Ansar usually had a defect in their eyes. [Nasa'i; Ahmad; Muslim, K. al-Nikah, ‘Bab Nudb al-Nazar ila Wjah al-Mar’ah wa Kaffayah li man yurid Tajawwajaha’-Ed.] • According to Jabir bin 'Abdullah, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘When any of makes makes engagement with a woman, he should see whether she has something that would prompt (induces) him to marry her.’ [Ahmad; Abu Da'ud, K. al-Nikah, ‘Bab fi al-Rajul yanzur ila al-Mar’ah wa huwa yurid Tajwijaha’-Ed.] • According to another Tradition emanating from Abu Humaydah and quoted in Musnad Ahmad, the Holy Prophet(peace and blessings be upon

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him) said that there was no harm in such a procedure. He also permitted that the girl may be seen without her being aware of it. [Ahmad ibn Hanbal; Musnad, vol. 5, p.424-Ed.] Accordingly, jurists have concluded or inferred that it is permissible for a person to see a woman whenever there is any need to do so, for example, to see a suspect woman during investigation or interrogation a crime. Likewise, a judge may see a female witness at the time she gives evidence in the court, or a doctor may examine a female patient. (iv) The purpose of this Command, to look away, also implies that no one should look at the satar (the parts of the body which ought to remain covered or private parts) of a male or female. • The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘No male should look at the satar of another male nor a female at the satar of another female.’ [Ahmad; Abu Da'ud; Muslim,K. al-Haya, ‘Bab Tahrim al-Nazar ila al-‘Awrat’; and Tirmidhi, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab fi Karahiyat Mubasharat al-Rijal alRijal wa al-Mar’ah al-Mar’ah’-Ed.]

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• Hadrat 'Ali has said that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said to him: ‘Do not look at the thigh of a person, be he alive or dead’. [Ibn Majah, Abu Da'ud, K. al-Hammam, ‘Bab alNahy ‘an al- Ta’rri’-Ed.] [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah AnNur, v.24:30, nn.29, pp.222-226, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:30, nn.29 pp.357-360, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.01.00
Ordained to guard Their (men’s) private parts

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O Prophet, enjoin the Believing men to guard their private parts 30 : *30 ‘Guard their private parts’: Abstain from illicit sexual gratification and from exposing their satar before others. For males, the satar is the part of the body from the navel to the knee, and it is not permissible to expose that pan of the body intentionally before anybody except one's own wife. (Daraqutni, Baihaqi). Hadrat Jarhad Aslami states that once he was sitting in the company of the Holy Prophet with his thigh exposed. The Holy Prophet said: ‘Do you not know that the thigh has to be kept concealed?’ (Tirmizi, Abu Da'ud, Mu'atta). Hadrat 'Ali reports that the Holy Prophet said: ‘Do not expose your thigh.’ (Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah). Not only is the satar to be kept concealed before others but even when alone. The Holy Prophet has warned: "Beware, never remain naked, for with you are those (that is, the angels of goodness and mercy), who never leave you alone except when you ease

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yourself or you go to your wives. So feel shy of them and give them due respect. " [Tirmidhi] • According to another Tradition, the Holy Prophet said: ‘Guard your satar from everybody except from your wife and your slave-girl.’ The questioner asked, ‘Even when we are alone?’ The Holy Prophet replied, ‘Yes, even when alone, for Allah has a greater right that you should feel shy of Him.’ [Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah] [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah AnNur, v.24:30, n.30, p.226, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:30, n.30 p.360, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.02.00 Ordained the Believing women

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to restrain their gaze
Allah said to the regarding the women:

‫ِ ِن‬ ّ ‫وقُل ّ ْلمؤْمِنَاتِ يَغضضنَ منْ َأْبصَاره‬ ِ ْ ُْ ُ‫َ ل‬
• Prophet, enjoin the Believing women to restrain their gaze31(Surah An-Nur, 24:31). *31 On the whole, the rules pertaining to restraining one’s looks are to be followed by men as well as by women. So similarly, if women accidentally happen to see a male, they should look away. Like men, they should also refrain from looking at the Satar of others. There is, however, a slight difference in the detailed ruling about women looking at men as compared with men looking at women. For in one Hadith we come across an incident whereby in a Tradition saying that: • Hadrat Umm Salamah and Hadrat Umm Maimunah, wives of the Holy Prophet, were sitting with him when lbn Umm Maktum, a blind Companion, made his appearance. The Holy

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Prophet said to his wives: ‘Conceal your faces from him(i.e. to observe hijab from him).’ The wives said, ‘O Messenger of Allah: Is he not blind? He will neither see nor recognize us.’ The Holy Prophet replied: ‘Are you also blind? Do you not see him?’ Hadrat Umm Salamah clarified that this incident happened after the Qur’anic Command about hijab was revealed. [Ahmad; Abu Da'ud; Tirmidhi, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab ma ja’fi Ihtijab al-Nisa’ min al-Rajul-Ed.] • This point is further reinforced by a Tradition in Mu'atta’ whereby when a blind person visited Hadrat 'A'ishah, she observed hijab. It was pointed out to her that there was no need to do so sincere he could not her. To this she replied: ‘but I see him. [Mu'atta’] On the other hand, there is a Tradition also narrated by Hadrat `A'ishah. • In 7 A.H. a deputation of Negroes visited AlMadinah and presented a show in the precincts (they gave a performance of physical skill in the compound) of the Prophet's Mosque. On this occasion the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked Hadrat ‘A’isha to join him and see the

Garment What’s And Why 80

show (the Holy Prophet himself showed their performance) to Hadrat 'A'ishah. [Ahmad; Bukhari,K. al- Salah, ‘Bab Ashab alHurub fi al-Masjid and Muslim, K. al-Salat alIdayan, ‘Bab al-Rukhshah fi al-La’b al-ladhi laMa’siyah fih fi Ayyam al-‘Id’-Ed] In another case, we find that: • Moreover, when the husband of Fatimah bint Qais divorced her three times, she was faced with the problem of where to spend the period of her ‘iddah. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) first told her to stay with Umm Sharik Ansari. Later on he said to her: ‘Many of my Companions visit her. [Since Umm Sharik was a very rich and generous lady, she received many guests and played host to them.] You should therefore stay with Ibn Umm Maktum instead. He is a blind person and you can stay there without any difficulty.’ [Abu Da'ud; Muslim, K. al-Talaq, ‘Bab Mutallaqah Thalathatan la Nafqata laha’-Ed.] When we bring all these Traditions together, they suggest that the rules regarding women looking at men are not as strict as those regarding men looking

Garment What’s And Why 81

at women. For example, women are not allowed to look at men in close proximity, say sitting in an assembly, but they can look at men from a distance, or look at men who are taking part in a lawful play or show. Additionally, if there is genuine necessity, they may look at men even if they are in the same house. • Imam Ghazzali and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani have derived almost the view from the relevant traditions. Ibn Hajar says: ‘the permission [for women to look at men] is supported by the fact it was always held permissible for women to go out. The women who went to mosques or market places or on journeys covered their faces with niqab so that men may not see them. But men were never commanded to cover their faces so that women could not see them. This shows that the rules with regard to the two vary.’ [Shawkani, Nayl al-Awtar Vol.6, p. 101] • Having said this, it must also be pointed out that women are not allowed to freely gaze at men, satisfying the thirst of their eyes with men’s attractiveness.

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[Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah AnNur, v.24:31, n.31, p.227-228, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.31 p.361-362, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.03.00
Ordained to guard

‫38 ‪Garment What’s And Why‬‬

‫‪Their (women’s) private parts‬‬
‫:‪Allah says regarding the women‬‬

‫و ل ُ َاتِ ْ ُ ْنَ ِن ْ ص ِ ِن‬ ‫﴿13:42﴾ َقُل ّ ْلمؤْمِن صيَغضض ص م صَأبْصَاره ّ‬ ‫ويَحْفظْ نَ فرُوج ُنّ وَلَا ُيبْدِي نَ ِيَنتَ ُنّ إِّا مَا ظهرَ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ز ه ل‬ ‫َ َ ُ َه‬ ‫مْنهَا وَْلَيضرِبْ نَ بِ ُمرِهنّ علَى جُوِبهِنّ وَلَا يُبْ ِي نَ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ْ خ ُ ِ َ ُي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫زِيَنَتهُنّ إِّا ِلُ ُوَلتِهنّ َأوْ آَائِهنّ َأوْ آبَاء ُ ُوَلتِهنّ َأوْ‬ ‫بع ِ‬ ‫ب ِ‬ ‫ل بع ِ‬ ‫َأْبنَاِئهِن ّ َأوْ أَْبنَاء ُ ُولَِتهِن ّ َأوْ إِخ َاِنهِن ّ َأوْ بَن ِي‬ ‫ْو‬ ‫بع‬ ‫إِخ َاِنهِن ّ َأوْ بَن ِي أَخوَاِتهِن ّ َأوْ ن َاِئه ّ َأوْ م َا‬ ‫ِسص ِن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْو‬ ‫مَلَك صَأيْمَاُن ُنّ َأوِ الّابِعِيَ غْيرِ أُوْلِي اْلإِربَةِ م ص‬ ‫ْ ِنَ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫َت ْ ه‬ ‫ال ّ َالِ َأوِ ال ّفْلِ اّ ِي نَ لَ مْ َيظهرُوا علَى عوْرَا تِ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫ط لذ‬ ‫رج‬ ‫الّ سَاء وَلَا َيضْربْ نَ بِأَر ُلهنّ ِلُعْلَ مَ مَا ُخْفِيَ مِن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ْجِ ِ ي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫زِيَنِتهِنّ وُوُوا إِلَى اللّهص جَمِيعًا أَّهَا الْمؤْمُِونص‬ ‫ُ ن َ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َت ب‬ ‫لَعَّ ُمْ ُفْلِ ُونَ‬ ‫لك ت ح‬

Garment What’s And Why 84

O Prophet, enjoin the Believing women to restrain their gaze *31 and guard their private *32 parts. *33 and not to display their adornment *34 except that which is displayed of itself, *35 and to draw their veils over their bosoms *36 and not to display their adornment except before their husbands, *37 their fathers, the fathers of their husbands, *38 their sons and the sons of their husbands *39 (from other wives), their brothers, *40 their brothers' sons, *41 their sisters' sons, *42 their female associates *43 and those in their possession *44 and male attendants incapable of sex desire *45 and those boys who have not yet attained knowledge of sex matters concerning women; *46 also forbid them to stamp their feet on the ground lest their hidden ornaments should be displayed. *47 O Believers, turn all together towards Allah: *48 it is expected that you will attain true success. *49 (Surah An-Nur, v.24:31)

06.03.01

Garment What’s And Why 85

Believing women must have guard their private parts
O Prophet, enjoin the Believing women to guard their private *32 parts: *32 Believing women are asked to shun any unlawful gratification of their sexual urges and to refrain from exposing their Satar before others. These directives are applicable to both men and women, though the parts of the body that constitute Satar for men are different from the parts of the body that constitute Satar for women. Likewise, the parts of a woman’s body which may not be exposed before men differ from the parts of a man’s body which may not be exposed before women. A woman may not expose any part of her body other than hands and face before men. No other part of her body should be exposed before anyone other than her husband, and this prohibition applies even to her father and brother. Nor should a woman wear such transparent or tight clothes that expose her body or might reveal the skin or the outlines of the body or reveal its shape. [The female satar with respect to men is the entire body, excluding only the hand and the face. Sexy dresses are strictly prohibited.]

Garment What’s And Why 86

• According to a Tradition from Hadrat 'A'ishah, when her sister Asma' visited the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) she was wearing a semi-transparent dress. As soon the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) saw her, he turned his face away, saying: ‘O Asma'! When a girl attains her maturity or puberty, it is not appropriate that any part of the body other than this and this should be visible. [Should be exposed except the face and the hand].’ [Abu Da'ud, K. alLibas, ‘Bab fi ma tubdi’u al-Mar’ah ‘an Zinatiha’-Ed.] • A similar tradition is narrated by Ibn Jarir alTabari on the authority of Hadrat 'A'ishah. The daughter of ‘A’ishah’s uterine brother (her mother's son from her former husband), `Abdullah Ibn Tufayl, had come to visit her. When the Prophet (Allah's peace be upon him) entered the house and saw her, he turned his face away. Hadrat `A'ishah introduced her, saying that she was her niece. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘When a girl reaches (or attains) the age of puberty, it is not permissible for her to reveal or display any part of her body

Garment What’s And Why 87

except her face and except what is less than this. Then he clasped his forearm, leaving between the spot he had clasped the measure of another clasp. Thus, he identified the exact position of the forearm, which might remain uncovered. Some relaxation on this count made by a woman with those of her close relatives with whom for her marriage is forbidden (such as her father and brother). For example, she is permitted not to cover those parts of her body whose use is required in connection with domestic chores or as is absolutely necessary for attending to the household duties. She may thus expose her arms for kneading bread, or she may fold up her clothes a little above the usual position while washing the floor (which would also expose a part of her legs.) As for the Satar of women (boundaries of female satar) in the presence of other women, this is the same as the Satar of men in the presence of other men. This consists of the whole part of the body between the navel and the knee. This does not, however, mean that a woman may remain seminaked in the company of other women. Rather, the point is that while it is obligatory to cover the

Garment What’s And Why 88

whole body from the navel to the knee, it is not obligatory to cover other parts of the body. [Ibn Jarir al-Tabari] *33 It is a worth noting that the requirement of the Shari’ah with regard to women is different to what it requires of men. The Shari’ah requires men to to keep their looks away from the opposite sex and to guard their chastity. Women, however, are required to abide by some additional rules as well. This makes it quite clear that in this particular regard the sexes are not alike or it shows that men and women are not identical in this respect. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.32-33, p.228-229, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.32-33 p.362-363, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.03.02

Garment What’s And Why 89

Believing women should not display their adornment
Allah says: Believing women should not adornment *34 [SurahAn-Nur, v.24:31] display their

*34 We have translated the word Zinat in this verse mean ‘Adornment’. This essentially consists of those means used by women to make they look attractive: (i) Attractive clothes or good dress; (ii) Ornaments; and (iii) Other cosmetics or decorations used by women the world over to beautify their heads, faces, hands and feet (which the women usually employ, and is expressed by the modern word 'make-up'). [See nn. 37 ff. below] As for the question as to before who can a woman display or not display these adornments or `makeup', we shall discuss this later. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.34, p.229, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and

Garment What’s And Why 90

The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.34 p.363, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim alQur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.03.03
The women should not display their adornment

Garment What’s And Why 91

Except that which is displayed itself
Allah says:

‫وَ َ ُب ِينَ ِي َته ّ إِ ّ َا ظَ َ َ ِن َا‬ ‫ل ي ْد ز ن َ ُن ل م هر م ْه‬
Believing women should not display their adornment *34 other than that which is displayed of itself. *35 [Surah An-Nur, v. 24:31] *35 Even though this verse is quite clear in it’s meaning, its true import has become somewhat ambiguous because of the numerous interpretations to which it has been subjected by Qur’anic commentators. Women are asked in the present verse not to reveal their adornments. This is followed by giving expression to exceptions in the words ‘illa ma zahara minha’ (‘that which is revealed of itself’). Obviously, the intent of the verse is that women themselves should not intentionally display their charms and beauty. However, it is possible that certain attractive objects about them might nevertheless be revealed: for example, the outer garment might be blown up by the wind causing some of a woman’s adornments to be exposed. When such things happen, the women concerned are not to

Garment What’s And Why 92

be blamed. This meaning of the Qur’anic verse is ascribed to ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Hasan al-Basri, Mohammad ibn Sirin and Ibrahim al-Nakha’i. On the other hand, some commentators tend to interpret the latter part of the verse to mean permission to uncover that which it is customary to keep uncovered. They include the face and hands along with all that is used to beautify them. According to them, it is perfectly permissible for a woman to wear make-up on her face and hands and adorn them with ornaments and display them publicly. • Hadrat ‘Abdullah Ibn `Abbas and his disciples are credited with this opinion, which is also shared by the majority of Hanafi jurists. [Ahkam-ul-Qur'an, Al-Jassas, Vol. 3, pp. 388-389, Surah al-Nur, comments on verse 24:31-Ed.] Thus, according to them, it is permissible for a woman to move out freely with the uncovered face in full make-up and adornment of the hands. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.35, p.229, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi,

Garment What’s And Why 93

Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.35 p.363, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim alQur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.03.04
The veil(Niqab) assumed the

Garment What’s And Why 94

position of an indispensable part of the female attire
The piece of clothes or hijab by which the Muslim women cover their face is as the part of the garments. It is, however, totally beyond us as to how the Qur’anic expression mentioned above can be stretched to justify such an interpretation. Were one to accept this interpretation, one would be considering the words ‘ma zahara’ as equivalent with ‘ma yuzhiru’. There is a world of difference between revealing something and something being revealed of it. The Qur’an no doubt, makes allowance for something, which is revealed of it. To interpret the verse to signify granting women permission to go about deliberately displaying their adornments which are attractive to men runs counter to the intent of the Qur’an. Such a view is also discordant with the authentic traditions, which indicate that after the Qur’anic commands pertaining to hijab were revealed, women did not appear in public with their faces uncovered. The hijab injunction included the requirement to cover the face, and the veil thus assumed the position of an indispensable part of the female attire except in the state of ‘ihram’.
35

Garment What’s And Why 95

What is more intriguing is the argument put forward in support of the view that the face and hands do not constitute the prohibited parts (Satar) of the female body. For the injunctions regarding Satar and hijab are two entirely different things. As for the injunction to keep one’s Satar covered, this applies even in the case of those men with whom marriage is forbidden. On the other hand, hijab is an additional requirement laid down for women in respect of unrelated men. It should be emphasized that the point under discussion in this verse is hijab rather than Satar. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.35, p.229-230, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.35 p.363, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim alQur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.03.05
Muslim women have to have draw their veils over their bosoms

Garment What’s And Why 96

Allah says: Muslim women have to have draw their veils over their bosoms *36 : [Surah An-Nur,
v.24:31, n.36, Tafhimul Qur’an]

*36 In the pre-Islamic days of ignorance (Jahiliyah), women had their hair tied with a kind of headband, which was fastened by a knot at the rear of the head. The front slit in their shirt remained partly open, thus revealing their neck and the upper part of their bosom. They were nothing except this shirt to cover their breasts. [Zamakhashari, al-Kashshaf, vol.2, p.90; and Ibn Kathir, vol. 3, pp.283-284] Consequent upon the revelation of this verse, the practice of wearing a veil came into vogue among Muslim women. This veil was not used then in the manner Muslim women have begun to use it in our own time-as if it were a garland of cloth adorning their necks. Instead, it fully covered their head, waist and breasts. No sooner had this verse been revealed than Muslim women hastened to change their dress sense. Praising believing women in this regard:

Garment What’s And Why 97

• Hadrat ‘A’ishah said: ‘When Surah al-Nur was revealed and the Prophet’s Companions returned to their homes and recited its verses to their wives, daughters and sisters, there was not a single woman among the Ansar who was not moved by the words. ‘Let them draw their veils over their bosoms’ (verse 31). Immediately every one of them made veils out of whatever they had: a waistband or a sheet of cloth. The next day, all Muslim women were present in the Prophet’s Mosque for Fajar Prayers with their veils.’ [Ibn Kathir and Abu Da’ud, Kitab al-Libas, ‘Bab Qawl Allah ta ‘ala yudnin ‘alayhinna min Jalabibihinna’ and ‘wa la-yadribna bi Khumrihinna ‘ala Juyubihinna’-Ed.] • Another tradition from Hadrat ‘A’ishah contains the additional information that Muslim women cast away their transparent and semi-transparent clothes and especially selected thick material for their veil. [Ibn Kathir and Abu Da’ud, Kitab al-Libas, ‘Bab Qawl Allah ta ‘ala yudnin ‘alayhinna min Jalabibihinna’ and ‘wa la-yadribna bi Khumrihinna ‘ala Juyubihinna’-Ed.]

Garment What’s And Why 98

A. The veil should not be of thin material: • That the veil should not be of thin material is something, which conforms to the spirit of these injunctions, and no one had any difficulty in arriving at that conclusion. The Ansar women understood full well what kind of cloth should be used for the veil. Nonetheless, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not leave this matter to the understanding of the people. Rather, he made it clear in quite unmistakable terms. B. An additional material should use inside the thin material so that the features of the body are not revealed: • Once the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was presented with a fine material made in Egypt. He divided it into two and presented it to one of his Companions, saying: ‘one is for your shirt, and the other is for your wife’s veil. You should direct her to use an additional material inside so that the features of the body are not revealed.’ [Abu Da’ud, Kitab al-Libas, ‘Bab ma ja’ fi Libs al-Qabati li-al-Nisa’-Ed.] [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.36, p.230-231, Vol. 6, English version of

Garment What’s And Why 99

Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London] There was an instantaneous response. The Ansar women, one and all, immediately got up and made wrappers from whatever piece of cloth that was handy. The next morning all the women who came to the Prophet's Mosque for prayers were dressed in wrappers. • In another tradition Hadrat `A'ishah says that thin cloth was discarded and the women selected only coarse cloth for the purpose. [lbn Kathir, Vol.III, p. 284; Abu Da'ud] In another place: • Dihya Kalbi states: ‘Once a length of fine Egyptian muslin was presented to the Holy Prophet. He gave a piece of it to me and said, `Use one part of it for your shirt, and give the rest of it to your wife for a wrapper, but tell her that she should stitch another piece of cloth on the inner side so that the body may not be displayed through it.’ [Abu Da'ud] [The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.36 p.364, vol. 3, English version of

Garment What’s And Why 100

Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

06.03.06
The Muslim women shouldn’t display their adornment

‫101 ‪Garment What’s And Why‬‬

‫‪other than some exceptional‬‬
‫:‪The Qur’an says‬‬

‫و ل ُ َاتِ ْ ُ ْنَ ِن ْ ص ِ ِن‬ ‫﴿13:42﴾ َقُل ّ ْلمؤْمِن صيَغضض ص م صَأبْصَاره ّ‬ ‫ويَحْفظْ نَ فرُوج ُنّ وَلَا ُيبْدِي نَ ِيَنتَ ُنّ إِّا مَا ظهرَ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ز ه ل‬ ‫َ َ ُ َه‬ ‫مْنهَا وَْلَيضرِبْ نَ بِ ُمرِهنّ علَى جُوِبهِنّ وَلَا يُبْ ِي نَ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ْ خ ُ ِ َ ُي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫زِيَنَتهُنّ إِّا ِلُ ُوَلتِهنّ َأوْ آَائِهنّ َأوْ آبَاء ُ ُوَلتِهنّ َأوْ‬ ‫بع ِ‬ ‫ب ِ‬ ‫ل بع ِ‬ ‫َأْبنَاِئهِن ّ َأوْ أَْبنَاء ُ ُولَِتهِن ّ َأوْ إِخ َاِنهِن ّ َأوْ بَن ِي‬ ‫ْو‬ ‫بع‬ ‫إِخ َاِنهِن ّ َأوْ بَن ِي أَخوَاِتهِن ّ َأوْ ن َاِئه ّ َأوْ م َا‬ ‫ِسص ِن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْو‬ ‫مَلَك صَأيْمَاُن ُنّ َأوِ الّابِعِيَ غْيرِ أُوْلِي اْلإِربَةِ م ص‬ ‫ْ ِنَ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫َت ْ ه‬ ‫ال ّ َالِ َأوِ ال ّفْلِ اّ ِي نَ لَ مْ َيظهرُوا علَى عوْرَا تِ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫ط لذ‬ ‫رج‬ ‫الّ سَاء وَلَا َيضْربْ نَ بِأَر ُلهنّ ِلُعْلَ مَ مَا ُخْفِيَ مِن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ْجِ ِ ي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫زِيَنِتهِنّ وُوُوا إِلَى اللّهص جَمِيعًا أَّهَا الْمؤْمُِونص‬ ‫ُ ن َ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َت ب‬ ‫لَعَّ ُمْ ُفْلِ ُونَ‬ ‫لك ت ح‬
‫‪O Prophet, enjoin the Believing women to restrain‬‬ ‫‪their gaze *31 and guard their private *32 parts. *33 and‬‬

Garment What’s And Why 102

not to display their adornment *34 except that which is displayed of itself, *35 and to draw their veils over their bosoms *36 and not to display their adornment except before their husbands, *37 their fathers, the fathers of their husbands, *38 their sons and the sons of their husbands *39 (from other wives), their brothers, *40 their brothers' sons, *41 their sisters' sons, *42 their female associates *43 and those in their possession *44 and male attendants incapable of sex desire *45 and those boys who have not yet attained knowledge of sex matters concerning women; *46 also forbid them to stamp their feet on the ground lest their hidden ornaments should be displayed. *47 O Believers, turn all together towards Allah: *48 it is expected that you will attain true success. *49 (Surah An-Nur, v.24:31)

The Muslim women should not display their adornment except before their close relatives *37: *37 The relatives mentioned here form the social circle of close relatives among whom a woman is perfectly free to go about adorned with make-up and

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cosmetics. However, she is not allowed to display her beauty in front of anyone other than those here mentioned regardless of whether they are related to her or not. The Qur’an commanded women ‘… not to reveal their adornment except that which is revealed of it…’(verse, 24:31). Here that very injunction is elaborated upon. This consists of emphasizing that a woman should not display her adornment (embellishments), either deliberately or out of negligence, before anyone outside this welldefined circle of very close relatives. Nonetheless, if any lapses occur, despite a woman’s efforts not to display her attractions and without her intent, or because it was not possible for her to keep herself covered despite her wanting to do so, God extends His assurance to such believing women that He will pardon them. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.37, p.231, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

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06.03.07
Hijab with the close relatives
A : The Muslim women should not display their adornment except before their husbands, fathers, the fathers

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of their husbands, *38 : *38 The word aba’ used in this verse covers one’s `Father' both maternal and paternal, as also grandfathers and great grandfathers. A woman may therefore, appear before these elders of either her own family or of her husband’s family in the same manner as she may appear before both her father and father-in-law. B : The Muslim women should not display their adornment except before their sons and the sons of their husbands: *39 The abna’ihinna `their Sons' covers apart from their own sons, their grandsons and great grandsons, i.e. those born both of one’s sons and daughters. Furthermore, no distinction is made between one’s own sons and one’s stepsons. A woman may appear freely before the children of her stepsons as she may appear before her own children and grandchildren. C: The Muslim women should not display their adornment except before their brothers, *40 their brothers' sons,*41: *40 Brothers' include real and stepbrothers. *41 This refers to a woman’s nieces and nephews, whether they are born of her brother and sister, and whether those brothers and sisters are real or is

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stepbrothers and stepsisters. 'Sons of brothers and sisters' include sons, grandsons and great grandsons of all the three kinds of brothers and sisters. D: The Muslim women should not display their adornment except before their sisters' sons *42 : *42 Here the discussion about relatives is concluded. What follows is a discussion on how a woman is to appear before non-relatives. It seems necessary at this stage to fully comprehend three things, for without this confusion is bound to arise: First: The first and foremost point is that some people or jurists consider that a woman is free to appear before only those relatives who are specified in this verse. They believe that a woman is obliged to observe full hijab with all others including even her own uncles, both maternal and paternal because they have not heen mentioned in the Qur'an. They cite the present Qur’anic verse in support of this view, saying that in the verse no other relatives are mentioned. This is not, however, the correct position. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not let Hadrat ‘A’ishah observes hijab with her foster uncles, let alone her own uncles. In the six most authentic

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works of Hadith which is known as Sihah Sitta' and in the Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal we find a tradition from • Hadrat ‘A’ishah herself narrates that Aflah, Abu al-Qu’ays’s brother, visited her and sought permission to enter the house. Since the Qur’anic command about hijab had already been revealed, Hadrat ‘A’isha did not grant him such permission. On this Aflah sent word to her saying, ‘you are my niece: my brother Abul Qu’ais’s wife suckled you.’ Hadrat `A'ishah was unsure about whether such a relative belonged to that category specified in the Qur’an with whom it was not necessary to observe hijab. Meanwhile the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arrived and told Hadrat ‘A’ishah that Aflah may visit her. [Bukhari, K. al-Tafsir, ‘Bab Tafsir Tanzil alSajdah’, ‘Bab Qawlih: in-tubdu shay’an aw tukhfuh fa inna Allah kana bi-kull Shay’in ‘Alima’; and Muslim, K. al-Rida’, ‘Bab Tahrim min ma’alFahl’-Ed.] One, thus, learns that: • The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not interpret this verse to mean that a woman

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was required to observe hijab with all her relatives except those mentioned in the present verse. He rather derived from this verse the general rule that a woman need not observe hijab with all those relatives with who for her marriage is forbidden. This category of relatives includes her uncles, both maternal and paternal, her sons-in-law and foster relatives. Among the successors, Hasan alBasri held the same opinion, one which `Allama Abu Bakr al-Jassas supported in his works. [Ahkam al-Qur’an, vol.III, p.390, Tafsir Surah alNur (verse 24:31), ‘Bab ma yajibu min Ghadd alBasar ‘an al-Muharramat’-Ed.] Secondly: The second point that might cause some confusion pertains to those relatives with whom neither marriage is permanently forbidden (which would make it permissible for a woman to freely appear before them) nor whom are total strangers so that it would be required to observe strict hijab. The position with regard to such people has not been specifically laid down by the Shari’ah. Therefore, a categorical ruling about them cannot be given. For such a ruling is contingent upon many considerations such as: (a) The nature of their kinship;

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(b) Their age; (c) The age of the women concerned; (d) The nature of the relations between the two families; and (e) The living conditions of the persons concerned (such as sharing a house or living separately, etc.). Since these circumstances vary from case to case, the ruling will also differ from one case to another. Furthermore, this is the guidance that we receive from the Prophet’s own conduct. We learn from many ahadith that: • Hadrat Asma’ bint Abi Bakar, ‘Hadrat ‘A’ishah’s sister, used to appear before the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and even in the very last days of his life she did not cover her face and hands in his presence. [Abu Da'ud] • We have also found a tradition to this effect, which pertains to the time of the prophet’s Farewell Pilgrimage, i.e. only a few months before he passed away. This shows that the practice mentioned above also obtained till the very last days of the Prophet’s life. [Abu Da'ud, Kitab al-Hajj, ‘Bab al-Mahram Yu’addibu Ghulamah’.] Likewise:

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• Hadrat Umm Hani, the Prophet’s cousine and Abu Talib’s daughter, appeared before the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and she covered neither her face nor her hands in his presence. She narrates an incident that took place at the time of the conquest of Makkah, which substantiates or confirms this. [Abu Da'ud, Kitab al-Sawm, ‘Bab fi al-Niyah fi al-Siyam wa alRukhsah fih’-Ed.] On the contrary, there is a tradition to the effect that: • Hadrat `Abbas sent his son Fadal, and Rabi'ah ibn Harith ibn `Abdul Muttalib (a first cousin of the Holy Prophet) his son 'Abdul Muttalib before the Holy Prophet with the request for a job, as they could not be married till they became earning members of the family. Both of them called on the prophet at the house of his wife Zaynab. Hadrat Zaynab, one of the Prophet’s wives, was the maternal cousin of Fadl and is similarly related to the father of 'Abdul Muttalib bin Rabi'ah. But she does not appear before them and talks to them from behind a curtain in the presence of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

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[Abu Da'ud, Kitab al-Kharaj, wa al-Imarah wa alFay’, ‘Bab fi Bayan Mawadi’ Qasam al-Khums wa Sahm dhi al-Qurba’-Ed.] When we consider the two types of traditions mentioned above, it seems that the correct position is that which we have just documented. Thirdly: Whenever there is any doubt regarding the kinship between a woman and any of her relatives, it is preferable for her to observe hijab, even if the man happens to be among those with whom marriage is forbidden. We learn that: • Hadrat Sawdah, one of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), had a stepbrother (being the son of his father from a slave girl). Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas’s brother, ‘Utbah, left a will addressed to Sa’d wherein he urged him to patronize this boy, considering him his own nephew because he was ‘Utbah’s son. The case was presented before the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), but he rejected Sa’d’s claim saying: ‘the child belongs to the one on whose bed it was born, and he who committed adultery will be lapidated (let stones and pebbles be his lot).’ [Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Da'ud].

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• At the same time, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) told Hadrat Sawdah to observe hijab since there was doubt about whether he was her brother or not. [Bukhari; Muslim; and Abu Da'ud]. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.38-42, p.231-233, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.03.08
Hijab with their female associates
Hijab with their female associates *43:

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*43 The words used nisa’ihinna, which translate as ‘the woman with whom they associate’. We shall consider a little later on who these women are. Opinion-1: The first point which merits attention here is that the word al-nisa’, which has a highly general connotation, has not been employed in this verse. For had it been used it would have been permissible for a Muslim woman to appear and display her attractions before all kinds of women. Instead, the words nisa’ihinna are used which has a relatively restricted connotation implying some restrictions, regardless of what they are, on a Muslim’s freedom to associate with other women. So who are the women to whom the words nisi’hinna apply? Commentators on the Qur’an and jurists hold different opinions on this matter. • According to some, the expression signifies only Muslim women. A Muslim woman is required to observe hijab with non-Muslim women, whether they are dhimmis or otherwise, in the manner she is required to observe hijab with men. They support this opinion by reference to ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas, Mujahid and Ibn Jurayj whose views are the same. They also cite the incident that

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‘Umar documented in writing to Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah: ‘I have come to know that some Muslim women have been visiting public baths along with non-Muslim women, this although it is not lawful for any woman who believes in God and the last Day to allow those belonging to some other faith to see her body.’ When Abu ‘Ubaydah received this letter he was greatly upset and exclaimed: ‘By God, a Muslim woman who visits the public bath merely to develop a fair complexion will have her face blackened on the Last Day.’ [Ibn Jarir al-Tabari; Bayhaqi; and Ibn Kathir.] Opinion-2: Other Jurists are of the opinion that the expression, nisa’ihinna, embraces all women. This is the view of Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Raji. It is, however, hard to appreciate this since had all women been meant, why was the restrictive expression nisa’ihinna used? If that had been the case, it would have been appropriate to use al-nisa’. Opinion-3: There is a third opinion which seems both reasonable and in consonance with the spirit of the Qur’an whereby the expression signifies all those women with whom a Muslim woman enjoys

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acquaintanceship or friendship, all those women who share with her the burden of domestic chores, whether they are Muslim or non-Muslim. It seems that the purpose of this Qur’anic verse is to exclude unrestricted association with those women who are total strangers or whose character and conduct are either not known or who are of doubtful character, making them unworthy of trust. This view seems to be corroborated by those authentic traditions, which mention that non-Muslim women used to visit the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). In such matters the main consideration should be the character of the women concerned rather than their formal affiliation with one religious community or another. (a) Muslim women may mix freely with all women of good character, with all women who are modest, good mannered, and belong to families that are well known and are considered trustworthy regardless of whether they are Muslim or nonMuslim. (b) On the other hand, no decent woman should mix freely with women who are devoid of modesty and a sense of honor and are, on the whole,

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women of low character, even if they are ‘Muslim’. This is because to mix with women of this type would be no different than a woman freely mixing with men. (c) In our view, a Muslim woman should treat women whose character and conduct are not known to her in the manner she would treat her non-mahram relatives. That is, a Muslim woman may appear before them without covering her face and hands, although all other parts of her body should be fully covered. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.43, p.234-235, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.03.09
Hijab with them who are in their possession

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Hijab with them who are in their possession *44: *44 Jurists have a variety of opinions regarding the import of this injunction. Some consider ‘ma-malakat aymanuhunna’ (those that are in bondage) to signify only those slave-girls whom a woman owns. Opinion-1: According to these Jurists, a Muslim woman may display her adornments before her slave-girls regardless of whether they are polytheists or followers of the Scriptures. However, with male slaves, a woman should observe the same restrictions as apply to free men who are not related to her. This opinion is held by ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, Mujahid, Hasan al-Basri, Muhammad ibn Sirin, Sa’id ibn alMusayyab, Ta’us and Abu Hanifa. A statement to this effect has also been reported on the authority of Shafi’i. These scholars argue that a male slave cannot be considered the mahram of the woman who owns him. If the slave becomes free, he may marry the woman who previously owned him. It may be asked why the words ‘ma-malakat aymanuhunna’, which are of general significance denoting slaves of both the sexes, are interpreted restrictively to mean only slave-girls to the exclusion of male slaves? In response, scholars point out that

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even though the words used here are of general significance, it is the context that makes them specific to slave-girls only. For, it is evident from the words nisa’ihinna used in the verse that a woman may freely mix with those women who have either kinship with her or with whom she is acquainted. This could have led to the misunderstanding that a woman’s slave-girls were excluded from the category of those women with whom she may freely mix. All grounds for any such misunderstanding were removed by employing the words ‘ma-malakat aymanuhunna’, suggesting thereby that a Muslim woman may freely mix with her slave-girls without having to conceal her adornments from them, in the way that she may do with free women. Opinion-2: According to another group of scholars, both female and male slaves are included in the category of persons before whom a Muslim woman is not required to conceal her adornments. This opinion is attributed to Hadrat ‘A’ishah, Umm Salamah and some leading jurists among the descendants of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). It is also generally considered to be the opinion of Imam Shafi’i. These scholars support their opinion by

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reiterating that the expression ‘ma-malakat aymanuhunna’ is of general significance. Additionally, they argue, on the basis of the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), that reference is made to a visit the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) made to his daughter Fatimah along with a male slave, ‘Abdullah. At that time she was wearing a sheet of cloth, which was not long enough. If she had covered her head with it this would have left her feet uncovered and vice versa. On observing Fatima’s embarrassment the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘there is no blame on you. It is only your father and your slave who are here.’ [On the authority of Umm Salamah in Tirmidhi; Ibn Majah; Abu Da'ud, K. al-Libas, ‘Bab fi al-‘Abd yanzur ila sha’r Mawlatih’-Ed.] In his Ta’rikh Dimashq, Ibn ‘Asakir states that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had presented this slave to Famitah who first brought him up and then set him free. (Curiously enough, this slave repaid Fatimah for the good she had done him in a strange way. He became ‘Ali’s worst enemy and a staunch supporter of Amir Mu’awiyah during the

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Battle of Siffin!) These jurists also cite the following saying of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in support of this opinion.: ‘When any of you women enter into ‘mukatabah’ with your slave and he is in a position to repay the amount stipulated in that regard, it is required of such a woman that she observe hijab with that slave.’ [Abu Da’ud, K. al-‘Itq, ‘Bab fi al-Mukatib yuwaddi Ba’d Kitabatih fa ya’jiz wa yamut’; and Tirmidhi, K. al-Buyu’, ‘Bab Ba’d ma ja’fi al-Mukatib idha kan ‘induh ma yuwaddi’-Ed.] and [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.44, p.235-236, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.03.10
Hijab with the male attendants incapable of sex desire

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Hijab with the male attendants incapable of sex desire *45 *45 The expression:

ِ‫الّابِعِيَ غْيرِ ُأوْلِي اْلإِربَةِ منَ ال ّ َال‬ ‫ْ ِ رج‬ َ ‫ت‬
Means ‘the male attendants in their service who are free of sexual interest’ or ‘those from among the men who are your subordinates and have no desire’. These words indicate that a Muslim woman may display her adornments to any males other than her mahram (i.e. those with whom for her marriage is permanently forbidden), only when two conditions are fulfilled. First: that such a person should be in a state of subversive and subordination to her; and Second: that he should be free of sexual desire either owing to his advanced age, physical infirmity, imbecility, utter destitution, or owing to his subordinate status which renders him unable even to think of any sexual relations with the wife, daughter, sister or mother of the master of the household. Anyone who studies this injunction with the intent of following the commands of God, rather than simply finding loopholes that provide him with a pretext to violate the purpose of the law, will readily observe that cooks, bearers, chauffeurs, and other youthful

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male servants with whom women in our time tend not to observe any restrictions of hijab cannot be considered a part of this definition. Let us now see how different scholars have interpreted these words: (i) ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas regards these words to signify imbeciles who have no interest in women. (ii) Qatadah considers these words to mean a destitute who remains inalienably attached to someone because of his need for daily bread. (iii) Mujahid considers these words to denote an idiot who is concerned with bread rather than women. (iv) Sah’bi believes these words to mean a person who is subordinate to and dependent on the head of a family, and who lacks the courage even to look at women. (v) According to Ibn Zayd, these words denote a person who persists with a family, in which he has been brought up, to such an extent as though he has become a member of the family. He does not cast amorous glances at the women of the family and even lacks the courage to do so. He persists with the family for the sake of his daily bread.

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(vi) Ta’us and Zuhri believe that these words signify a stupid person who neither has any desire for women, nor the courage to seek them. [Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, vol. 18, pp.95-96; and Ibn Kathir, vol.3, p. 285] [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.45, p.236, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.03.11
The women have to have observe hijab with the eunuch

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The Prophet ordered all women to observe hijab with the eunuch: 45 The best explanation in this regard is the incident that happened in the time of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). This has been narrated on the authority of Hadrat ‘A’ishah and Umm Salamah. There was a eunuch in Madina who was considered to belong to the category of ‘ghayr uli alirbah min al-rijal’ (i.e. men free of sexual interest) by the Prophet’s wives and other women and who, therefore, had free access to their houses. Once while the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was visiting his wife Umm Salamah he overheard the eunuch talking to ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Umayyah, Umm Salamah’s brother. He was telling ‘Abdullah that if Ta’if was conquered he should make a point of getting hold of Badiyah, the daughter of Ghaylan alThaqafi. He then started to praise her beauty vividly and describe bodily attractions. He even graphically described the beauty of those parts of the body, which are not normally visible. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) heard him saying all this, he interrupted him: ‘O enemy of God! You have watched her so closely.’ Then he ordered all women to observe hijab with the eunuch and also forbade

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him to enter peoples’ houses. Additionally, he banished him from Madinah, and also forbade other eunuchs from entering the inner apartments. He did so because women, under the impression that they were eunuchs, and hence free of sexual desire, tended to relax their attitudes towards them. This enabled many eunuchs to observe the women of the household very closely and to inform others about the charms. [Bukhari, K. al-Maghazi, ‘Bab Ghazwat al-Ta’if fi Shawwal Sanat Thaman’; and Muslim, K. al-Salam, ‘Bab Man’ al-Mukhnnath min al-Dukhul ‘ala al-Nisa’ al-Ajanib’-Ed.] We thus learn that in order for someone to be considered as belonging to the category of ‘ghayr uli al-irban min al-rijal’ it is not enough for him to be physically incapable of the sexual act. What needs to be fully ensured is that such a person is altogether free of sexual desire, of every vestige of the same, and that he is truly not at all interested in women. For, if there is even an iota of sexual desire in him, he is liable to cause much mischief. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.45, p.237, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi,

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Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.03.12
Hijab with the boys
Allah says:

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How Hijab with those boys who have not yet attained knowledge of sex matters concerning women; *46 *46That is, those children whose sexual urges have not yet been awakened or their sex feelings have not been aroused. Included in this category are boys between 10 and 12 years of age. Although older boys may not have reached adolescence in a strictly technical sense, nevertheless they do have sexual desires or start having sex feelings though they may still be immature otherwise. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.46, p.237, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.03.13
The women should not stamp their feet on the ground
Allah says:

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The women should not stamp their feet on the ground in such manner that their hidden ornaments becomes revealed. *47 *47The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not restrict this injunction stopping women from stamping their feet and so revealing their hidden ornaments just on the basis of that action. Instead, he derived from this injunction the general principle that any act, which arouses the sexual passion of men, whether through hearing, sight or any other sense, comes into conflict with the purpose underlying God’s directive to women that they may not reveal their adornments before men. Hence, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked women not to go out wearing perfume. • Hadrat Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘do not prevent God’s bondswomen from entering the mosque. But they should not go out in perfume.’ [Ahmad; and Abu Da’ud, K. al-Salah, ‘Bab ma ja’fi Khuruj al-Nisa’ ila al-Masjid’-Ed.] The same point is made in another tradition: • A woman was going out of the mosque when Hadrat Abu Hurayrah passed her. He noted that she was wearing perfume. Stopping her he asked ‘O servant of Allah! Are you coming from the

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mosque?’ When she replied in the affirmative, Hadrat Abu Hurayrah told her: ‘I heard my beloved Abul Qasim [Mohammad] (Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) say: the prayer of a woman who wears perfume in a mosque is not accepted until she takes the bath of ritual purification at home or she takes herself with a complete bath as is done after a sexual intercourse.’ [Ibn Majah; Ahmad; Nasa'i; Abu Da'ud, K. alTarajjul, ‘Bab ma ja’fi al-Ma’ah tatatayyib li alKhuruj’-Ed.] • According to Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘If a woman goes out after wearing perfume so that the men by whom she passes may enjoy the fragrance of the perfume she is a so and so’ and here he used a very harsh word for such a woman. [Tirmidhi; Abu Da'ud; Nasa'I; and see loc. cit.–Ed.] • The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) directed women that if they were to wear perfume, they should wear one whose color is bright. [Abu Da`ud; and see loc. cit.–Ed.].

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[Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, n.47, p.237-238, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

06.03.14
The women are not approved of unnecessarily

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making men hear their voice
In like manner as above, • The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) disapproved of women unnecessarily making men hear their voice. The Qur’an itself allows women to talk to men when it is necessary. (This seems to be the implication of al-Ahzab 33:32Ed.). It is also known that the Holy Prophet's wives themselves explained religious matters to the people. But when no religious or moral benefit is expected to ensure from women talking to men, it is not considered desirable that they provide men with an opportunity to be gratified by the charm of the female voice. That is, there is no necessity, nor any moral or religious objective; the women have been discouraged to let their voices be heard by men. Islam’s attitude in this respect seems to be indicated by the following legal ruling: Whenever the Imam (leader) of the prayer forgets something men are required to say ‘Subhan-Allah’ (Glory be to Allah), in order to draw his attention to that lapse, whereas women are required to clap mildly for the same purpose that is, the women have been instructed to tap their hands only.
47

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[Ahmad; Tirmidhi; Abu Da'ud; Nasa'i; Ibn Majah; Bukhari, K. al-‘Amal fi al-Salah, ‘Bab al-Tasfiq li al-Nisa’; Muslim, K. al-Salah, ‘Bab tusabbin al-Rajul wa tusaffiq al-Mar’ah idha nabahuma Shay’ fi alSalah’-Ed.] [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah AnNur, v.24:31, nn.47, pp.238, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and ]

06.03.15
The wives of the Prophet have ordained not to talk in a soft voice

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Allah says to Phrophet’s wives:

ِ‫﴿23:33﴾ يَا نِ سَاء الّبِيّ لَ سُت ّ كَأحَدٍ ّ نَ الّ سَاء إِ ن‬ ‫ْن َ م ن‬ ‫ن‬ ِ‫اّقيُْنّ فَلَا تَخضَعْ نَ بِالْقَولِ فَيطْمَ عَ اّذِي فِي قَلبِ ه‬ ْ ‫ل‬ َ ْ ْ ‫تَ ت‬ ‫مرَ ٌ وَُلنَ قوْلًا ّع ُوفًا‬ ‫َ ض ق ْ َ م ْر‬
O wives of the Prophet! You are not like the other women. *46 If you are God fearing, do not talk in a soft voice lest the man of the diseased heart should cherish false hopes from you, but speak in an unaffected manner. *47 [Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:32] *46 The verses from here to the end of the paragraph are those with which the Commandments of Purdah were introduced in Islam. In these verses though the wives of the Holy Prophet only have been addressed, the intention is to enforce reforms in all the Muslim houses. The object of addressing the Holy Prophet's wives particularly is that when a pure way of life will start from his house, it will be followed by the women of all other Muslim houses as well, because this house was looked upon by the Muslims as a model to follow. Some people, when they see that these verses have been addressed only to the wives of the Holy Prophet, assert that these Commandments were only meant for them. But when one reads what

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follows in these verses one feels that there is nothing which might have been meant particularly for the holy wives and not for the other Muslim women. Could Allah have intended only this that the holy wives alone should be fret from uncleanliness and they alone should obey Allah and His Prophet and they alone should offer the Salat and pay the Zakat? If this could not be the intention, then how could the Command for them to stay in their houses and avoid displaying the fineries and abstain from talking to the other men in an alluring voice be meant particularly for them to the exclusion of all other Muslim women? Is there any rational proof on the basis of which some Commands in one and the same context and series be regarded as general and some others as particular and special? As for the sentence, °You are not like the other women," it also does not mean that the other women should come out in full make-up and should talk to the other men coquettishly and flirt with them, but "as for you, you should not adopt such a conduct. " The style, to the contrary, is such as if a gentleman would tell his child, `You are not like the common children of the street: you should not use abusive language." From this no sensible person would ever

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conclude that the speaker regarded only his own child using abusive language as bad; as for others he would not mind if they used abusive language. *47 That is, "There is no harm if the other man is spoken to in case of a genuine need, but on such an occasion the woman's tone and manner of speech should be such as does not let the other man think that he could cherish any false hope from her. There should be no undue softness in her tone, no allurement in her conversation, no consciously affected mellowness in her voice, which should excite the male hearer's emotions and encourage him to make advances. About such a manner of speech Allah clearly says that this does not behave a woman who has any fear of God in her heart and desire to avoid evil. In other words, this is the way and manner of the wicked and unchaste woman's speech and not of the believing pious woman's speech: If this verse is read together with verse 24:31 of Surah An-Nur, in which Allah says:

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‫َأوِ ال ّفلِ اّذِي نَ لَ مْ يَظه ُوا عَلَى عوْرَا تِ الّ سَاء‬ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ْ َر‬ ‫طْ ل‬ ّ ‫وَلَا َيضرِْبنَ بِأَر ُله ّ ِلُعْلَمَ مَا ُخْفِيَ مِن ِينَِته‬ ‫ز ِن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ْجِ ِن ي‬ ْ
‘They should not stamp the ground in walking Lest their hidden decoration is revealed,’ The intention of the Lord clearly seems to be that the women should not attract other men by their voice or the jingle of their ornaments unnecessarily and if at all they have to speak to the other men, they should speak to them in an un-affected tone and manner. That is why it is forbidden for the woman to pronounce the call to the Prayer. Moreover, if a woman is attending a congregational Prayer and the Imam commits a mistake, she is not permitted to say Subhan-Allah like the males but should only tap her hands to call the imam's attention to the error. Now just consider this: When Islam disallows the woman to talk to other men in a soft and sweet tone and even forbids her to produce her voice before the other men without a genuine need, will it approve her to appear on the stage and sing, dance, flirt and behave coquettishly? Will it permit her to sing love songs over the radio and excite the people's emotions

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by presenting sweet melodies full of obscene themes? Will it permit that she should play the roles of the wives and sweet-hearts of others in dramas? Or that, the women should be made the air hostesses and be especially trained to charm and allure the passengers? Or that they should visit clubs and attend social functions and gatherings in full make-up and mix freely with men and have fun and a good time with them? From which Qur'an has this culture been derived? For the Qur'an that was sent down by God there is to be found no hint as to the admissibility of this sort of culture. [The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah Al-Ahzab, v.33:32 nn.46-47, pp.98-99, vol. 4, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan].

06.04.00

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O Believers, turn all together towards Allah: It is expected that you will attain true success.
Allah said regarding the Mu’min:

‫وُوُوا إِلَى اللّهص جَمِيع ًا أَّه َا الْمؤْمُونص لَعَّ ُمص‬ ْ ‫ُ ِن َ لك‬ ‫ي‬ ِ ‫َت ب‬ َ‫ُفْلِ ُون‬ ‫ت ح‬
Believers turn together, all of you, to Allah in repentance: *48 that you may attain true success. *49; [Surah An-Nur, v.24:31] O Believers, turn all together towards Allah: *48 *48 Believers are asked to repent for their lapses on this particular count. They are further directed to mend their ways and mould their conduct in accordance with the directives of God and His Messenger. It is expected that you will attain true success. *49: *49 It seems pertinent to state briefly some other reforms that were introduced into Muslim society by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) which

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are keeping with the spirit of the above Qur’anic injunctions: (1)The prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), forbade, even a woman’s male relatives, from meeting her alone, i.e. in the absence of any of her mahram relatives. • Jabir Ibn ‘Abd Allah narrates that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘Do not visit women whose husbands are away, for Satan circulates in each of you like blood.’ [Tirmidhi, K. al-Rida’, ‘Bab ja’ fi Karahiyat al-Dukhul ‘ala alMughibat’-Ed] • According to another Tradition narrated by Hadrat Jabir inb ‘Abd Allah, the Prophet(peace and blessings be upon him) said: Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day should never meet a woman in privacy unless she is accompanied by a mahram relative [i.e. a male with whom for her marriage is permanently forbidden]. For [if a man and a woman are alone] Satan becomes the third of the two. [Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3 p.339-Ed.] • There is similar tradition in the Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal on the authority of `Amir ibn Rabi'ah. • The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was so particular in this regard that once

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while he was going with his wife Hadrat Safiyyah to her house at night, two companions passed by the way. The Prophet stopped them and said that it was his wife Safiyyah who was accompanied him. They submitted: ‘Glory is to Allah! O Messenger of Allah, who can think ill of you? The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) replied: ‘Satan is circulating in each man like blood. So I considered it better to clarify lest some evil thought might cross your mind.’ [Abu Da'ud, K. al-Sawm, ‘Bab al-Mu’takif yadkhul al-Bayt li Hajatihi’-Ed.] (2) The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not allow a non-mahram male to touch the body of a woman. That is evident from the following practice of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): when he took the oath of allegiance (Bay’ah) from men, he had them place their palm in his. But he did not do so while taking the oath of allegiance from women. In their case, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) considered it enough for them to express their allegiance verbally. Once they took that oath he told them that they might go back for their oath

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was now complete. [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Kharaj, ‘Bab ma ja’fi al-Bay’ah’-Ed.] • Hadrat 'A'ishah has stated that the Holy Prophet never touched the body of any other woman. He would administer the oath verbally to them; when this was done, he would say: ‘You may go, your allegiance is complete.’ (Abu Da'ud). (3) The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) strictly forbade woman from traveling without any mahram. • There is a tradition from ‘Abd Allha ibn 'Abbas has been quoted in Bukhari and Muslim saying that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) once said to his sermon: ‘No man should visit a woman in privacy unless she is accompanied by any of her mahram and no woman should travel unless she is accompanied by her mahram.’ Thereupon someone got up and said: ‘My wife is going for Hajj, while I am going those proceeding on a military expedition.’ [Bukhari, K. al-Jihad, ‘Bab man ikta tataba fi Jaysh fa kharajat Imara’tuh Hajjatan…’-Ed.] • The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said to him: ‘Go and perform Hajj with your wife.’ [Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1 p.222; and

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Bukhari, K. al-Nikah, ‘Bab la yakhluwanna alRajul bi imra’tin illa Dhu Mahram wa al-Dukhul ‘ala al-Mughibah’-Ed.] • Several Traditions of similar import are found in authentic works of Hadith on the authority of ‘Abd Allah Ibn 'Umar, Abu Sa’id al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah. The only variation in these traditions relates to the duration or distance of the journey. There is however, agreement that a woman who truly believes in Allah and the Last Day may not travel without a mahram. Some ahadith state that the maximum distance which a woman may travel without a mahram is 12 miles or somewhat longer. • In some traditions the time limit is one day, in others a day and a night, in others it is two days and in some it is three days. This variation, however, does not impair the trustworthiness of these ahadith. As far as the apparent discrepancy about the duration of a journey is concerned, one plausible explanation is that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would have issued the directives as and when situations arose. For example, if a woman was proceeding on a journey

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for three days, he forbade her from doing so unless any of her mahram accompanied her. It is also possible that a woman might have been proceeding on a journey for one whole day without a mahram and he might have forbidden her from so doing. The Prophet’s directives on this count were in response to the different circumstances of different people and are, thus, of little consequence. What really matters is the ruling which, in the words of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas, is that a woman should not travel without a mahram. (4) The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) discouraged intermingling between men and women both by precept and practice. It is well known that Allah made the Friday Prayer, which is offered in congregation, obligatory for all Muslims. As regards the importance of this congregational Prayer, we have the Prophet’s statement to the effect that: • If someone performs this Prayer at home without any genuine reason for joining the Prayer in congregation, then this Prayer will not be accepted. [Abu Da’ud, Ibn Majah, Daraqutni and Hakim on the authority of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas]

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Nevertheless (in spite of this), the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) exempted Muslim women from joining compulsory congregational Friday Prayers.[Daruqutni, Baihaqi, Abu Da’ud, K. al-Salah, ‘Bab maja fi Khuruj al-Nisa’ ila al-Masajid’-Ed.] While women are not obliged to join congregational Prayers they are nonetheless not precluded from so doing if they want to. However, the statement that their praying at home is more meritorious than their praying in the mosque follows this permission. In other words, As for the other congregational prayers, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) made the women's attendance optional, saying: ‘Do not stop them if they want to come to the mosque.’ Then at the same time, he made the clarification that it was better for them to pray in their houses than in the mosques. According to ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hurayrah the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘Do not prevent God’s bondswomen from entering the mosques of God.’[Abu Da’ud]

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Other Traditions narrated by ‘Abd Allah ibn 'Umar make almost the same point: ‘Let women visit the mosques at night.’ [Muslim; Trimidhi; Nasa'i; Abu Da'ud; Bukhari, K. al-Adhan, ‘Bab Khuruj al Nisa’ ila al-Masjid bi alLayl li al-Ghalas’-Ed.] There is yet another tradition: ‘Do not stop your women-folk from visiting the mosques though their homes are better for them for Prayers.’ [Abu Da'ud; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.2 pp.76-77-Ed.] Umm Humayd Sa'diyah states that once she said to the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have a great desire to offer my prayer under your leadership.’ He replied: ‘It is better for you to Pray in your own room than in the verandah or courtyard; and it is better for you to Pray at home than in the mosque of your locality; and it is better for to Pray in the mosque of your own locality than in the large mosque of the city.’ [Ahmad; Tabarani; Ibid., vol. 6 p.371-Ed] A Tradition to the same effect is narrated by 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud. [Abu Da'ud]

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According to Hadrat Umm Salamah, the Holy Prophet(peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘The best mosques for women are the innermost portions (apartment) of their houses.’[Ahmad; Tabarani; Ibid., vol. 6 p.297-Ed] On observing the social conditions prevalent during the Umayyad period, ‘Hadrat 'A'ishah remarked: ‘Had the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) seen the present conduct of the women, he would have forbidden (stopped) their entry into the mosques as it was done earlier in the case of the Israelite women.’ [Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Da'ud] The Holy Prophet(peace and blessings be upon him) earmarked a special (separate) door for women to enter his Mosque. During Hadrat 'Umar reign he strictly barred men from using that door either for entering or going of the mosque. [Abu Da'ud, ‘Bab I’tizal al Nisa fi al-Masajid’ and ‘Bab ma ja’ fi Khuruj al-Nisa’ ila al-Masajid’] • In congregational Prayers women prayed in the rows behind those of the men and at the conclusion of the Prayer the Prophet would pause a little so that the women might leave mosque

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before the men did. [Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Bukhari on the authority of Ummah Salamah.] In the Prophet’s words, the best row for men was the first and the worst the last row (i.e. the one next to that of the women); and the best row for women was the last and the worst the first (i.e. the one next to that of the men). [Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal] Women used to join 'Id Prayers although they occupied a place separate from men. After delivering the sermon, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would go to the ladies’ section and address them separately. [Abu Da'ud, on the authority of Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah; Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas.] On one occasion Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) noticed that once men and women left mosque they became intermingled. Seeing this he told the women that they should walk on the sides of the road rather than in the center. No sooner had the Muslim women heard this, then they began to walk on the sides, alongside the walls of the houses. [Abu Da'ud]

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These injunctions make it clear how incongruent a mixed society is wherein men and women are ordinarily seated together. Given that a religion does not allow free mingling between the sexes in mosques even on the occasion of Prayer, how could it allow the same in colleges, offices, clubs and other meeting places? (5) Islam does not only allow women to adorn themselves but at times it even urges them to do so. At the same time, it has attempted to prevent their going to excess in this matter. There were a number of means by which women in the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) adorned and beautified themselves. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) decried some of these and branded them as a curse as the cause of the destruction of several nations in the past. He particularly denounced the following as accursed and destructive of communities: (a) Adding the hair of another to one's own with a view to making one’s own appears longer and thicker. (b) Tattooing and other artificial marks on the body.

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(c) Plucking the hair from one’s eyebrows so as to give them a special shape, or plucking the hair from one’s face. (d) Rubbing one’s teeth in order to sharpen them or making artificial holes in them. (e) Applying saffron or the cosmetic materials on one’s face so as to give an artificial complexion. Traditions to this effect are found in authentic works of Hadith on the authority of Hadrat ‘A’isha, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr, ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas, and Mu’awiyah. In view of these explicit directives from God and His Messenger, a believer is left with only two options: To purge his own life, that of his family and that of society of the moral evils, which are, mentioned so exhaustively in the Qur’an and the Hadith. If he is not able to do this, he should at least admit that he is committing a sin by not following these directives. A Muslim who violates God’s commands out of weakness should at least refrain from justifying his action. There are, however, people who openly flout the social norms set out by the Qur’an and the Sunnah and adopt the ways in vogue in Western

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society. Such people go about trumpeting that in Islam there is no injunction at all about hijab. Such people not only violate Islamic injunctions, what is even worse, they try to legitimize all that as perfectly Islamic. Any decent person cannot appreciate the stand of such people as far as this world is concerned. Nor can they expect any good in the Hereafter. It is deplorable that in Muslim society we find people who are a few steps ahead of even the hypocrites, people who hold God’s and the Prophet’s directives to be faulty, and who consider the ways which they have taken over from non-Muslims as perfectly good. If such people are to be regarded as Muslims, then the words Islam and Kufr become entirely meaningless. Had such people changed their names and publicly disowned Islam, one could at least have commended them for their moral courage. What is more regrettable is that notwithstanding their espousal of opinions, which are antithetical to Islam, they still profess to be Muslim. No category of people is more contemptible than these. One cannot rule out any fraud, deception, trickery or perfidy from people possessed of this kind of character.

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[Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, nn.48-49, pp.238-242, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London; and The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah An-Nur, v.24:31, nn.48-49, pp.373-376, vol. 3, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

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07.00.00
The women have ordained to stay at their houses
Allah says:

ّ ُ‫﴿33:33﴾ وقرْنَ فِي بُُوتِك‬ ‫ي ن‬ ََ
Stay quietly in your houses;*48 [Surah Al-Ahzab, v.33:33, The Meaning of Holy Qur’an, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Amana publications, Maryland, USA] Stay quietly in your houses*48: *48 The word Qarna in the original is derived from Qarar according to some lexicographers and from waqar according to others. (a) In the first sense, it will mean: `Settle down, stick firmly"; and (b) In the second sense: ‘Live peacefully, sit with dignity.’ In both the cases the verse means to impress that: (a) The woman's real sphere of activity is her home; (b) She should carry out her functions within that sphere peacefully; and (c) She should come out of the house only in case of a genuine need. This meaning is clear from the words of the verse itself and the Holy Prophet's Ahadith also impress it even more forcefully.

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• Hafiz Abu Bakr Bazzar has related on the authority of Hadrat Anas that the women made a submission to the Holy Prophet, saying: ‘All kinds of virtues have been secured by the men: they fight and accomplish great deeds in the way of Allah. What should we do that we may also get a reward equal to that of the warriors?’ The Holy Prophet replied: ‘The one who sits in her house from among you; will attain the reward of the warriors.’ What he meant was: The warrior can fight confidently and with full peace of the mind in the way of Allah only when he is sure that all is well at home: his wife is there to look after the house and the children, and there is no cause for him to worry that she will betray him in his absence. The woman who will provide him this satisfaction and peace of the mind will be an equal partner with him in his fighting though she will be sitting back at home. • According to another tradition that Bazzar and Tirmidhi have related on the authority of Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas`ud, the Holy Prophet said: ‘The woman must remain veiled and concealed. When she comes out of her house, Satan stares at her. And she is closer to Allah's mercy when she is inside her house.’ (For further details, see E.N. 49 of Surah An-Nur inTafhimul Qur’an). In the presence of such a clear and express command of the Qur'an, it is not at all permissible that: (a) The Muslim women should seek membership of the councils and parliaments; that

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(b) They should run after social activities outside the house; that (c) They should work side by side with men in the government offices; (d) Should get education along with boys in the colleges; (e) Serve as nurses in the male wards of hospitals, (f) Should be employed as hostesses in the airplanes and rail cars; and (g) Should be sent abroad for education and training. The greatest argument that is given in support of the permissibility of the women's outdoor activities is that Hadrat 'A'ishah had taken part in the Battle of the Camel. But the people who present this argument perhaps do not know what was Hadrat `A'ishah's own opinion in this regard.

`Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal has related in his Zawa id az-Zuhd and Ibn Mundhir, Ibn Abi Shaibah and Ibn Sa'd in their own books the tradition from Masruq, saying that when Hadrat `A'ishah during her recitation of the Qur'an would reach this verse (wa qarna fi buyut-i kunna), she would start crying involuntarily; so much so that her head-wrapper would become wet, for this reminded her of the error that she had committed in the Battle of the Camel. [Masruq]

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07.01.00
The women should not make a dazzling display out side of the houses
Allah says:

‫﴿33:33﴾ وقرْنص صي بُُوتِك ص وَلَا َتبَ ّجْنص تََب ّجص‬ َ ‫ر َ ر‬ ّ‫ََ َ فِ ي ُن‬ َ‫الْجَاهلّةِ الُْولَى وأَقِمْنص الصصلَاةَ َآتِيَص ال ّكَاة‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ّ و‬ َ َ ‫ِِي أ‬ ُ‫وأَطِعْ نَ الّ هَ وَرَ ُولَ ُ ِإّمَا يُ ِيدُ الّ ُ ِلُذْهِ بَ َن ُ م‬ ‫عك‬ ‫ل س ه ن ر له ي‬ َ ‫ال ّجْسَ أَهلَ اْلبَيْتِ ويُطهرَ ُمْ َتطْهِيًا‬ ‫َ َّ ك‬ ْ ‫ر‬
(33:33) Stay in your houses, *48 and do not go about displaying your fineries as women used to do in the days of ignorance. *49 Establish the Salat, pay the Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only intends to remove uncleanliness from you, O people of the Prophet's household, and purify you completely. *50 (Surah Al-Ahzab, v.33:33) Stay in your houses, *48 and do not go about displaying your fineries as women used to do in the days of ignorance. *49 establish the Salat, pay the Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger:

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*49 In this verse two important words have been used, which must be understood for the proper understanding of its intention. They are: (a) Tabarruj; and (b) Jahiliyyat al-ula. (a) Tabarruj: The word tabarruj in Arabic means to become manifest and appear openly before others. The Arabs use the word baraj for every conspicuous and elevated object. A buruj (tower) is so called because of its prominence and elevation. A sailing boat is called barijah, because its sails become visible from a distance. The word tabarruj when used in respect of a woman will have three meanings: (1) That she should show the charms of her face and body before the people; (2) That she should display the adornments of her dress and ornaments before others; and (3) That she should make herself conspicuous by her gait and figure and coquetry. The leading lexicographers and commentators have given the same explanation of this word. • Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Abi Nujaih say: ‘Tabarruj means to walk in a vain, alluring and coquettish manner.’ • Muqatil says: ‘it means a woman's displaying of her necklaces, ear-rings and bosom.’

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• Al-Mubarrad says: ‘That a woman should reveal her adornments which she should conceal.’ • Abu 'Ubaidah comments: ‘This that a woman should make herself conspicuous by display of her body and dress to attract the attention of men.’ (b) Jahiliyyat al-ula: The word jahiliyyat has been used at three other places in the Qur’an besides this: (1) In Surah Al-i `Imran, v.3:154, where about those who shirk fighting in the way of Allah, it has been said: ‘They began to cherish about Allah thoughts of Ignorance (Jahiljyyat) which were void of the truth.’ (2) In Surah Al-Ma`idah, 5:50, where about those who want to be judged by their own law instead of the law of Allah, it has been said: ‘Do they desire to be judged by the laws of ignorance (Jahiliyyat)?’ and (3) In Surah Al-Fath, v.48:26, where the prejudice of the people of Makkah due to which they did not permit the Muslims to perform 'Umrah, has been called as "the haughty spirit of paganism (jahiliyyat). According to a Hadith: • Once Hadrat Abu ad-Darda' in the heat of a quarrel abused another person in respect of his mother. When the Holy Prophet heard of it, he remarked: ‘You still have jahiliyyat in you.’

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According to another Hadith: • The Holy Prophet said: ‘Three things show jahiliyyat: (a) to taunt the lineage of another person; (b) to take omens from the movement of the stars; and (c) to mourn over the dead.’ All these customs show that jahiliyyat in the Islamic terminology is every such conduct which goes against Islamic culture and civilization and Islamic morality and etiquette and Islamic way of thinking and behavior. Thus, jahiliyyat al-ula would mean all those evils in which the Arabs of the pre-Islamic days and the people of the entire world were involved. This explanation makes it abundantly clear that what Allah forbids women is to move out of their houses showing off their physical charms and beauty. He instructs them to stay in their houses because their real sphere of activity is their home and not the world outside. However, if they have to move out of the house for a cut-door duty, they should not move out as the women used to do in the pre-Islamic days of ignorance. For it does not behave the women of a Muslim society to walk out fully embellished to make their face and figure conspicuous by adornments and tight-fitting or transparent dresses, and to walk coquettishly. These are the ways of ignorance, which Islam does not approve. Now everybody can see for himself whether the culture, which is being made popular in our country, is the

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culture of Islam, according to the Qur'an, or the culture of ignorance. [The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah Al-Ahzab, v.33:33, n49, pp.93,100-102, vol. 4, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

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08.00.00
The women should conceal their faces keeping only the eyes uncovered
Allah says:

‫﴿95:33﴾ يَا َأّيهَا الّبِيّ قُل ّأزوَاجِ كَ وبََاتِ كَ ونِ سَاء‬ َ ‫َن‬ ْ َ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫الْمؤْمنِيَ ُدنِيَ علْيهِنّ مِن جََابِيِبهِنّ ذَلِ كَ أَدْنَى‬ ‫ل‬ ََ ْ ‫ُ ِ ي‬ ‫أَن ُعرفنَ فَلَا يُؤذيْنَ وَكَانَ الّ ُ غَ ُورًا ّ ِيمًا‬ ‫له ف رح‬ َْ َْ ْ ‫ي‬
(33:59) O Prophet, enjoin your wives and daughters and the women of the believers that they should let down over their faces a part of their outergarments; *110 it is expected that they will thus be recognized and not molested. *111 Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. *112 The women should let down over their faces a part of their outer-garments 110: *110 Jilbab is a large sheet and idna' is to draw close and wrap up, but when this word is used with the associating particle ‘a’la’, it gives the meaning of letting something down from above. Some modern translators, under the influence of the West, have

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translated this word ‘to wrap up’ so as to avoid somehow the Command about covering of the face. But if Allah had meant what these gentlemen want to construe, He would have said: yudnina ilai-hinna and not yudnina alai-hinna. Anyone who knows Arabic knows that yudnina 'alai-hinna cannot merely mean ‘wrapping up.’ Opinion-1: Moreover, the words ‘min jalabib-i hinna’ also do not permit of this meaning. It is obvious that the preposition ‘min’ here signifies a part of the sheet, and also that wrapping up is done by means of a whole sheet and not merely by a part of it. The verse, therefore, clearly means: The women should wrap themselves up well in their sheets, and should draw and let down a part of the sheet in front of the face. [Mawlana Mawdudi] Opinion-2: The major commentators who lived close to the time of the Holy Prophet understood this same meaning. Ibn Jarir and Ibn al-Mundhir have related that Muhammad bin Sirin asked Hadrat `Ubaidah asSalmani the meaning of this verse. [This Hadrat `Ubaidah had become a Muslim in the time of the Holy Prophet but had not been able to visit him. He came to Madinah in the time of Hadrat 'Umar and

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settled down there. He was recognized as equal in rank with Qadi Shuraih in jurisprudence and judicial matters]. Instead of giving a verbal reply Hadrat 'Ubaidah put on his sheet and gave a practical demonstration by covering his head and forehead and face and an eye, leaving only the other eye uncovered. Opinion-3: Ibn 'Abbas also has made almost the same commentary. In his statements which have been reported by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Marduyah, he says: ‘Allah has commanded the women that when they move out of their houses for an outdoor duty, they should conceal their faces by drawing and letting down ever themselves a part of their sheets, keeping only the eyes uncovered.’ Opinion-4: Qatadah and Suddi have given the same explanation of this verse. Opinion-5: All the great commentators who have passed after the period of the Companions and their immediate followers have given the same meaning of this verse. Imam Ibn Jarir Tabari, in his commentary of this verse, says: ‘The respectable women should not look like the slave-girls from their dress when they move

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out of their houses, with uncovered faces and loose hair; they should rather draw and let down over them a part of their sheets or outer-garments so that no evil person may dare molest them.’ [Jami'al Bayan, vol. 22, p. 33] Opinion-6: 'Allama Abu Bakr al-Jassas says: ‘This verse points out that the young woman has been commanded to conceal her face from the other men; when moving out of the house she should cover herself up well to express chastity and purity of character so that people of doubtful character do not cherish any false hope when they see her.’ [Ahkam al-Qur'an, vol. 3, p. 458] Opinion-7: 'Allama Zamakhshari says: ‘It means that they should Iet down a part of their sheet over themselves, and should cover their faces and wrap up their sides well.’ [AI-Kashshaf, vol. 2, p. 221] Opinion-8: 'Allama Nizamuddin Nishapuri says: ‘That is, they should Iet down a part of the sheet over them: in this verse, the women have been commanded to cover the head and face.’ [Ghara'ib al-Qur an, vol. 22, p. 32] Opinion-9: Imam Razi says: ‘what is mean is that the people may know that they are not promiscuous women. For the

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woman who covers her face, though the face is not included in the satar, cannot be expected to uncover her satar, which is obligatory to cover before the other man. Thus, everyone will know that they are modest and virtuous women who cannot be expected to do anything indecent.’ [Tafsir Kabir. vol. VI, p 591] [The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah Al-Ahzab, v.33:59, n.110, pp.141-144, vol. 4, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

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08.01.00
Covered faces other than the eyes the women will thus be recognized and not molested
Allah says:

‫﴿95:33﴾ يَا َأّيهَا الّبِيّ قُل ّأزوَاجِ كَ وبََاتِ كَ ونِ سَاء‬ َ ‫َن‬ ْ َ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫الْمؤْمنِيَ ُدنِيَ علْيهِنّ مِن جََابِيِبهِنّ ذَلِ كَ أَدْنَى‬ ‫ل‬ ََ ْ ‫ُ ِ ي‬ ‫أَن ُعرفنَ فَلَا يُؤذيْنَ وَكَانَ الّ ُ غَ ُورًا ّ ِيمًا‬ ‫له ف رح‬ َْ َْ ْ ‫ي‬
(33:59) O Prophet, enjoin your wives and daughters and the women of the believers that they should let down over their faces a part of their outergarments; *110 it is expected that they will thus be recognized and not molested. *111 Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. *112 It is expected that they will thus be recognized and not molested. *111 *111 ‘Will thus be recognized’: will be recognized to be noble and chaste women from their simple and modest dress, and not women of ill repute from whom some wicked person could cherish evil hopes. ‘Are not molested’: will not be teased but let alone. Let us pause here for a while and try to understand

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what spirit of the social law of Islam this Qur’anic Command is expressing and what its object that Allah Himself has stated is. Before this in Surah An-Nur, 24:31, the women have been forbidden to display their adornments before others except such and such men and women. And also that: ‘They should not stamp their feet on the ground lest their hidden decoration (ornaments) should be known.’ If that Command is read with this verse of Al-Ahzab it becomes obvious that the intention of the Command for the woman to cover herself well with the sheet here is to conceal her adornments from others. And, evidently, this purpose can be fulfilled only if the sheet or the outer-garment itself is simple; otherwise wrapping up oneself with a decorated and attractive sheet will defeat the purpose itself. Besides, Allah does not only command the woman to conceal her adornment by covering herself with the sheet, but also enjoins that she should let down a pan of the sheet over herself. No sensible person can take any other meaning of this Command than that it requires concealing the face along with the concealment of the adornments of the body and dress. Then, Allah Himself states the reason for enjoining the Command, saying: ‘This is an appropriate way by adopting which the Muslim women will be recognized and will remain safe from trouble.’ Evidently, this instruction is being given to those women who regard flirtation and stares and evil advances by men as annoying and troublesome and

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not as enjoyable, who do not want to be counted among ill-reputed, immodest society girls, but wish to be known as chaste and modest domestic women. To such noble and pious women Allah says: 'If you really wish to be known as good women, and the men's lustful attention is not pleasurable but embarrassing for you, then you should not come out of your houses in full make-up like the newly-wed brides so as to display your beauty and physical charms before the greedy eyes of the people, but the best way for this would be that you should come out in a simple sheet fully concealing your adornments and covering your face and walking in a manner that even the jingle of your ornaments does not attract attention. The woman who applies herself to make-up and does not step out of the house until she has fully embellished and decorated herself with every adornment cannot have any other intention that to become the center of attention of all the men, whom she herself allures. After this if she complains that the greedy looks of the people cause embarrassment to her, and she does not wish to be known as a ‘society woman’ and a ‘popular lady’, but wants to live as a chaste house-wife, it will be nothing but a fraud. It is not the word of the mouth of a person that determines his intention, but his real intention is manifested in his act and mode of behavior. Therefore, the act of the woman who appears before the other then attractively itself shows what motivates her behavior. That is why the mischievous people cherish the same

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hopes from her as can be cherished from such a woman. The Qur'an tells the women: ‘you cannot be chaste women and society women at one and the same time. If you want to live as modest, chaste women, you will have to give up the ways that are conducive to becoming society women only, and adopt the way of life that can be helpful in becoming chaste women.’ Whether a man's personal opinion is according to the Qur'an or opposed to it, and whether he wants to accept the Qur'anic guidance as a practical guide for himself or not, in any case if he does not wish to be intellectually dishonest in interpreting the Qur'an, he cannot fail to understand its real intention. If he is not a hypocrite he will frankly admit that the Qur'an's intention is what has been stated above. After this if he violates any Command, he will do so with the realization that he is violating the Qur'anic Command, or regards the Qur'anic guidance as wrong. At the of the verse Allah says: *112 That is, ‘Allah will forgive the errors and mistakes that were committed in the pre-Islamic days of ignorance, provided that you reform yourselves now when you have received clear guidance, and do not violate it intentionally.’ [The Meaning of the Qur’an Surah Al-Ahzab, v.33:59, nn.111-112, pp.141,145-146, vol. 4, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated by Chy. Muhammad Akbar and edited by A.A.Kamal, M.A., published by Islamic Publications, Pakistan.]

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09.00.00
To enter other houses until ascertained the approval Strictly prohibited
Allah says:

َ‫﴿72:42﴾ يَا َأّهَا اّ ِينص آمُوا لَا تَدْ ُُوا ُبُوتًا غْير‬ َ ‫خل ي‬ ‫ي لذ َ َن‬ ْ‫ُبُوتِ ُمْ حّى تَستَأنِسُوا وُسَّ ُوا عَلَى أَهْلهَا ذَلِ ُم‬ ‫ِ ك‬ ‫َت لم‬ ْ ْ ‫ي ك َت‬ َ‫خيْ ٌ ّ ُمْ لَعَّ ُمْ تَذَك ُون‬ ‫َ ر لك لك ّر‬
(24:27) Believers!23 Enter not houses other than your own houses until you have ascertained the approval24 of the inmates of those houses and have greeted them with peace. This is better for you. It is expected that you will observe this.25

‫ُل ص‬ ‫﴿82:42﴾ فإِن ّمص تَجِ ُوا فِيهَ ا أَحَدًا فَلَا تَدْخُوهَ ا‬ ‫َ ل ْ د ص‬ ‫حّ ى يُؤذَ نَ لَ ُ مْ وإِن ِيلَ لَ ُ مُ ارْجِ ُوا فَارجِ ُوا‬ ‫ع ْ ع‬ ‫َت ْ ك َ ق ك‬ ٌ ‫هوَ أَزْكَى لَ ُمْ وَاللّ ُ بِمَا تَعْمَُونَ عِي‬ ‫ل َل م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ ُ

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(24:28) Then if you find no one in them, do not enter until you have been given permission (to enter).26 And if you are told to go back, then do go back. This is a pure way for you.27 Allah knows all what you do.

َ‫﴿92:42﴾ ّليْ سَ عليْ ُ مْ جنَا ٌ أَن تَدْخُوا بُُوتًا غْير‬ َ ‫ُل ي‬ ‫ََ ك ُ ح‬ ‫مَسْ ُونَةٍ فِيهَا متَا ٌ ّ ُمْ وَالّ ُ يَعْلَ ُ مَا تُبْ ُونَ وَمَا‬ ‫َ ع لك ل ه م د‬ ‫ك‬ َ‫تَكُ ُون‬ ‫ْتم‬
(24:29) However, it is not blameworthy for you if you enter houses that are uninhabited but wherein is of use to you.28 Allah is well aware of what you disclose and what you conceal. [Sura An-Nur, 24:2729] The injunction laid down here aimed at remedying evils after they had appeared in society. They suggest how to deal with mischief once it has erupted. The injunctions that follow, those laid down in the present and following verses, aim at preventing the rise of evil and mischief. They aim at reforming man’s collective life and at removing the causes which give rise to such evil.
23

Before studying these injunctions, it is necessary to clearly grasp the following two points:

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1. Removal of existence of a sexually charged atmosphere: The laying down of these injunctions immediately after commenting on the slander incidence clearly indicates that God viewed the leveling of an utterly false accusation against a person as august as the Prophet’s wife and the spread of that accusation to be related to the social milieu, i.e. one which was charged with excessive sexuality. In order to change this sexually charged milieu: (a) It was necessary that people no longer be free to enter each other’s house; (b) That men and women who were not related to each other should no longer be free to mix with each other; (c) That women with adornments not be allowed to appear before unrelated males in a state that might allure the later; (d) That prostitution has to have altogether banned; (e) That both men and women be discouraged from leading unmarried lives; and (f) That even the slaves, male and female, should be encouraged to marry. In other words, in God’s sight: (a) The public appearance of women in an alluring manner; and (b) The presence of a large number of unmarried people in society; These were the two main causes, which endowed the social milieu with excessive sexuality. [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab fi al-Isti’dhan-Ed.]

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Precisely because of these reasons, people were more willing to indulge in and enjoy scandals, be they real or imaginary. So in order to reform this situation, God in His wisdom laid down injunctions that were most appropriate, most suitable, and most effective. 2. Removal of all sorts or means of crimes: The second important thing to remember is that: (a) The concerns of the Divine Law or Shari’ah are not confined to forbidding evil and prescribing punishment for those who so commit evil. (b) The Shari’ah rather seeks to remove the causes, which either prompt, or create opportunities or even compel people to indulge in those evils. (c) Apart from forbidding offences, the Shari’ah also seeks to do away with the causes of those offences, as also with the factors that prompt people to commit them. (d) This is done in order to prevent men from getting even close to evil. (e) The role of the Shari’ah is not simply that of a prosecutor, but also of a sincere guide and counselor. It therefore, has recourse to all possible educational, moral and social measures so as to help people stay away from evil. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:27-29, n.23, p.217-218, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

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09.01.00 Do not enter other people's houses until you have taken their permission
Enter not houses other than your own houses until you have ascertained the approval24 of the inmates of those houses and have greeted them with peace. 24 In the text the words that are actually used are ‘hatta tasta’nisu. They are, however, generally taken to mean ‘hatta tasta’dhinu’. There is, however a subtle difference between the two expressions which should not be overlooked. Had the Qur’an used the latter expression it would have meant: ‘Do not enter other’s houses unless you have obtained the permission of those who live in them.’ The Qur’an, however, opted for the former expression: hatta tasta’nisu. As it is, the expression is derived from the root word (alif nun sin), and signifies one’s having become familiar and friendly. Taken in this sense, the verse means: ‘Do not enter others’ houses unless you have become familiar with the inmates of those houses, or until you have ascertained that they feel at ease [at your entering their houses].’ In other words, before entering a house one should make sure that the host is favorably disposed to oneself and one’s visit. Translation of Moulana Mawdudi makes allowance for this subtle nuance.

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Moreover, in our opinion this interpretation is closer to the import of the verse. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:27-29, n.24, p.218, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

09.02.00
Before enter the house say Salam
In the days of Jahiliyah, the Arabs were accustomed to greeting the occupants of a house with expressions such as ‘Huyyiytum soabaha or Huyyiytum masaa’ good morning or good evening. So saying, they would barge into each other’s houses. Because of this sudden entry into the houses of others, accusationally they would find the occupants, especially women, in improper states. In order to avoid this, God laid down the rule that everyone has a right to privacy in his own house and it is not lawful to enter anyone’s private quarters without the latter’s consent.
25

Soon after the revelation of this verse the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) promulgated certain laws and rules of behavior, which are mentioned below:

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(1) People are forbidden to peep into other’s houses, or to look at them from the outside: The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) declared the right to privacy a general rule. The result is that a person may not enter someone else’s house without the prior consent of its occupant. This right to privacy became quite pervasive. As a result, people were also forbidden to peep into other’s houses, or to look at them from the outside, so much so that people were not allowed to read letters addressed to anyone else without his/her permission. • According to Thawban, a freed slave of the Prophet, the Prophet said: ‘If someone’s sight enters [a person’s house] then here remains no occasion for seeking permission [to enter the house].’[Abu Da’ud, see loc. Cit.-Ed.] • According to Huzayl ibn Shurahbil, someone came to the Prophet’s house and sought permission while standing right in front of the door to the house. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘stand aside. The permission solicited is the permission to see’ [Abu Da’ud]. • When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) visited someone he used to make a point of not standing in front of the door for in those days there used to be no curtains at the doors. He would stand on either side of the door and seek permission to enter.

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[Abu Da’ud, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab al-kam Marrah yusuallim al-Rajul fi al-Isti’dhan’-Ed.] • Hadrat Anas, who had the honor of serving the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), says that once someone peeped into the Prophet’s chamber and that at that moment the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had an arrow in his hand. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) advanced towards him as though he was about to pierce the arrow into his belly. [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab fi al-Isti’dhan’-Ed.] • It is also reported by ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘Whoever looks at the letter of his brother without his permission, it is as though he was peeping at the fire.’ [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Salah, ‘Bab al-Du’a’-Ed.] • In works of Hadith one also finds the following tradition from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): ‘If someone peeps into the living quarters of others, and if the latter knocks out his eye by throwing grit, they will not be taken to task for the loss of that person’s eye.’ [Bukhari, K. al-Diyat, ‘Bab man ittala’a fi Bayt Qawm fa faqa’u Aynah…; and Muslim, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab Tahrim al-Nazar fi Bayt Ghayrith’-Ed.]

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In other words: The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: ‘If someone peeps into your house, it will be no sin if you injure his eye with a piece of stone.’ [Bukhari and Muslim] • Another Hadith makes almost the same point: ‘If a man peeps into a house, and the dwellers of the house gouge out his eye, they will not be held accountable for the loss of the eye.’ [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab fi al-Isti’dhan’-Ed.] In other words: • In another Tradition, The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘The inmates of a house, who injure the eye of the man peeping into their house; are not liable to any punishment.’ Imam Shafi’i takes this Hadith in its literal sense, considering it permissible to gouge out the eye of one who peeps into your house. The Hanafis’ however, interpret the verse somewhat differently. They contend that the Qur’anic injunction is not applicable in the case of simply casting a glance. Rather, if someone enters a house without permission and fails to stop though asked to do so by the members of that household, it is permissible for them to restrain him and they will not be taken to task of, during the course of their efforts his eye or any limb is damaged. [Ahkam al-Qur’an, Al-Jassan, Vol. III, p. 385]

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(2) ‘Hearing' also under `glancing': Some jurists are of the opinion that the interdiction against looking into someone’s house also applies to trying to hear conversations, which take place in that house. For example, if a blind person enters someone’s house without the latter’s permission, he would, of course, not be able to see anything but he could listen to the householder’s conversation without his or her permission. This too constitutes a violation of another’s right of privacy. (3) The Command to seek permission applies to entry in the house of one's own mother or sister: The injunction to seek permission before entering is not specific to entering the houses of strangers. One is required to do the same while entering the houses of close relatives. In fact one is required to seek permission even from such close relatives as one’s mother and sister. Someone asked the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): ‘Should I seek the permission of my mother when I visit her?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) replied in the affirmative. He again submitted: ‘there is no one besides me to attend to her. Should I seek her permission every time I visit her?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) replied: ‘would you like to see your mother naked?’ [Ibn Jarir al-Tabari has cited this mursal tradition on the authority of ‘Ata’ibn Yasar, Muwatta’ K. alIsti’dhan-Ed.]

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• Abdullah ibn Mas’ud’s opinion about the question is as follows: ‘One should seek permission while visiting one’s mother and sister.’ [Ibn Kathir] • Abdullah ibn Mas’ud also says that even when one goes to one’s wife in one’s own house one should give some indication of one’s approach, by for example, clearing one’s throat before entering. His wife, Zaynab, reports that before entering the house Abdullah ibn Mas’ud used to indicate that he was about to enter, thus avoiding any suddenness. [Ibn Jarir al-Tabari] (4) When it is required to obtain prior permission before entering someone’s house? : The only exemption from the requirement to obtain prior permission before entering someone’s house is in situations of emergency. For example, in the event of fire or burglary, etc., one may enter a house without seeking prior permission. (5) The proper way to enter someone’s house with say, Assalamu ‘Alaikum: When the practice of seeking permission to enter someone’s house was introduced, people were not familiar with its niceties. • Once someone visited the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and while standing at the door he yelled: ‘Should I enter?’ The Prophet

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(peace and blessings be upon him) told his slavegirl that the visitor was not aware of the proper way of seeking permission to enter someone’s house. He asked her to tell the visitor that the proper way to seek permission was to say: ‘AlSalamu ‘Alaikum. May I enter?’ [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab kayfa alIsti’dhan’-Ed.] • Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah narrates that once he went to the Prophet’s house in connection with the debts of his late father and as he knocked at the Prophet’s door the latter asked: ‘Who are you?’ I replied: ‘This is me.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) repeated the statement ‘this is me’, two or three times, meaning that it could not be made out from such a statement who the visitor was. [Abu Da’ud, K. al- Adab, ‘Bab al-Rajul yasta’dhin bi al- Daqq’-Ed.] • Kaldah ibn Hanbal visited the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and took his seat without greeting him. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked him to go out and re-enter after a proper greeting. [Abu Da’ud, K. al- Adab, ‘Bab kayfa al-Isti’dhan’-Ed.] The correct way to seek permission is to first mention one’s name and then seek permission to enter the house. It is said that:

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• Whenever ‘Umar came to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) he would say: ‘Peace be on you, O Messenger of God! May ‘Umar enter?’ [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab fi al-Rajul yufariq al-Rajul thumma yalqah a-yusallim ‘alayh’-Ed.] • The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also stated that a person should seek permission no more than three times. If there was no response after that, the visitor should go away. [Abu Da’ud K. al-Adab, ‘Bab kam Marrah yusallim al-Rajul fi al-Ist’dhan’-Ed.] • The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) himself followed this practice. Once he went to visit Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah and sought permission twice after greeting him. Still there was no response. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) repeated the same for a third time and there was no response, he was about to leave. It was then that Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah rushed out, saying: ‘O Messenger of God! I was listening. I thought that the greater the number of times that your blessed tongue mentions the Prayer of peace and mercy for me, the better it is. I, therefore, answered you in an almost inaudible voice.’ [Abu Da’ud, K. al-Adab, ‘Bab kam Marrah yusallim alRajul fi al-Isti’dhan’-Ed.] Likewise, one should not seek permission intermittently. There should rather be a pause after

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the permission is sought so that if the host is preoccupied with something, there is enough time for him to free himself of it and respond. (6) If only a child tells the visitor to enter, the latter should not enter on that basis: The owner of the house or any other person authorized by him, such as a servant or any other responsible person, should grant the visitor permission to enter. If only a child tells the visitor to enter, the latter should not enter on that basis. (7) It is not proper for a visitor to insist that permission necessarily be granted: It is not proper for a visitor to insist that permission necessarily be granted; indeed one should go away if permission is refuse. If one seeks permission three times and yet fails to obtain it, or if the host refuse to meet with one, the visitor should better return at some later date. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:27-29, n.25, p.217,219-221, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

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09.03.00
Do not enter until you have been given permission
Allah says: Then if you find no one in them, do not enter until you have been given permission (to enter). 26 26 It is not permissible to enter someone’s house unless the master of the house has granted prior permission to do so. For example, it would even be proper for a visitor to enter a house if the master of the house were absent providing such permission had been granted. However, it would not be proper for a visitor to enter a house without obtaining due permission from the master. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:27-29, n.26, p.222, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

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09.04.00
Should not feel offended if someone refuses a meeting
Allah says: And if you are told to go back, then do go back. This is a pure way for you.27 A person should not feel offended if someone refuses a meeting. For a person is perfectly within his rights to refuse meeting someone or to excuse himself from such a meeting if he is preoccupied with something else. According to jurists, once permission is refused, the visitor should not remain standing in front of the house. He should rather move away. No one has the right to force anyone to meet with him or to bother him by adamantly standing at his door. [Towards Understanding the Qur’an, Surah An-Nur, v.24:27-29, n.27, p.222, Vol. 6, English version of Tafhim al-Qur’an: Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, Translated and edited by Zafar Ishaq Ansari, The Islamic Foundation, London]

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Take a look on some important discussions of the world known scholars compiled and edited from
www.turntoislam.com webpage are as follows:

10.00.00 The virtue of Hijab
1. An act of obedience.
The hijab is an act of obedience to Allah and to his prophet (pbuh), Allah says in the Qur'an: It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His messenger have decreed a matter that they should have an option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, has indeed strayed in a plain error.' (S33:36) Allah also said: 'And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things) and protect their

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private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc) and not to show off their adornment except what must (ordinarily) appear thereof, that they should draw their veils over their Juyubihinna.'(S24:31). Juyubihinna: The respected scholars from As-Salaf As-Saleh (righteous predecessors) differed whether the veil cover of the body must include the hands and face or not. Today, respected scholars say that the hands and face must be covered. Other respected scholars say it is preferable for women to cover their whole bodies. 2.The Hijab is IFFAH (Modesty). Allah (subhana wa'atala) made the adherence to the hijab a manifestation for chastity and modesty. Allah says: O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) over their bodies (when outdoors). That is most convenient that they should be known and not molested.'(S33:59). In the above Ayaah there is evidence that the recognition of the apparent beauty of the woman is harmful to her. When the cause of attraction ends, the restriction is removed. This is illustrated in the case of elderly women who may have lost every aspect of attraction. Allah (swt) made it permissible for them to lay aside their outer garments and expose their faces

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and hands reminding, however, that is still better for them to keep their modesty. 3. The hijab is Tahara (Purity) Allah (swt) had shown us the hikma (wisdom) behind the legislation of the hijab: And when you ask them (the Prophet's wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen that is purer for your hearts and their hearts.' (S33:53). The hijab makes for greater purity for the hearts of believing men and women because it screens against the desire of the heart. Without the hijab, the heart may or may not desire. That is why the heart is more pure when the sight is blocked (by hijab) and thus the prevention of fitna (evil actions is very much manifested. The hijab cuts off the ill thoughts and the greed of the sick hearts: Be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy or evil desire for adultery, etc) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honorable manner.' (S33:32) 4. The hijab is a Shield The prophet (pbuh) said: "Allah, Most High, is Heaven, is Ha'yeii (Bashful), Sit'teer (Shielder). He loves Haya' (Bashfulness) and Sitr (Shielding; Covering)."

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The Prophet (pbuh) also said: "Any woman who takes off her clothes in other than her husband's house (to show off for unlawful purposes), has broken Allah's shield upon her." The hadith demonstrates that depending upon the kind of action committed there will be either reward (if good) or punishment (if bad). 5. The hijab is Taqwah (Righteousness) Allah (swt) says in the Qur'an: O children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc) and as an adornment. But the raiment of righteousness, that is better.'(S7:26). The widespread forms of dresses in the world today are mostly for show off and hardly taken as a cover and shield of the woman's body. To the believing women, however the purpose is to safeguard their bodies and cover their private parts as a manifestation of the order of Allah. It is an act of Taqwah (righteousness). 6. The hijab is Eemaan (Belief or Faith) Allah (swt) did not address His words about the hijab except to the believing women, Al-Mo'minat. In many cases in the Qur'an Allah refers to the "the believing women". Aisha (RA) the wife of the prophet (pbuh), addressed to some women from the

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tribe of Banu Tameem who came to visit her and had light clothes on them, they were improperly dressed: "If indeed you are believing women, then truly this is not the dress of the believing women, and if you are not believing women, then enjoy it." 7. The hijab is Haya' (Bashfulness) There are two authentic hadith which state: "Each religion has a morality and the morality of Islam is haya'" AND "Bashfulness is from belief, and belief is in Al-Jannah (paradise)". The hijab fits the natural bashfulness, which is a part of the nature of women. 8. The hijab is Gheerah The hijab fits the natural feeling of Gheerah, which is intrinsic in the straight man who does not like people to look at his wife or daughters. Gheerah is a driving emotion that drives the straight man to safeguard women who are related to him from strangers. The straight MUSLIM man has Gheerah for ALL MUSLIM women In response to lust and desire, men look (with desire) at other women while they do not mind that other men do the same to their wives or daughters. The mixing of sexes and absence of hijab destroys the Gheera in men. Islam considers Gheerah an integral part of faith. The dignity of the wife or daughter or any other Muslim woman must be highly respected and defended.

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11.00.00 Ruling on covering the face with detailed evidence

Ruling on covering the face, with detailed evidence You should note that women’s observing hijab in front of non-mahram men and covering their faces is something that is obligatory as is indicated by the Book of your Lord and the Sunnah of your Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and by rational examination and analogy. 1 – Evidence from the Qur’aan: (i) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, headcover, apron), and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) and not to reveal their adornment except to

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their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers or their brother’s sons, or their sister’s sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of feminine sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allaah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful”[al-Noor 24:31] The evidence from this verse that hijab is obligatory for women is as follows: (a) Allaah commands the believing women to guard their chastity, and the command to guard their chastity also a command to follow all the means of doing that. No rational person would doubt that one of the means of doing so is covering the face, because uncovering it causes people to look at it and enjoy its beauty, and thence to initiate contact. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The eyes commit zina and their zina is by looking…” then he said, “… and the private part confirms that or denies it.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6612; Muslim, 2657.

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If covering the face is one of the means of guarding one’s chastity, then it is enjoined, because the means come under the same ruling as the ends. (b) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “… And to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) …” The jayb (pl. juyoob) is the neck opening of a garment and the khimaar (veil) is that with which a woman covers her head. If a woman is commanded to draw her veil over the neck opening of her garment then she is commanded to cover her face, either because that is implied or by analogy. If it is obligatory to cover the throat and chest, then it is more appropriate to cover the face because it is the site of beauty and attraction. (c) Allaah has forbidden showing all adornment except that which is apparent, which is that which one cannot help showing, such as the outside of one's garment. Hence Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “…except only that which is apparent …” and He did not say, except that which they show of it. Some of the salaf, such as Ibn Mas’ood, alHasan, Ibn Sireen and others interpreted the phrase “except only that which is apparent” as meaning the outer garment and clothes, and what shows from beneath the outer garment (i.e., the hem of one’s dress etc.). Then He again forbids showing one’s adornment except to those for whom He makes an exception. This indicates that the second adornment

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mentioned is something other than the first adornment. The first adornment is the external adornment, which appears to everyone and cannot be hidden. The second adornment is the inward adornment (including the face). If it were permissible for this adornment to be seen by everyone, there would be no point to the general wording in the first instance and this exception made in the second. (d) Allaah grants a concession allowing a woman to show her inward adornments to “old male servants who lack vigour”, i.e. servants who are men who have no desire, and to small children who have not reached the age of desire and have not seen the ‘awrahs of women. This indicates two things: 1–That showing inward adornments to non-mahrams is not permissible except to these two types of people. 2–That the reason for this ruling is the fear that men may be tempted by the woman and fall in love with her. Undoubtedly the face is the site of beauty and attraction, so concealing it is obligatory lest men who do feel desire be attracted and tempted by her. (e) The words (interpretation of the meaning): “And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment” mean that a woman should not stamp her feet so as to make known hidden adornments such as anklets and the like. If a woman

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is forbidden to stamp her feet lest men be tempted by what they hear of the sound of her anklets etc., then what about uncovering the face? Which is the greater source of temptation – a man hearing the anklets of a woman whom he does not know who she is or whether she is beautiful, or whether she is young or old, or ugly or pretty? Or is his looking at a beautiful youthful face that attracts him and invites him to look at it. Every man who has any desire for women will know which of the two temptations is greater and which deserves to be hidden and concealed. (ii) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And as for women past childbearing who do not expect wedlock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. And Allaah is All-Hearer, All-Knower” [Al-Noor 24:60] The evidence from this verse is that Allaah states that there is no sin on old women who have no hope of marriage because men have no desire for them, due to their old age (if they discard their outer clothing), subject to the condition that their intention in doing so is not to make a wanton display of themselves. The fact that this ruling applies only to old women indicates that the ruling is different for young women

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who still hope to get married. If the ruling on discarding the outer clothing applied to all, there would be no point in singling out old women here. The phrase “in such a way as not to show their adornment” offers further proof that hijab is obligatory for young women who hope to marry, because usually when they uncover their faces the intention is to make a wanton display (tabarruj) and to show off their beauty and make men look at them and admire them etc. Those who do otherwise are rare, and the ruling does not apply to rare cases. (iii) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful”[al-Ahzaab 33:59] Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “Allaah commanded the believing women, if they go out of their houses for some need, to cover their faces from the top of their heads with their jilbaabs, and to leave one eye showing.” The tafseer of the Sahaabah is evidence, indeed some of the scholars said that it comes under the same

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ruling as marfoo’ reports that go back to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The comment “and leave one eye showing” is a concession because of the need to see the way; if there is no need for that then the eye should not be uncovered. The jilbaab is the upper garment that comes above the khimaar; it is like the abaya. (iv) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “It is no sin on them (the Prophet’s wives, if they appear unveiled) before their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their brother’s sons, or the sons of their sisters, or their own (believing) women, or their (female) slaves. And (O ladies), fear (keep your duty to) Allaah. Verily, Allaah is Ever All-Witness over everything” [al-Ahzaab 33:55] Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: When Allaah commanded the women to observe hijab in front of non-mahram men, he explained that they did not have to observe hijab in front of these relatives, as He explained that they are exempted in Soorat al-Noor where He said (interpretation of the meaning): “and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands…”

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2 – Evidence from the Sunnah that it is obligatory to cover the face (i) The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When any one of you proposes marriage to a woman, there is no sin on him if he looks at her, rather he should look at her for the purpose of proposing marriage even if she is unaware.” Narrated by Ahmad, The author of Majma’ al-Zawaa’id said: its men are the men of saheeh. The evidence here is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said there is no sin on the man who is proposing marriage, subject to the condition that his looking be for the purpose of proposing marriage. This indicates that the one who is not proposing marriage is sinning if he looks at a non-mahram woman in ordinary circumstances, as is the one who is proposing marriage if he looks for any purpose other than proposing marriage, such as for the purpose of enjoyment etc. If it is said that the hadeeth does not clearly state what is being looked at, and it may mean looking at the chest etc, the response is that the man who is proposing marriage looks at the face because it is the focus for the one who is seeking beauty, without a doubt. (ii) When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded that women should

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be brought out to the Eid prayer place, they said, “O Messenger of Allaah, some of us do not have jilbaabs.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Let her sister give her one of her jilbaabs to wear.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim. This hadeeth indicates that the usual practice among the women of the Sahaabah was that a woman would not go out without a jilbaab, and that if she did not have a jilbaab she would not go out. The command to wear a jilbaab indicates that it is essential to cover. And Allaah knows best. (iii) It was narrated in al-Saheehayn that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to pray Fajr and the believing women would attend the prayer with him, wrapped in their veils, then they would go back to their homes and no one would recognize them because of the darkness. She said: If the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw from the women what we have seen, he would have prevented them from coming to the mosques as the Children of Israel prevented their women. A similar report was also narrated by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him).

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The evidence from this hadeeth covers two issues: 1–Hijaab and covering were the practice of the women of the Sahaabah who were the best of generations and the most honourable before Allaah. 2– ‘Aa’ishah the Mother of the Believers and ‘AbdAllaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with them both), who were both known as scholars with deep insight, said that if the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had seen from women what they had seen, he would have prevented them from coming to the mosques. This was during the best generations, so what about nowadays?! (iv) It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever lets his garment drag out of pride, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Resurrection.” Umm Salamah said, “What should women do with their hems?” He said, “Let it hang down a handspan.” She said, “What if that shows her feet?” He said, “Let it hang down a cubit, but no more than that.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi; classed as saheeh by alAlbaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. This hadeeth indicates that it is obligatory for women to cover their feet, and that this was something that was well known among the women of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them). The feet are undoubtedly a lesser source of temptation than the

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face and hands, so a warning concerning something that is less serious is a warning about something that is more serious and to which the ruling applies more. The wisdom of sharee’ah means that it would not enjoin covering something that is a lesser source of temptation and allow uncovering something that is a greater source of temptation. This is an impossible contradiction that cannot be attributed to the wisdom and laws of Allaah. (v) It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: The riders used to pass by us when we were with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in ihraam. When they came near us we would lower our jilbaabs from our heads over our faces, and when they had passed by we would uncover our faces. Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1562. The words “When they came near us we would lower our jilbaabs from our heads over our faces” indicate that it is obligatory to cover the face, because what is prescribed in ihraam is to uncover it. If there was no strong reason to prevent uncovering it, it would be obligatory to leave it uncovered even when the riders were passing by. In other words, women are obliged to uncover their faces during ihraam according to the majority of scholars, and nothing can override something that is obligatory except something else that is also obligatory. If it were not obligatory to observe hijab and cover the face in the presence of non-mahram men, there would be no

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reason not to uncover it in ihraam. It was proven in al-Saheehayn and elsewhere that a woman in ihraam is forbidden to wear the niqaab (face veil) and gloves. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: This is one of the things which indicate that the niqaab and gloves were known among women who were not in ihraam, which implies that they covered their faces and hands. These are nine points of evidence from the Qur’aan and Sunnah. The tenth is: Rational examination and analogy, which form the basis of this perfect sharee’ah, which aims to help people achieve what is in their best interests and encourages the means that lead to that, and to denounce evil and block the means that lead to it. If we think about unveiling and women showing their faces to non-mahram men, we will see that it involves many bad consequences. Even if we assume that there are some benefits in it, they are very few in comparison with its negative consequences. Those negative consequences include: 1 – Fitnah (temptation). By unveiling her face, a woman may be tempted to do things to make her face look more beautiful. This is one of the greatest causes of evil and corruption.

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2 – Taking away haya’ (modesty, shyness) from women, which is part of faith and of a woman’s nature (fitrah). Women are examples of modesty, as it was said, “more shy than a virgin in her seclusion.” Taking away a woman’s modesty detracts from her faith and the natural inclination with which she was created. 3 – Men may be tempted by her, especially if she is beautiful and she flirts, laughs and jokes, as happens in the case of many of those who are unveiled. The Shaytaan flows through the son of Adam like blood. 4 – Mixing of men and women. If a woman thinks that she is equal with men in uncovering her face and going around unveiled, she will not be modest and will not feel too shy to mix with men. This leads to a great deal of fitnah (temptation) and widespread corruption. Al-Tirmidhi narrated (5272) from Hamzah ibn Abi Usayd from his father that he heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say, when he was coming out of the mosque and he saw men mingling with women in the street; the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to the women, “Draw back, and do not walk in the middle of the road; keep to the sides of the road.” Then the women used to keep so close to the walls that their garments would catch on the walls because they kept so close to them.

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Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 929 Adapted from the words of Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) in Risaalat al-Hijaab. And Allaah knows best. <wasalam> islamicfajr

12.00.00

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Niqab in the light of Qur’an and Sahih Hadith
The Niqaab in light of the Holy Quran and Sahih Hadith and in the Opinions of the great scholars.... From the Qur’an... (This tafseer is Agreed upon by Ibn Kathir, Al-Qurtabi and At-Tabari) The Noble Qur’an... Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse #59 ‘O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks ("Jalabib") veils all over their bodies (screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way Tafseer Al-Qurtabi) that is most convenient that they should be known (as such) and not molested: and Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." Surah An-Nur, Verses #30 and #31 ‘And Say to the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, head cover, apron), and to draw their veils all

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over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) From the Hadith... Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Hadith # 282 Narrated Safiya bint Shaiba (Radhiallaahu Ánha) "Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha) used to say: "When (the Verse): "They should draw their veils over their necks and bosoms," was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their faces with the cut pieces. Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith # 368 Narrated 'Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha) Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) used to offer the Fajr prayer and some believing women covered with their veiling sheets used to attend the Fajr prayer with him and then they would return to their homes unrecognized. Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in tafseer of this hadith explains "This hadith makes it clear that the Islamic dress is concealing of the entire body as explained in this hadith. Only with the complete cover including the face and hands can a woman not be recognized. This was the understanding and practice of the Sahaba and they were the best of group, the noblest in the sight of Allah (swt) with the most complete Imaan and noblest of characters. so if the practice of the women of the sahaba was to wear the complete veil then how can we deviate from their path? (Ibn Uthaimin in the book "Hijaab" page # 12 and 13)

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Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 4, Hadith # 148 Narrated 'Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha): The wives of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqia at Medina) to answer the call of nature at night. 'Umar used to say to the Prophet "Let your wives be veiled," but Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) did not do so. One night Sauda bint Zam'a the wife of the Prophet went out at 'Isha' time and she was a tall lady. 'Umar addressed her and said, "I have recognized you, O Sauda." He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) might be revealed. So Allah revealed the verses of "Al-Hijab" (A complete body cover excluding the eyes). Tirmidhi with a SAHIH chain reports... "Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said “All of a woman is ‘awrah.” (Shaikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid quotes this hadith narrated by Tirmidhi with a sahih isnaad and says this is a direct hadith from Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam ) and has made it clear that a woman must cover everything including the face and hands!) Abu Dawood Book 14, Hadith # 2482

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Narrated Thabit ibn Qays (Radhiallaahu Ánhu): A woman called Umm Khallad came to the Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) while she was veiled. She was searching for her son who had been killed (in the battle) Some of the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said to her: You have come here asking for your son while veiling your face? She said: If I am afflicted with the loss of my son, I shall not suffer the loss of my modesty. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said: You will get the reward of two martyrs for your son. She asked: Why is that so, oh Prophet of Allah? He replied: Because the people of the Book have killed him. Abu Dawood Book 32, Hadith # 4090 Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu Ánha): When the verse "That they should cast their outer garments over their persons" was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if they had crows over their heads by wearing outer garments. Abu Dawood Book 32, Hadith # 4091 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu Ánha) "May Allah have mercy on the early immigrant women. When the verse "That they should draw their veils over their bosoms" was revealed,

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they tore their thick outer garments and made veils from them. Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalanee, who is known as Ameer Al-Mu'mineen in the field of Hadith, said that the phrase, "covered themselves", in the above Hadith means that they they "covered their faces". [Fath Al-Bari]. Imaam Malik's MUWATTA Book 20 Hadith # 20.5.16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that Fatima bint al-Mundhir (Radhiallaahu Ánha) said, "We used to veil our faces when we were in Ihram in the company of Asma bint Abi Bakr AsSiddiq (Radhiallaahu Ánha). "This again proves that not only the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) wore the Niqaab and that even though in Ihram women are not supposed to wear Niqaab but if men are there they still have to cover the face. Abu Dawood Book 10, Hadith # 1829 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: (Radhiallaahu Ánha) who said, "The riders would pass us while we were with the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). When they got close to us, we would draw our outer cloak from our heads over our faces. When they passed by, we would uncover our faces.

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Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah, Narrated 'Aisha. [In his work Jilbab al-Marah alMuslimah, al-Albani states (p. 108) that it is hasan due to corroborating evidence. Also, in a narration from Asma {who was not the wife of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam)}, Asma also covered her face at all times in front of men.] Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in his tafseer of this hadith explains "This hadith indicates the compulsion of the concealing of the faces as an order of Shariah, because during the Ihram it is "wajib" (compulsory) NOT to wear the Niqaab. So if it was only mustahab (recommended) to cover the face then Aisha and Asma (Radhiallaahu Ánha) would have taken the wajib over the mustahab. It is well known by the Ullima that a wajib can only be left because of something that is also wajib or fardh. So Aisha and Asma (Radhiallaahu Ánha) covering the face even in Ihram in the presence of strange (ghairMahraam) men shows that they understood this to be an act that was wajib or fardh or they would not have covered the face in Ihraam. Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 72, Hadith # 715 Narrated 'Ikrima (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) narrates "Rifa'a divorced his wife whereupon 'AbdurRahman bin Az-Zubair Al-Qurazi married her. 'Aisha said that the lady (came), wearing a green veil." It is a very long hadith but the point is the women of Sahaba wore the full veil.

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Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith # 347 Narrated Um 'Atiya (Radhiallaahu Ánha) We were ordered (by Rasulullah '(Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) to bring out our menstruating women and veiled women in the religious gatherings and invocation of Muslims on the two 'Eid festivals. These menstruating women were to keep away from their Musalla. A woman asked, "O Allah's Apostle ' What about one who does not have a veil (the veil is the complete cover with only one eye or two eyes showing)?" He said, "Let her share the veil of her companion." Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in tafseer of this hadith explained "This hadith proves that the general norm amongst the women of the Sahaba (Radhiallaahu Ánhuma) was that no woman would go out of her home without a cloak, fully concealed and if she did not posses a veil, then it was not possible for her to go out. it was for this reason that when Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) ordered them to go to the Place for Eid Salah, they mentioned this hindrance. As a result Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said that someone should lend her a veil, but did not say they could go out without it. If Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) did not allow women to go to a place like the Eid Salah, which has been ordered by Shariah for women and men alike, then how can people let

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women to out to market places and shopping centers without where there is open intermingling of the sexes, without a veil. (By: Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in the book "Hijaab" page#11) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 8, Book 76, Hadith # 572 In the end of this very long hadith it quotes Anas (Radhiallaahu Ánho) rates from Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) "and if one of the women of Paradise looked at the earth, she would fill the whole space between them (the earth and the heaven) with light, and would fill whatever is in between them, with perfume, and the veil of her face is better than the whole world and whatever is in it." This shows that even the women of Junnah have veils and the word veil is what covers the face (niqaab). Abu Dawood Book 33, Hadith # 4154, Agreed upon by Nasai Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha) narrates that on one occasion a female Muslim wanted to give a letter to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), the letter was delivered to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) from behind a curtain. Note: Quoted in the famous book Mishkaat. Here the Mufasereen of hadith have explained that the hadith where women came up to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu

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Álayhi Wasallam) face to face were before the ayah "And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts." (Surah Al*Ahzâb ayah # 53) And this hadith proves this order is for the whole Ummah not just for the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam)! Abu Dawood Book 2, Hadith # 0641 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu Ánha) "Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said "Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears a veil." Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 9, Book 89, Hadith # 293 Narrated 'Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha) Utba bin Abi Waqqas said to his brother Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, "The son of the slave girl of Zam'a is from me, so take him into your custody." So in the year of Conquest of Mecca, Sa'd took him and said. (This is) my brother's son whom my brother has asked me to take into my custody." 'Abd bin Zam'a got up before him and said, (He is) my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, and was born on my father's bed." So they both submitted their case before Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). Sa'd said, "O Allah's Apostle! This boy is the son of my brother and he

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entrusted him to me." 'Abd bin Zam'a said, "This boy is my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, and was born on the bed of my father." Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, "The boy is for you, O 'Abd bin Zam'a!" Then Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) did infact order the veil to be observed. Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 65, Hadith # 375 Narrated Anas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) I know (about) the Hijab (the order of veiling of women) more than anybody else. Ubai bin Ka'b used to ask me about it. Allah's Apostle became the bridegroom of Zainab bint Jahsh whom he married at Medina. After the sun had risen high in the sky, the Prophet invited the people to a meal. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) remained sitting and some people remained sitting with him after the other guests had left. Then Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) got up and went away, and I too, followed him till he reached the door of 'Aisha's room. Then he thought that the people must have left the place by then, so he returned and I also returned with him. Behold, the people were still sitting at their places. So he went back again for the second time, and I went along with him too. When we reached the door of 'Aisha's room, he returned and I also returned with him to see that the people had left. Thereupon Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) hung a curtain

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between him and me and the Verse regarding the order for (veiling of women) Hijab was revealed. Abu Dawood Book 32, hadith # 4100 Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu Ánha): I was with Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) while Maymunah was with him. Then Ibn Umm Maktum came. This happened when we were ordered to observe veil. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said: Observe veil from him. We asked: oh Rasulullah! is he not blind? He can neither see us nor recognize us. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said: Are both of you blind? Do you not see him? The opinions of the great scholars about the Niqaab... From the Sahaba (Radhiallaahu Ánhuma) ... Ibn Ábbaas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu), who was one of the most knowledgeable companions of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) even made duwaa for him saying "O Allah, make him acquire a deep understanding of the religion of Islam and instruct him in the meaning and interpretation of things." Ibn Jarir (Rahimahullah) with an authentic chain of narrators has quoted Ibn Abbaas' (Radhiallaahu Án)

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opinion was "that the Muslim women are ordered to cover their head and faces with outer garments except for one eye." (This is quoted in the Ma'riful Qur'an in the tafseer of Surah Ahzaab ayah # 33, with reference of Ibn Jarir with a sahih chain of narrators). The Tabiee Ali Bin Abu Talha explained that this was the last opinion of Ibn Abbas and the other opinions quoted from him were from before Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse #59 and the order of the "Jalabib". Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin commented on this saying of Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) by saying "This statement is "Marfoo" and in shariah that is the same category as a hadith which is narrated directly from Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). The quote of Ibn Abbas is quoted by many tabi'een like Ali Ibn Abu Talha and Ibn Jarir in Ma'riful Quran by Mufti Muhammad Shafi vol.7 pg.217 and also in Tafseer Ibn Jarir, Vol. 22, pg.29 and also by Imaam Qurtabi all with SAHIH Chains and explained in the book "Hijaab" by Ibn Uthaimin, Page # 9 and authenticated in the book "Hijaab wa Safur"by Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah) on page #11 and by Shaikh AbdulAziz bin Bazz (Rahimahullah) on page # 55 and 60) Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) who was known as the most knowledgeable Sahabi in matters

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of Shariah. He became Muslim when he was a young kid and ever since that he stayed with Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) and gained the understanding of Quran from him. Umar Ibn Khattab (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) said about him "By Allah, I don't know of any person who is more qualified in the matters dealing with the Quran than Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud" Explained, the word Jilbaab (as mentioned in the Quran Surah Ahzaab ayah # 59 ) means a cloak which covering the entire body including the head, face and hands. (Quoted from Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah) in his book on fatwaas Page# 110 Vol#2 and By Shaikh Ibn Uthamin in the book Hijaab Page # 15) Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha) Stated that in verse 30 and 31 of Surah An Nur "What has been allowed to be shown is the hands, bangles and rings but the face must be covered. (Quoted by Shaikh Abul A'la Maududi in the book Purdah P#195 and in his Tafseer of Quran under the tafseer of Surah An Nur)

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Abu Ubaidah Salmani (Radhiallaahu Ánhu), another well-known Sahabi is quoted saying, "Jilbaab should fully cover the women's body, so that nothing appears but one eye with which she can see." (Tafseer AlQurtubi) And In the time of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) "The women used to don their cloaks (Jilbaabs) over their heads in such a manner that only the eyes were revealed in order to see the road." (The Book "Hijaab" page # 9) Ubaida bin Abu Sufyan bin al-Harith('Radhiallaahu Ánhu' An' Other well known and knowledgeable Companion of Rasulullah ) Imam Muhammad bin Sirin (Rahimahullah) One of the most knowledgeable tabi'een) said "When I asked Ubaida bin Sufyan bin al-Harith ('Radhiallaahu An') how the jalbaab was to be worn, he demonstrated it to me by pulling a sheet of cloth over his head to cover his entire body, leaving the left eye uncovered. This was also the explanation of the word 'Alaihinna in this verse" (Commentary by Ibn Jarir and Ahkam-ul-Quran, Vol.3, p.457 also in "hijaab wa Safur" quoted by Shaikh AbdulAziz Bin Bazz under the chapter of his fatwaa on hijab on page #54)

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From the Tabi 'een.. Hassan Al Basri (Rahimahullah): States in his tafseer of the Surah An-Nur, "What a woman is allowed to show in this Ayah implies to those outer garments (not the face or hands) which the woman puts on to cover her internal decoration (her beauty). States in his tafseer of the Surah An-Nur, "What a woman is allowed to show in this Ayah implies to those outer garments (not the face or hands) which the woman puts on to cover her internal decoration (her beauty). (Quoted in the book "Purdah" P#194) Ibn Jarir (Rahimahullah) quotes the opinion of Ibn Ábbaas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) "Allah has enjoined upon all Muslim Women that when they go out of their homes under necessity, they should cover their faces by drawing a part of their outer garments over their heads." (Tafseer Ibn Jarir, VOL 22, pg.29) The Tabi'ee, Qatadah (Rahimahullah): Stated that the Jilbab should be wrapped and fixed from above the forehead and made to cover the nose,

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(although the eyes are to show) and the chest and most of the face are to be covered. The Tabi'ee Ali bin Abu Talha (Rahimahullah) Quotes from Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) that he used to say it was allowed to show the hands and face when Surah Nur ayah #31 was revealed but after Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse #59 with the word "Jalabib" was revealed then after this Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) said that That the Muslim women are ordered to cover their head and faces with outer garments except for one eye." And this was also the opinion of Ibn Mas'ud (Radhiallaahu Ánhu). (This is quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah) in his book of fatwaa and by Shaikh AbdulAziz Bin Bazz (Rahimahullah) in the book "Hijaab wa Safur" Page # 60) Imam Muhammad bin Sirin (Rahimahullah) One of the most knowledgeable tabi'een) "When I asked Ubaida bin Sufyan bin al-Harith ('Radhiallaahu Ánhu' Other well known and knowledgeable Companion of Rasulullah) the meaning of this verse about "Alaihinna" and how the jalbaab was to be worn, he demonstrated it to me by pulling a sheet of cloth over his head to cover his entire body, leaving the left eye uncovered. This was also the explanation of the word 'Alaihinna in this verse"(Commentary by Ibn Jarir and Ahkam-ulQuran, Vol # 3, p.457 also in "hijaab wa Sufor" quoted by Shaikh AbdulAziz Bin Bazz under the chapter of his fatwaa on hijab on page #54)

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From the Mufasireen of Quraan... The Mufassir, Imaam Al-Qurtubi (Rahimahullah), Cites in his Tafseer of the Ayah on Jilbaab (Al-Ahzab 33:59), that the Jilbaab is: "a cloth which covers the entire body... Ibn 'Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) and 'Ubaidah As-Salmaani (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) said that it is to be fully wrapped around the women's body, so that nothing appears but one eye with which she can see." (Tafseer Al-Qurtubi Surah Al-Ahzab ayah # 59. This was also agreed upon by Imam WahidiImam Neishapuri in the book of tafseer of Quran "Gharaib -ul-Quran" and "Ahkam-ul-Quran", Imam Razi, in his tafseer of Surah Azhab in the book "Tafsir-iKabir" Imam Baidavi in his tafseer of Quran "Tafsiri-Baidavi" and by Abu Hayyan in "Al-Bahr-ul-Muhit" and by Ibn Sa'd Muhammad bin Ka'b Kuradhi and they have all descirbed the use of jalbaab more or less in the SAME way as the two described by Ibn Abbas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu).) Also from Imaam Qurtubi (Rahimahullah) in his AlJamia li Ahkaamul Qurãn states: "All women are in effect covered by the terms of the verse which embraces the Sharée principle that the whole of a woman is ‘Áwrah’ (to be concealed) – her face, body and voice, as mentioned previously. It is not permissible to expose those parts except in the case

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of need, such as the giving of evidence…" ("AlJamia li Ahkaamul Qurãn") At-Tabari and Ibn Al-Mundhir Described the method of wearing the jalbaab according to Ibn Abbas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) and Qatadah (Radhiallaahu Ánhu). The sheet should be wrapped around from the top, covering the forehead, then bringing one side of the sheet to cover the face below the eyes so that most of the face and the upper body is covered. This will leave both eyes uncovered (which is allowed in necessity).(Rul-ul-Ma'ani, Vol 22, p.89) Ibn Kathir (Rahimahullah) said... "Women must not display any part of their beauty and charms to strangers except what cannot possibly be concealed." (Quoted by Mufti Ibrahim Desi in his article on hijaab) Maoulana Abul A'la Maududi (Rahimahullah) In his tafseer of Surah Azhab ayah #59 "In verse 59 the third step for social reform was taken. All the Muslim women were commanded that they should come out well covered with the outer garments and covering their faces whenever they came out of their houses for a genuine need." (From Tasfeer of Quran by Maoulana Abul A'la Maududi in

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tafseer of ayah # 59 of Surah Al-Ahzaab) From the 4 Madhabib (4 madhabs)... Mufti Anwar Ali Adam Al Mazahiri (Mufti A'azam (Head Mufti) of Madrasa Madinatil Uloom Trinidad & Tobago.) "Imam Shafi, Malik and Hanbal hold the view that niqaab (covering the face and the hands completely with only a small area for the eyes to see) as being compulsory (fard). Imam Abu Hanifa says that niqaab is Wajib and the face and hands can be exposed provided that there is not fear of desire if one looks at the female face, otherwise if there is the slightest chance of desire developing in the looker (the meaning of desire is that the looker would see the female face and think that she is beautiful, sexual thaught is not what is meant) then exposing the face and hands is Haraam. (This is from the fatwaa issued by Mufti Anwar Ali Adam Al Mazahiri on 13/9/99. He derived the opnions of the 4 Imaams from these sources Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Tafseer Ma'rifatul Qur'aan, Durre Muhtaar, Fatawa Shami, Al Mabsoot, Fathul Qadeer. And the opinion of Imaam Abu hanifah is a directly derived from his statements in the Famous book of hanafi Fiqh Fatwaa Shami)

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Shaikh AbdulAziz Bin Bazz (One of the greatest scholars of our times. He passed away 26th of Muharram 1420 Hijrah. (12th of May 1999) Rahimahullah. He belonged to the Hanbali School of jurisprudence.)"It is compulsory for a woman to cover her face in front of non mahram men"(This has been quoted in Shaikh Bin Bazz's pamphlet on Hijab and in the book 'Islamic Fatwas regarding Women' and in the Arabic version of the book "hijaab Wa Safur" page #51) Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah) Relates that the correct opinion for the Hanbali and Malki madhaib is that is is wajib to cover everything except one or two eyes to see the way. (from the Arabic book "Hijaab wa Safur" under the fatwaa of Ibn Taymiyyah on hijaab, page # 10) Shaikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid Quotes All of the woman is awrah based on the hadith of "Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said “All of a woman is ‘awrah.” (Narrated by Tirmidhi with a sahih isnaad).This is the correct view according to the madhhab of the Hanbalis, one of the two views of the Maalikis and one of the two views of the Shaafa’is. (Quoted in his book of fatwaa and on his web site)

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Jamiatul Ulama Junbi Africa sated that the proper opinion for the Hanafi madhab is that "A woman must be properly and thoroughly covered in a loose outer cloak which totally conceals her entire body including her face!" (This from the book Islamic Hijab by Jamiatul Ulama P.12) Mufti-e-Azam Rasheed Ahmad Ludhyanvi (Rahimahullah, one of the head Muftis of the hanafi Madhab of his time This opinion is taken to be the correct opinion of the hanafi madhab today) Explained in his tafseer of Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse #59. "Allah Ta'ala is telling them that whenever out of necessity they have togo out, they should cover themselves with a large cloak and draw a corner of it over their faces so that they may not be recognised. (From his article "A Detailed, analytical review on the Shar'ee hijab") From the known and respect authentic Ullima... Ibn Al-Hazam (Rahimahullah): "In arabic language, the language of the Prophet (saw), the word jilbaab (as mentioned in the Quran Surah Ahzaab ayah # 59) means the outer sheet which covers the entire body. A sheet smaller than that, which would cover the entire body, cannot be categorized as jilbaab. (Al-Muhallah, Vol 3. Pg 217)

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Ibn Al-Mandhur (Rahimahullah) "Jalabib is plural for Jilbaab. Jalbaab is actually the outer sheet/coverlet, which a woman wraps around, on top of her garments to cover herself from head to toe. This covers the body entirely." (Lisan ul-Arab, VOL 1. Pg.273) Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalanee (Rahimahullah) A tradition reported on the authority of Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha) says: "A woman in a state of Ihram (during Hajj and Umrah) should stretch her head cloth over to her face to hide it." (In Fathul Bari, chapter on Hajj) Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah) relates: "Women used to room about without Cloaks (Jilbaabs) and men used to see their faces and hands, but when the verse stating 'O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks over themselves.' (Surah Al-Ahzaab,Verse #59)was reveled, then this was prohibited and women were ordered to wear the Jilbaab. Then Ibn Tayimiyyah goes on to say "The word Jilbaab means a sheet which Ibn Mas'ud (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) explained as a cloak covering the entire body including the head, face and hands.

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Therefore, it is not permissible for the women to reveal the face and hands in public. (Ibn Taymiyyah's book on fatwaas Page# 110 Vol # 2 also in the book Hijaab Page # 15) Shaikh AbdulAziz Bin Bazz (Rahimahullah): "According to the understanding of the best generations (the "Salaf") after the ayah of hijaab was revealed than Muslims women must cover everything including the face and hands. they can show one eye or two eyes to see the way. this was the opnion held by many of the sahaba like Ibn Abbaas, Ibn Masud, Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánhuma) and others and this opnion was upheald by the Tab'ieen who followed than as Ali bin Abi Talha and Muhammad bin Sirin (Rahimahullah) and by the ritious ullima who followed them as Ibn Taymiyyah and Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal (Rahimahullah)" (Quoted from the book "hijaab wa Sufor") Shaikh Abubakar Jassas (Rahimahullah): States "This verse of Surah Ahzab shows that the young women when going out of their homes are ordered to cover their faces from strangers (nonmahram men), and cover herself up in such a manner that may express modesty and chastity, so that people with evil intentions might not cherish hopes from her". (Ahkum Al-Quran, VOL. III, p.48)

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Imaam Ghazaali (Rahimahullah) "Woman emerged (during the time of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) with NIQAABS on their Faces" (From his famous book of Fiqh "Ihyaal Uloom") Qazi Al-Baidavi (Rahimahullah): "To let down over them a part of their outer garments" means that they should draw a part of their outer garment in front of their face and cover themselves" (Tafsir-I-Baidavi, Vol 4, p.168) Jamia Binoria Pakistan (This is a Question and Answer from a Mufti at one the highly respected hanafi Islamic Universities of Pakistan) Question: Under which conditions are women allowed to leave the home? Ans: The principle command for women is that they should remain in their home and should not go out without any extreme need because mischief is feared in their going out. However if they have to go out in extreme necessity then they should go with a Mahram and duly covered in Burqa' (a "Burqa" covers the whole body including the hands and face) or large overlay so that their body including their cloths should not be visible and after buying the

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required article they should come back at once. In this condition there is no Haraam. It is also stated in the Famous books of Fiqh Durrul Mukhtar... "Young women are prohibited from revealing their faces in the presence of men." Hakimul Ummah Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (Rahimahullah) states in his famous book of Hanafi Fiqh "Bahishti Zewar." "It is not permissible for a young woman to expose her face in the presence of ghayr mahrams, nor should she stand in a place where she could be observed. We learn from this, that the custom of exposing the bride's face in public where all the men can observe her is also not permissible. To do so is a major sin." (Bahishti Zewar) Shaikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid (One of the great scholars of out time. Click here for the full fatwaa on covering the face and who can you uncover the face infront of->Fatwaa on niqaab "The most correct opinion, which is supported by evidence, is that it is obligatory to cover the face,

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therefore young women are forbidden to uncover their faces in front of non-mahram men in order to avoid any mischief" Another fatwaa when he was asked about is it preferred for sisters to wear the niqab, he said.... "The fact is that it is obligatory for women to cover their faces" as to how to wear the niqaab the Shaikh said "A woman may uncover her left eye in order to see where she is going, and if necessary she may uncover both eyes. The opening should only be wide enough for the eyes." Yet in another Fatwaa he explained what was the Awrah of a woman with..."Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said “All of a woman is ‘awrah.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi with a saheeh isnaad). This is the correct view according to the madhhab of the Hanbalis, one of the two views of the Maalikis and one of the two views of the Shaafa’is. Shaikh ibn Uthaimin Question: What is the Islamic hijab? Response: The Islamic hijab is for the women to cover everything that is forbidden for her to expose. That is, she covers everything that she must cover. The first of those bodily parts that she must cover is her face. It is the source of temptation and the source

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of people desiring her. Therefore, the woman must cover her face in front of those men that are not mahram. As for those of who claim that the Islamic hijab is to cover the head, shoulders, back, feet, shin and forearms while allowing her to uncover her face and hands, this is a very amazing claim. This is because it is well known that the source of temptation and looking is the face. How can one say that the Shariah does not allow the exposure of the foot of the woman while it allows her to uncover her face? It is not possible that there could be in the Esteemed, Wise and Noble Shariah a contradiction. ('Islamic Fatwas regarding Women' Page # 289) Shaikh Jamaal Zarabozo In Surah Al-Ahzab, verse 59, Allah has ordered the believing women to wear a jilbab. A jilbab as defined in all the books of tafseer is a cloak that covers the woman's body from the top of her head to her feet. It is also described in those books, form the scholars of the earliest generation that after that verse was revealed, the women would completely cover themselves, leaving, for example, just one eye exposed so they can see the road. Hence, this is the outer garment of the woman that she must wear when she is in front of men she is not related to.

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Shaikh Ibn Jibreen Question: I am married to a woman who wears, praise to Allah, hijab. However, as is the custom in my country, she does not wear hijab in front of her sister's husband and her sister does not wear hijab in my presence. This is the custom. Furthermore, my wife does not wear hijab in the presence of my brother or her cousins. Does this go against the Shariah and religion? What can I do while it has become the custom in my country not to wear hijab in the presence of those people that I mentioned. If I tell my wife to wear hijab in front of those people, she will accuse me of not trusting her and being suspicious about her and so forth. Response: All of those groups of men that you mentioned in the question are not mahram for her. It is not allowed for her to uncover her face and beauty in front of them. Allah has only allowed her to uncover in front of the mahram men mentioned in the verse in surah al-Nur, "[Tell the believing women] not to reveal their adornments except to their husbands, their fathers..." (al-Nur 31). First, you should convince your wife that it is forbidden to uncover her face in front of non-mahram men. Make her abide by that even if it goes against

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the customs of your people and even if she makes accusations against you. You should also make this point clear to your close relatives that you mentioned, that is, the brethren of the husband, the husband of the sister, the cousins and so forth. All of them are non-mahram and they all may marry her if she gets divorced. ("Islamic Fatwas regarding Women") Shaikh Abul A'la Maududi (Who was the founder of "Jamat-ul-Islami" also a known and respect scholar of the Hanafi madhab) “A person who considers carefully the wordings of the Quranic verses, their well-known and genreally accepted meaning and the practice during the time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) cannot dare deny the fact that the islamic Shari'ah enjoins on the woman to hide her face from the other people and this has been the practice of the Muslim women ever since the time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) himself” (In the book "Purda" by Shaikh Abul A'la Mawdudi P# 199) Refutations from Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin from Saudi Arabia takes this from the book “Hijaab”. Printed by Madrasah Arabia Islamia AzaadvilleSouth Africa.

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Translated by Hafedh Zaheer Essack, Rajab 1416 (December 1995) The Ullima who are of the opinion that it is permissible to look at the face and hands of a strange woman (who is not mahrrum) say so mainly for the following reasons. The hadith of Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha): when Asmaa (Radhiallaahu Ánha) the daughter of Abu Bakr came to the Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) while wearing thin clothing. He approached her and said: 'O Asmaa! When a girl reaches the menstrual age, it is not proper that anything should remain exposed except this and this. He pointed to the face and hands. But this hadith is WEAK because of 2 main weaknesses. 1. There is no link between Aisha (Radhiallaahu Ánha) and Khalid bin Dareek, who narrated the hadith from her. And in every chain of narrators Khalid bin Dareek is mentioned. 2. In the chain os narrators Sa'eed bin Basheer appears, who is known by most of the Muhaditheen as being a weak narrator. This has been mentioned by Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal (Rahimahullah), An-Nasai (Rahimahullah), Ibn Madeeni (Rahimahullah) and Ibn Ma'een (Rahimahullah). This is also why Imaam

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Bukhari (Rahimahullah) and Muslim (Rahimahullah) did not except this hadith to be in their books. (From Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in the book "Hijaab" pages # 17 and 18.) We also have to see that the Muhadith Abu Dawood when he quoted this hadith put with it that it is Musal (with a broken chain that does not lead up to the Sahaba). (From The Book "Hijaab wa Safur" under tha fatwaa of Shaikh AbulAziz Bin Bazz on Page #61. Also stated as being weak by Shaikh Nasirudden AlAlbaani in his Daeef Sunan Abu Dawud in Kitab-ulLibas under hadeeth number 4092 (which is the original hadeeth number.) It has also been mentioned in the magazine called "Al Hijrah" that Ullima agree this hadith is weak.) Another thing that shows the weakness of this hadith is that after the ayah for hijab (Surah Al-Ahzaab– Verse#59) was revealed then the women of Sahaba wore a complete veil and covered the faces and hands. This includes Asmaa (Radhiallaahu Ánha) the daughter of Abu Bakr, who is supposed to have narrated this hadith. Asmaa (Radhiallaahu Ánha) covered herself completely including tha face; this

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has been narrated in authentic hadith in Imaam maliks. "MUWATTA Book 20 Hadith # 20.5.16."

Arabic words explained by Sahaba and Ullima.... Shaikh Ibn Al Hazam (Rahimahullah) writes: "In the Arabic language of the Prophet, Jalbab is the outer sheet which covers the entire body. A piece of cloth which is too small to cover the entire body could not be called Jalbab." (Al Muhalla, vol. 3, p.217.) The Tabi'ee, Qatadah (Rahimahullah), stated that the Jilbab should be wrapped and fixed from above the forehead and made to cover the nose, (although the eyes are to show) and the chest and most of the face are to be covered. Jalabib, which is used in the verse is the plural of Jalbab. "Jalbab, is actually the outer sheet or coverlet which a woman wraps around on top of her garments to cover herself from head to toe. It hides her body completely." (Lisan ul Arab vol 1 p. 273.) (The best explanation is that it is what we would today call a burqa or an abiya.)

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Ibn Masood (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) explained Jilbab to be a cloak covering the entire body including the face and hands. (fatwaa Ibn Taymiyyah Page #110 Vol. #2) What is Hijab really mean? "The root word of hijab is hajaba and that means: (hajb) to veil, cover, screen, shelter, seclude (from), to hide, obscure (from sight), to make imperceptible, invisible, to conceal, to make or form a separation (a woman), to disguise, masked, to conceal, hide, to flee from sight, veil, to veil, conceal, to cover up, become hidden, to be obscured, to vanish, to become invisible, disappear from sight, to veil, to conceal, to withdraw, to elude perception. Hajb: seclusion, screening off, keeping away, keeping off, Hijab plural: hujub: cover, wrap, drape, a curtain, a woman's veil, screen, partition, folding screen, barrier, Ihtijab: Concealment, hiddenness, seclusion, veildness, veiling, purdah. Hijab: Concealing, screening, protecting, Mahjub: concealed hidden, veiled!

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These definitions of the hijab were taken from the: Arabic-English Dictionary, The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written arabic, edited by JM Cowan. NOTE FROM THE AUTHOR: Just to make it clear the point of this page is NOT to say if a woman doesn't wear niqaab she will go to Jahunum, as we know there are two valid viewpoints on the hijab. One view held by the Ullima is that the niqaab (covering the face) is wajib (compulsory) and other Ullima hold the view it is Mustahab (recommended and the best thing to do but not compulsory). This page is to explain to those people who say things like "The niqaab is not in islam or is not important" or is "bad for dawa" these people should understand that the Niqaab is from the Quraan and Hadith and even if you hold the view of it not being wajib it is still THE BEST thing and recommended and anyone who wears it is to be respected. And is anyone discourages the wearing of Niqaab or denies it being in Islam or makes fun of someone who wears it they should fear ALLAH and take their shahadah over. And ALLAH (swt) knows best.

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Chastity and Hijab in the Teachings of Prophets Muhammad and Jesus 2/5
Hadith As might be expected the hadith literature contains several traditions mentioning khimar, jilbab or hijab or related concepts. We now examine these traditions in detail, especially those found in the four most reliable books: Ibn Ishaq, Mu’watta, Bukhari, and Muslim. Our examination shows that hadith literature does not add any substantial authentic teaching to what we can already deduce with considerable probability from the Qur’an. THE HADITH OF IFK Probably the most reliable tradition mentioning hijab is the story of the false accusation (ifk) against A’isha because it has the earliest documentation and deals with an incident referred to in the Qur'an. This story is found in such relatively early books as Ibn Ishaq (sirat rasul allah, preserved in an edited form by Ibn Hisham), Bukhari, where it occurs in a detailed form thrice (kitab al-maghazi, bab hadith al-ifk; kitab alshahadat, bab ta’dil al-nisa’... and kitab al-tafsir, bab law la idh sami’tumuhu...) and Muslim (kitab al-

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tawbah, bab fi hadith ifk). The earliest documentation of the story is found in Ibn Ishaq (died 151 AH) as quoted by Ibn Hisham (died 218 AH). Ibn Ishaq’s authority is Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri. Az-Zuhri, as quoted by Ibn Ishaq, says the story was first told by ‘A’isha herself and then from her related in parts by four men: 'Alqama bin Waqqas, Sa'id bin Jubayr, 'Urwa bin al-Zubayr, and 'Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin 'Utba. After mentioning these four sources, az-Zuhri said: "Each contributing a part of the story, one remembering more of it than another, and I have put together for you what the people told me." The three detailed narrations of the story in Bukhari have different final link in the chain of narrators but they all quote Ibn Shihab as follows: "Related to me 'Urwa bin al-Zubayr, Sa'id bin alMusayyib, 'Alqama bin Waqqas and 'Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin 'Utba bin Mas'ud from 'A'isha, the wife of the Messenger of God (may God bless and raise him evermore) regarding the time when the slanderers said about her what they said. Everyone among them related to me a part of the story and some of them who had better memories reported

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more and with better retention, and I tried to retain from what everyone related to me from A’isha and their reports confirmed one another." This quotation is from kitab al-maghazi. The detailed narrations in kitab al-shahadat and kitab al-tafsir quote and Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri are essentially the same terms. In Muslim we read: "Sy'id bin al-Musayyib, 'Urwa bin az-Zubayr, 'Alqama bin Waqqas and 'Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin 'Utba bin Mas'ud on the story of 'A'isha, the wife of the Messenger of God (may God bless and raise him evermore) when the slanderers said to her what they said God exonerated her of their allegation -everyone of them reported a part of the story and some of them who had better memories reported more and with better retention, and I tried to retain what every one of them reported to me, their reports confirming one another." All three documents agree that the source of the story are partial reports communicated from A’isha herself by four men: Sa'id bin al-Musayyib, 'Urwa bin azZubayr, 'Alqama bin Waqqas and 'Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin 'Utba bin Mas'ud. Ibn Ishaq and Bukhari also agree that the partial reports were put together by Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri. Muslim does not clarify exactly who put the pieces of the story together, but after relating the story he too refers to az-Zuhri as follows:

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And az-Zuhri said that this is the last we have received of the matter concerning these people (who were involved in ifk}. Thus it is almost certain that the versions in Ibn Ishaq, Bukhari, and Muslim are all dependent on the account produced by az-Zuhri and not directly on what the earlier reports said. Despite the reported trustworthiness of az-Zuhri the possibility must be admitted that in the process of weaving the earlier partial reports into a comprehensive story some new elements were introduced and others were given a new light. But even after the story was once put together by az-Zuhri it underwent significant changes during its transmission. This is evident from numerous differences among the various extant versions and some other problems that they all raise. Thus in Ibn Ishaq's version we read: The Prophet "went out to the men and addressed them and recited to them what God had sent down concerning that. Then he gave orders about Mistah bin Uthatha and Hassan bin Thabit and Hamna bint Jahsh who were the most explicit in their slander and they were flogged with a precise number (80, Qur'an 24 of stripes."

Muslim, however, does not mention at all any such flogging of the three participants in the slander and concludes his version, as already noted, with the words:

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"az-Zuhri said that this is the last we have received about the matter concerning these (the two men and the woman involved in the slander)," which leaves no room whatever of any report of flogging. Bukhari is also completely silent about any flogging. In Abu Da'ud, however, we read: 'A'isha said: When my vindication came down the Prophet mounted the pulpit and mentioned that. Then when he came down from the pulpit he ordered the two men and the one woman (who were involved in the slander) should be given the prescribed beating." Ibn 'Abd al-Barr in Isti'ab also mentions flogging but while he says that Mistah was flogged he is uncertain about the flogging of Hassan and Hamna. Muslim and Bukhari seem to be more reliable, since the people involved committed their crime before it was made a crime and punishment for it was prescribed. Usually punishment for an action is not given if the action is committed before the law prescribing the punishment for it has been laid down. Thus we do not hear of any punishment for drinking or stealing or adultery given for such acts committed before the punishment for them was prescribed.

It is also significant that Ibn Sa'd (died 230 AH) in his Tabaqat, probably written a little before Bukhari (died 256 AH) and Muslim (died 261 AH) compiled

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their collections of ahadith, presents us with some drastic differences from the three versions based on az-Zuhri’s account. Thus in his chapter on Ghazwah al-Musayri` --named after a well of that name, and also called Ghazwah al-Mustaliq (after the tribe that used the well and were involved in the battle) -- Ibn Sa`d says: "The Messenger of God (may God bless and glorify him) arrived in al-Muraysi` ... He ordered that his tent be erected there. ‘A` isha and Umm Salamah accompanied him. ... It was in this Ghazwah that 'A'isha's necklace fell and when people stopped in its search the verse about tayammum came down. Usayd bin al-Hudayr said, 'O family of Abu Bakr! How good is this first blessing of yours.' In the same Ghazwah the incident regarding 'A'isha and the false accusation against her took place. The narrator said that God sent down a declaration of her innocence. In this Ghazwah the Messenger of God stayed away from home for 28 days and returned to Medina when the moon for the month of Ramadan was sighted." This account differs radically from the other versions. Thus it tells us that the loss of 'A'isha's necklace was the cause of people stopping. But in the other versions people are unaware of the loss of the necklace and the loss is the cause of 'A'isha being left behind: "I touched my chest to find that my necklace of zifar beads (Yemenite beads partly black and partly white) was missing. So I returned to look for my necklace

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and my search for it detained me. (In the meantime) the people who used to carry me on my camel, came and took my howdah and put it on the back of my camel ... and all of them left " (Bukhari, similarly Ibn Ishaq and Muslim). Furthermore, the versions based on az-Zuhri’s account tell us that whenever the Prophet intended to go on a journey he used to draw lots among his wives and take with him the one on whom the lot fell. In Ghazwah al-Mustaliq the lot fell on A’isha and therefore he took her with him. Ibn Sa`d, on the other hand says nothing about drawing lots and says that not only 'A'isha but also Umm Salamah went with the Prophet. From such differences it seems highly probable that Ibn Sa'd is using traditions that are independent of the versions in Bukhari, Muslim, and Ibn Ishaq. Ibn Sa`d’s story that A’isha lost her necklace which caused people to stop and search for it and provided the occasion for the revelation about tayammum is found in the books of Hadith, including Bukhari and Muslim. The necklace is sometimes said to be of Asma’ (Bukhari, kitab al-tafsir (on Qur’an 4:43)) or of A’isha (Bukhari, kitab al-tafsir (on Qur’an 5:6)) or given to A’isha by Asma’, her sister (Bukhari, bab fadl A’isha). It would be somewhat strange that A’isha lost her necklace twice, so that the possibility must be admitted that one story about the loss of a necklace is taking different forms in Ibn Sa’d and the other three sources, Ibn Ishaq, Bukhari, and Muslim.

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Neither in terms of his ability as a historian nor in terms of the date of his writing Ibn Sa'd is to be preferred over Ibn Ishaq, Bukhari and Muslim but the fact that there existed alternative traditions about the incident of ifk does provide some cause for caution. Let us now look more closely at the direct and indirect references to hijab in the story. It is expressly said in all versions that the incident took place after the verses about hijab had been sent down. This is called into question by several facts: The verses about hijab and jilbab are believed to have been revealed sometimes after Ghazwah al-Ahzab (the Battle of Confederates, also called Ghazwah alKhandaq, the Battle of the Trench) as they are found in the surah, which refers to that Ghazwah. Now Ibn Ishaq quotes az-Zuhri expressly saying that ifk took place during Ghazwah al-Mustaliq or Ghazwah alMuraysi'. But there are reports which suggest that Ghazwah al-Mustaliq took place before Ghazwah alAhzab, in which case ifk took place before the verses about hijab and jilbab were revealed, and not after, as Ibn Ishaq, Bukhari and Muslim tell us. Ibn Sa'd in his Tabaqat explicitly gives the following dates for the two battles: Ghazwah of al-Muraysi' or al-Mustaliq --Sha'ban 5 AH Ghazwah al-Ahzab ----Dhu al-Qa'dah 5 AH. Thus Ghazwah al-Mustaliq took place 3 months before Ghazwah al-Ahzab and hence the incident of

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ifk took place at least three months before the verses about hijab and jilbab. The uncertainty about the dates of the two Ghazwat and therefore of their relative temporal order and the relative temporal order of ifk and the revelation about hijab/jilbab is raised not just by the evidence from Ibn Sa`d. The evidence from Ibn Ishaq also raises it, Bukhari and Muslim themselves: Bukhari mentions the following dating by Musa bin 'Uqbah about the two battles: Ghazwah al-Mustaliq ---- 4 AH Ghazwah al-Ahzab ---- Shawwal, 4 AH(See the chapters in Bukhari on the two Ghazwat). Bukhari does not say which month Ghazwah al-Mustaliq took place and therefore we cannot say which of the two Ghazwat took place first. Ibn Ishaq, however, gives the following dating: Ghazwah al-Mustaliq ---- Sha'ban 6AH Ghazwah al-Ahzab ----5 AH, thus agreeing with Ibn Sa'd as far as Ghazwah al-Ahzab is concerned and disagreeing with the dates of both battles as given in Bukhari on the authority of Musa bin ‘Uqba. Dating the incident of ifk after al-Ahzab not only conflicts with the dating of the two battles in some sources but also creates another difficulty. In all three versions there is an argument between some people

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from different tribes about whether the person(s) responsible for the slander should be killed. In Ibn Ishaq the argument is between Usayd bin Hudayr and Sa'd bin Ubada. But in Bukhari and Muslim the argument also involves Sa'd bin Mu'adh who is universally believed to be martyred during Ghazwah Banu Qurayza, which took place immediately after Ghazwah al-Ahzab. Ibn Ishaq puts the martyrdom of Sa'd bin Mu'adh during Ghazwah Banu Qurayza which is said to have taken place soon after Ghazwah al-Ahzab before Ghazwah al-Mustaliq. Imam Nawvi raises the problem in his Sharh of Muslim and says that "the reference to Sa'd bin Mu'adh is difficult to understand because he died soon after Ghazwah alKhandaq (= Ghazwah al-Ahzab) whereas the incident of ifk took place during Ghazwah Banu al-Mustaliq which was undertaken in 6 H." All writers of siyar are agreed on this date except Waqidi. Qadhi Ayad said that the reference to Sa'd bin Mu'adh in the story is not factual. The fact is that it was only Usayd bin Hudayr who spoke along with Sa'd bin Ubada. Musa bin 'Uqba said that Ghazwah al-Muraysi' (=Ghazwah al-Mustaliq) took place in 4 AH which is also the year of Ghazwah al-Khandaq. Then it is possible that both Ghazwah al-Mustaliq and the incident of ifk took place before Ghazwah al-Khandaq when Sa'd bin Mu'adh was alive". Thus either Bukhari or Muslim are both wrong in mentioning Sa'd bin Mu'adh in the story of ifk or all three versions are wrong in mentioning that the incident took place after the regulations for hijab.

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While some facts suggest that the incident of ifk took place before the revelation of the verses about hijab, there is at least one argument that supports it. Thus the versions of the incident of ifk in Ibn Ishaq, Bukhari, and Muslim all assume that the marriage of the Prophet with Zaynab bint Jahsh had already taken place. For example, it is said that Zaynab's sister Hamna bint Jahsh was among those who spread the false accusation and the reason given is that "her sister Zaynab bint Jahsh was one of the apostle's wives and only she could rival me in his favor" (Ibn Ishaq; similarly Bukhari and Muslim). Now some traditions in Bukhari and Muslim (see below) tell us that the verses about hijab were revealed on the day of the walimah (marriage) party for the Prophet’s marriage with Zaynab. This means that the incident of ifk took place after the revelation of the verses about hijab. That the uncertainty about the dates and the relative temporal order of the two battles was considered significant enough is shown by the versions of the incident of ifk in Bukhari and Muslim. Bukhari refers to the view of az-Zuhri that the incident took place in Ghazwah al-Mustaliq but himself shows reservations about that view. He first has a chapter on Ghazwah al-Mustaliq, then on Ghazwah al-Anmar and then on the incident of ifk. And in his version of the story of ifk it is simply stated that the Prophet took 'A'isha on "one of the Ghazwat" without mentioning the name of the Ghazwah. Muslim's version also does not mention the name of the Ghazwah and simply speaks

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of "a Ghazwah". Clearly the versions in Bukhari and Muslim are trying to avoid the problem created by the dating of the Ghazwat. In view of the uncertainty about dates pointed out above, the possibility remains that the incident of ifk took place before the regulations of hijab and jilbab and consequently the statements to the contrary in Ibn Ishaq, Bukhari and Muslim are historically inaccurate. In any case, let us now look at the references to hijab and jilbab in the story of ifk in the various versions and compare them. As we shall soon discover this comparison brings to light an important fact. The part of the story of ifk related to hijab in the various versions read: Ibn Ishaq: So I wrapped myself in my outer garment and then lay down where I was, knowing that if I were missed they would come back for me, and by God I had but just lain down when Safwan bin alMu'attal al-Sulami passed me; he had fallen behind the main body for some purpose and had not spent the night with the troops. He saw my form and came and stood over me. He used to see me before the veil was prescribed for us, so when he saw me he exclaimed in astonishment, "The Apostle's wife" (za'ina, a woman carried in a howdah)" while I was wrapped in my garments. He asked me what has kept me behind but I did not speak to him. Then he

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brought up his camel and told me to ride it while he stood behind. So I rode it and he took the camel's head going forward quickly in search of the army, and by God we did not overtake them and I was not missed until the morning. The men had halted and when they were rested up came the man leading me and the liars spread their reports and the army was much disturbed. Bukhari, kitab al-shahadat: So, I went to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they would discover my absence and come back in my search. While in that state, I felt sleepy and slept. Safwan bin Mu'attal As-Sulami Adh-Dhakwani was behind the army and reached my abode in the morning. When he saw a sleeping person, he came to me, and he used to see me before veiling. So, I got up when I heard him saying, "inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’un (We are for God, and we will return to Him)." He made his camel kneel down. He got down from his camel, and put his leg on the front legs of the camel and then I rode and sat over it. Safwan set out walking, leading the camel by the rope till we reached the army who had halted to take rest at midday. Bukhari, kitab al-maghazi: [Sometime during night time departure of the troops is announced and 'A'isha is left behind.] So I intended to go to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they will miss me and come back to me. While I was sitting in my resting place, I was overwhelmed by sleep and slept. Safwan bin al-Mu'attal as-Sulami adh-Dhakwani was behind

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the army. When he reached my place in the morning, he saw the figure of a sleeping person and he recognized me on seeing me as he had seen me before hijab (was prescribed). So I woke up when he recited istirja (that is, inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un) as soon as he recognized me. I veiled my face with my outer garment (khammartu wajhiya bijilbabi) at once, and by God, we did not speak a single word, and I did not hear him say any word besides the istirja'. He dismounted from his camel and made it kneels down, putting his leg on its front legs and then I got up and rode on it. Then he set out leading the camel that was carrying me till we overtook the army in the extreme heat of midday while they were at a halt. Bukhari, kitab at-tafsir: Then I found my necklace after the army had gone. I came to their camp but found nobody therein so I went to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they would miss me and come back in my search. While I was sitting at my place, I felt sleepy and slept. Safwan bin Al-Mu'attil As-Sulami Adh-Dhakwani was behind the army. He had started in the last part of the night and reached my stationing place in the morning and saw the figure of a sleeping person. He came to me and recognized me on seeing me for he used to see me before veiling. I got up because of his saying: "inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’un," which he uttered on recognizing me. I covered my face with my outer garment, and by God, he did not say to me a single word except, "inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’un," till he made his she-

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camel kneel down whereupon he trod on its forelegs and I mounted it. Then Safwan set out, leading the she-camel that was carrying me, till we met the army while they were resting during the hot midday. Muslim: The story in Muslim is very similar to that in Bukhari, kitab al-maghazi. In many points there is agreement between the three sources but when it comes to jilbab and hijab there are serious disagreements: 1) In Ibn Ishaq 'A'isha wrapped herself in a smock and is recognized by Safwan as the Prophet's wife because before the regulation about hijab came down he had seen her. This means that her face was not covered. Bukhari and Muslim also say that 'A'isha was recognized but the two versions in Bukhari and the one version in Muslim say that after seeing Safwan she covered her face. Ibn Ishaq and one version in Bukhari (kitab al-shahadat) say no such thing. Clearly in the time of Ibn Ishaq the view had not yet been established that women have to cover their faces. Such a view probably got prevalent only sometimes between the writing of Ibn Ishaq and of Bukhari, that is, sometimes between the first half of the second century and the early decades of the third century. But Ibn Ishaq does say that Safwan recognized 'A'isha as the Prophet's wife because he saw her before the regulation about hijab came down. Does that mean that after the verse about hijab he could not have seen her since she would not have gone out without covering her face? Not necessarily.

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The verse about hijab might have limited opportunity of seeing 'A'isha because now believers could not enter the Prophet's house (and each others' houses) without permission and were to talk from behind hijab and the Prophet's wife went out of the houses much less. 2) In Bukhari and Muslim it is said that 'A'isha fell asleep and was still sleeping when Safwan discovered her. In Ibn Ishaq 'A'isha does not fall asleep. Perhaps the purpose of sleep in the versions in Bukhari and Muslim is to explain why 'A'isha's face was not covered when Safwan saw her and recognized her. In Ibn Ishaq this question does not arise since his version is not assuming that women's face needs to be covered. 3) In Ibn Ishaq, Safwan exclaims: za'ina, a woman carried in a howdah and then asked 'A'isha how she got left behind but she did not speak to him. But in Bukhari and Muslim the only word that Safwan speaks is the istirja'. Besides this neither he nor 'A'isha say any thing. The tradition it seems is overstressing that the two did not even talk, even though the Qur'an only says that believers should talk with the wives of the Prophet from behind a hijab and not that they should not talk at all. Thus our examination of the most reliable hadith mentioning hijab shows that the first generations of Muslims did not think that women have to cover their faces.

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THE OCCASION OF THE REVELATION OF THE HIJAB VERSES: There are two different types of accounts about the circumstances under which the verses about hijab were revealed. Both accounts are found in both Bukhari and Muslim. First account: The more reliable account is attributed to Anas bin Malik and describes the occasion as the party (walimah) for the marriage of the Prophet with Zaynab. Muslim collects various versions of this account in his kitab al-nikah, Bab zawaj Zaynab bint Jahsh wa nazul al-hijab. Bukhari also has most of these ahadith in his kitab alisti’dhan, Bab ayah al-hijab and kitab at-tafsir, bab la tadkhulu buyut an-nabi... One of these ahadith reads: Anas bin Malik narrated that he was a boy of ten at the time when the Prophet immigrated to Medina. He added: I served the Messenger of God for ten years (the last part of his life) and I know more than the other people about the occasion whereupon the order of hijab was revealed. Ubay bin Ka'b used to ask me about it. The order about hijab was revealed during the marriage of the Messenger of God with Zaynab bint Jahsh. In the morning, the Prophet was her bridegroom and he invited the people, who took their meals and went away, but a group of them remained with the Messenger of God. When they prolonged their stay the Messenger of God got up and went out

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so that people leave. I too, went out along with him till he came to the lintel of 'A’isha's dwelling place. He thought that those people had left by then, so he returned, and I too, returned with him till he entered where Zaynab was and found that they were still sitting there and had not yet gone. The Prophet went out again, and so did I with him till he reached the lintel of 'A’isha's dwelling place, and then he thought that those people must have left by then, so he returned, and so did I with him, and found those people had gone. At that time the ayah of hijab was revealed, and the Prophet set a screen between me and him (his family). Let us recall the verse about hijab. It reads: 33:53. O believers! Do not enter the dwellings of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the proper time unless permission is granted to you. But when you are invited does enter and when the meal is over then disperse. Do not linger for (idle) chat. This would indeed annoy the Prophet but he would be shy of you (to ask you to go). And when you ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask of them from behind a hijab. This is purer for your hearts and their hearts. And it is not for you to annoy the Messenger of God nor that you should ever marry his wives after him. That in God’s sight will be an enormity. This verse fits well with the story described in the above hadith and that supports the authenticity of the hadith in some form. But hadith is not without difficulties, for there are many important differences among the various versions. Thus while in the above

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version the Prophet goes to the dwelling of ‘A’isha in other versions he goes to the dwellings of all the wives and greets them. In the above version he goes away several times, in others he goes away only once. Also in the above version Anas goes with the Prophet as he leaves the gathering, but in others he seems to stay behind and then informs the Prophet when people leave, as in the following version: Anas bin Malik narrated: When the Prophet married Zaynab, the people came and were offered a meal, and then they sat down (after finishing their meals) and started chatting. The Prophet showed as if he wanted to get up, but they did not get up. When he noticed that, he got up, and some of the people also got up and went away, while some others kept on sitting. When the Prophet returned to enter, he found the people still sitting, but then they got up and left. So I told the Prophet of their departure and he came and went in. I intended to go in but the Prophet put a screen between him, and me for God revealed: -- 'O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses..' (33.53) (Bukhari, kitab al-istidhan). Note also that in the above two versions all the people are gone when the verse about hijab is revealed and screen is set between Anas and the wife of the Prophet. But in another version the people are still present when the verse is revealed and the screen (hijab) is set up in their presence, after which they leave: So the Prophet went out and then returned several

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times while they were still sitting and talking. Then God revealed the verse [33:53]. So the screen was set up and the people went away. Still other important differences exist between the various versions. Thus in some versions meat and bread are served at the walimah while in others only hais (a sweet dish made from butter cheese and dates) was served. According to a version in Muslim, hais was sent by Umm Sulaym, Anas’ mother, and was miraculously multiplied to serve several hundred people, a story that is told in Bukhari in connection with the Prophet’s marriage with Safiyyah and not Zaynab. Second account: Another account of the circumstances that led to the revelation of the verse of hijab is also found in both Bukhari (kitab alistidhan, bab ayah al-hijab, kitab at-tafsir, bab la tadkhulu...) and Muslim (kitab as-salam, bab ibahat al-khuruj li an-nisa...). According to this account it is at the prompting of ‘Umar that the verse about hijab was revealed. In one simple form in Bukhari the account runs as follows: Umar narrated: I said, "O Messenger of God! Good and bad persons enter upon you, so I suggest that you order the mothers of the believers (i.e. your wives) to observe hijab." Then God revealed the verses of hijab.

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But in other versions a more elaborate story is told: 'A’isha narrated: ‘Umar bin al-Khattab used to say that the Messenger of God, "Let your wives be in hijab". But he did not do so. And the wives of the Prophet used to go at night to al-Manasi (a vast open place near Baqia at Medina to answer the call of nature). Once Sawda bint Zam'a (the wife of the Prophet) went out and she was a tall lady. 'Umar bin al-Khattab saw her while he was in a gathering and said, "I have recognized you, O Sawda!" (He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verse of al-hijab may be revealed.) So God revealed the verses of al-hijab. This account raises some questions. Why was ‘Umar more anxious for the verse of hijab than the Prophet and why the revelation was so dependent on what ‘Umar thought? In the hadith quoted earlier ‘Umar tells the Prophet, "Good and bad persons enter upon you". Were God and his Messenger unaware of the situation and needed to be reminded of it? More seriously, we have another hadith where ‘Umar sees Sawda not before but after the verse of hijab had been revealed: Narrated ‘A’isha: Sawda (the wife of the Prophet) went out for her need after hijab had been ordained. She was a fat huge lady, and everybody who knew her before could recognize her. So 'Umar bin alKhattab saw her and said, "O Sawda! By God, you cannot hide yourself from us, so think of a way by which you should not be recognized on going out. Sawda returned while the Messenger of God was in my house taking his supper and a bone covered with

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meat was in his hand. She entered and said, "O Messenger of God! I went out for a need and 'Umar said to me so-and-so." Then God inspired him (the Prophet) and when the state of inspiration was over and the bone was still in his hand, as he had not put it down, he said (to Sawda), "You (women) have been allowed to go out for your needs." (Bukhari, kitab attafsir, Bab la tadkhulu buyut an-nabi...) It is possible to argue that ‘Umar twice saw Sawda go out, once before the revelation of the verse of hijab and once after. But it is more natural to conclude that we are dealing here with a single story that is being used in two different ways. And it is far from certain that there is any historical truth behind any of the two traditions. This second tradition is confused about the issue involved. ‘Umar is telling Sawda to dress in a way that she is not recognized. He is not saying whether women can get out. But when the Prophet receives inspiration, he says that women can go out for their needs, which is not at all the issue for ‘Umar. This is also not an issue in the verses about hijab and jilbab, where the Qur’an is taking it for granted that women including the wives of the Prophet can go out (see above). So why is there need for a non-Qur’anic revelation for permitting women to go out? Also, on what grounds in Islamic teaching ‘Umar is saying that a woman should be dressed in such a way that she is not recognized. It seems that some people who in contrast to the authentic teaching of the Qur’an and Hadith wanted

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to cover women from head to toe or to confine them to houses were inventing all kinds of stories to project their sentiments and of course in the process producing traditions with all kinds of contradictions. HIJAB FROM THE BLIND IBN UMM MAKTUM: There are several references in Hadith where looking at a member of the opposite sex is mentioned. In some cases the reference can be taken to a lustful look only but in others it seems to be in a more absolute sense. Thus in one hadith the Prophet tells 'Ali, "Do not follow one look by a second one. For a while the first look is (automatically) forgiven, the second is not" (Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Darimi). (See also the hadith about al-Fadl bin ‘Abbas discussed below.) In another hadith a lustful look is described as adultery of the eyes: Ibn ‘Abbas narrated: I have not seen a thing resembling ‘lamam’ (minor sins) more than what Abu Hurayra reported from the Prophet who said: "God has written for son of Adam (i.e. human being) his share of adultery which he inevitably commits. The adultery of the eye is looking (with desire), the adultery of the tongue is talking; the self wishes and desires and sexual organs then either testify all this (i.e., go along with the desire) or deny it" (see, e.g. Bukhari, kitab al-'isti'dhan, bab zina al-jawarih...).

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The Qur'an makes parallel statements about men and women in that it commands both to lower their gaze. One hadith points in the same direction. Thus in Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, and Tirmidhi it is reported that two of the wives of the Prophet, Umm Salamah and Maymuna, were sitting with the Prophet when his blind companion Ibn Umm Maktum came. The Prophet told the wives to do hijab. They said, "Is he not blind? He will not see us, nor recognize us." The Prophet said, "Are you two also blind? Will you not see him?" Contrary to this we have another hadith found in the earlier collections Mu’watta (kitab attalaq, bab ma ja’a fi nafaqat al-mutallaqa) and Muslim (kitab at-talaq, bab al-mutallaqah al-na’in la nafaqah la ha), according to which the Prophet advised a divorced woman to stay in the home of the same Ibn Umm Maktum, saying "He is blind. You can stay there with freedom to dress with ease." While the first tradition is closer to the Qur’an in that it expects similar standards from both men and women, it may have misinterpreted the Qur’an in assuming that lowering gaze is complete avoidance of looking. The second hadith may have captured the Qur’anic spirit better in that it does not view lowering of gaze literally and absolutely. The concern in the hadith is more about privacy than about looking, although the latter is also important within the limits of the Qur’an. Incidentally, this hadith in Mu’watta and Muslim shows us another aspect of the atmosphere in early Islam. For the hadith relates that before sending the divorced woman to the house of Ibn Umm Maktum the Prophet considered the

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possibility of sending her to the house of Umm Sharik, but discarded the idea saying that "this is a woman whom my companions visit". Clearly, we do not have here a segregation of women that later became part of the Muslim ideal of piety.

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14.00.00 A Veiled Woman's Response to the Niqab Debate
In the past few weeks a British MP sparked a huge controversy in the UK on the Muslim woman’s dress commonly referred to by non-Muslim westerners as "the black veil" and by Muslims as the niqaab. I watched the controversy as it grew fiercely spreading across the western world and how it was being portrayed in the media. Many westerners began preparing for a mighty confrontation with the Muslim women who live in their countries that still choose to wear niqaab and they’ve assumed all of them to immigrate from "back home". Some of them describe the wearing of the niqaab by Muslim women as “backwards”, “uncomfortable for them”, and in the words of the British Prime Minister Tony Blair it is a “mark of separation”. But although they express their feelings towards it in many ways, the overriding question on the mind of many westerners appears to be: Why are some Muslim women who are not forced to wear niqaab still choosing to do so in free western countries? Indeed, many westerners are baffled by this, and instead of trying to understand they turn to their own alternative explanations such as “they must be brainwashed” because saying these women are “oppressed” just doesn’t cut it anymore.

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As for these westerners, then I as a Muslim woman who wears niqaab say leave them to their ignorant assumptions for it is the same whether we explain to them or do not explain to them; they have chosen not to understand. But there are other westerners who when I make eye contact with them on the streets look more curious than cruel. And many sincerely wonder the reason for us turning to this traditional Islaamic dress when we simply aren’t forced to. And as for them perhaps it is only more of an explanation from a veiled Muslim woman that they want, and to know how niqaab benefits us and to them I say fair enough. I have chosen to write this piece for them (specifically) and I sincerely hope that it serves them well in explaining this to them. I have witnessed many non-Muslim western writers and selfproclaimed intellectuals set out to try and explain for themselves how we feel about niqaab and constantly suggest it is not possible for a rational woman to want this. But I wonder what makes them qualified to speak from the Muslim woman’s perspective on niqaab. Is there anyone more qualified to say how these Muslim women feel about wearing niqaab other than one of these Muslim women themselves? So here I go to explain to you the benefits of wearing niqaab, but first here is some relevant background information about me: 1. I was born and raised in Canada my whole life, am (of course) a Canadian citizen, and the only other country I have been to was the United States. So occasionally when I am shouted at to go back home

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to my own country I’m not really sure how to. 2. English is my first and only language. 3. I am considered educated by both Muslims and non-Muslims alike, and I hope by my writing you have observed this on your own. 4. No one on planet earth has forced me to wear niqaab and at any moment I could take it off and there would be no real consequences from others for doing so. And similarly, no one forces me to defend wearing niqaab or to speak well of it, and this I also do by choice. 5. At age nine I was told to wear the Muslim headscarf (commonly referred by Muslims as hijaab) but was able to do so still running around in jeans and a shirt. In grade ten I progressed to wearing skirts on my own. In grade twelve I began wearing the long black robe (abaya), which often is seen on Muslim women. Later on in the year, I began wearing niqaab and then I wore a long and loose garment over my abaya commonly referred to by Muslims as a khimaar. And finally to top it all off, I began to wear gloves. I love dressing like this and am happy to. Thus, I progressed to dressing this way, and most of my life did not do so. 6. Three years ago, I never thought I would ever wear niqaab and had much disdain for it at the time. Silly me. 7. Among the women I know who wear niqaab and have helped me to think differently about it are women who have converted to Islam. Some of them

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are brown-skinned like me while others are white, black, Philippine etc. So this is where I come from and I hope you are now able to see its relevance to the issue at hand. But now to go on to the many benefits there are for other and me Muslim women in wearing the niqaab and dressing modestly. Some of the benefits I’ve received were expected and others have surprised me. This is not intended as a piece that fuels the debate on niqaab, but rather I’m just trying to convey the perspective of a Muslim woman on wearing her own niqaab. Surely as these are my feelings and no one can feel them but me, no one can argue against them. It may be wondered will I mention any disadvantages of wearing it, but by Allah I know of no real or meaningful disadvantages that are of any concern to me. Benefit 1: It is an Act of Worship that Can Yield Reward Of surprise to many I’m sure, in Islam it is well know that an act of worship goes beyond prayer. Wearing niqaab and dressing modestly for the Muslim woman is also an act of worship, an opportunity to please Allah, which means she can be rewarded for it. Imagine the comfort I then feel to know that every time I wear it I may be rewarded for doing so and to constantly be wearing it throughout life takes its potential reward almost beyond my understanding.

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Benefit 2: You are Immediately Identified as a Muslim Woman As women who dress like me are attributed to Islam, there is no need to explain to others what religion I am from. Since people immediately know I’m Muslim many of them then expect certain behaviors of mine to be different from theirs because of my different religious teachings. And many people kindly make way for my differences because of this acknowledgement. And it is an honor to be identified as a Muslim woman. Benefit 3: It Brings the Best Treatment from Men I have found Muslim and Non-Muslim men alike to treat me better than ever since I began observing niqaab. They move aside for me to let me pass, never come within my personal space, and practice decent behavior when it is necessary for them to speak to me. You won’t find them making inappropriate gestures or remarks to me that would offend many other women, but rather I’m not bothered. To my relief I am left peacefully alone to go about my business without the worry that I need to ward anyone off. Often I’ve seen or have known of women becoming extremely angry because men who find them attractive would bother them and when these women demand that they stop these men do not take them seriously. To many men, the primary message a woman gives off is in her manner of dress, which dictates to them how to treat her.

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Benefit 4: More Clothes Means more Protection When we dress in this manner around non-related men we do not incite their desires so that they may want to harm us. Rather, it effectively discourages them from bothering, molesting, or harassing us as the wearing of clothes and the covering up of beauty naturally calms the desires of the other gender rendering you to be left alone in peace. They have no business with us, and we cannot be deceived by them. And how often do we hear of young mothers becoming pregnant thinking themselves loved only to be abandoned when they are finished being toyed with. And how can a man desire a woman whose beauty is not even described to him? So naturally this type of dress is protection, it is the easiest protection to accomplish, and when we are in the company of our male relatives who would not harm us (like others men may) and in whom we can place our immediate trust regarding our honour and ourselves we don’t need to cover to this extent. The vast majority of the time in fact we are not dressed this way. This same idea of protection can be applied regarding the two genders. As women are generally physically weaker than men and more vulnerable to this type of harm by them, she can balance out this disadvantage by wearing more clothes for protection. So wearing niqaab is also befitting for our very nature as women.

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Benefit 5: More Protection Means a Greater Feeling of Ease and Peace Security is a human need that when felt naturally leaves a human being in a state of relief and encourages feelings of ease and peace. For me when I cover, I know I am shielded from every strange man who may have within them perversions, evil thoughts, or may commit lewd acts I may not know about. It is impossible to tell which of them may possess these ill traits in public, and so often do we find the most decent looking person to have committed the most heinous crimes. So we get to choose which men get to see us and we choose for them to be our male relatives (our honorable and beloved protectors). And it is a unique power for a woman to have this choice. To know then that simply wearing niqaab does away with much of these threats naturally leaves the Muslim woman feeling ease and peace beneath the veil. Benefit 6: It Makes Beauty Easy on Women Many women nowadays, particularly in the western world, exhaust themselves before going out in public applying make-up, tending to their hair, and choosing an outfit to wear for the day; a process which takes some hours. And before heading out many cram their feet into outrageously oppressive and uncomfortable high-heel shoes. Some women find the public pressure of body image so intense that they take to greater extremes and suffer from such disorders as

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bulimia and anorexia nervosa. Ironically, they call themselves free in doing so and equal to men yet do this primarily for the sake of men. And then upon coming home, these women in the presence of their spouse or family do not care to exert the same effort in tending to their appearance. For Muslim women it is the complete opposite, and the niqaab plays a huge part in that. We need not struggle to please the many men outside of our homes who have no business with us but we need only please our spouse and family and that is a lot less people. After all, the relationship lies between a woman and her spouse, and not a woman and other men in society. Or at least from an Islamic standpoint that is how meaningful relationships should be. Benefit 7: It Helps to Preserve Praiseworthy Virtues Among the virtues we Muslim women try to strive for, and indeed we consider them virtues, are the virtues of modesty and chastity. And these are virtues all Muslims strive for. The niqaab helps to preserve and feed these virtues. When the women of society possess them then the whole of society benefits. That is because we find there is a direct link between how women of a society generally dress and how much temptation there is for men and women to fall into fornication, adultery, and other despicable acts. And it is these acts that destroy families and cause all of society to fall into corruption and weakness. Having these virtues also paves the way for gaining other virtues such as decency, honour, uprightness,

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integrity, piety, discipline, honesty etc. Many westerners mock Muslim women in veil, and praise other types of women such as Hollywood actresses and endeavor to be like them. I wonder what good example we can take from them. Even though these women can publicly be seen in movies performing acts that at one point in time were done only in a bedroom, they are still seen as a beacon of light for the many women of the western world and are constantly called role models. And I have never witnessed the condemning of their behavior by westerners whilst the condemning of niqaab and the wearing of modest clothes has been vicious. I fear itwould be painfully hard and degrading to always attain their fake appearance, to be seen as a sex object, and to answer each call of this sickly vain society. So let it be seen by us in which way this leads to our happiness, goodness for us, and freedom. And let it be seen by us some meaningful and lasting relationships they are able to carry with their boyfriends, spouses and families as a result of their behavior. We do not see it. The behavior of many western women and what they value can likewise be baffling to us Muslim women. Benefit 8: It Means Freedom for Us Can it be denied that everyone has their own notion of what freedom is? For Muslim women, freedom is not as absurdly simple as: the fewer clothes you wear the freer you are. And it does not mean you are able to do whatever you wish. We as well as all Muslims

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consider us bound by religion and our worship is to Allah not to our own vain desires. Freedom first comes to us in worshipping Allah alone and not ascribing partners to Him or giving what belongs to Him to others. This is freedom in that it satisfies the natural inclination of a human being to worship their Lord and does so in a manner that can be easily understood and that gives Him His due respect. And as for the way niqaab offers us Muslim women freedom is that it frees us from all kinds of harm that comes to women from many angles and allows us to serve our Lord. Primarily I am referring to the harm that can be inflicted on women by men when women incite their natural desires. And it also frees us from going against our nature and we are allowed to have shame and we are not pressured to display our bodies to strangers. And we are freed from the expectation to please with our appearance every man in public. And this is what we consider to be freedom. And even if westerners were to consider whether or not we are free according to their standards even they would have to consider us free because we are doing what we want to do out of pure choice. Benefit 9: It is a Befitting Action for Nowadays Especially In the eyes of many, niqaab is a backwards thing, a thing from the past, a tradition, and something no longer needed nowadays. On the contrary, I have found the need to wear it more than ever especially because harassment, molestation, and assault on women are more wildly rampant than ever and the

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morals of society as a whole have decreased. The need for a woman to wear niqaab grows as the threats against her that niqaab effectively shields against increase. There is not denying in the west threats to a woman’s honour widely exist, and these threats to women also spread across the world from its direction. So although others may express their hatred for the niqaab and those who wear it, it cannot be said by other then a Muslim woman who chooses to wears it how we feel about wearing it, and what we consider it to do for us. So this is what I say, and be assured it reflects the views of other Muslim women who wear niqaab by choice in the west. Were others to say, “Well this is the opinion of only one of them” I would fear they would reflect yet further ignorance of Muslim women. In light of this great niqaab controversy I know of nobody more knowledgeable or experienced in the field of niqaab other then the veiled Muslim woman. And I know of nobody's opinion being more relevant and important in the niqaab debate other then hers. And I know of the niqaab more then those who don’t wear it. And of my niqaab I know of only good.

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15.00.00 A Japanese Woman's Experience of Hijab
Khaula Nakata, Yamaguchi City, Japan Salam bros and sisters, it’s a long but very beautiful story masAllah. Urs bro Islam A Japanese Woman's Experience of Hijab "A person blinded by prejudice may not see it, but a woman in hijab is as brightly beautiful as an angel, full of self-confidence, serenity and dignity. No signs of oppression scar her face. " When I returned to Islam, the religion of our inborn nature, a fierce debate raged about girls observing the hijab at schools in France. It still does. The majority, it seemed, thought that wearing the headscarf was contrary to the principle that public -that is statefunded - schools should be neutral with regard to religion. Even as a non-Muslim, I could not understand why there was such a fuss over such a small thing as a scarf on a Muslim student's head. Muslims contributed a proportionate amount of tax to

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the state funds. In my opinion, schools could respect religious beliefs and practices of students as long as they did not disrupt the school routine, nor pose a threat to discipline. However, the French faced, apparently, increasing unemployment and they felt insecure about the immigration of Arab workers. The sight of the hijab in their towns and schools aggravated such insecurity. More and more young people in Arab countries were (and are) wearing the hijab, despite the expectations of many Arabs and non-Arabs alike that it would disappear as Western secularism took root in Arab societies. Such a revival of Islamic practices is often regarded as an attempt by Muslims to restore their pride and identity, both undermined by colonialism. In Japan, it may be seen and understood as conservative traditionalism, or the result of antiWestern feeling, something that the Japanese themselves experienced following the first contact with Western culture during the Meiji era; they too reacted against a non-traditional lifestyle and Western dress. There is a tendency for people to be conservative in their ways and to react against anything new and unfamiliar without taking the time to see if it is good or bad. The feeling still persists amongst non-Muslims that Muslim women wear the hijab simply because they are slaves to tradition, so much so that it is seen as a symbol of oppression. Women' s liberation and

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independence is, so they believe, impossible unless they first remove the hijab. “Muslims” share such naivete with little or no knowledge of Islam. Being so used to secularism and religious eclecticism, pick and mix, they are unable to comprehend that Islam is universal and eternal. This apart, women all over the world, non-Arabs, are embracing Islam and wearing the hijab as a religious requirement, not a misdirected sense of "tradition." I am but one example of such women. My hijab is not a part of my racial or traditional identity; it has no social or political significance; it is, purely and simply, my religious identity. For non-Muslims, the hijab not only covers a woman' s hair, but also hides something, leaving them no access. They are being excluded from something, which they have taken for granted in secular society. I have worn the hijab since embracing Islam in Paris. The exact form of the hijab varies according to the country one is in, or the degree of the individual's religious awareness. In France I wore a simple scarf, which matched my dress and perched lightly on my head so that it was almost fashionable! Now, in Saudi Arabia, I wear an all-covering black cape; not even my eyes are visible. Thus, I have experienced the hijab from its simplest to its most complete form. What does the hijab mean to me? Although there have been many books and articles about the hijab,

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they always tend to be written from an outsider's point of view; I hope this will allow me to explain what I can observe from the inside, so to speak. When I decided to declare my Islam, I did not think whether I could pray five times a day or wear the hijab. Maybe I was scared that if I had given it serious thought I would have reached a negative conclusion, and that would affect my decision to become a Muslim. Until I visited the main mosque in Paris I had nothing to do with Islam; neither the prayers nor the hijab were familiar to me. In fact, both were unimaginable but my desire to be a Muslim was too strong (Alhamdulilah) for me to be overly concerned with what awaited me on the "other side" of my conversion. The benefits of observing hijab became clear to me following a lecture at the mosque when I kept my scarf on even after leaving the building. The lecture had filled me with such a previously unknown spiritual satisfaction that I simply did not want to remove it. Because of the cold weather, I did not attract too much attention but I did feel different, somehow purified and protected; I felt as if I was in Allah' s company.As a foreigner in Paris, I sometimes felt uneasy about being stared at by men. In my hijab I went unnoticed, protected from impolite stares. My hijab made me happy; it was both a sign of my obedience to Allah and a manifestation of my faith. I did not need to utter beliefs, the hijab stated them

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clearly for all to see, especially fellow Muslims, and thus it helped to strengthen the bonds of sisterhood in Islam. Wearing the hijab soon became spontaneous, albeit purely voluntary. No human being could force me to wear it; if they had, perhaps I would have rebelled and rejected it. However, the first Islamic book I read used very moderate language in this respect, saying that "Allah recommends it (the hijab) strongly" and since Islam (as the word itself indicates) means we are to obey Allah' s will I accomplished my Islamic duties willingly and without difficulty, Alhamdulilah. The hijab reminds people who see it that God exists, and it serves as a constant reminder to me that I should conduct myself as a Muslim. Just as police officers are more professionally aware while in uniform, so I had a stronger sense of being a Muslim wearing my hijab. Two weeks after my return to Islam, I went back to Japan for a family wedding and took the decision not to return to my studies in France; French literature had lost its appeal and the desire to study Arabic had replaced it. As a new Muslim with very little knowledge of Islam it was a big test for me to live in a small town in Japan completely isolated from Muslims. However, this isolation intensified my Islamic consciousness, and I knew that I was not alone as Allah was with me. I had to abandon many of my clothes and, with some help from a friend who knew dressmaking; I made some pantaloons, similar

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to Pakistani dress. I was not bothered by the strange looks the people gave me! After six months in Japan, my desire to study Arabic grew so much that I decided to go to Cairo, where I knew someone. None of my host family there spoke English (or Japanese!) and the lady who took my hand to lead me into the house was covered from head to toe in black. Even her face was covered. Although this is now familiar to me here in Riyadh, I remember being surprised at the time, recalling an incident in France when I had seen such dress and thought, "there is a woman enslaved by Arabic tradition, unaware of real Islam," (which, I believed, taught that covering the face was not a necessity, but an ethnic tradition). I wanted to tell the lady in Cairo that she was exaggerating her dress, that it was unnatural and abnormal. Instead, I was told that my self-made dress was not suitable to go out in, something I disagreed with since I understood that it satisfied the requirements for a Muslimah. But, when in Rome . . . So I bought some cloth and made a long dress, called khimar, which covered the loins and the arms completely. I was even ready to cover my face, something most of the sisters with whom I became acquainted did. They were, though, a small minority in Cairo. Generally speaking, young Egyptians, more or less fully westernized, kept their distance from women wearing khimar and called them "the sisters." Men

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treated us with respect and special politeness. Women wearing a khimar shared a sisterhood which lived up to the Prophet' s saying (Allah' s blessings and peace on him) that "a Muslim gives his salaam to the person he crosses in the street, whether he knows him or not." The sisters were, it is probably true to say, more conscious of their faith than those who wear scarves for the sake of custom, rather than for the sake of Allah. Before becoming a Muslimah, my preference was for active pants-style clothes, not the more feminine skirt, but the long dress I wore in Cairo pleased me; I felt elegant and more relaxed. In the western sense, black is a favorite color for evening wears as it accentuates the beauty of the wearer. My new sisters were truly beautiful in their black khimar, and a light akin to saintliness shone from their faces. Indeed, they are not unlike Roman Catholic nuns, something I noticed particularly when I had occasion to visit Paris soon after arriving in Saudi Arabia. I was in the same Metro carriage as a nun and I smiled at our similarity of dress. Hers was the symbol of her devotion to God, as is that of a Muslimah. I often wonder why people say nothing about the veil of the Catholic nun but criticize vehemently the veil of a Muslimah, regarding it as a symbol of` "terrorism" and "oppression." I did not mind abandoning colorful clothes in favor of black; in fact, I had always had a sense of longing for the religious lifestyle of a nun even before becoming a

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Muslimah! Nevertheless, I balked at the suggestion that I should wear my khimar back in Japan. I was angry at the sister's lack of understanding: Islam commands us to cover our bodies, and as long as this is done, one may dress as desired. Every society has its own fashions and such long black clothes in Japan could make people think I am crazy, and reject Islam even before I could explain its teachings. Our argument revolved around this aspect. After another six months in Cairo, however, I was so accustomed to my long dress that I started to think that I would wear it on my return to Japan. My concession was that I had some dresses made in light colors, and some white khimars, in the belief that they would be less shocking in Japan than the black variety. I was right. The Japanese reacted rather well to my white khimars, and they seemed to be able to guess that I was of a religious persuasion. I heard one girl telling her friend that I was a Buddhist nun; how similar a Muslimah, a buddhist nun and a Christian nun are! Once, on a train, the elderly man next to me asked why I was dressed in such unusual fashion. When I explained that I was a Muslimah and that Islam commands women to cover their bodies so as not to trouble men who are weak and unable to resist temptation, he seemed impressed. When he left the

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train he thanked me and said that he would have liked more time to speak to me about Islam. In this instance, the hijab prompted a discussion on Islam with a Japanese man who would not normally be accustomed to talking about religion. As in Cairo, the hijab acted as a means of identification between Muslims; I found myself on the way to a study circle wondering if I was on the right route when I saw a group of sisters wearing the hijab. We greeted each other with salaam and went on to the meeting together. My father was worried when I went out in long sleeves and a head-cover even in the hottest weather, but I found that my hijab protected me from the sun. Indeed, it was I who also felt uneasy looking at my younger sister's legs while she wore short pants. I have often been embarrassed, even before declaring Islam, by the sight of a women' s bosoms and hips clearly outlined by tight, thin clothing. I felt as if I was seeing something secret. If such a sight embarrasses me, one of the same sex, it is not difficult to imagine the effect on men. In Islam, men and women are commanded to dress modestly and not be naked in public, even in all male or all female situations. It is clear that what is acceptable to be bared in society varies according to societal or individual understanding. For example, in Japan fifty years ago it was considered vulgar to swim in a swimming suit but now bikinis are the norm. If, however, a woman

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swam topless she would be regarded as shameless. To go topless on the south coast of France, however, is the norm. On some beaches in America, nudists lie as naked as the day they were born. If a nudist were to ask a ` liberated ' female who rejects the hijab why she still covers her bosoms and hips which are as natural as her hands and face could she give an honest answer? The definition of what part of a woman' s body should remain private to her is altered to suit the whims and fancies of either men or their surrogates, the so-called feminists. But in Islam we have no such problems: Allah has defined what may and may not be bared, and we follow. The way people walk around naked (or almost so), excreting or making love in public, robs them of the sense of shame and reduces them to the status of animals. In Japan, women only wear makeup when they go out and have little regard for how they look at home. In Islam a wife will try to look beautiful for her husband and her husband will try to look good for his wife. There is modesty even between husband and wife and this embellishes the relationship. Muslims are accused of being over-sensitive about the human body but the degree of sexual harassment, which occurs these days, justifies modest dress. Just as a short skirt can send the signal that the wearer is available to men, so the hijab signals, loud and clear: "I am forbidden for you." The Prophet, Allah's blessings and peace on him,

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once asked his daughter Fatima, May Allah be pleased with her, "What is the best for a woman?" And she replied: "Not to see men and not to be seen by them." The Prophet, Allah' s blessings and peace on him, was pleased and said: "You are truly my daughter." This shows that it is preferable for a woman to stay at home and avoid contact with male strangers as much as possible. Observing the hijab, when one goes outside, has the same effect. Having married, I left japan for Saudi Arabia, where it is customary for the women to cover their face outdoors. I was impatient to try the niqab (face cover), and curious to know how it felt. Of course, non-Muslim women generally wear a black cloak, rather non-chalantly thrown over their shoulders but do not cover their faces; Non-Saudi Muslim women also often keep their faces uncovered. Once accustomed to, the niqab is certainly not inconvenient. In fact I felt like the owner of a secret masterpiece, a treasure, which you can neither know about, nor see. Whereas non-Muslims may think they are life-imitating caricatures when they see Muslim couples walk in the streets, the oppressed, and the oppressor, the possessed, and the possessor, the reality is that the women feel like queens being led by servants. My first niqab left my eyes uncovered. But in winter I wore a fine eye- covering as well. All the feelings of un-ease when a man's eyes met mine disappeared. As

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with sunglasses, the visual intrusion of strangers was prevented. It is an error of judgment to think that a Muslim woman covers herself because she is a private possession of her husband. In fact, she preserves her dignity and refuses to be possessed by strangers. It is non-Muslim (and "liberated" Muslim) women who are to be pitied for displaying their private self for all to see. Observing the hijab from outside, it is impossible to see what it hides. The gap, between being outside and looking in, and being inside and looking out, explains in part the void in the understanding of Islam. An outsider may see Islam as restricting Muslims. In side, however, there is peace, freedom, and joy, which those who experience it have never known before. Practicing Muslims, whether those born in Muslim families or those returned to Islam, choose Islam rather than the illusory freedom of secular life. If it oppresses women, why are so many welleducated young women in Europe, America, Japan, Australia, indeed all over the world, abandoning "liberty" and "independence" and embracing Islam? A person blinded by prejudice may not see it, but a woman in hijab is as brightly beautiful as an angel, full of self-confidence, serenity, and dignity. No signs of oppression scar her face. "For indeed it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts within the bosoms, that grow blind," says the Qur'an (Al-Hajj

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22:46). How else can we explain the great gap in understanding between such people and us?

16.00.00
DEBATE

A conversation about hijab
Bismillâhi-r-Rahmâni-r-Rahîm Al-Hamdulillâhi WasSalâtu Was-Salâmu 'Alâ Rasûlillâh, Wa Ba'd: As-Salâmu 'Alaikum Wa Rahmatullâhi Wa Barakâtuh "I'm so tired" "Tired of what?" "Of all these people judging me." "Who judged you?" "Like that woman, every time I sit with her, she tells me to wear hijab." "Oh, hijab and music! The mother of all topics!" "Yeah I listen to music without hijab haha!" "May be she was just giving you advice." "I don't need her advice. I know my religion. Can't she mind her own business?" "Maybe you misunderstood. She was just being nice." "Keeping out of my business that would be nice..." "But it's her duty to encourage you do to good."

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"Trust me. That was no encouragement. And what do you mean ‘good’?" "Well, wearing hijab, that would be a good thing to do.” "Says who?" "It's in the Qur'an, isn't it?" "Yes. She did quote me something." "She said Surah Nur, and other places of the Qur'an." "Yes, but it's not a big sin anyway. Helping people and praying is more important." "True. But big things start with small things." "That's a good point, but what you wear is not important. What's important is to have a good healthy heart." "What you wear is not important?" "That's what I said." "Then why do you spend an hour every morning fixing up?" "What do you mean?" "You spend money on cosmetics, not to mention all the time you spend on fixing your hair and low-carb dieting." "So?" "So, your appearance IS important."

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"No. I said wearing hijab is not an important thing in religion." "If it's not an important thing in religion, why is it mentioned in the Holy Qur'an?" "You know I can't follow all that's in Qur'an." "You mean God tells you something to do, you disobey and then it's OK?" "Yes. God is forgiving." "God is forgiving to those who repent and do not repeat their mistakes." "Says who?" "Says the same book that tells you to cover." "But I don't like hijab, it limits my freedom." "But the lotions, lipsticks, mascara and other cosmetics set you free? What's your definition of freedom anyway?" "Freedom is in doing whatever you like to do." "No. Freedom is in doing the right thing, not in doing whatever we wish to do." "Look! I've seen so many people who don't wear hijab and are nice people, and so many who wear hijab and are bad people." "So what? There are people who are nice to you but are alcoholic. Should we all be alcoholics? You made a stupid point."

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"I don't want to be an extremist or a fanatic. I'm OK the way I am without hijab." "Then you are a secular fanatic. An extremist in disobeying God." "You don't get it, if I wear hijab, who would marry me?" "So all these people with hijab never get married?" "Okay! What if I get married and my husband doesn't like it? And wants me to remove it?" "What if your husband wants you to go out with him on a bank robbery?" "That's irrelevant, bank robbery is a crime." "Disobeying your Creator is not a crime?" "But then who would hire me?" "A company that respects people for who they are." "Not after 9-11" "Yes. After 9-11. Don't you know about Hanan who just got into med school? And the other one, what was her name, the girl who always wore a white hijab.ummm." "Yasmeen?" "Yes. Yasmeen. She just finished her MBA and is now interning for GE." "Why do you reduce religion to a piece of cloth anyway?"

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"Why do you reduce womanhood to high heals and lipstick colors?" "You didn't answer my question." "In fact, I did. Hijab is not just a piece of cloth. It is obeying God in a difficult environment. It is courage, faith in action, and true womanhood. But your short sleeves, tight pants." "That's called 'fashion', you live in a cave or something? First of all, hijab was founded by men who wanted to control women." "Really? I did not know men could control women by hijab." "Yes. That's what it is." "What about the women who fight their husbands to wear hijab? And why the women in France who are forced to remove their hijab by men? What do you say about that?" "Well, that's different." "What difference? The woman who asked you to wear hijab, She was a woman, right?" "Right, but." "But fashions that are designed and promoted by male-dominated corporations, set you free? Men have no control on exposing women and using them as a commodity! Give me a break!"

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"Wait, let me finish, I was saying." "Saying what? You think that men control women by hijab?" "Yes." "Specifically how?" "By telling women how and what to wear, dummy!" "Don’t TV, magazines and movies tell you what to wear, and how to be 'attractive'?" "Of course, it's fashion." "Isn't that control? Pressuring you to wear what they want you to wear?" Silence. "Not just controlling you, but also controlling the market." "What do you mean?" "I mean, you are told to look skinny and anorexic like that woman on the cover of the magazine, by men who design those magazines and sell those products." "I don't get it. What does hijab have to do with products." "It has everything to do with that. Don't you see? Hijab is a threat to consumerism, women who spend billions of dollars to look skinny and live by standards of fashion designed by men - and then here is Islam, saying trash all that nonsense and focus on

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your soul, not on your looks, and do not worry what men think of your looks." "Like I don't have to buy hijab? Isn't hijab a product?" "Yes, it is. It is a product that sets you free from male-dominated consumer ism." "Stop lecturing me! I WILL NOT WEAR HIJAB! It is awkward, outdated, and totally not suitable for this society ... Moreover; I am only 20 and too young to wear hijab!" "Fine Say that to your Lord, when you face Him on Judgment Day." "Fine." "Fine." Silence "Shut up and I don't want to hear more about hijab niqab schmijab Punjab!" Silence. She stared at the mirror, tired of arguing with herself all this time. Successful enough, she managed to shut the voices in her head, with her own opinions triumphant in victory on the matter, and a final modern decision accepted by the society, rejected by the Faith: Yes to curls or blowed dried hair, no to hijab. May Allaah swt keep us away from that ameen.

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ChefJundi Ichi nin no kamisama shika ta ni kami ha nai, Muhammado ha kamisama no shiito desu 一人の神様しか他に神はない、ムハンマド は神様の使徒です Last edited by Bint.Muhammad: 10-30-2006 at 01:05 am

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16.00.00 New Muslims and hijabs
Oct 12, 2006 - 4:24 PM – by Mabsoot Iman (Monica) Aparicio Christianity to Islam *Recommended Viewing* Beautiful Story. This sister became Muslim after her daughter started questioning her about various beliefs such as the trinity and she asked why she had to pray to the cross. So Monica started on her path to find the truth, and alhamdulilah she found Islam. This is a really amazing story about how someone found guidance in Islam. She also talks about her own experience in Arab countries with what she sees as problem, with their lack of understanding about Islam. -----------------------------------Turning Muslim in Texas George W Bush may be backed by Christian fundamentalists but in his home state of Texas, Islam is the latest big draw. Eric was a Baptist preacher before he became a Muslim 14 years ago. Now he prays five times a day – even in the middle of watching a football game. His wife, Karen, also a convert, is covered from head to toe in the traditional Muslim Clothes. Islam, says Eric, ‘is everything I wanted Christianty to be’. His mother has found it hard to come to terms with her son’s conversion and believes he will return to the Christan faith: ‘Then he will be a dynamic preacher.’ Eric says: ‘Maybe some day she’ll embrace Islam.’

Garment What’s And Why 295 -----------------------------------------Muslim in the Family UK In the current climate, converting to Islam is not an obvious choice or an easy one, either for converts or their families. So, why have 14,000 Brits (and counting) now taken that leap of faith? In A Muslim in the Family, Rageh Omaar tries to find out. For the four converts featured in the documentary, conversion is a positive step - but one that demands sacrifices of them and can cause worry and confusion for those closest to them. Ultimately, though, it is a hopeful film. At a time when many people talk about "a clash of civilisations" between Islam and the West, converts just might become a living bridge between Islam and the West. -----------------------------Sister Amy was a student at Birmingham University. This video shows how she has become Muslim and interviews her family as they find out about her changing from Christianity to Islam. Her father and Brother speak about how she has changed positively. That she never used to like going out to clubs or getting drunk, she was always looking for a better way. Her family realise that she is a lot happier now that she has found Islam. Video also shows Amy discussing her previous life; her views on marriage, finding the right hijab and the way Muslims live. ------------------------------------

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Spanish Muslim Woman Talks about Islam and Women's Rights. Bismillah, Assalamu alaykum, this is a Spanish Muslim sister, she talks about Women's rights in Islam. This sister's name is Fatimah Milla - Rumayor. She is educated and bought up in Spain, she works as a linguist and is from Spain. She points out some useful information about Islam and she addresses the misconceptions that many people have about Islam and the role of women in it. ----------------------Sister Carolyne in England accepts the truth and becomes Muslim, Love for Islam. Carolyne decided to become Muslim. Carolyne says> "if any human being doesnt question why we're here, then... i think there is something wrong in that.One part of me was saying that it might upset people if i did this, it got to the stage in January, three years ago, when i just thought i have to follow this, this is the right way. I like to identify myself as a muslim........ I do think i really should be covering my head......" She talks about how she first told her parents that she was Muslim. How and Why she became Muslim, as well as her thoughts on Hijab. ------------------------------------

Yvonne Ridley Explains the Role of Women in Islam.

Garment What’s And Why 297 She Talks about How She was an Active Feminist and how she came to Choose Islam as her way of life. Clears Misconceptions, She used to believe that the Quran advocated beating of women, subjudation and intolerance. However, when she actually looked in the Quran and read it, She became convinced it was truly a message from God. She left Church of England and Christianity to become a Muslim. She explains Islam quite well in this video and it is a recommended video to watch for anyone Muslim or non Muslim.Also She Critisises Muslim Haters like Irshad Manji. ---------------------------------

Aminah's Story. A Revert Sister from England and her family Aminah's Story. A Revert Sister from England and her family. She explains how she became Muslim as a teenager, how she knows over 50 Muslim revert sisters like herself. The film is set just after the september 11 NYC terrorist attacks, and shows the family and how they live. It also shows their decision to go and make Hijrah (immigration) to a Muslim country, the Yemen. ------------------------------------

Latifa (Rachel) and her Parents Talk about Islam. Latifa (Rachel) Became Muslim whilst still studying in University as a Teenager. Her family were shocked by her decision. But, as they come to terms with it, they realise that their ideas about it were completely wrong. Her Mother Says regarding her daughter's reversion to Islam, "And Now We have a Very forthright, intelligent, independent

Garment What’s And Why 298 young lady as a daughter. And i am so proud of her!" -----------------------------------------------The Life of Cat Stevens and How he Became Muslim. T he Life of Cat Stevens and How he Became Muslim. This Documentary follows the life of Yusuf Islam, from his family background, his early life and aspirations.. his career and his change to the beautiful faith of Islam and the great benefits it gave his life. It also shows some of the work that he does today. It is a nice documentary which shows how a famous Pop Star became Muslim. His family and other people from the music industry are interviewed. ----------------------------------Latest Yusuf Islam Interview Assalamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullah, This is A new Yusuf Islam Interview, talks about Islam. He mentions how he was always searching for answers to life. Also talks about his new charity work. And his past and present dawah projects, how he is calling people to Islam. Yusuf Islam formerly known as Cat Stevens in a recent interview. A nice interview with a once famous Pop Star who became Muslim after finding the beauty of Islam. ----------------------------------Yusuf Islam in his latest TV interview with

Garment What’s And Why 299 the ex-BBC Director Alan Yentob. A recent Video which was made earlier this year. They Discuss Yusuf's Life and how he came from being Cat Steven World Famous Popstar to him finding Islam. Also interviewing his brother and they speak about their family life. They come across as a very close family. It is one of the best documentaries about Yusuf Islam around. So please do watch it. -------------------------------------Susan Carland (Australian Muslim of the Year 2004) and her journey to Islam. This short film made and supplied by Sister VerityP. It was made before she became Muslim. It follows Susan Carland (Australian Muslim of the Year 2004) and her journey to Islam, why she decided to become a muslim. It shows Susan before she was Muslim and shows her family. She talks about Islam and what Islam means to her. Verity, who was filming this video before she became a Muslim says: "It was the first film I ever made, I converted to Islam shortly after making it." -----------------------------------Malcolm X Story of him Coming to True Islam Malcolm went on the Hajj and found True Islam. This documentary shows how Malcolm Renounced his past with Nation of Islam and had become a True Muslim following Sunni Islam. Malcolm talks about his experience on the hajj, and what it means to be a Muslim. He suprises everyone on his return from

Garment What’s And Why 300 Makkah, and unfortunately just before he could make an even greater impact by calling people to Islam he was assassinated. May Allah bless him, one of the most important people in 20th Century Politics and American History. -----------------------

Islam in Nederland (Netherlands!) Video about Revert Muslim women in Holland. This video focuses on the lives of some Dutch Muslim women and their families. Their life as Muslims in Europe. MashaAllah, they really love and practise their deen as much as they can. They try their best to make their families be comfortable and understand why they took the decisions that they did to become Muslim and to worship Allah alone. Thanks to sister Hajar for translation. ----------------------------

Sister Crystal Talks about her life Before and After Islam Sister Crystal Talks about her life Before and After Islam. The sister is from Canada. She was from Christian background, she found many inconsistencies in her Religion. She had always wanted to know more about who her creator was. When she was at college she met Muslims and found what they said was interesting. She had a Muslim boyfriend and had relationship with him. A Christian Arab tried to make her stop from becoming a Muslim by giving her biased anti-Islam literature. He would even give the literature to her mother. This made the Sister interested, so she went to the Mosque and tried to discover more about ISlam, she found that what the Arab man

Garment What’s And Why 301 was telling her was wrong. ----------------------------

Muslim in the Family UK In the current climate, converting to Islam is not an obvious choice or an easy one, either for converts or their families. So, why have 14,000 Brits (and counting) now taken that leap of faith? In A Muslim in the Family, Rageh Omaar tries to find out. For the four converts featured in the documentary, conversion is a positive step - but one that demands sacrifices of them and can cause worry and confusion for those closest to them. Ultimately, though, it is a hopeful film. At a time when many people talk about "a clash of civilisations" between Islam and the West, converts just might become a living bridge between Islam and the West. --------------------------------

British man and French Woman, Two New Muslims! An Englishman recounts his life how he grew up and found Islam. Also he recounts a story of how he went to his childhood home in France and got in contact with a woman he used to know whilst he was a teenager. They went on to get married. She however, was still a Christian. They adopted an Islamic lifestyle, and she learnt a lot about Islam from him during this time. Although she was skeptical of Islam at first, partly due to the French style of secularism she was used to. she later saw that

Garment What’s And Why 302 Islam was indeed perfect and the true message from God so she too became a Muslim. This is An interesting story. indeed. ---------------------------------

Islam French woman talks about becoming Muslim and Marriage A French Muslim sister talks about Islam, and How she became Muslim . She explains how her decision to become a Muslim had nothing to do with her husband or anyone else. So, It was her own decision and this is what ISlam teaches ------------------------

English Brother Yusuf Adam Explains Why He Became Muslim! Yusuf recalls how he spoke to a neigbour about Islam in 1997. She had asked if he had ever read the Quran. At first Yusuf thought this was stupid, but, he decided to read it "just to shut her up", so he could have "an intellectual discussion with her"anyway. It took him six weeks to study the Quran and he was amazed and interested by its beauty and truth. The brother read about the Prophets Abraham, Jesus and others and read about Tawheed, Correct belief monotheistic belief in God.This affected the brother and he became Muslim. Alhamdulillah. ----------------------------------

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Brother Abu Hafsa Entering Islam! Brother's name is Abu Hafsa ( it means Father of Hafsa), Abdul Malik (Servant of God), formerly Jerome is the first 100% blind person who was accepted into ... professional wrestling!! He came to Islam after reading about the beautiful story of Malcolm X, and then later he studied Islam and began to read the Quran in Arabic Braille. Walhamdulilah ------------------------------

People who became Muslim Due to 9/11 (i.e. Researching About Islam):

Jewish And Catholic Women Women Become Muslim After September 11. AlJazeera Interviews some American New Muslim women who became Muslim after 9/11. Aljazeera and FoxNews both interviewed Angela Colins, an ex-Catholic from sunny California. Safiya, who used to be an American Jew... Lost 8 of her relatives in September 11, however, this did not make her blame Islam for the actions of the perpetrators of September 11. Instead, she loved Islam and became Muslim. Having studied Islam and the Quran both women found out, that it has little to do with the extremist actions of a few lone people..... but it gives true meaning to worshipping God alone and not associating any partners with him. It is God's true message to mankind.

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Angela Colins Muslim After September 11 on Fox News - She Became Muslim After 9/11. She had many of her family members who died on September 11th. She studied Islamand came to find it to be quite different from what other people told her. . and the way the media percieved it to be. She reverted to Islam from her Catholic Faith. Now she is a Muslim teacher. Be sure to check out the Aljazeera interview, which also has an American Jew who turned to Islam after September 11. --------------------------------

New Muslim Reverts This Ramadan! ( Allison Poole& Barbara Cartabuke) in New York, post-9/11 CNN Interview: More And More People are Turning to Islam, especially after 9/11. September 11 has led to the media giving Islam a lot of attention. Although, the media has mostly reported negatively about Muslims and Islam, it has made people research about Islam. This has led to many to find the Truth about Islam and

Garment What’s And Why 305 readily accept it as their faith. CNN states that 1/4 of the 6 Million Muslims in the United States are Revert Muslims (Converts).

Allison Poole was Raised as a Southern Baptist Christian. She became Muslim this Ramadan. Alhamdulilah! Since becoming Muslim, she feels more at peace and finds Islam has made he life much better as she has the right belief in God. Her family is completely behind her decision, but she finds fellow Americans still misunderstand Islam and say bad things. Barbara Cartabuke is also an American who has found Islam post 911. She was a Catholic who always felt praying to Jesus and reading Hail Mary's was wrong. When she found Islam, it was a breath of fresh air and answered all her questions regarding the reality of her existance and of true belief in God. ------------------------------------Youngest Muslim Reverts in The World. Children in England Turn To Islam. This video just Shows kids who were interested in Islam. They were attracted to the Mosque and wanted to learn more about the Religion of Islam. Nobody has gone around to actually tell these kids what to do, it is by their own free choice and they just like going to the Mosque and like Muslim culture.. This documentary tells their

Garment What’s And Why 306 story and how the children miss not being able to go to the mosque. This is juxtaposed to the views of their siblings and family. --------------------------------------

4 New Muslims from 4 Corners of the World This is A great Documentary telling the story of Four people who have Reverted to the beautiful and true religion of Islam and how their life has changed for the better. They give accounts of their lives from before Islam and after reverting to Islam. This is an interesting video for those who want to know more about Islam and what it means to people who follow it. --------------------------------

Brother Rasid from Christianity to Islam Bismillah, Brother Rasheed used to be a Christian and God was always important to him, he grew up and was influenced heavily by the hiphop culture in his teen years and he became materialistic. Alhamdulilah he later found Islam. In This video he talks about his life before Islam and how he became Muslim and why. Interesting story about how he forgot to pay for an item and whilst on his way back to return the good, was caught for shoplifting. This made him embarrassed as he was from a kind and good family, even though he was innocent. It made him think about God and Islam. ------------------------------

Garment What’s And Why 307 Yusuf Estes Journey to Islam. How he became Muslim. Brother Yusuf Estes was a Christian Preacher, but Alhamdulillah he found the light of Islam and became a Muslim. He gives a very interesting little talk here about his life.. Infact, he looked at Arabs and Muslims in a negative light and only knew what the media presented to him. It was through his interaction with Muslim people and from studying Islam that he came to understand Islam and know that it was definitely the Truth. He became enlightened with regards to the true belief in God and in Jesus. Its quite funny too. Islamic information Video. ---------------------------------------

Sister Jan is an English Revert to Islam. She explains why she loves Islam so much. She converted from Christianity, "my friends say you were a Good Christian, why have you sold out?, almost is what they would imply.. my answer to that is well i didnt know about the Prophet (Muhammad enriching of my faith" .......... ) so its been

..........."It was only in the 1960s (in England), when we (women) could open a bank account without having our husband sign the bank cheque. Islamic Women have always had those rights. If i stick to what the Quran says to me, and what the message is, it is very clear to me, that i have total equality. Just do what it says, and nobody can argue with me on that.".............. -----------------------------------

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Video New Muslims and Islam in the Phillipines Manila New Muslims and Islam in the Phillipines. Discusses Origins of Islam in the Asia Pacific. Historical evidence that Islam was NOT Spread by the Sword!! Islam came by the way of Muslim traders from Yemen. Many Christian Catholic people from the Phillipines are turning to Islam in their hundreds. Infact, they account for the largest percentage of Reversions in the Middle East as well as in the Phillipines. This video has interview with a Lawyer who became Muslim after studing Islamic Law. He became convinced Islam was the Truth as he was suprised by the justice that Islamic law gave. -------------------------------------

17.00.00 Tips for Beginning to Wear Hijab
This is a good article from al Muhajabah's Islamic Blog:

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Introduction One of the most difficult decisions many Muslim sisters face is the decision to start wearing hijab. This is certainly true for reverts, but may also be true for sisters whose families or even whose cultures are not particularly observant. As revert myself, I have been through the whole thing. I would like to offer some advice that I hope inshallah will be helpful to sisters who are considering wearing hijab but find that something is holding them back. Learning About Hijab The first step is to learn about hijab. There is so much information out there and unfortunately much of it seems to be conflicting. Although most of what you see agrees that the sister must cover everything but her face and hands, some groups say that it is fard to cover everything but the eyes. Meanwhile, certain other groups are dedicated to claiming that covering the hair is not obligatory. It is very easy to get confused. And there are other questions. What is a jilbab? Is it fard to wear one? What do all the names mean? I have spent about two years researching these issues for myself and I have written several articles that set out what to the best of my knowledge are the correct rules of hijab. Each of these is linked below for you to look at. Special Focus on Hijab - This is a section in a larger

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article. It explains where the ruling on covering everything but the face and hands comes from, and the conditions of the headscarf. It also refutes the claims of those who say that covering the hair is not fard. Evidences for Jilbab - The jilbab seems to be the forgotten obligation of hijab. This article presents dalils from Quran and Sunna, and opinions of many scholars, to show that wearing a jilbab is fard, and it also discusses the conditions and rules of the jilbab. Examining the Dalils for Niqab - In this article I examine the dalils that are presented by those who claim that niqab is fard and I show that these are not as compelling as they seem at first. I am actually a strong supporter of the opinion that niqab is mustahabb and sunna but I do not believe that it is fard and I believe that saying that it is fard is to introduce into the religion an obligation that Allah SWT and the Prophet (sAas) did not. Bonus: See my Glossary of Hijab Styles. For your convenience, I present a brief guide to the rules of dress for the Muslim sister for different situations. 1) Around her husband, a sister may dress however she chooses. There are no restrictions on what the husband can see or touch. 2) Around the mahram relatives, women, and

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children (a complete list of exemptions is given in Surah an-Nur ayah 31), a sister should cover her awra. There are different opinions on the extent of this. The most sensible that I have seen is from the upper chest to the knee. This includes the region that is also awra in men (navel to knee) and extends upwards to cover the woman's bosom, which is a special concern for her. Display of the hair, arms, lower legs and feet, is universally agreed to be halal for this category. 3) Around non-mahram men, a sister must cover all of her body except her face and her hands. The face is the circle of the face only and does not include the ears or any of the hair. Just think about what you wash in wudu. The covering of the hair, neck, shoulders, and upper chest must specifically be accomplished by the khimar (headscarf). Loose, opaque clothing that obscures the shape of the figure should cover the arms, torso, and legs. A long-sleeved blouse and a jumper, a long loose tunic and a long skirt, or shalwar kameez are all examples of what is acceptable. As well, most scholars’ say that the feet must be covered with socks and shoes although a few scholars allow the wearing of sandals. 4) Outdoors and in open public places (such as the market or the masjid), a sister must wear a jilbab as an outer garment, that is, over her other clothes. If she is wearing a khimar, then the jilbab only needs to cover from the shoulders to the ankles, such as a long

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coat. If she is not wearing a khimar, then the jilbab should cover the head and neck as well. The above rules set out what you need to wear in each situation in order to be observing correct hijab. Note: Most sisters, including myself, approached hijab in several stages. Usually the first stage is the modest clothing such as the blouse and jumper, tunic and skirt, or shalwar kameez. The second stage is to add the headscarf (properly called khimar). The third stage, often taken much later after reading up on the dalils, is to add the jilbab when outdoors. In the way of things, I expect that most sisters who are reading this have already adopted the modest clothing and are worried about the khimar. Deciding to Wear Hijab This is where the difficulties usually come in. For many sisters, it truly is a jihad. I remember very vividly how scared I was the first day I put on the headscarf and went out into public. As long as you are just wearing the modest clothes, nobody has to know that you are a Muslim. Once you complete your hijab with the headscarf, you are suddenly announcing to everyone who sees you that "I am a Muslim". Here is some advice based on my own experiences. Wear it for the sake of Allah SWT Various statements are made about why you should wear hijab, such as for modesty or for protection, but

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the real reason that we wear hijab is that Allah SWT has commanded it. Whenever anyone asks you, why do you dress like that, that's the only answer you need to give them. Allah SWT is the source of everything we have, our existence, our life, our capability, even our goodness. If He ever stopped sustaining us, we would vanish in that instant. If He ever took away what he gives us, we would never have even a speck of it. If we worked for millions of years, we could never repay Him for all that He has given us. And yet He does give it to us, and all He asks in return is that we do our best to obey what He has commanded us. Surely wearing hijab is a very small thing that you can do for Him compared to what He does for you! Wear it for the hope of Jannah Allah SWT makes tests for us in this world. He makes things difficult for us. He wants to see if we will remember Him, if we will have faith in Him, and if we will trust in Him. These qualities are what is meant by "sabr". Allah SWT does not lose the work of anyone, ever (see Surah Ali Imran ayah 195). Even if it seems like nobody is paying attention to you or notices or appreciates good things that you do, Allah SWT has seen them, and He will not forget them. Even when it seems like the whole world is against you, Allah SWT is always there for you when you turn to Him. Remember this.

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Allah SWT always wants the best for us and in His wisdom He knows why each thing that happens to us is in fact best for us. When it seems like everything is going wrong and life is just one disaster after another, it is easy to forget this and to become bitter and skeptical. Yet we must remember always to have faith that Allah SWT knows best why He has willed this for us, and we must always ask Him only "Make me pleased with what You have willed for me". This world we live in, although it seems at times to be the only real thing, is actually fleeting compared to the Hereafter, which is better and more abiding. The trials of this world will seem as fleeting as a nightmare when seen from the Hereafter, and the pleasures of this world will also seem as fleeting as a dream when seen from the Hereafter. It's our happiness in the Hereafter that we should be most worried about attaining, because it is what will last forever; and it's our suffering in the Hereafter that we should be most worried about avoiding, because it also will last forever. Allah SWT has promised Jannah to those who remain steadfast in their faith in Him and who trust in Him. The more difficult it is for you to have sabr, the greater the reward for it. So what will it be? Ease in this world, and perhaps the eternal sufferings in Hell? Or, difficulty in this world, and inshallah in the eternal bliss of Jannah. Let's face it, the old clichés are true: there's no such thing as a free lunch and you

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can almost never have your cake and eat it too. We've all got to face difficulties some time. Better by far that they be in the world than in the Hereafter. So that's what you should set your mind to. Yes, it's difficult to wear hijab. Your family or your friends may reject you; you may face harassment and persecution or be fired from your job. These are very scary thoughts. But if you have sabr and trust in Allah SWT, I swear to you sister, this is the path to Jannah, and when you look back on the Day of Qiyamah you will know that it was worth it and have no regrets. Wear it today and trust in Allah SWT for tomorrow What do I mean by that? What I mean is that you should take it one day at a time, or even one outing at a time. Sometimes the future seems to stretch on forever and ever and you don't think you can make it that long. You want to give up before you even begin. So sometimes the best thing to do is to keep you mind focused on what is immediately at hand. Allah SWT will take care of the future. If you have to go out to the market, then concentrate on being able to wear hijab just for this activity and on getting through it. If you do get through it and nothing bad happened, then give thanks to Allah SWT for making it easy for you, and turn your mind to your next outing. Or if you have to go out to school or work, then concentrate on being able to wear hijab just for this

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one day and on getting through it. And give thanks to Allah SWT when you have made it, and turn your mind to the next day. Eventually the outings will turn into days and the days into weeks, and the weeks into months. One day you will realize that you have been wearing hijab for quite a long time and it isn't really as bad as you feared, and Allah SWT helped you get through it. Don't be ashamed. Sometimes it is like this. The most important thing is to have sabr and keep your trust in Allah SWT always. Wear it and spite the shaytan My dear sister, the worries and fears in your mind are the whisperings of the shaytan. He wants to talk you out of obeying Allah SWT. It is very easy to keep going around in circles in your mind and to dwell on all the things that could go wrong. I know that I myself have a tendency to do this, I put it off and I dither and I wait for "the perfect time". If I let myself, I would never do anything at all! So the thing you have to remember is that you do not need to be perfect in iman to wear hijab. If perfection were a qualification, where is the sister who could wear it? You must also not fall into the trap of thinking that you should wait until all your worries and fears have disappeared. They never will! Trust me on this, sister.

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True courage is going ahead to do what's right even though you are still nervous and scared. So don't listen to the shaytan. Ignore the worries and fears he whispers into your mind. Tell him that you will not let him keep you from obeying Allah SWT and you will not let him rule your life. Make the decision to wear it Once you have come to know in your heart that you must wear hijab, then you have to set a day and JUST DO IT This is the only way. Set a day and when that day comes, you have to do it. Don't back down. Don't give up. Do it. Offer salat al-istikhara. Make du'a. Make lots of du'a. Do not stop making du'a. Ask Allah SWT to give you strength. Ask Him to make it easy for you. Ask Him to help you. He will, I swear it to you. He is always there for you when you turn to Him. Remember how much He has given you, how everything that you have, even your very existence, is due to Him. Remember that He deserves this from you. Remember the promise of Jannah. Remember that remaining patient and faithful through difficulty now may lead to Jannah, inshallah. Even if bad things happen, keep these thoughts in your mind. Don't worry about tomorrow. Just concentrate on getting

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through today, and leave tomorrow to Allah SWT until it gets here. That's how you do it. Final Words of Encouragement I have been wearing hijab since September 1999. I do not regret it. I have never for one instant regretted it. I do not regret it even one iota. Inshallah, you will discover that you feel the same. Even within a few months I came to feel that I would not be properly dressed if I went out not wearing hijab. This is when you know that you have made it! Never feel that you are alone, or that you are the only one who is scared and worried and nervous. Just about every other sister who has travelled down this road has gone through the same things. I know I have. Your sisters are here for you. We have been where you are. We are encouraging you and cheering you on. We know what it takes because we had to find that in ourselves too. We are praying for your success just as we prayed for our own. Come and join us. Allah does not burden a soul except what it can bear. For it is what it has earned, and upon it is what it has made due. "Our Lord and Sustainer, do not condemn us if we forget or do wrong. Our Lord and Sustainer do not put a burden on us like the burden You put on those who were before us. Our Lord and Sustainer do

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not put a burden on us that we cannot endure. And blot out (our sins) and forgive us, and be gentle to us. You are our Protector. So help us against the rejectors." (Surah al-Baqarat ayah 286)

18.00.00 Special Focus on Hijab
By: Al-Muhajabah One of the favorite tricks of the hadith rejectors is to announce that it is not obligatory for the Muslim woman to cover her hair. Surah an-Nur ayah 31 says in part, "Tell the faithful women...to extend their KHUMUR to cover their bosoms". The word "khumur" is the plural of "khimar". According to the hadith rejectors the meaning of "khimar" is simply "a covering" because the root KHAMARA means, "to

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cover". Thus, they say, the Quran here only tells the women to extend a covering over their bosoms. They say that the Quran does not mention the covering of the head. Is this true? Because of the importance of hijab, it is worth exploring this issue in depth. The hijab of the Muslim woman has been set out in two verses of the Quran, Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59. The list of commands contained in these verses is as follows: 1) Lower the gaze (24:31) 2) Guard the private parts (24:31) 3) Not display their beauty "except what is apparent of it" (24:31) 4) Extend the khimar to cover the bosom (24:31) 5) Not display their beauty beyond "what is apparent of it" except to the people listed in 24:31 6) Not stamp their feet so as to reveal hidden beauty (24:31) 7) Draw the jilbab close around them when abroad (33:59) What does "except what is apparent" mean? This is one of the passages in the Quran that is not clear in meaning (see Surah Ali Imran ayah 7). This is one of the passages in the Quran that the Prophet (sAas) needs to explain. And Surah an-Nahl ayah 44 (see above) tells us that the Prophet will explain the Quran. The Prophet's explanation of "what is apparent" is the face and the hands (to see dalils for this claim, go to Opinions of scholars in favor of

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displaying the face and hands). Therefore, following what the Prophet (sAas) has explained of the Quran, we can re-write the list this way: 1) Lower the gaze (24:31) 2) Guard the private parts (24:31) 3) Not display their beauty except their faces and hands (24:31) 4) Extend the khimar to cover the bosom (24:31) 5) Not display their beauty beyond the face and hands except to the people listed in 24:31 6) Not stamp their feet so as to reveal hidden beauty (24:31) 7) Draw the jilbab close around them when abroad (33:59) Now, it is very clear. If a woman must conceal all of her beauty except her face and hands, she must necessarily be concealing her hair. Even if "not to display their beauty except what is apparent" were the only text in the verse, yet as the Prophet (sAas) has explained the meaning of the Quran, a woman would still have to cover everything but her face and hands. We can also look at the meaning of the word "khimar". The word "khimar" comes from the root KHAMARA meaning "to cover". However, the particular form "khimar" may have a more specific meaning. Let's look at what it is: 1) In the Arabic of the Prophet (sAas), the word "khimar" referred to a HEADCOVERING. This can be seen in the hadiths in which the Prophet (sAas)

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wiped his wet hands over his khimar and his socks, from which the scholars have derived that it is halal to wipe wet hands over the HEADCOVERING and the socks. 2) The authorities on classical Arabic have defined the word "khimar" as a HEADCOVERING. For instance the dictionary Aqrab al-Mawarid defines the word "khimar" as, "All such pieces of cloth which are used to cover the head. It is a piece of cloth which is used by a woman to cover her head". The great scholar Imam Abu'l-Fida ibn Kathir defines the word "khimar" in the following words, "Khumur is the plural of khimar which means something that covers, and is what is used to cover the head. This is what is known among the people as a khimar". A modern scholar, Shaykh Muhammad al-Munajjid says, "Khimar comes from the word khamr, the root meaning of which is to cover. For example, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: 'Khammiru aaniyatakum (cover your vessels).' Everything that covers something else is called its khimar. But in common usage khimar has come to be used as a name for the garment with which a woman covers her head; in some cases this does not go against the linguistic meaning of khimar. Some of the fuqaha have defined it as that which covers the head, the temples and the neck. The difference between the hijab and the khimar is that the hijab is something which covers all of a woman’s body, whilst the khimar in general is something with which a woman covers her head".

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3) Imam Abu Abdullah Qurtubi describes the historical circumstances relating to the wearing of the khimar in pre-Islamic Arabia as follows, "Women in those days used to cover their heads with the khimar, throwing its ends upon their backs. This left the neck and the upper part of the chest bare, along with the ears, in the manner of the Christians. Then Allah commanded them to cover those parts with the khimar". Similarly, Imam Abu'l-Fida ibn Kathir reports, "'Draw their khumur to cover their bosoms' means that they should wear the khimar in such a way that they cover their chests so that they will be different from the women of the jahiliyyah who did not do that but would pass in front of men with their chests uncovered and with their necks, forelocks, hair and earrings uncovered". Both of these descriptions provide clear, explicit, specific explanations of what "extend their khimars to cover their bosoms" means. 4) The scholars have agreed unanimously that the khimar is a HEADCOVERING. Please do not try to interpret the Quran by just looking up in some dictionary what the meaning of the root KHAMARA means. Each of the forms derived from this root may have a specific meaning. In order to interpret the Quran properly you need to know what the specific meaning of the particular form "khimar" was in the Arabic of the Prophet (sAas). According to the common usage recorded from that time (in the hadiths), to dictionaries that have preserved the classical Arabic, and to the reports

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of the actual practice of the women of that time, the khimar is a HEADCOVERING. Can you present any hadiths or other Arabic writing of the time of the Prophet (sAas) that use the word "khimar" to mean a shirt or any type of covering other than a HEADCOVERING? Can you present entries from dictionaries of classical Arabic that fail to give HEADCOVERING as a defintion of "khimar"? Can you present reports of the dress of the pre-Islamic Arab women that apply the word "khimar" to other than a HEADCOVERING? Can you present opinions of the ulama that the khimar is other than a HEADCOVERING? If not, you have not refuted any of the evidence presented here. The examples I have given above are the accepted ways of determining what the meaning of the Quran is. Now, if I told you "extend your hat to cover your ears" you would know automatically that the hat is a heacovering because that is what the word "hat" means in English, and you would understand automatically that the hat is to remain on the head while being extended down to cover the ears. Likewise the Arabs, when they were told "extend your khimar to cover your bosom", knew automatically that the khimar was a HEADCOVERING because that is what the word "khimar" means in Arabic, and they understood automatically that the khimar was to remain on the head while being extended to cover the bosom.

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There can be no doubt about it, the meaning of the Arabic word "khimar" is HEADCOVERING. The Quran doesn't mention the word "head" separately because there is no need to, any more than Englishspeakers need to be told that a hat is worn on the head. So let's have a third go at that list of commands for hijab: 1) Lower the gaze (24:31) 2) Guard the private parts (24:31) 3) Not display their beauty except their faces and hands (24:31) 4) Extend the HEADCOVERING to cover the bosom (24:31) 5) Not display the beauty beyond the face and hands except to the people listed in 24:31 6) Not stamp the feet so as to reveal hidden beauty (24:31) 7) Draw the jilbab close around them when abroad (33:59) From this we can see that the Muslim woman has been given two directives in regard to covering the hair. The first directive is that the hair, along with the rest of the body except the face and the hands, must be concealed except before the people listed in 24:31. The second directive is that the hair should specifically be covered by the khimar, which must also extend to cover the neck and upper chest. The directives of the Quran and Sunnah are quite clear and they quite clearly direct women to wear

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HEADSCARVES and to cover all of their bodies except the face and hands. Along with the jilbab (outergarment) and the modest conduct of lowering the gaze, guarding the private parts, and not stamping the feet, THIS IS HIJAB. This is what Allah SWT and His Messenger have decided in this matter. It is not for a believing man or a believing woman to say anything further or to disobey (Quran 33:36).

19.00.00 Evidences for Jilbab
Introduction PART ONE: What does the Shari'a say about the garment called "jilbab"? PART TWO: What do the scholars say about the garment called "jilbab"? Section A: Verification that these are the two opinions of the scholars Section B:

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Why do the scholars say that the jilbab is an outergarment? Section C: So the jilbab is an outergarment, but why? PART THREE: What are the rules for the jilbab? Conclusion Appendices Appendix One: Further Reading Appendix Two: What does the word "hijab" really mean? Appendix Three: More Hadiths Introduction One of the issues in hijab that is surrounded by the most confusion is the JILBAB. Some sisters assert that the jilbab is not fard and that "shalwar kameez and a headscarf are OK". Other sisters protest that the name "jilbab" is used in Arabic today to refer to a very specific style and type of garment and Allah SWT could not have specified that all Muslim sisters are to wear this and only this type of garment. After seeing these same questions and these same claims come up over and over again, I decided to write an essay setting out the answers to the questions: what is the jilbab? and is it fard to wear one? For the purposes of this essay we are going to assume that we know nothing of Arab culture or of the types of garments that Arabs may wear. All we have to go on is the Quran and the Sunna, and the works of the scholars who have devoted their lives to study of the Quran and Sunna. After all, Muslims are supposed to

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base themselves only on Quran and Sunna. Because of this, I will refer a lot to the garment called "jilbab" and I ask my readers to suspend any knowledge they may have of what type of garment is called "jilbab". PART ONE: What does the Shari'a say about the garment called "jilbab"? In the Quran, Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 (33:59) says: Ya ayyuha an-Nabiyy qul li azwajika wa banatika wa nisa al-mu'minin yudnina alayhinna min jalabib hinna; dhalika adna an yu'rafna fa laa yu'dhayn. Wa kana Allahu Ghafur Rahim O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the faithful to draw their JALABIB close around them; that is better that they will be recognized and not annoyed. And God is ever Forgiving, Gentle. The word "jalabib" is the plural of "jilbab". Clearly, this ayah states a command for Muslim women to wear a garment which Allah SWT has called "jilbab". Beyond this, the hadiths record how the sahabiyat (rAa) went about obeying Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 when it was revealed: Sunan Abu Dawud Book 32 #4090. Narrated Umm Salama, Umm al-Mu'minin: When the verse, "That they should draw their jalabib close around them" was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if they had crows over their heads by wearing jalabib.

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In case there is any confusion about how the Muslim sister is supposed to go about obeying Surah alAhzab ayah 59, this hadith shows that the correct way to obey it is to wear the garment called "jilbab", since that is what the sahabiyat (rAa) did. Note that they did not hesitate or delay or make excuses: when they were told by Allah SWT to wear the garment called "jilbab", they did, right away. And there is more even than this. Some of the women remained in seclusion and never went out so that they did not own the garment called "jilbab". The hadiths record that the Prophet (sAas) commanded the women to come out for the Eid gathering, and what he said about the issue of the garment called "jilbab": Sahih Bukhari Book 8 #347. Narrated Umm Atiyya: We were ordered to bring out our menstruating women and screened women to the religious gatherings and invocation of the Muslims on the two Eid festivals. These menstruating women were to keep away from the musalla. A woman asked, "O Messenger of Allah! What about one who does not have a jilbab?". He said, "Let her borrow the jilbab of her companion". My dear sisters, surely the meaning of this is clear enough to you. If it were halal for a sister to go outdoors without the garment called "jilbab", why didn't the Prophet (sAas) allow the women to do this? But instead, he told them that they must find the

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garment called "jilbab" to wear, even if they had to borrow one from a friend. The rule is plain: it is disobedience of Allah SWT and of His messenger for a woman to go outdoors if she is not wearing the garment called "jilbab". Period I really do not see any other meaning from Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 or from these hadiths. Do you? PART TWO: What do the scholars say about the garment called "jilbab"? I have provided above evidence from the Quran and Sunna that it is fard for the Muslim sister to wear the garment called "jilbab" when she goes out from her house. This is not just my opinion but the opinion of most of the scholars (ulama). The next question is: what type of garment is the jilbab? There are two opinions among the scholars on this matter: 1) That it is a loose outergarment like a coat or cloak. 2) That it is a sheet covering the entire body except for the eyes. Notice that neither of these opinions mentions "conservative clothing" or "loose clothing" nor does either opinion say "shalwar kameez are OK". Section A: Verification that these are the two opinions of the scholars Some well-known modern scholars who support the first opinion

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1) Shaykh Yusuf Qaradawi (Shafi'i) - see Women's Awrah - Qaradawi describes the jilbab as "a loose outergarment" 2) Shaykh Muhammad Nasir ad-Din Albani (Salafi) Shaykh Albani had written an essay called "Women's Dress". Unfortunately, that web page seems to have vanished. He describes the jilbab as "an outergarment that is thick and opaque and covers the clothing under it and the woman's form". Some well-known modern scholars who support the second opinion 1) Syed Abu-Ala' Maududi (Hanafi) -see Introduction to Surah al-Ahzab - Maududi describes the jilbab as an "outergarment covering the face". 2) Shaykh Abdul-Aziz ibn Baz, Chief Mufti of Saudi Arabia (Salafi) - see The Danger of Women at Work Ibn Baz describes the jilbab as "covering all of the body except the eyes". Some webpages that support the first opinion Hijab - The jilbab is "an overgarment". Hijab: A Code of Conduct Not Just a Headcover The jilbab is "a full length coat or cloak". Hijab: How It Protects And Benefits - The jilbab is "a large loose overcoat". In Support of Hijaab - The jilbab is "a garment that covers the entire body and should hang down loosely". The Islamic Hijab (Cover for Muslim Women) - The jilbab is "a dress that covers the whole body of a

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woman from top to bottom...worn over her normal clothing". The Islamic Rulings Regarding Women's Dress - The jilbab is "an outergarment to cover her clothing". Khimar and Jilbab - An Islamic Obligation - The jilbab is "an outergarment". Looking at Women - The jilbab is "a wide and loosefitting garment over her normal clothing that drapes down towards the floor". Must a Muslim Woman Hide Her Face? - The jilbab is "a large cloak". The Quraanic Concept of Hijaab - The jilbab is "a large cloak". Road to Hijab - The purpose of the jilbab is "...to cover the clothes a woman wears in her house". Social System in Islam - The jilbab is "a barrel-like garment over her clothes". The Veil in Islam - The jilbab is "the cloak that conceals all of the body including the head". Women in Islam - The jilbab is "an outergarment, a cloth that covers a person from head to foot". Some webpages that support the second opinion Different Rulings in Favor of Niqab - The jilbab is "a sheet...covers her body except one eye". Evidences on an-Niqab - The jilbab is "a cloak that covers her entire body so that nothing appears of her but one eye". Niqab - The jilbab is "a loose outer cloak which totally conceals her entire body including her face". Niqab: According to Quran and Sunnah - The jilbab is "a loose outergarment that covers all of a woman's body...over her head and her face".

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Niqab an Act of Obedience - The jilbab is "a cloth which covers the entire body from head to toe including the face". Niqaab - Innovation or True Islamic Tradition? - The jilbab is "a cloak...to screen completely except the eyes". Niqaab in Light of Quran and Sahih Hadith - The jilbab is "a cloak covering the entire body including the face and hands". Hijaab - Women's Dress Code and Conduct - The jilbab is "the outer sheet or cloak worn in such a way as to cover her entire person from head to toe including the face". The Second Category of Hijaab - The jilbab is "a cover from head to foot including the face". Section B: Why do the scholars say that the jilbab is an outergarment? There is one thing that all the scholars referenced above are agreed on and that is that the garment called "jilbab" is an outergarment. Their only disagreement is in how much of the body the jilbab is to cover. How did the scholars derive that the jilbab is an outergarment? There are two ways to do this. First, they might just look up the definition of the word "jilbab" in a dictionary of classical Arabic. Second, they might verify for themselves by intelligent analysis of the Quran that the jilbab is an outergarment. We can look at both of these sources. What is the defintion of the word "jilbab" in Arabic?

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The definitive dictionary of classical Arabic, Lisan al-Arab by ibn al-Mandhur, provides the following definition, "The jilbab is the outergarment, mantle, or cloak. It is derived from the word tajalbaba, which means to clothe. Jilbab is the outer sheet or covering which a woman wraps around her ON TOP OF HER GARMENTS to cover herself from head to toe. It hides her body completely" (Lisan al-Arab, volume 7, page 273) The dictionary Al-Qamus al-Muhit by Abu Tahir alFayruzabadi provides the definition, "The jilbab...is that which CONCEALS THE CLOTHES likes a cover" The dictionary Al-Sihah by Jawhari provides the definition, "The jilbab is the cover and some say it is a sheet. Jilbab has been mentioned in the hadiths with the meaning of sheet, which the woman WRAPPED OVER HER CLOTHES" Intelligent Analysis of the Quran 1: An argument why the jilbab is not just modest clothing but must be an OUTERGARMENT Quran Surah an-Nur ayah 31 (24:31) reads as follows: Wa qul li al-mu'minat yaghdudna min absarihinna wa yahfazna furujahunna wa laa yubdina zenatahunna illa maa zahara min haa wal-yadribna bi khumurihinna ala juyubihinna; wa laa yubdina zenatahunna illa li bu'ulatihinna aw aba'ihinna aw

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aba'i bu'ulatihinna aw abna'ihinna aw abna'i bu'ulatihinna aw ikhwanihinna aw bani ikhwanihinna aw bani akhawatihinna aw nisa'ihinna aw maa malakat aymanu hunna aw at-tabi'ina ghayri ulu'lirbat min ar-rijal aw at-tifl alladhina lam yazharu ala awrat an-nisa wa laa yadribna bi arjulihinna li yu'lama maa yukhfina min zenatahinna. Wa tubu ilaAllahi jami'an, ayyuha al-mu'minun la'allakum tuflihun. And say to the faithful women to lower their gazes, and to guard their private parts, and not to display their adornment except what is apparent of it, and to extend their headcoverings (khimars) to cover their bosoms, and not to display their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers, or their sons, or their husband's sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their womenfolk, or what their right hands rule (slaves), or the followers from the men who do not feel sexual desire, or the small children to whom the nakedness of women is not apparent, and not to strike their feet (on the ground) so as to make known what they hide of their adornments. And turn in repentance to Allah together, O you the faithful, in order that you are successful. This ayah lists a number of things that Muslim sisters are to do: 1) Lower the gaze (from looking at what is haram to be seen of men). 2) Guard the private parts. This means not to let them be seen or touched by who is haram to see or touch.

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3) Conceal all of the body and its decorations except "what is apparent of it". Most scholars are agreed that the face and the hands are "what is apparent of it". Some scholars say that only the eyes are "what is apparent of it". See also point 5 below. 4) Wear a khimar (headcovering) and extend it to cover the bosom. This means that it covers the hair, the neck, the shoulders, and the upper chest. 5) That the husband, mahram relatives, women, slaves, male servants who do not feel sexual desire, and children are the only people who can see more of the woman than "what is apparent of it". 6) Not stamp the feet or otherwise act so that what is hidden becomes known to others. It can clearly be seen from this analysis that Allah SWT in Suran an-Nur ayah 31 already commands a woman that when non-mahram men are present, she is to wear clothing that is loose and opaque plus a headscarf (referred to in the Quran as khimar) so that with these garments, she covers everything but her face and her hands. If this were all that was necessary, why has Allah SWT also revealed Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59? For this reason, the garment called "jilbab" that has been commanded in Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 must be something in addition to the modest clothing. The only obvious interpretation is that the garment called "jilbab" is some type of outergarment, something that is worn on top of the modest clothing commanded in Surah an-Nur ayah 31. Intelligent Analysis of the Quran 2: Another argument why the jilbab is not just modest

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clothing but must be an OUTERGARMENT Surah an-Nur ayah 60 (24:60) provides an exemption for certain women in regard to hijab. It reads as follows: Wa al-qawa'idu min an-nisa allati laa yarjuuna nikahan fa laysa alayhinna junahun an yada'na thiyab hunna ghayra mutabarrijat bi zenat. Wa an yasta'fifna khayru la hunna. WaAllahu Sami'un Alim And the elderly women, those who do not have hope of marriage, there is no fault on them that they lay aside (some of) their clothing as long as they are not making a display of their adornment. And that they refrain is better for them. And Allah is the Hearer, the Knower Here is an interesting puzzle. Elderly women who have no hope of getting married again are allowed to "lay aside (some of) their clothing" - but they are restricted from making a display of their adornment. How can a woman lay aside any part of her clothing without making a display of her body? The only possible answer is that she is laying aside an extra layer. When she takes off the extra layer, the layer of clothing that she is wearing under it will still cover all of her beauty that must be covered. This is the only way to understand this ayah. So what is this "extra layer" that Muslim women are wearing? My dear sister, it is the jilbab! What else can it be? What we have here is that Surah an-Nur

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ayah 31 that when she is around non-mahram men, she must cover all of her body except her face and her hands commands the Muslim woman. This rule is always in force whenever non-mahram men are present, whether she is indoors or outdoors. But when she goes outdoors, she is to wear an extra layer, an outergarment, over the clothes she is already wearing (on account of Surah an-Nur ayah 31). This extra layer or outer garment is the jilbab. The only exception to the rule regarding dress is that elderly women who do not have hope of marriage may leave off the jilbab as long as they continue to wear other clothing that covers all of their bodies except the face and hands. Surah an-Nur ayah 60 would not even make sense unless the jilbab is an extra layer, an outergarment worn over the normal clothes. This is another reason why modest clothing is not enough. Note 1: This opinion has been reported from Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Mujahid, Sa'id ibn Jubayr, Abu Ash-Sha'tha, Ibrahim An-Nakha'i, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri, and Al-Awza'i in Imam ibn Kathir's tafsir (commentary) on Surah an-Nur ayah 60. Convinced yet? Note 2: Shaykh Yusuf Qaradawi discusses the permission for elderly women to lay aside their jilbabs at The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. Shaykh Qaradawi, as noted above, holds that the jilbab is a coat or cloak.

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The same issue is discussed from the viewpoint that the jilbab covers everything but the eyes at The Third Category of Hijaab (note: this group seem to be holding to the traditional interpretation that it is the jilbab that the elderly women may lay aside, even though in their viewpoint this allows the display of some of the beauty - the face and hands - that is otherwise concealed). Section C: So, the jilbab is an OUTERGARMENT, but why? Modesty is always a concern whenever non-mahram men are present, and for the purposes of modesty a sister must wear a khimar and loose, opaque clothing so that she covers everything but her face and hands whenever non-mahram men are present. This is what Surah an-Nur ayah 31 has commanded. It is therefore correct to say that shalwar kameez or other conservative outfits, and the khimar, are sufficient for the purposes of modesty. But when a sister goes outdoors or in public, there may be other concerns beyond modesty. Surah alAhzab ayah 59 mentions these concerns in giving the reason for the command of jilbab, when it says "that is better so that they are recognized and not annoyed". From this we can see that the jilbab has two purposes: 1) To make the sister recognizable as a Muslim woman 2) To protect her from being "annoyed", i.e., harassed

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A discussion of the duty of the Muslim sister to assert her Islamic identity can be found at Fear and the Muslim Woman, which discusses why Muslim women in the West should not let fear prevent them from wearing hijab, but they should assert their Islamic identity. A discussion of the importance of protection for the Muslim sister when she is in unsecured locations outdoors or in public where all manner of people may be around can be found at The Quraanic Concept of Hijaab, which discusses why Allah SWT has set different rules of dress for different situations, and why the situation outdoors and in public demands protection for the Muslim sister. In conclusion, the jilbab is not primarily for the purpose of modesty, which is satisfied by the khimar and conservative clothes, but is for the additional purposes of identity and protection, issues that are only factors of concern outdoors and in open public places. This is why Allah SWT has commanded the jilbab for these locations. PART THREE: What are the rules for the jilbab? In Part One of this essay, I have presented dalils from the Quran and Sunna to show that it is fard for the Muslim sister to wear a garment which Allah SWT has called "jilbab" when she goes out from her house. In Part Two of the essay I have presented various

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types of evidence and arguments that the word "jilbab" refers to an OUTERGARMENT, an extra layer that is worn over the clothing. This is the way that the scholars have understood it. The scholars have also stated as a general rule that clothing that is used to cover must be thick and opaque so that it does not show what is beneath it, and that it must be loose so that it does not reveal the contours of what is beneath it. These two conditions must necessarily apply to the jilbab as well. The scholars have differed as to just how much the jilbab must cover. As explained above, there are two opinions on this. The first opinion: The first opinion of the scholars is, in effect, that the jilbab or outer garment should cover everything but the face and the hands. There are two sub-opinions here. The first sub-opinion is that there must be a single garment that covers everything that must be covered. This would mean that the garment called "jilbab" must be something like the garments known as "abaya" and "chador". The second sub-opinion is that a combination of garments that cover what the jilbab is to cover may substitute for the jilbab. Specifically, these scholars permit the head to be covered by the headscarf (khimar) and the feet to covered by socks and shoes. As long as a sister covers her head and neck with the khimar, then her jilbab does not need to cover over her head, but may be like a coat, which just covers from the shoulders

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on down. And as long as her feet are completely covered with socks and shoes, then her jilbab does not need to come down to the ground but may come down only to the ankles. This is the majority position. We can say that according to the majority opinion of the scholars, the garment called "jilbab" is any garment that meets the following criteria: This garment is an outer garment; an extra layer; something worn over the normal clothing if the khimar is not worn, this garment must cover from the top of the head on down, but if the khimar is worn, this garment only needs to cover from the shoulders on down. Similarly, if socks are not worn, this garment must cover down to the ground, but if socks are worn so that the feet are completely covered, this garment only needs to cover down to the ankles. This garment must be made of fabric that is thick and opaque so that it does not show what is beneath it, and it must be loose so that it does not reveal the contours of what is beneath it. These scholars are agreed that the jilbab is to be worn outdoors and in open public places like the market, the masjid, etc. It does not need to be worn indoor, such as in the house or a building where access is controlled. This is because the jilbab serves the purposes of asserting the Islamic identity of a sister, and of protecting her from harassment, which are

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concerns only outdoors and in public. The rules in Surah an-Nur ayah 31 govern the dress of the Muslim woman indoors. Thus a sister may wear the khimar and modest clothing indoors, and this is her hijab for this location. However, the jilbab is part of her hijab when she is outdoors or in open public places. The second opinion According to the second opinion of the scholars, the jilbab must cover the entire body except for the eyes. Just as most of the scholars who hold the first opinion allow the khimar, coat, and socks and shoes to substitute for a one-piece outer garment that covers everything but the face and hands, so most of the scholars who hold the second opinion allow multiple pieces to substitute for the one-piece outer garment or sheet that covers everything but the eyes. These multiple pieces may include a separate affixed face veil (niqab), a headscarf (khimar), a coat or cloak (jilbab), and socks and shoes. However, these scholars would strongly emphasize that the coatjilbab is not the same as the Quranic jilbab. The Quranic jilbab must cover everything but the eyes. It should also be noted that most of these scholars also hold that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 mandates the covering of everything but the eyes around nonmahram men, even when the sister is indoors. It is not clear if these scholars would allow modest clothes, a khimar, and a niqab or if they do require the jilbab indoors (i.e., if non-mahram men are present). Sisters who prefer this opinion should consult a scholar for specific advice on this question.

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Note: Some scholars of this group hold that the jilbab must be a one-piece outergarment that covers everything but the eyes. This is the position of the Saudi ulama. Conclusion: Inshallah, I hope that in this essay I have proved that the Quran and Sunna do command and make obligatory the garment called "jilbab". I further hope that I have shown that the word "jilbab" in classical Arabic, and in the usage of the scholars, is a very general term that may be translated into English simply as "outer garment". Any outer garment that meets the criteria given above is a jilbab. There are many styles that are possible, and there are many outer garments in many Muslim cultures that can be used for what the Quran means by jilbab. These may be called "abaya", "chador", "djellaba", "burnous", "haik", "milaya", or a thousand other names. They may even be called "jilbab". What we must always keep clear in our minds is that there is the Quranic jilbab, which is any outergarment that meets the criteria set out in the Shari'a; and there may also be a "cultural jilbab" that refers to a very specific style. As Muslims we are responsible for following the Shari'a not Arab culture. When a word is used in the Quran or hadiths, we need to give it the definition it has according to the Shari'a, not the definition it might have in Arab culture.

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So whether you wear an abaya, a chador, a djellaba, or indeed a "jilbab", be sure that it meets the criteria of the Shari'a: It is an outergarment, an extra layer, something that you wear over your clothes. It is made of thick, opaque fabric so that nobody can see what is under it It is loose so that nobody can see the contours of your figure. If you are going to wear a coat-like jilbab, be sure that your head and neck are covered by your khimar and that your feet are completely covered by your socks and shoes (and, if you follow that opinion, that your face is covered by your niqab) Appendices Appendix One: Further Reading 1) To see pictures of sisters wearing the jilbab, visit my Jilbab Photo Gallery. Come on, sisters, it's not that scary! The jilbab is just a really modest coat that we wear over our really modest clothes when we go outside. Don't you think that the sisters pictured look very beautiful and Islamic? 2) To see what kinds of jilbabs and Islamic outergarments are available for sale online, visit AlHediya Islamic Clothing. I purchased a jilbab from them and am very satisfied with it. Jilbabs are sold by most Online Hijab Stores, so check out those links as

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well, inshallah. You can also read some practical tips about wearing the jilbab at How to Jilbab. 3) To read more about the seven commandments relating to hijab, see Special Focus on Hijab. This is primarily a discussion of two ways that the Quran commands the covering of the hair. 4) To read about why "what is apparent of it" means the face and the hands, see Opinions of scholars in favor of displaying the face and hands and A Study of Surah an-Nur ayah 31. 5) To learn more about the opinion that the jilbab covers the face, see Examining the Dalils for Niqab. To learn about why this understanding of the jilbab may have been superceded (so that the final rule is that the jilbab should cover everything but the face and hands), see What is the Final Rule on Hijab?. Basically, the scholars who hold this position say that one of the criteria for a proper jilbab is that it should cover everything that must be covered. At the time that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was revealed, "everything that must be covered" referred to everything except the eyes to see the way, but after Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed, "everything that must be covered" was changed to everything but the face and hands. 6) To see what has been written by ordinary sisters who have also come to the conclusion that the jilbab is fard, see A Sister's Story How She First Started Wearing Hijaab.

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Appendix Two: What does the word "hijab" really mean? In common usage among Muslims, the word "hijab" refers to the headscarf. This sometimes gives the impression that wearing a headscarf is all there is to hijab. This is not correct! It has already been shown above that Allah SWT has given seven commands in two ayat in regard to the modest dress and behavior of the Muslim sister. The word "hijab" according to 'The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic' means "curtain, woman's veiling, screen, partition". It refers to the ENTIRE modest dress of a Muslim sister, that which screens her from the male gaze. It can also refer to her behavior that screens her, such as lowering her gaze, guarding her modesty, and not revealing her hidden adornments. Thus, all seven of the commands in these two ayat concern HIJAB. Again, Allah SWT has sent down two ayat concerning the hijab of the Muslim sister. These are Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59. In order to be wearing proper hijab, a sister must obey all of the directives contained in these ayat. The word that Allah SWT has used in the Quran to refer to the headscarf is "khimar". This is not the complete hijab in itself!! As explained above, Surah an-Nur ayah 31 contains additional commands relating to covering everything but the face and hands with loose, opaque clothing, and to behavior. And as well, Allah SWT has revealed Surah al-Ahzab ayah

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59. As explained above, the only logical understanding is that the jilbab referred to in Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 is some type of outergarment, an extra layer worn over the ordinary clothes. This is part of hijab too! Appendix Three: More Hadiths In Part One of this essay, I cited two hadiths regarding the wearing of the jilbab by the sahabiyat (rAa). Another hadith that mentions the jilbab is the following: Sahih Bukhari Book 72 #684. Narrated Aisha: The wife of Rifa'a al-Qurazi came to Allah's Messenger while I was sitting...and she was showing the fringe of her jilbab. So in this hadith, we see a female Companion (rAa) who wore the jilbab when she went out to ask a religious question. There are a few more hadiths as well. These hadiths use the Arabic word "murut". This is the plural of mirt. According to the authorities on classical Arabic, the word mirt refers to a sheet (usually made out of wool) that is wrapped around the body and held closed in front. Clearly, the mirt is a type of outergarment. As we can now see, the mirt is thus a type of jilbab. Thus the hadiths about the sahabiyat (rAa) wearing murut can be cited in support of the wearing of outergarments (jilbabs). The hadiths about the mirt are as follows:

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Sahih Bukhari Book 10 #552. Narrated Aisha: The faithful women wrapped in their murut used to attend the fajr prayer with Allah's Messenger, and after finishing the prayer they would return to their homes and nobody could recognize them because of the darkness. Sunan Abu Dawud Book 32 #4091. Narrated Aisha: May Allah have mercy on the early emigrant women. When the verse "That they should extend their headcoverings (khumur) to cover their bosoms" was revealed, they tore their murut and used this as khimar. The first of these hadiths shows the sahabiyat (rAa) going out to the masjid wearing jilbabs (i.e., outergarments, specifically the mirt) while the second hadith provides us with the interesting information that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was apparently revealed before Surah an-Nur ayah 31 (from which the quote is taken) because at the time that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed the women were already wearing jilbabs (i.e., outergarments, specifically the mirt). When Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed, the women tore pieces off their jilbabs to make headscarves. (My note: Maybe this is where the permission to wear both a khimar and a coat comes from. Allah SWT knows best).

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When we look at all the hadiths together, both the ones I cited in Part One and the ones cited here, we can see the following: 1) When Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was revealed, the sahabiyat (rAa) immediately began wearing jilbabs (Sunan Abu Dawud Book 32 #4090). 2) Whenever the sahabiyat (rAa) went out from their houses, they wore jilbabs, whether this was to ask religious questions (Sahih Bukhari Book 72 #684) or to take part in salat at the masjid (Sahih Bukhari Book 10 #552). 3) The Prophet (sAas) has stated unambiguously that it is in fact haram for a sister to go out from her house if she is not wearing a jilbab (Sahih Bukhari Book 8 #347). To me, these hadiths provide overwhelming evidence that the jilbab is fard. The materials on this page are written by AlMuhajabah. You may copy, display, or distribute these materials for non-commercial purposes as long as you give me proper attribution as the author.

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20.00.00
Examining the Dalils for Niqab
The dalils for niqab are presented here (they are taken from Niqaab in Light of Quran and Sahih Hadith), displayed in red. My comments have been interleaved and appear in black. Some additional points are made at the end of the niqab dalils. The Niqaab in light of the Holy Quran and Sahih Hadith Examining the Quran The text presented here as the Quran does not represent a very literal translation of the Quran. Instead, the translator has inserted his commentary in parenthetical notes. This is very unfortunate, as it gives a misleading idea of what the Arabic text of the

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Quran revealed by Allah SWT actually says. Moreover, this could not be done in the Arabic text can you imagine inserting your own words in the Quran?! From the Quran.....(This tafseer is Agreed upon by Ibn Kathir, Al-Qurtabi and At-Tabari) The Noble Qur'an ........ A) Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse #59 ‘O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks ("Jalabib") veils all over their bodies (screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way Tafseer Al-Qurtabi) that is most convenient that they should be known (as such) and not molested: and Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." The Arabic text of this ayah is, "Ya ayyuha an-Nabi, qul li azwajika wa banatika wa nisa al-muminin yudnina alayhinna min jalabib hinna; dhalika adna an yu'rafna fa laa yu'dhayn. Wa kana Allahu Ghafur ar-Rahim", which literally translates as, "O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (jalabib) close around themselves; that is better that they are recognized and not annoyed. And God is Most Forgiving, Merciful". There are actually a number of opinions given in the tafsir about what "draw their jalabib close around themselves" means. Among these are, "she should bring the jilbab close to her face without covering it" (reported by ibn Abbas in the tafsir of Tabari, and graded as sahih by Shaykh

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Albani), and, "Others believe that the women have been directed to secure their jalabib firmly on their foreheads" (commentary of Tabari in his tafsir of this ayah). Thus we can see that it is a valid opinion that the jilbab does not have to cover the face. Note: Because there is a very strong case to be made that the jilbab at the time of revelation of this ayah did cover the face, I have also written an essay called What is the Final Rule on Hijab? which accepts that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 does command covering the face but argues that niqab is still not fard. B) Surah An-Nur, Verses #30 and #31 ‘And Say to the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, head cover, apron), and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) The "translation" of this ayah is particularly poor. The Arabic text is, "Wa qul li al-muminat yaghdudna min absarihinna wa yahfazna furujahunna wa laa yubdina zenatahunna illa maa zahara min haa wal-yadribna bi khumurihinna alaa juyub hinna". This is properly translated as, "And say to the faithful women to lower their gazes, and to guard their

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private parts, and not to display their adornment except what is apparent of it, and to extend their khumur to cover their juyub". First, the word "juyub". This is the plural of the word "jayb", which means "bosom". The word is used in Arabic to refer to the breastpocket of a shirt, and to a certain type of mathematical curve. As well, Surah al-Qasas ayah 32 describes Moses as putting his hand in his "jayb", and this means his breast, not his "body, face, neck and bosom"!!! Whoever has translated "juyub" as "bodies, faces, necks, and bosoms" does not understand the Arabic language very well! To read about the mathematics, see The Origin of the Word Sine. To see an image of this curve, click here. Let's just say that, for most people, the image should remove any doubt over what part of a woman's body a "jayb" is! So I'm sorry whoever wrote this, "juyub" means "bosoms". There is no way to get the meaning of "bodies" or "faces" out of it, period. There is also the question of the meaning of "except what is apparent of it". The interpretation inserted here basically is that it refers to the outer surface of the garments that a woman customarily wears. This is the opinion of the Sahabi, ibn Masud (rAa). But it is hardly the only opinion! Shaykh Yusuf Qaradawi has provided an excellent survey of the opinions on this subject, which can be found in his book The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. A summary is that of the Sahaba, Aisha Umm al-Muminin (rAa), ibn Abbas (rAa), Anas ibn Malik (rAa), and Miswar ibn Makhrama (rAa), and of the Tabi'un, Sa'id ibn Jubair (rAa), Ata (rAa), Qatada (rAa), al-Dahhak (rAa),

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Mujahid (rAa), and al-Hasan (rAa) all said that the meaning of "what is apparent of it" is "the face and hands". This is in fact the majority position on the meaning of this verse. The commentators on the Quran Tabari, Razi, Zamakhshari, and Qurtubi have all taken this position. Clearly then, this ayah of the Quran has not been taken by most scholars to command niqab. Note: I have written an essay on this ayah, which is at A Study of Surah an-Nur ayah 31.

Examining the hadiths
Here are some hadiths that have been presented claiming that they prove niqab is fard. Each of the hadiths is analyzed in turn. From the Hadith... A) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Hadith # 282 Narrated Safiya bint Shaiba (Radhiallaahu anha) "Aisha (Radhiallaahu anha) used to say: "When (the Verse): "They should draw their veils over their necks and bosoms," was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their faces with the cut pieces. The Arabic text that the translator has rendered "covered their faces with the cut pieces" is "ikhtamarna bi ha" or "made khimars from it". The hadith therefore means that the women tore their sheets and made khimars from the cut pieces. The

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word "faces" does not even appear in the Arabic. So far all we know is that when Surah an-Nur ayah 31 commanded women to wear the khimar, they did so. This hadith does not indicate by itself what that khimar is. B) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith # 368 Narrated 'Aisha (Radhiallaahu anha) Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) used to offer the Fajr prayer and some believing women covered with their veiling sheets used to attend the Fajr prayer with him and then they would return to their homes unrecognized . Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in tafseer of this hadith explains "This hadith makes it clear that the Islamic dress is concealing of the entire body as explained in this hadith. Only with the complete cover including the face and hands can a woman not be recognized. This was the understanding and practice of the Sahaba and they were the best of group, the noblest in the sight of Allah (swt) with the most complete Imaan and noblest of characters. so if the practice of the women of the sahaba was to wear the complete veil then how can we deviate from their path? (Ibn Uthaimin in the book "Hijaab" page #12 and 13) The same story of the women going out to salat alfajr is told in several other hadiths in Bukhari and Muslim. In these, the Arabic text says clearly that they were "unrecognized due to the darkness". It does not say that they were unrecognized due to their veiling. In fact we can't tell just from this hadith

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whether or not the veiling sheets (murut) cover the faces. To see the Arabic text of the hadith with the indicated phrase underlined, click here. Also, as noted above, there are some opinions that the jilbab does not have to cover the face. C) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 4, Hadith # 148 Narrated 'Aisha (Radhiallaahu anha): The wives of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqia at Medina) to answer the call of nature at night. 'Umar used to say to the Prophet "Let your wives be veiled," but Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) did not do so. One night Sauda bint Zam'a the wife of the Prophet went out at 'Isha' time and she was a tall lady. 'Umar addressed her and said, "I have recognized you, O Sauda." He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) might be revealed. So Allah revealed the verses of "Al-Hijab" (A complete body cover excluding the eyes). The "verse of al-hijab" mentioned in this hadith is Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53, which is addressed to Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa). The command does not apply to ordinary Muslim women. The claim that this ayah commands "the observing of veils by Muslim women" has been inserted by the translator and does not appear in the Arabic text. D) Tirmidhi with a SAHIH chain reports...

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"Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said “All of a woman is ‘awrah.” (Shaikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid quotes this hadith narrated by Tirmidhi with a sahih isnaad and says this is a direct hadith from Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam ) and has made it clear that a woman must cover everything including the face and hands!) The issue of the awra is in fact quite complicated. A woman has two kinds of awra. The first, which is sometimes called the "hard awra", is from the upper chest to the knee or below. This cannot be seen by anybody but her husband. The second kind of awra is sometimes called the "soft awra", and it is everything that cannot be seen by non-mahram men. Obviously, the Tirmidhi hadith cannot be talking about the hard awra, or it would mean that a woman would have to wear niqab even around her brothers and father because they cannot see her hard awra. Instead, the hadith must be taken to mean that the woman is "soft awra". It is interesting to see what some notable scholars have said about the extent of the soft awra. Imam ibn Qudama, who wrote the definitive book of Hanbali fiqh, the Mughni, said that, "the face and hands constitute a specific exemption to the general meaning of this hadith". Imam Tabari, who wrote a great tafsir of the Quran, said, "The strongest and most accurate view is that which says the exemption [in 24:31 for "what is apparent thereof"] refers to the face and the hands up to the wrist. Also included are kohl, rings, bracelets, and makeup. We say that this is the strongest and most accurate opinion because all

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scholars are unanimous that everyone who needs to pray must cover the awra in his or her prayer. A woman may reveal the face and the hands in her prayer, while she must cover the rest of her body. What is not awra is not haram to be revealed". Fakhr ad-Din Razi, who also wrote a great tafsir of the Quran, said, "Since the showing of the face and hands is necessary, the jurists had no choice but to agree that they are not awra". Here we have three great scholars saying that the face and the hands are not awra and that they consitute "a specific exemption to the general meaning of this hadith". E) Abu Dawood Book 14, Hadith # 2482 Narrated Thabit ibn Qays (Radhiallaahu anhu): A woman called Umm Khallad came to the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) while she was veiled. She was searching for her son who had been killed (in the battle) some of the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said to her: You have come here asking for your son while veiling your face? She said: If I am afflicted with the loss of my son, I shall not suffer the loss of my modesty. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said: You will get the reward of two martyrs for your son. She asked: Why is that so, oh Prophet of Allah? He replied: Because the people of the Book have killed him. This hadith does indeed show Umm Khallad (rAa) wearing niqab, but it is interesting that the Sahaba (rAa) marveled at her doing so. Would they have been marveling if she just did what was commanded

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for her? More generally, we can say that this hadith proves that women did wear niqab, but they may have been doing so because it is mustahabb, so there needs to be some other evidence to make it fard. F) Abu Dawood Book 32, Hadith # 4090 Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu anha): When the verse "That they should cast their outer garments over their persons" was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if they had crows over their heads by wearing outer garments. In this hadith the women came out in their new jilbabs. The description "like they had crows on their heads" does not necessarily mean that their faces were covered. All it sounds like is that their heads were covered. This is another opinion (in addition to the ones listed under Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 above) that the jilbab does not necessarily have to cover the face. G) Abu Dawood Book 32, Hadith # 4091 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu anha) "May Allah have mercy on the early immigrant women. When the verse "That they should draw their veils over their bosoms" was revealed, they tore their thick outer garments and made veils from them. Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalanee, who is known as Ameer AlMu'mineen in the field of Hadith, said that the phrase, "covered themselves", in the above Hadith means that they "covered their faces". [Fath Al-Bari].

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This is the same as the hadith in part A above, except that the translator has rendered the Arabic more accurately as "made veils". As stated above, the text of this hadith does not mention anything about covering the face. Ibn Hajar had to read this in to make it say that. H) Imaam Malik's MUWATTA Book 20 Hadith # 20.5.16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that Fatima bint al-Mundhir (Radhiallaahu anha) said, "We used to veil our faces when we were in Ihram in the company of Asma bint Abi Bakr AsSiddiq (Radhiallaahu anha). "This again proves that not only the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) wore the Niqaab and that even though in Ihram women are not supposed to wear Niqaab but if men are there they still have to cover the face. The issue of niqab and ihram is in fact one of the big controversies, and a problem for those who say that niqab is fard. It is very clear that the Prophet (sAas) said that a woman in ihram must not wear either a niqab or gloves. Nobody has ever given a convincing explanation of why in the world the Prophet (sAas) said this in the first place if it were fard to cover the face. This is especially true because the obligatory duties of the hajj must be done in public, and in general there are very large crowds around. If a woman is supposed to cover her face anyway around non-mahram men, she really has to cover it at all times on the hajj and that is just the same as wearing

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niqab. Instead, the Prophet (sAas) has clearly commanded that a woman should have an uncovered face in public while in ihram; that's the only thing that makes sense. As for Asma (rAa), it appears that she followed the course of Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa), which is discussed in the next hadith. That she did so does not prove that doing so is fard merely that it is halal. I) Abu Dawood Book 10, Hadith # 1829 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: (Radhiallaahu anha) who said, "The riders would pass us while we were with the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam). When they got close to us, we would draw our outer cloak from our heads over our faces. When they passed by, we would uncover our faces. Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah, Narrated 'Aisha. [In his work Jilbab al-Marah alMuslimah, al-Albani states (p. 108) that it is hasan due to corroborating evidence. Also, in a narration from Asma {who was not the wife of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam)}, Asma also covered her face at all times in front of men.] Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in his tafseer of this hadith explains "This hadith indicates the compulsion of the concealing of the faces as an order of Shariah, because during the Ihram it is "wajib" (compulsory) NOT to wear the Niqaab. So if it was only mustahab (recommended) to cover the face then Aisha and Asma (Radhiallaahu anha) would have taken the wajib over the mustahab. It is well known by the Ullima that a wajib can only be left because of something that is also wajib or

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fardh. So Aisha and Asma (Radhiallaahu anha) covering the face even in Ihram in the presence of strange (ghairMahraam) men shows that they understood this to be an act that was wajib or fardh or they would not have covered the face in Ihraam. Here is the description of Aisha Umm al-Muminin (rAa) in ihram. When it comes to Ummahat alMuminin (rAa) it is fard for them to wear niqab (from Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53). Thus when presented with the Prophet's (sAas) command for bare faces, they found the best compromise solution they could, which was to cover their faces only when nonmahram men were around, and then to uncover them again when the men went away. It is one thing for the Prophet (sAas) to ask nine women (i.e., his wives) to do this, another thing for him to demand that all women at all times through history must do so. Why not just keep silent and let the women wear their niqabs? Also note that the author claims that the women disobeyed the command of the Prophet (sAas) in order to obey the Quran - since when would the Prophet (sAas) be giving a command that contradicts the Quran?????? It is strange how this glaring contradiction escapes those who want to argue that niqab is fard. If the Prophet (sAas) told women to unveil their faces in public, clearly this is a halal action, period. J) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 72, Hadith # 715

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Narrated 'Ikrima (Radhiallaahu anhu) narrates, "Rifa'a divorced his wife whereupon 'AbdurRahman bin Az-Zubair Al-Qurazi married her. 'Aisha said that the lady (came), wearing a green veil." It is a very long hadith but the point is the women of Sahaba wore the full veil. The wife of Rifa'a was wearing a green khimar. This is the same point that has been made above - this hadith merely shows a woman obeying the command in Surah an-Nur ayah 31 to wear a khimar, it does not say anything in itself to indicate that the khimar must cover the face. It is interesting to look at the full text of this hadith, which can be found here. After having described the wife of Rifa'a as wearing a green khimar, Aisha (rAa) says to the Prophet (sAas) "Look! Her skin is as green as her clothes". If the woman were wearing "the full veil" how could any of her skin be visible for the Prophet (sAas) to look at? In any case, at most her face or her hands could be showing. It seems most likely that it was her face that was green. If this is true, then the khimar definitely does not cover the face. K) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith # 347 Narrated Um 'Atiya (Radhiallaahu anha) we were ordered (by Rasulullah '(Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) to bring out our menstruating women and veiled women in the religious gatherings and invocation of Muslims on the two 'Eid festivals. These menstruating women were to keep away from their Musalla. A woman asked, "O Allah's Apostle ' what

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about one who does not have a veil (the veil is the complete cover with only one eye or two eyes showing)?" He said, "Let her share the veil of her companion." Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in tafseer of this hadith explained "This hadith proves that the general norm amongst the women of the Sahaba (Radhiallaahu anhuma) was that no woman would go out of her home without a cloak, fully concealed and if she did not posses a veil, then it was not possible for her to go out. it was for this reason that when Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) ordered them to go to the Place for Eid Salah, they mentioned this hindrance. As a result Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said that someone should lend her a veil, but did not say they could go out without it. If Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) did not allow women to go to a place like the Eid Salah, which has been ordered by Shariah for women and men alike, then how can people let women to out to market places and shopping centers without where there is open intermingling of the sexes, without a veil. (by Shaikh Ibn Uthaimin in the book "Hijaab" page # 11) This hadith concerns the wearing of the jilbab. The author of the article has stated correctly that the hadith proves that wearing the jilbab is indeed fard (which for some reason many sisters deny; see Evidences for Jilbab for more proof it is fard) but it does not in fact describe anywhere in it whether or not the jilbab is to cover the face. This is the same point made previously about the khimar and I have

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already said that there are some opinions that the jilbab does not necessarily have to cover the face.

L) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 8, Book 76, Hadith # 572 In the end of this very long hadith it quotes Anas (Radhiallaahu anho) rates from Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) "and if one of the women of Paradise looked at the earth, she would fill the whole space between them (the earth and the heaven) with light, and would fill whatever is in between them, with perfume, and the veil of her face is better than the whole world and whatever is in it." This shows that even the women of Junnah have veils and the word veil is what covers the face (niqaab). Here the women of Jannah (i.e., the hour is) are wearing niqabs. I really have no idea why this is included as a dalil. That the houris wear niqab does not say anything about whether it is fard for human women to do so, although it does indicate that niqab is mustahabb and characteristic of the best of women. Note that one does not usually imagine the houris as niqabis!!! M) Abu Dawood Book 33, Hadith # 4154, Agreed upon by Nasai Aisha(Radhiallaahu anha) narrates that on one occasion a female Muslim wanted to give a letter to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam), the

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letter was delivered to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) from behind a curtain. Note: Quoted in the famous book Mishkaat. Here the Mufasereen of hadith have explained that the hadith where women came up to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) face to face were before the ayah "And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts." (Surah AlaAhzab ayah # 53) And this hadith proves this order is for the whole Ummah not just for the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam)! It is very interesting to look up the complete text of this hadith, which can be found here. In the last part of it, the Prophet (sAas) commands the woman to wear henna on her hands in order to distinguish them from men's hands. I wonder why this part of the hadith has not been quoted! It seems to be clear proof that women can display their hands in public. In any case, the hadith merely shows that it is halal for all women to use the screen, not that it is fard. N) Abu Dawood Book 2, Hadith # 0641 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu anha) "Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said, "Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears a veil." Here women are commanded to wear a khimar for salat, even when alone. Now it gets interesting. The

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scholars are unanimous that a woman in private salat may uncover her face and her hands (this has been stated above by Imam Tabari). The khimar must in fact be a headscarf and not a niqab. Because if the khimar was a niqab, and the Prophet (sAas) has commanded women to wear khimars in salat, then they would of necessity be covering their faces in salat, but they do not do so. And if the khimar is only a headscarf, then we can go back to the hadith mentioned above (A and G) and say that when Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed the women tore their sheets and made headscarves not niqabs out of the cut pieces. The wife of Rifa'a was wearing a green headscarf, not "the full veil", which makes it clear why her face was visible (see hadith J above). O) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 9, Book 89, Hadith # 293 Narrated 'Aisha (Radhiallaahu anha) Utba bin Abi Waqqas said to his brother Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, "The son of the slave girl of Zam'a is from me, so take him into your custody." So in the year of Conquest of Mecca, Sa'd took him and said. (This is) my brother's son whom my brother has asked me to take into my custody." 'Abd bin Zam'a got up before him and said, (He is) my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, and was born on my father's bed." So they both submitted their case before Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam). Sa'd said, "O Allah's Apostle! This boy is the son of my brother and he entrusted him to me." 'Abd bin Zam'a said, "This boy is my brother and the son of the slave girl of my

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father, and was born on the bed of my father." Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said, "The boy is for you, O 'Abd bin Zam'a!" Then Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) further said, "The child is for the owner of the bed, and the stone is for the adulterer," Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) then said to Sauda bint Zam'a, "Veil (screen) yourself before him," when he saw the child's resemblance to 'Utba. The boy did not see her again till he met Allah. note: This hadith proves Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) did infact order the veil to be observed. Sawda bint Zam'a (rAa) is one of the wives of the Prophet (sAas)!!! That the Prophet (sAas) commanded her to use the screen only confirms that Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa) did so in obedience to Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53. This hadith does not say anything about ordinary Muslim women. P) Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 65, Hadith # 375 Narrated Anas (Radhiallaahu anhu) I know (about) the Hijab (the order of veiling of women) more than anybody else. Ubai bin Ka'b used to ask me about it. Allah's Apostle became the bridegroom of Zainab bint Jahsh whom he married at Medina. After the sun had risen high in the sky, the Prophet invited the people to a meal. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) remained sitting and some people remained sitting with him after the other guests had left. Then Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) got up and went away, and I too, followed him till he

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reached the door of 'Aisha's room. Then he thought that the people must have left the place by then, so he returned and I also returned with him. Behold, the people were still sitting at their places. So he went back again for the second time, and I went along with him too. When we reached the door of 'Aisha's room, he returned and I also returned with him to see that the people had left. Thereupon Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) hung a curtain between him and me and the Verse regarding the order for (veiling of women) Hijab was revealed. This is also about Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53. The story is also told in Bukhari Book 60 #315, in which the specific ayah of the Quran Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53 is quoted in the text of the hadith. This ayah applies only to Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa). The phrase "veiling order for women" does not appear in the Arabic text. Q) Abu Dawood Book 32, hadith # 4100 Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin (Radhiallaahu anha): I was with Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) while Maymunah was with him. Then Ibn Umm Maktum came. This happened when we were ordered to observe veil. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said: Observe veil from him. We asked: oh Rasulullah! is he not blind? He can neither see us nor recognize us. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said: Are both of you blind? Do you not see him?

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This hadith is even more interesting when you look at the full text of it, which can be found here. In this part, the hadith collector Abu Dawud comments that there is also a hadith that Fatima bint Qays (rAa) spent her iddat with ibn Umm Maktum (rAa). Abu Dawud concludes that Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa) must have a different rule than ordinary Muslim women like Fatima (rAa). This is certainly true. It is Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53 that is the special rule for Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa). I wonder why Abu Dawud's commentary on this hadith has not been quoted! Summary To summarize, 17 hadiths have been presented as dalils. Of these 4 (mentioned in points A, G, J, and N) refer to the khimar and it has been proved that the khimar is not a niqab. Therefore, these 4 hadiths are not even about niqab at all. Note: I have made a page giving a more detailed explanation of why the khimar is not a niqab. See What is the Khimar?. This essay contains some of the same information found in my essay A Study of Surah an-Nur ayah 31 but focuses on the single issue of the khimar. Of the 13 hadiths that remain after this, another 5 hadiths (mentioned in points C, I, O, P, and Q) are only about Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa) and it has been proved that the screen commanded for Ummahat al-Muminin (rAa) in Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53 is not an obligation for ordinary Muslim women.

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So these hadiths do not say anything about niqab for ordinary Muslim women, either. Along similar lines 1 of the hadiths (mentioned in point L) says that houris wear niqab but does not say anything about whether human women need to. Of the 7 hadiths that remain once those have been removed from consideration, 3 hadiths (mentioned in points B, F, and K) mention the jilbab but they do not provide independent proof of whether the jilbab should cover the face. In fact, one (point F) seems to mention only the covering of the head. In other words, if it is proved that the jilbab does not need to cover the face, these hadiths are consistent with that as well. And as was shown in the Quran section, it is clear that some scholars hold that the jilbab does not need to cover the face, so that does not prove it either. Note: In case the argument that the jilbab does not necessarily cover the face is not accepted, I have also written an essay, What is the Final Rule on Hijab? that argues for the display of the face and hands while assuming that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 does indicate that the face should be covered. This leaves 4 hadiths. Regarding the hadith "A woman is awra" (point D), it has been discussed above and it is clear that many scholars have interpreted the face and hands to be an exemption to the meaning of the hadith. Therefore this is an acceptable position to follow, and the hadith does not necessarily command niqab.

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Of the total of 17 hadiths presented, therefore, only 3 (mentioned in points E, H, and M) clearly and unambiguously show women wearing niqab or screening themselves. And these hadiths do not contain in themselves any command made by the Prophet (sAas) for niqab, nor any mention of a Quranic ayah with a command for niqab. They show that niqab is halal, and in fact they show that it is mustahabb and sunna. But they do not by themselves show that niqab is fard. Did the Prophet allow women to display their faces and hands? Having looked at the hadiths that are presented to claim that niqab is fard, let us now look at some hadiths that point to the opposite conclusion: a) Bukhari Book 54 #515. Narrated Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas: Once Umar asked leave to see Allah's Apostle, in whose company there were some Qurayshi women, who were talking to him and asking him for more financial support, raising their voices. When Umar asked permission to enter, the women quickly screened themselves (fa badirna alhijab). When Allah's Apostle admitted Umar, Allah's Apostle was smiling. Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle! May Allah keep you happy always!". Allah's Apostle said, "I am astonished at these women here with me. As soon as they heard your voice, they quickly screened themselves". Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle!

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You have more right to be feared by them". Then he addressed (the women) saying, "O enemies of yourselves! Do you fear me and not Allah's Apostle?" They replied, "Yes, for you are a fearful and fierce man as compared to Allah's Apostle". On that Allah's Apostle said (to Umar), "By Him in Whose hands my life is, when satan sees you taking a path, he takes a path other than yours". COMMENT: Here we see that the women were not wearing niqab when they were in front of the Prophet (sAas), since they had to put it on when Umar (rAa) entered. How could it be fard then?? Instead, this is like Umm Khallad (rAa) or Asma (rAa), it merely shows that niqab is mustahabb and sunna. Surah alAhzab ayah 59 was revealed in Dhu'l-Qida 5 A.H. and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 in Shawwal 6 A.H., whereas this hadith seems to be taking place after the conquest of Mecca in Ramadan 8 A.H., after which the women of Quraysh (along with the men) all accepted Islam. b) Bukhari Book 74 #247. Narrated Abdullah bin Abbas: Al-Fadl bin Abbas rode behind the Prophet as his companion rider on the back portion of his shecamel on the Day of Nahr [on the Farewell Hajj], and Al-Fadl was a handsome man]. The Prophet stopped to give people verdicts. In the meantime, a beautiful woman from the tribe of Khath'am came, asking the verdict of Allah's Apostle. Al-Fadl started looking at her as her beauty attracted him. The Prophet looked back while Al-Fadl was looking at her; so the Prophet held out his hand backwards and caught the chin of

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Al-Fadl and turned his face to the other side in order that he should not gaze at her. She said, "O Allah's Apostle! The obligation of performing hajj enjoined by Allah on His worshipers has become due (compulsory) on my father, who is an old man and who cannot sit firmly on the riding animal. Will it be sufficient that I perform hajj on his behalf?” He said, "Yes". COMMENT: According to those who hold that niqab is fard, even when a woman is in ihram (as this woman was) she must cover her face when she comes in front of non-mahram men. The woman of Khath'am had her face uncovered, so that the two men could clearly see that she was beautiful (and apparently the narrator ibn Abbas rAa could as well). Why did the Prophet (sAas) not admonish the woman and tell her to cover her face when she came in front of them? The answer is obvious: it is perfectly halal for a woman to have an uncovered face. c) Muslim Book 4 #1926. Jabir ibn Abdullah reported: I observed prayer with the Messenger of Allah on the Eid day. He commenced with prayer before the sermon, without adhan or iqama. He then stood up leaning on Bilal and he commanded (them) to be on guard (against evil for the sake of) Allah and he exhorted (them) on obedience to Him, and he preached to the people and admonished them. He then walked on till he came to the women and preached to them and admonished them and encouraged them to give alms, for most of them are the fuel for Hell. A woman having a dark spot on her

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cheek stood up and said, "Why is it so, Messenger of Allah?” He said, "For you grumble often and show ingratitude to your spouses". And they began to give alms out of their ornaments such as their earrings and rings, which they threw in the cloak of Bilal. COMMENT: How did the narrator know that the woman had a dark spot on her cheek unless her face was uncovered? d) Ibn Abbas said: A beautiful woman, from among the most beautiful of women, used to pray behind the Prophet. Some of the people used to go to pray in the first row to ensure they would not be able to see her. Others would pray in the last row of the men, and they would look from underneath their armpits to see her. Because of this act, in regard to her, Allah revealed, "Verily We know the eager among you to be first, and verily We know the eager among you to be behind" (Surah al-Hijr ayah 24) -- this hadith is found in ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, Tayalisi, Baihaqi, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, and Nasai and it is judged SAHIH by Albani. He includes it as #3472 in his Silsilat alAhadith as-Sahih COMMENT: This hadith only makes sense if the woman's face was uncovered. Why did Allah SWT not reveal a command for niqab, if niqab is fard to prevent such situations? Instead, the Prophet (sAas) merely admonished the men, who are commanded to lower their gazes in Surah an-Nur ayah 30 and were not doing so. Conclusion:

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From these four hadiths we can clearly see that even as late as Dhu'l-Hijja 10 A.H. (a few months before the death of the Prophet sAas) it was halal for women to have uncovered faces. When they came in front of the Prophet (sAas) that way, he allowed it, and he did not command them to wear niqab. If the Prophet understood the Quran to mean that women can display their faces and hands that is the interpretation we should follow. Postscript: Opinions of the scholars on displaying the face and hands A majority of scholars throughout history have agreed that women may display their faces and hands. This includes scholars from all the major legal schools (madhahib). Some scholars who have held this opinion are Imams Jassas, Qurtubi, Razi, ibn Qudama, Tabari, Zamakhshari, and Nawawi. To see what these scholars have said about the question, click here. Further Reading Here are some further articles showing why niqab is not fard: The Face Veil Is Not Obligatory It Is Not Obligatory for the Muslim Woman to Cover Her Face More Perspectives on Why Niqab Is Not Fard Niqab Is Not Required in the Islamic Law A Study of Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and What is the Final Rule on Hijab? Why I Wear Hijab Not Niqaab

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The materials on this page are written by AlMuhajabah. You may copy, display, or distribute these materials for non-commercial purposes as long as you give me proper attribution as the author.

21.00.00 What is the Final Rule on Hijab?
Preface Introduction Chronology Some hadiths about women with unveiled faces Fiqh of hijab Conclusion Afterword Preface The strongest dalil for those who argue that niqab is fard is their presentation of commentary from the tafsirs that say that the jilbab must cover the face. Since the jilbab is commanded in Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59, it would seem that covering the face must also be commanded. So why is it that many scholars say that niqab is not fard? First, I have argued in my examination of the niqab dalils that there are several reports that show that the

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jilbab commanded by Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 does not necessarily have to cover the face. Briefly, these are: 1) In Sunan Abu Dawud Book 32 #4090, Umm Salama (rAa) reports that the women looked like "they had crows on their heads" when they wore jilbabs in obedience to Surah al-Azhab ayah 59. This description seems to indicate a head covering but not a face covering. 2) The tafsir of Tabari contains a report from ibn Abbas (rAa) that "draw their jilbabs close around themselves" means "she should draw the jilbab close to her face without covering it" and Shaykh Albani has graded this report as SAHIH. 3) Tabari himself reports that there is a difference of opinion on how to wear the jilbab. He writes in his summary, "The interpreters have differed in the determination of the style of the wearing of the jalabib which women have been directed to do. Some believe that the correct style would be to hang it in such a way that it covers their faces, and nothing of a woman’s body remains visible except one of her eyes. Others believe that women have been directed to secure their jalabib firmly on their foreheads". These reports are not presented by those who argue that niqab is fard, since this would (obviously) weaken their case. Nonetheless, because of the reports that they cite, there is a fairly strong case to be made that Surah alAhzab ayah 59 does indicate the covering of the face. Doesn't this mean that niqab is fard after all?

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I have written this essay to respond to this question.

Introduction Those who argue that niqab is fard sometimes give the impression that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 definitely commands niqab and that this was the opinion of all the scholars. This is just not true. In fact (as shown in A Study of Surah an-Nur ayah 31), the majority opinion of the scholars on Surah an-Nur ayah 31 is that it allows the display of the face and hands. Basically the situation facing us is that according to the tafsirs, Surah an-Nur ayah 31 allows the display of the face and hands (those who argue that niqab is fard may even admit this when you push them on it) while Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 (according to the information presented by those who argue that niqab is fard) seems to indicate that the jilbab must cover the face. Obviously, since these two interpretations do not agree, one or the other of the two ayat must have been superceded or abrogated. Again, the reason that there has always been a difference of opinion on the question of face-andhands versus niqab is precisely that of the two ayat addressed to ordinary Muslim women, one (33:59) seems to command niqab, while the other (24:31) is

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generally agreed to allow the display of the face and hands. Each scholar must consider various types of evidence to determine which of these two ayat is the final rule and has superceded the other. There are several ways to determine which ayah is the final rule. 1) The ayah that is abrogated and no longer in force must have been the first of the two revealed, while the ayah that has superceded it and represents the final rule must have been the second of the two revealed. Therefore, we can study chronology to determine when Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and Surah alAzhab ayah 59 are held to have been revealed. Whichever was revealed first has been superceded, and whichever was revealed later is the final rule. 2) We know that the Prophet (sAas) would have corrected anyone whose dress did not conform to the Shari'a, and told them the right way to dress. If he did not make any corrections to the dress of people, then we can assume that their attire was correct. Specifically, if women came in front of the Prophet (sAas) with their faces unveiled, and he did not tell them to wear niqab, then this action is halal. And if any of these incidents took place after the revelation of both Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59, and the display of the face and hands was still halal, then necessarily Surah an-Nur ayah 31 must be the final rule. 3) The rules of fiqh that have been laid out for people to follow will naturally reflect the final rule. Thus we can look to see what some fuqaha have said about the rules of hijab. Again, if displaying the face and hands

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is considered to be halal even after the revelation of both Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59, then Surah an-Nur ayah 31 must necessarily be the final rule, because it is the ayah that permits this. In this essay I will argue that: 1) The soundest chronological information shows that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was revealed first, and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 after that. This would mean that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 is the final rule. And Surah anNur ayah 31 is held by the majority of scholars to allow the display of the face and hands. 2) There are four sahih hadiths all dated after the revelation of both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 that clearly show women in front of the Prophet (sAas) with unveiled faces and he allowed it. This must necessarily mean that Surah anNur ayah 31 is the final rule, since it is the ayah that allows display of the face and hands. 3) The job of fuqaha is to tell people what the final rule is and how to act on it, and many fuqaha have stated that women may display their faces and hands. Each of these three arguments by itself may or may not be decisive and convincing, but together they provide a great weight of evidence that it is halal to display the face and hands.

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Chronology Unfortunately, there is no complete, sound guide to the exact chronological order of the entire Quran. So chronology is always a matter of finding the best and most sound opinion, and can never be entirely cutand-dried. Keeping this in mind, we can look a little at the question of Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and Surah alAhzab ayah 59. One piece of evidence that is suggestive is the following hadith. First: a little explanation. The hadith uses the word "murut" which is the plural of "mirt". The mirt is a sheet of fabric that a woman wraps around herself when she goes out. The word "mirt" (or its plural, murut) is used in several hadiths. One of them is Sahih Bukhari Book 8 #368, which reports that the believing women, wrapped in their veiling sheets (mutalaffi'at bi murut hinna) went out to salat al-fajr. Those who argue that niqab is fard have themselves cited this as a dalil for niqab(see the hadiths presented at Examining the Dalils for Niqab) on the grounds that the mirt is a type of jilbab. If this is true, and the mirt was worn by the sahabiyat (rAa) as a jilbab, then they must have been wearing the mirt in obedience to Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59. Inshallah, I hope that everyone follows my argument. Just as we have today abayas, chadors, burqas, and many other types of garments that are used as "jilbabs" so the sahabiyat (rAa) had the mirt. With this in mind, we can look at the hadith:

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Sunan Abu Dawud Book 32 #4091. Narrated Aisha: May Allah have mercy on the early emigrant women. When the verse "That they should extend their headcoverings (khumur) to cover their bosoms" was revealed, they tore their murut and used this as khimar (ikhtamarna bi ha). According to this hadith, when Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed (that is where the quote cited in the hadith comes from), the sahabiyat (rAa) tore pieces from their murut to make khimars. I have argued above that the mirt is a type of jilbab and is worn in obedience to Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59. If the women were already wearing murut when Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed, then Surah alAhzab ayah 59 must already have been in force when Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed. This would mean that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was the earlier verse to be revealed, while Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was the later verse. So this is an indication, from the hadiths, that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was revealed first, and then Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed after that. Beyond this, we can look at the historical circumstances relating to Surah an-Nur and Surah alAhzab. The bulk of Surah al-Ahzab relates to the Battle of Khandaq, which took place in Shawwal of 5 A.H. As well, ayah 53 of this surah (which

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commands niqab for Ummahat al-Muminin rAa) is reported by Anas ibn Malik to have been revealed during the walima for the marriage of the Prophet (sAas) to Zaynab bint Jahsh (rAa). This marriage took place in Dhu'l-Qidah of 5 A.H. This ayah (Surah al-Ahzab ayah 53) is generally agreed by the scholars to mark the commencement of the revelation of ayat related to hijab and veiling. Syed Abu'l-Aala Maududi in his introduction to Surah al-Ahzab has provided a detailed historical background for the surah. First, here is his commentary on the introduction of hijab or veiling: Preliminary Commandments of Purdah: The fact that the tales invented by the enemies also became topics of conversation among the Muslims was a clear sign that the element of sensuality in society had crossed all limits. If this malady had not been there, it was not possible that minds would have paid any attention whatever to such absurd and disgusting stories about a righteous and pure person like the Holy Prophet. This was precisely the occasion when the reformative Commandments pertaining to the law of Hijab or Purdah were first enforced in the Islamic society. These reforms were introduced in this Surah and complemented a year later in Surah An-Nur, when a slander was made on the honor of Hadrat Aishah Second, here are his notes on which verses he consideres to be part of the "law of hijab":

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The discourse contained in vv. 28-35 consists of two parts...In the second part; initial steps were taken towards the social reforms whose need was being felt by the minds mounded in the Islamic pattern themselves. In this regard, reform was started from the house of the Holy Prophet himself and his wives were commanded to avoid behaving and conducting themselves in the ways of the pre Islamic days of ignorance, to remain in their houses with dignity, and to exercise great caution in their conversation with the other men. This was the beginning of the Commandments of Purdah... In verses 53-55 the second step was taken towards social reform. It consists of the following injunctions: Restriction on the other men to visit the houses of the Holy Prophet's wives; Islamic etiquette concerning visits and invitations; the law that only the near relatives could visit the holy wives in their houses; as for the other men, they could speak to or ask them a thing from behind a curtain; the injunction that the Holy Prophet's wives were forbidden for the Muslims like their mothers; and none could marry any of them after him... In verse 59 the third step for social reform was taken. All the Muslim women were commanded that they should come out well covered with the outer garments and covering their faces whenever they came out of their houses for a genuine need.

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As you can see, Maududi clearly lists ayah 59 regarding the jilbab to have been revealed some time in or after Dhu'l-Qida 5 A.H. along with the other passages. You can also see that Maududi holds that the jilbab covers the face, as those who argue that niqab is fard have mentioned. Now, let's look at Surah an-Nur. The bulk of this surah deals with the slander of Aisha Umm alMuminin (rAa), which took place after the expedition against the Bani Mustaliq (this has been narrated by her in hadiths found in both Bukhari and Muslim). The strongest opinion is that this expedition took place in Shaban of 6 A.H. Maududi again provides detailed information on the historical background of this surah: The consensus of opinion is that it was sent down after the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq and this is confirmed by vv. 11-20 that deal with the incident of the "Slander", which occurred during that Campaign...Muhammad bin Ishaq says that the Battle of the Trench took place in Shawwal 5 A. H. and the Campaign against Bani al-Mustaliq in Sha'ban 6 A. H. This opinion is supported by many authentic traditions from Hadrat Ayesha and others. According to these traditions, (1) The Commandments about purdah had been sent down in Surah Al-Ahzab before the incident of the "Slander",

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(2) The Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab in Zil-Qa'dah 5 A. H. after the Battle of the Trench, (3) Hamnah, sister of Hadrat Zainab, had taken a leading part in spreading the "Slander", just because Hadrat Ayesha was a rival of her sister. All this evidence supports the view of Muhammad bin Ishaq...That is why Ibn Hazm, Ibn Qayyim and some other eminent scholars have held the opinion of Muhammad bin Ishaq as correct, and we also hold it to be so. Thus, we conclude that Surah Al Ahzab was sent down earlier than Surah An-Nur, which was revealed in the latter half of 6 A. H. several months after Surah Al Ahzab... Maududi again asserts that much of Surah al-Ahzab including ayah 59 was revealed prior to Surah anNur: This Surah and vv. 28-73 of Surah Al-Ahzab (of which this is the sequel) were sent down to strengthen the moral front, which at that time was the main target of the attack, vv. 28-73 of Al-Ahzab were sent down concerning the Holy Prophet's marriage with Hadrat Zainab, and on the occasion of the second attack (the "Slander" about Hadrat Aishah), Surah An-Nur was sent down to repair the cracks that had appeared in the unity of the Muslim Community. If we keep this in view during the study of the two Surahs, we shall understand the wisdom that underlies the Commandments about purdah. Allah sent the following instructions to strengthen and safeguard the moral front, and to counteract the storm

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of propaganda that was raised on the occasion of the marriage of Hazrat Zainab: The wives of the Holy Prophet were enjoined to remain within their private quarters, to avoid display of adornments and to be cautious in their talk with other persons (vv. 32, 33). The other Muslims were forbidden to enter the private rooms of the Holy Prophet and instructed to ask whatever they wanted from behind the curtain. (v. 53). A line of demarcation was drawn between the mahram and the non-mahram relatives. Only the former were allowed to enter the private rooms of those wives of the Holy Prophet with whom they were so closely related as to prohibit marriage with them. (v. 55). The Muslims were told that the wives of the Prophet were prohibited for them just like their own real mothers; therefore every Muslim should regard them with the purest of intentions. (vv. 53, 54). The Muslims were warned that they would invite the curse and scourge of Allah if they offended the Holy Prophet. Likewise it was a heinous sin to attack the honor of or slander any Muslim man or woman.(vv. 57, 58).

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All the Muslim women were enjoined to cover their faces with their sheets if and when they had to go out of their houses.(v. 59). Finally, Maududi discusses various of the passages in Surah an-Nur that were revealed after the affair of the Slander. In his list he includes the following. These commands are taken from Surah an-Nur ayah 31: Both men and women were instructed to lower their gaze and forbidden to cast glances or make eyes at each other. Women were enjoined to cover their heads and breasts even inside their houses. Women were forbidden to appear with make-up before other men except their servants or such relatives with whom their marriage is prohibited. They were enjoined to hide their make-ups when they went out of their houses, and even forbidden to put on jingling ornaments, while they moved out of their houses. It might be objected at this point that Maududi held that niqab is fard, so what am I doing quoting him at such length? Especially since I am arguing that if Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed later, niqab is not fard. The answer is that Maududi followed the opinion of Abdullah ibn Masud (rAa) on Surah anNur ayah 31 and held the minority position that this ayah commands the covering of the face and entire body. Since he held this opinion, it would make no difference which of the two ayat was revealed first, or last. This difference of opinion does not mean that the historical information is not valid, since it is actually

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taken from ibn Ishaq and other sources (and speaking of using valid information from those we disagree with, those who argue that niqab is fard themselves cite Shaykh Albani concerning the soundness of their hadiths, even though they know that Albani said that niqab is not fard). I have talked about this at quite some length to make it clear exactly what Maududi says on the issue of chronology. The point is that the historical information provided by ibn Ishaq and others indicates that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was revealed around Dhu'l-Qidah of 5 A.H. while Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed around Shaban of 6 A.H. As well, I have cited a hadith that suggests that Surah alAhzab ayah 59 had already been revealed and was in force when Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed. If this information is correct, then Surah an-Nur ayah 31 must represent the final rule, because it was the last ayah to be revealed about hijab. And this means that everything would depend on what Surah an-Nur ayah 31 means. This ayah mandates that around non-mahram men, everything must be covered except "what is apparent of it". There are two opinions about what this means. 1) It refers only to the outer surface of the woman's garments. This opinion goes back to Abdullah ibn Masud (rAa), and does also Maududi hold the opinion.

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2) It refers to the face and the hands. The opinion has been cited on the authority of Aisha Umm alMuminin (rAa), ibn Abbas (rAa), Anas ibn Malik (rAa), and Miswar ibn Makhrama (rAa), among the Sahaba. This is also the opinion of Imam Tabari, Imam Zamakhshari, Imam Razi, and Imam Qurtubi. The point is, if you follow the opinion of ibn Masud (rAa), as Maududi does, then niqab is still fard. But if you follow the majority opinion then niqab is no longer fard, and the final rule is that a woman may display her face and hands. Some hadiths about women with unveiled faces Above I have presented some information on chronology that I believe shows that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was revealed before Surah an-Nur ayah 31 and that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 supercedes Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59. It may be that this information is not considered decisive. In that case, we can look at a second kind of information. This is hadiths about women with unveiled faces. Even if we can't agree on the order in which the two ayat were revealed, we can look at what the women dressed like after both ayat were revealed. Once both ayat had been revealed, the final rule (whatever it was) was clear and the sahabiyat (rAa) dressed accordingly. Since Surah an-Nur ayah 31 is the only ayah that allows the display of the face and hands, if women did display their faces and hands, then

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obviously, Surah an-Nur ayah 31 must be the final rule. If not, the women would have had to cover their faces. Dating hadiths is sometimes almost as difficult as dating the Quran and again it is a matter of finding the best and most sound opinion and will never be entirely cut-and-dried. Keeping this in mind, here they are: Let's start with one hadith whose date we do know. This situation took place in Dhu'l-Hijja of 10 A.H., on the Farewell Hajj: Sahih Bukhari Book 74 #247. Narrated Abdullah bin Abbas: Al-Fadl bin Abbas rode behind the Prophet [as his companion rider on the back portion of his she-camel on the Day of Nahr (on the Farewell Hajj), and Al-Fadl was a handsome man]. The Prophet stopped to give people verdicts. In the meantime, a beautiful woman from the tribe of Khath'am came, asking the verdict of Allah's Apostle. Al-Fadl started looking at her as her beauty attracted him. The Prophet looked back while Al-Fadl was looking at her; so the Prophet held out his hand backwards and caught the chin of Al-Fadl and turned his face to the other side in order that he should not gaze at her. She said, "O Allah's Apostle! The obligation of performing hajj enjoined by Allah on His worshipers has become due (compulsory) on my father, who is an old man and who cannot sit firmly

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on the riding animal. Will it be sufficient that I perform hajj on his behalf?” He said, "Yes". Once again, a little explanation is in order. It is agreed that women are not permitted to wear niqab when they are in ihram, as the Prophet (sAas) stated this (I always wonder why he would have done this if niqab were fard). According to those who say that niqab is fard, a woman must still draw fabric over her face whenever non-mahram men are nearby so that she remains veiled. The point is, the woman of Khath'am was in front of the Prophet (sAas) and Fadl ibn Abbas (rAa), neither of whom is mahram for her, AND HER FACE WAS UNCOVERED. How else could Fadl (rAa) have known that she was "beautiful"? What else was he staring at? That she was in ihram is no excuse because if niqab is fard it would still be obligatory for her to veil her face around the Prophet (sAas) and Fadl (rAa). But she did not do so. She was standing there in front of at least two non-mahram men, and her face was plainly visible to them. And the Prophet (sAas) did not tell her to veil her face. He didn't say to her anything like "don't you know that you're supposed to draw your jilbab over your face around men?". All he did was turn Fadl's head away to stop him from staring. I really can only see one way to interpret this hadith: if the Prophet (sAas) allowed the woman to have an unveiled face, then it is halal, period. Fadl's (rAa) head had to be turned away, because men have been

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commanded to lower their gazes (Surah an-Nur ayah 30) and he was not doing so. But there is no way that the woman of Khath'am could have gotten away with an unveiled face in front of the Prophet (sAas) unless this is halal. And this incident took place at the end of 10 A.H., which is long after both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 had been revealed. To me, this is clear proof that the final rule is that showing the face and the hands is halal. Besides the hadith above, there are several other hadiths that clearly describe women with unveiled faces. Bukhari Book 54 #515. Narrated Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas: Once Umar asked leave to see Allah's Apostle, in whose company there were some Qurayshi women, who were talking to him and asking him for more financial support, raising their voices. When Umar asked permission to enter, the women quickly screened themselves (fa badirna al-hijab). When Allah's Apostle admitted Umar, Allah's Apostle was smiling. Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle! May Allah keep you happy always!". Allah's Apostle said, "I am astonished at these women here with me. As soon as they heard your voice, they quickly screened themselves". Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle! You have more right to be feared by them". Then he addressed (the women) saying, "O enemies of yourselves! Do you fear me and not

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Allah's Apostle?" They replied, "Yes, for you are a fearful and fierce man as compared to Allah's Apostle". On that Allah's Apostle said (to Umar), "By Him in Whose hands my life is, when satan sees you taking a path, he takes a path other than yours" Here we see that the women were not wearing niqab (i.e., they were not screened) when they were in front of the Prophet (sAas), since they had to screen themselves when Umar (rAa) entered. How could niqab be fard then?? This hadith mentions "some Qurayshi women". The Quraysh of course were the tribe of Makkah, and a state of war existed between the Muslims and the Quraysh until Ramadan of 8 A.H., when the army of the Prophet (sAas) conquered Makkah. It was only at this time that the people of Makkah accepted Islam. Any member of the Quraysh who was a Muslim before this would necessarily have made hijra. Since Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas (rAa) does not say "some emigrant women" but instead says "some Qurayshi women", it seems likely that the women only accepted Islam in Ramadan of 8 A.H. and therefore the incident narrated here takes place at or after that time. If this information is accepted, then we can note that Ramadan of 8 A.H. is long after the revelation of both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31. And yet the women had their faces unveiled in front of the Prophet (sAas).

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To me, this is a second clear proof that it was halal for women to display their faces even after both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 had been revealed, and that this is the final rule for hijab. And here is another hadith that describes a woman with an unveiled face: Sahih Muslim Book 4 #1926. Jabir ibn Abdullah reported: I observed prayer with the Messenger of Allah on the Id day. He commenced with prayer before the sermon, without adhan or iqama. He then stood up leaning on Bilal and he commanded (them) to be on guard (against evil for the sake of) Allah and he exhorted (them) on obedience to Him, and he preached to the people and admonished them. He then walked on till he came to the women and preached to them and admonished them and encouraged them to give alms, for most of them are the fuel for Hell. A woman having a dark spot on her cheek stood up and said, "Why is it so, Messenger of Allah?". He said, "For you grumble often and show ingratitude to your spouses". And they began to give alms out of their ornaments such as their earrings and rings, which they threw in the cloak of Bilal. How in the world could Jabir (rAa) have seen that the woman had "a dark spot on her cheek" unless her

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face was UNCOVERED? This incident has also been reported by ibn Abbas (rAa) (see for example Sahih Muslim Book 4 #1923). Inshallah I will get back to ibn Abbas (rAa) a little later. And here's one more hadith: Silsilat al-Ahadith as-Sahih #3472. Ibn Abbas said: A beautiful woman, from among the most beautiful of women, used to pray behind the Prophet. Some of the people used to go to pray in the first row to ensure they would not be able to see her. Others would pray in the last row of the men, and they would look from underneath their armpits to see her. Because of this act, in regard to her, Allah revealed, "Verily We know the eager among you to be first, and verily We know the eager among you to be behind" (Surah al-Hijr ayah 24) this hadith is found in ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, Tayalisi, Baihaqi, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, and Nasai and it is judged SAHIH by Albani This hadith only makes sense if the woman's face was UNCOVERED. Why did Allah SWT not reveal a command for niqab, if niqab is fard to prevent such situations? Instead, the Prophet (sAas) merely admonished the men, who are commanded to lower their gazes in Surah an-Nur ayah 30 and were not doing so. At this point, I would like to mention some information about ibn Abbas (rAa). According to

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Sahih Bukhari Book 74 #313, ibn Abbas (rAa) had just reached puberty at the time that the Prophet (sAas) died. According to the biographer ibn Hajar in al-Isabah, ibn Abbas (rAa) was born in the year three before the hijra. This would make him thirteen or fourteen at the death of the Prophet (sAas) in 11 A.H., which accords with his own report. Now, ibn Abbas (rAa) is reporting above on something that happened while he was attending prayer in the masjid of the Prophet (sAas). If we assume that ibn Abbas (rAa) did not attend prayer in the masjid until he reached puberty, then this incident would have to take place in 10 A.H. or later. Even if we allow that ibn Abbas (rAa) began attending prayer in the masjid when he was only ten years old, this would still be in 7 A.H. or later. And this also applies to the hadith about the woman with a dark spot on her cheek mentioned above, since that incident took place at the Eid salat. If ibn Abbas (rAa) was attending prayers in the masjid, he must have been at least ten years old, and more likely was at least thirteen years old. If he was ten years old, then the incidents must have taken place in or after 7 A.H. If he was thirteen years old, then the incidents must have taken place in or after 10 A.H. In either case, this is definitely after the revelation of both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31. In both hadiths (Eid salat and the beautiful woman) women are clearly described with UNCOVERED FACES.

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To conclude, we have four hadiths that describe women with uncovered faces and that all took place in or after 7 A.H. - after the revelation of both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31. If this information is accepted, then this provides further proof that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 is the final rule, because it is the only ayah that permits the display of the face and hands. Fiqh of hijab The tafsirs provide all kinds of useful information on what was revealed in what circumstances, but when you want to know what the final rule is and what to do, you look in a fiqh manual. As I have said above, there are two opinions among the fuqaha on the extent of hijab. As I have argued above, the reason for this is that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 seem to give conflicting information about the extent of hijab. The former ayah is generally understood to mandate covering the face, while the latter ayah is generally agreed to allow women to display their faces and hands. Some fuqaha may hold that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 is the final rule (this seems to be the position of Imam ibn Taimiya). Some fuqaha may hold that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 is the final rule, but follow the minority position that it does mandate niqab (this seems to be the position of Syed Maududi). And some fuqaha may hold that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 is

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the final rule and they also follow the majority position that it allows the display of the face and hands. The fuqaha who hold the third position (i.e., that Surah an-Nur allows the display of the face and hands, and is the final rule) will conclude that women may display their faces and hands. Those who argue that niqab is fard usually attempt to claim that there are only a few fuqaha who have held the face-and-hands position. I do not believe this to be true. It is well-known that Imam Abu Hanifa held that women may display their faces and their hands. In fact, he even held that women could display their feet, which not a position is held by any of the other madhhabs, and not by all Hanafi scholars. Imam ibn Taimiya has mentioned the face-hands-and-feet opinion of Imam Abu Hanifa in his Fatawa an-Nisa (p. 36); it is also mentioned in Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa Nihayat al-Muqtasid by Imam ibn Rushd, which is a guide to the differences of opinion in fiqh; and it has been cited in the major Hanafi fiqh guide Hidayat al-Muhtadi Sharh Bidayat al-Mubtadi (commonly referred to as "al-Hidayah") by Burhan al-Din AbulHasan `Ali ibn `Abdul-Jalil Abu Bakr al-Marghinani al-Rushdani al-Hanafi. The face-and-hands-alone opinion has been mentioned by the Hanafi scholar Abu Bakr al-Jassas in Ahkam al-Qur'an and attributed to Imam Abu Hanifa by Ahmad ibn Naqib in his

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Umdat as-Salik. It is really surprising to me that anybody would claim that Imam Abu Hanifa did not hold this opinion. The opinions of some recent Hanafi scholars that niqab is fard do not change the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifa or of the Hanafi madhhab historically. A typical presentation of the rules of dress (including hijab) based on the traditional sources of Hanafi fiqh can be found at: Regulations of Clothing. It is clear from reading this that the position of the Hanafi madhhab is that niqab is mustahabb (according to some scholars, wajib in times of fitna) but not fard. I have not found a lot of information about the Maliki madhhab, but Imam ibn Rushd has attributed the face-and-hands position to the Malikis in Bidayat alMujtahid and this is generally agreed to be the position of the Maliki madhhab (as is mentioned in the essay linked above). As well, the Maliki scholar Imam Qurtubi wrote, "Since the normal case is that a woman’s face and hands are revealed by the force of habit and for worship, as this is required in salat and hajj, then it is appropriate to say that the exemption applies to these". There is some confusion about the position of the Shafi'i madhhab. Imam al-Shafi` himself in his book Al-Umm wrote, "All a woman's body is awrah with the exception of her hands and her face. The top of her feet is also awrah". Another Shafi`i scholar is Imam Fakhr ad-Din Razi (d. 606 A.H. which is 1209

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C.E.), who wrote, "Since the showing of the face and hands is necessary, the fuqaha had no choice but to agree that they are not awra". However, Ahmad ibn Naqib (d. 765 A.H. which is 1367 C.E.) in Umdat asSalik reports the position of the Shafi'i madhhab in his time to be that niqab is fard and this is the position of other late Shafi'i scholars like ibn Hajar. The best thing to say is that the early Shafi'i scholars allowed the display of the face and hands even though the later Shafi'i scholars generally have not. There is also confusion about the position of the Hanbali madhhab. Two opinions are recorded from Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. According to one opinion, a woman may display her face (there is a dispute about the hands), while according to the other opinion niqab is fard. There are in fact Hanbali scholars who have supported the face-and-hands opinion, such as Imam ibn Qudama, who wrote in his fiqh guide al-Mughni, "[I prefer this opinion] because necessity demands that the face should be uncovered for buying and selling, and the hands should be uncovered for giving and taking". From this we can see that the position of the majority of Hanafi and Maliki scholars is that the face and hands may be displayed, and that even among the Shafi'i and Hanbali scholars, there are some who have held this opinion as well. Finally, we should consider two statements that have been made about the class of fuqaha as a whole.

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First is Imam ibn Rushd in Bidayat al-Mujtahid, "As for the third issue - that is, the extent to which a woman should cover herself - is concerned, most of the scholars are of the opinion that her whole body, except her face and hands, should be covered". Second is Imam Qurtubi in his tafsir of Surah alAhzab ayah 53, "The consensus of the Muslims is that all of a woman (is awra) except her face and hands, but some disagree about these two". According to both Imam ibn Rushd and Imam Qurtubi the majority position in their time (1100s C.E. for Imam ibn Rushd and 1200s C.E. for Imam Qurtubi) was that the face and the hands may be displayed. I am satisfied that Imam ibn Rushd and Imam Qurtubi are telling the truth, and that when you consider that it means nearly all Hanafis and Malikis, the early Shafi'is, and some Hanbalis there has indeed been a majority of fuqaha who allow the display of the face and hands. I am also satisfied that a large number of very distinguished scholars have indeed allowed the display of the face and hands and that this is a valid position. And again, the fuqaha are in the business of stating the final rule that is to be followed, so if they say that the face and hands may be displayed, then this in their judgment is the final rule.

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Conclusion In this essay I have argued that: 1) The soundest opinion on chronology is that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was the last hijab ayah to be revealed and as such represents the final rule. 2) There are a number of sahih hadiths dated after the revelation of both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 that show women coming before the Prophet (sAas) with unveiled faces, and he allowed it. Surely, what the Prophet (sAas) has allowed is the final rule of what is halal for Muslims. 3) There are many fuqaha over the centuries who have looked at all of the evidence and concluded that the final rule on hijab is that the face and hands may be displayed and this is a valid opinion for a Muslim sister to follow. When I consider all three sets of information, I feel that the face-and-hands opinion is not only valid but is in fact the stronger opinion, because the Prophet (sAas) has allowed it and because (according to Imam ibn Rushd and Imam Qurtubi) a majority of scholars historically have held this opinion. Afterword In my essay Evidences for Jilbab I have discussed what the Shari'a and the scholars say about the jilbab. Broadly speaking, the four criteria for a proper jilbab are: 1) It is an outergarment, an extra layer, something worn over the ordinary clothes.

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2) It is made of thick, opaque fabric so that no one can see what is beneath it. 3) It is loose in cut so that it does not reveal the contours of the figure. 4) It covers everything that must be covered around non-mahram men. What I have been discussing in this particular essay is: what is the final rule on what "everything that must be covered around non-mahram men" means? According to the tafsirs, at the time that Surah alAhzab ayah 59 was revealed, the meaning of "everything that must be covered around nonmahram men" may have been everything except the eyes to see the way. I have argued that the final rule on "everything that must be covered around nonmahram men" is everything except the face and hands. The point is, it is not that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 has been abrogated and sisters no longer have to wear the jilbab, but rather that the understanding of the nature of the jilbab has been superceded. The jilbab is still fard, but it no longer needs to cover the face. The essay Evidences for Jilbab contains many dalils and opinions of scholars to show that the jilbab is still fard but no longer needs to cover the face. The materials on this page are written by AlMuhajabah. You may copy, display, or distribute these materials for non-commercial purposes as long as you give me proper attribution as the author.

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22.00.00 Top 11 excuses of Muslim Women who don't wear Islamic Hijaab!
Ms. Raihana: 0n 01-15-08

Here am sharing u the excuses which Muslim women who don’t wear hijaab. Get on the train of repentance my sister, before it passes by your station. Deeply consider my sister, what is happening today before tomorrow comes. Think, my sister - starting now. All praise is due to Allah ta'aala as is deserved by His Majesty and Great Power. I send prayers and ask for

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blessings upon His Noble Messenger who drew the path for us to the pleasure of Allah and His Jannah. This path is a straight one that is surrounded by virtue from all sides and attends to the best moral characteristics, which are increased by the clothing of purity, concealment, and chastity. It is the path trod by the two halves of human society, namely the man and the woman, toward harmonious contentment and happiness in this life and the Hereafter. This is precisely why the Protector, the blessed and above all imperfection, has made wearing hijaab (see As-Sunnah Articles) an obligation upon the woman as a safeguard of her chastity and protection of her honor and sign of her faith (Eemaan). It is on account of this that societies (both Muslim and non-Muslim) that have distanced themselves from the way of Allah and deviated from His straight path are ill societies in need of treatment that will lead them to recovery and happiness. Among the pictures that point to the distance of society from that path and that make clear the level of its deviation and separation from it is the open spread of women not just uncovering their faces but enhancing and making a display of their beauty. We find that this is manifested regretfully, in Islamic (Muslim) society despite that Islamic clothing is also widespread. So then, what are the reasons that have led to this digression? We put this question to a varied group of women

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from whom we derived ten major excuses and upon examination and scrutiny, the frailty of the excuses became evident to us. Stay with us dear Muslim sister in these few lines so that we can know through them the reasons for turning away from the hijaab and then discuss each. Excuse One: I’m not yet convinced (of the necessity) of hijaab. We then ask this sister two questions. One: Is she truly convinced of the correctness of the religion of Islam? The natural answer is: Yes she is convinced for she responds "Laa ilaaha illallah!" (There is no god but Allah), meaning she is convinced of the aqeedah, and then she says: "Muhammadun rasoolullah!" (Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah), meaning by that that she is convinced of its legislation or law (sharee'ah). Therefore, she is convinced of Islam as a belief system and a law by which one governs and rules their life. Two: Is the hijaab then a part of Islamic Law (sharee'ah) and an obligation? If this sister is honest and sincere in her intention and has looked into the issue as one who truly wants to know the truth her answer could only be: Yes. For Allah ta'aala, whose deity (Uloohiyyah) she believes in has commanded wearing hijaab in His Book (AlQur'aan) and the noble prophet ('alaihi salaat wa salaam) whose message she believes in has

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commanded wearing the hijaab in his Sunnah. What do we call a person who says they believe in and are content with the correctness of Islam but who nonetheless does not do what Allah or His Messenger have ordered? Certainly they can in no way be described as those whom Allah speaks of in this aayah: The only saying of the faithful believers when they are called to Allah and His Messenger to judge between them is that they say 'we hear and obey' and such are the successful. [Soorah An-Noor 24:51] In summary: If this sister is convinced of Islam, how then can she not be convinced of its orders? Excuse Two: I am convinced of Islamic dress but my mother prevents me from wearing it and if I disobey her I will go to the Fire. The one who has answered this excuse is the most noble of Allah's creation, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in concise and comprehensive words of wisdom: There is no obedience to the created in the disobedience of Allah. [Ahmed] The status of parents in Islam, especially the mother, is a high and elevated one. Indeed Allah ta'aala has combined it with the greatest of matters, worshipping Him and His tawheed, in many aayaat. He stated: Worship Allah and join none with Him and do good to parent [Soorah An-Nisaa 4:36] Obedience to parents is not limited except in one

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aspect, and that is if they order to disobedience of Allah. Allah said: But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not. [Soorah Luqmaan 31:15] The lack of obedience to them in sinfulness does not prevent being good to them and kind treatment of them. Allah said afterward in the same aayah: But behave with them in the world kindly. In summary: How can you obey your mother and disobey Allah Who created you and your mother? Excuse Three: My position does not allow me to substitute my dress for Islamic dress. This sister is either one or the other of two types: She is sincere and honest, or she is a slippery liar who desires to make a showy display of her "hijaab" clamoring with colors to be "in line with the times" and expensive. We will begin with an answer to the honest and sincere sister. Are you unaware my dear sister, that, it is not permissible for the Muslim woman to leave her home in any instance unless her clothing meets the conditions of Islamic hijaab (Hijaab shar'ee) and it is a duty of every Muslim woman to know what they are? If you have taken the time and effort to learn so many matters of this world how then can you be neglectful

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of learning those matters, which will save you from the punishment of Allah and His anger after death! Does Allah not say: Ask the people of remembrance (i.e. knowledgeable scholars) if you do not know. [Soorah An-Nahl 16:43]. Learn therefore, the requirements of proper hijaab. If you must go out, then do not do so without the correct hijaab, seeking the pleasure of Allah and the degradation of Shaitaan. That is because the corruption brought about by your going out adorned and "beautified" is far greater than the matter, which you deem necessary to go out for. My dear sister if you are really truthful in your intention and correctly determined you will find a thousands hands of good assisting you and Allah will make the matter easy for you! Is He not the One who says: And whoever fears Allah and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty) and He will provide him from sources he never could imagine [Soorah At-Talaaq 65:2-3]? With regards to the 'slippery' one we say: Honor and position is something determined by Allah ta'aala and it is not due to embellishment of clothing and show of colors and keeping up with the trendsetters. It is rather due to obedience to Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) and holding to the pure law of Allah and correct Islamic hijaab. Listen to the words of Allah: Indeed, the most honorable amongst

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you are those who are the most pious. [Soorah AlHujuraat 49:35] In summary: Do things in the way of seeking Allah's pleasure and entering His Jannah and give less value to the high priced and costly objects and wealth of this world. Excuse Four: It is so very hot in my country and I can't stand it. How could I take it if I wore the hijaab? Allah gives an example by saying: Say: The Fire of Hell is more intense in heat if they only understand. [Soorah At-Taubah 9:81] How can you compare the heat of your land to the heat of the Hellfire? Know, my sister, that Shaitaan has trapped you in one of his feeble ropes to drag you from the heat of this world to the heat of the Hellfire. Free yourself from his net and view the heat of the sun as a favor and not an affliction especially in that it reminds you of the intensity of the punishment of Allah which is many times greater than the heat you now feel. Return to the order of Allah and sacrifice this worldly comfort in the way of following the path of salvation from the Hellfire about which Allah says: They will neither feel coolness nor have any drink except that of boiling water and the discharge of dirty wounds. [Soorah An-Naba' 78:24-25] In summary: The Jannah is surrounded by hardships and toil, while Hellfire is surrounded by temptations, lusts and desires.

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Excuse Five: I'm afraid that if I wear the hijaab I will put it off at another time because I have seen so many others do so!! To her I say: If everyone was to apply your logic then they would have left the Deen in its entirety! They would have left off salaat because some would be afraid of leaving it later. They would have left fasting in Ramadhan because so many are afraid of not doing it later? Etc. Haven't you seen how Shaitaan has trapped you in his snare again and blocked you from guidance? Allah ta'aala loves continuous obedience even if it were small or recommended. How about something that is an absolute obligation like wearing hijaab?! The prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said: The most beloved deed with Allah is the consistent one though it is little. Why haven't you sought out the causes leading those people to leave off the hijaab so that you can avoid them and work to keep away from them? Why haven't you sought out reasons and causes to affirm truth and guidance until you can hold firm to them? Among these causes is much supplication to Allah (du'aa) to make the heart firm upon the Deen, as did the prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam). Also is making salaat and having mindfulness of it as Allah stated: And seek help in patience and the prayer and truly it is extremely heavy except for the true believers in Allah who obey Allah with full submission and believe in His

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promise of Jannah and in His warnings (AlKhaashi'oon). [Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:45] Other causes to put one upon guidance and truth are adherence to the laws of Islam and one of them is indeed wearing the hijaab. Allah said: If they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them and would have strengthened their faith. [Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:66] In summary: If you hold tight to the causes of guidance and taste the sweetness of faith you will not neglect the orders of Allah after having held to them. Excuse Six: If I wear the hijaab then nobody will marry me, so I'm going to leave it off until then. Any husband, who desires that you be uncovered and adorned in public in defiance of and in disobedience to Allah, is not a worthy husband in the first place. He is a husband who has no feeling to protect what Allah has made inviolable, most notably yourself, and he will not help you in any way to enter AlJannah or escape from the Hellfire. A home, which is founded upon disobedience to Allah and provocation of His anger, is fitting that He decrees misery and hardship for it in this life and in the Hereafter. As Allah stated: But whosoever turns away from My reminder (i.e. neither believes in the Qur'aan nor acts upon its teachings) verily for him is a life of hardship and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection. [Soorah Ta Ha 20:124]

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Marriage is a favor and blessing from Allah to whom He give whom He wills. How many women who wear hijaab (mutahajibah) are in fact married while many who don't aren't? If you were to say that! My being made-up and uncovered is a means to reach a pure end, namely marriage', a pure goal or end is not attained through impure and corrupt means in Islam. If the goal is honorable then it must necessarily be achieved by pure and clean method. We say the rule in Islam is: The means are according to the rules of the intended goals. In summary: There is no blessing in a marriage established upon sinfulness and corruption. Excuse Seven: I don't wear hijaab based on what Allah says: And proclaim the grace of your Rabb. [Soorah Ad-Dhuhaa 93:11] How can I cover what Allah has blessed me with of silky soft hair and captivating beauty? So this sister of ours adheres to the Book of Allah and its commands as long as they coincide with her personal desires and understanding! She leaves behind those matters when they don't please her. If this was not the case, then why doesn't she follow the aayah: And do not show off their adornment except only that which is apparent [Soorah An-Noor 24:31] and the statement of Allah subhaanah: Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the

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believers to draw their cloaks all over their bodies [Soorah Al-Ahzaab 33:59]? With this statement my sister you have now made a shari'ah (law) for yourself of what Allah ta'aala has strictly forbidden, namely beautification (at-tabarruj) and uncovering (as-sufoor), and the reason: Your lack of wanting to adhere to the order. The greatest blessing or favor that Allah has bestowed upon us is that of Eemaan (faith) and hidaayah (guidance) and among them is the Islamic hijaab. Why then do you not manifest and talk about this greatest of blessings given to you? In summary: Is there a greater blessing and favor upon the woman than guidance and hijaab? Excuse Eight: I know that hijaab is obligatory (waajib), but I will wear it when Allah guides me to do so. We ask this sister on what plans or steps she will undertake until she accepts this divine guidance? We know that Allah has in His wisdom made a cause or means for everything. That is why the sick take medicine to regain health, and the traveler rides a vehicle or an animal to reach his destination, and other limitless examples. Has this sister of ours seriously endeavored to seek true guidance and exerted the proper means to get it

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such as: Supplicating Allah sincerely as He stated: Guide us to the Straight Path. [Soorah Al-Faatihah 1:6]; Keeping company with the righteous good sisters - for they are among the best to assist her to guidance and to continue to point her to it until Allah guides her and increases her guidance and inspires her to further guidance and taqwaa. She would then adhere to the orders of Allah and wear the hijaab that the believing women are commanded to wear. In summary: If this sister were really serious about seeking guidance she would have exerted herself by the proper means to get it. Do not forget that Allah truly knows what your intentions are! So don’t think you are fooling any body. Excuse Nine: It's not time for that yet. I'm still too young for wearing hijaab. I'll do it when I get older and after I make Hajj! The Angel of Death my sister is visiting and waiting at your door for the order of Allah ta'aala to open it on you at any moment in your life. Allah said: When their term comes, neither can they delay it nor can they advance it and hour (or a moment). [Soorah AlAn'aam 7:34]. Death my sister doesn't discriminate between the young or the old and it may come while you are in this state of great sinfulness disobedience, fighting against the Lord of Honor with your uncovering and

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shameless adornment. My sister, you should race to obedience along with those others who race to answer the call of Allah tabaaraka wa ta'aala: Race with one another in hastening towards forgiveness from your Lord and Paradise the width whereof is as the width of the heavens and the earth. [Soorah AlHadeed 57:21] Sister, don't forget Allah or He will forget you by turning His mercy away from you in this life and the next. You are forgetting your own soul by not fulfilling the right of your soul to obey Allah and proper worship of Him. Allah stated about the hypocrites (Al-Munaafiqoon): And be not like those who forgot Allah and He caused them to forget their own selves. [Soorah AlHashr 59:19] My sister wear the hijaab in your young age in opposition to the sinful deed because Allah is intense in punishment and will ask you on the Day of Resurrection about your youth and every moment of your life. In summary: Stop presuming some future expectation in your life will indeed occur!! How can you guarantee your own life until tomorrow? Excuse Ten: I'm afraid that if I wear Islamic clothing that I'll be labeled as belonging to some group or another and I hate partisanship. My dear sisters in Islam; there is only two parties in

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Islam and Allah Almighty in His Noble Book mentions them both. The first party is the party of Allah (hizbullah) that He gives victory to because of their obedience to His commands and staying away from what He has forbidden. The second party is the party of the accursed Shaitaan (hizbush-Shaitaan), which disobeys the Most Merciful and increase corruption in the earth. When you hold tight to and adhere to the commands of Allah, and among them are wearing the hijaab - you then become a part of the successful party of Allah. When you beautify and display your charms you are riding in the boat of Shaitaan and his friends and partners from among the hypocrites and the disbelievers and none worse could there be as friends. Don't you see how you are running from Allah and to the Shaitaan, trading filth for good? Run instead my sister to Allah and follow His way: So flee to Allah (from His Torment to His mercy). Verily I (Muhammad) am a plain Warner to you from Him. [Soorah Adh-Dhaariyaat 51:50] The hijaab is a high form of worship that is not subject to the opinions of people and their orientations and choices because the one who legislated it is the Most Wise Creator. In summary: In the way of seeking the pleasure of Allah and in hope of His Mercy and success in His Jannah and throw the statements of the devils among people and jinn against the wall! Hold tight to the legislation of Allah by your molars and follow the example of

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the striving and knowledgeable Mothers of the Believers and the female companions (radiallahu 'anhum ajma'een). Excuse Eleven: Islam is in the heart, I don’t need to “show off” that I am a Muslim, it is a personal relationship between God and me. In order to obtain salvation, a person must combine faith and action, belief and practice. Faith without doing good deeds is as insufficient as doing good deeds without faith. I can use the same argument and say “Well I don’t have to pray or fast, I love Allah in my heart” The hijab is as obligatory as Salah and fasting on the Muslimah. Allah (swt) always commands to do combine faith and actions. Surah 2:25 "And give good news (O Mohammad) to those who believe and do good deeds, that they will have gardens (Paradise) in which rivers flow… Surah 47:2 But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and believe in the (Revelation) sent down to Muhammad - for it is the Truth from their Lord, - He will remove from them their ills and improve their condition. Surah 65:11

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An Messenger, who rehearses to you the Signs of Allah containing clear explanations, that he may lead forth those who believe and do righteous deeds from the depths of Darkness into Light. And those who believe in Allah and work righteousness, He will admit to Gardens beneath which Rivers flow, to dwell therein forever: Allah has indeed granted for them a most excellent Provision. Surah 85:11 For those who believe and do righteous deeds, will be Gardens; beneath which rivers flow: That is the great Salvation Now lets look at some of the reasons why to wear hijaab... Reasons for wearing the hijaab [Compilation from various muslimahs] 1. Because the Qur'an and Sunnah states so. Allah ordered us to wear the hijab and cover up to protect ourselves so we get the proper respect we deserve and not be treated like we are a piece of meat. 2. American soldiers walk around the city with their army uniforms with pride. Well I want to walk with the uniform that Allah (swt) has assigned to me with pride! 3. You get a lot of respect in the hijab from all your brothers and sisters and other people, than you did before your hijabi days 4. You can wear whatever you like under the abayah, light and cool dresses are good.

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5. Despite that this world has hot weather, HELL IS HOTTER, so you rather suffer a bit on this world than the Hereafter. 6. Have you noticed that some people that are really maybe ignorant about Islam and women and Muslims that they speak extra loudly and clearly to you wherever you go. "Wwwoould yooooou llike ttthat in beeeeeels/noooottes or ch change ma 'am?" "I speak English clearly, change please." 7. No bad hair days to worry about! 8. People know that you're a Muslim. You can distinguish yourself in this society. This is not in order to show off, but you can influence other Muslim women to do it and can attract good Muslim women to become your friend and also catch the attention of a pious Muslim man to come and ask for your hand in marriage. 9. Your hair isn't exposed all kinds of crappy pollution and UV rays. 10. Your hijabs smell nice cause they start smelling like your shampoo. 11. Only the people you want to see your awrah, will see it...not every wierdo walking on the street. 12. Your skin is protected under the abayah 13. No bugs in your hair (no having to worry about catching nits from other people!) 14. You won't have to waste time in the morning deciding on the perfect outfit in the morning, if you wear jilbab. 15. Because you know your beautiful and you can keep all that beauty to yourself. You are like a diamond. Diamonds are only shown to special and

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specific people. It is not something to be worn around at all times and shown to everybody no matter who they are. 16. No one dares to mess with a hijabi sis while taking a walk. 17. You will feel closeness to every muhajabah you see on the road and to every Muslim you ever encounter 18. The inner feeling of peace you get when you wear it. 19. Little girls look up to you, and want to be like you. 20. When guys see you, they respect you, they cross the street so they don’t pass by you and offend you. 21. Because most pious brothers WON'T EVEN CONSIDER marriage with a non-hijabi (caution: your intention for wearing hijab should still be to observe the command of Allah) 22. Because there’s more freedom in deciding who gets to see you rather than having anyone look at you and your beauty. 23. People treat you for your mind not your body. In the sense that you succeed in things (i.e. job because of your performance and intelligence and not because how short your mini skirt is. 24. Because Muslims are required to practice Islam in every aspect of your life including everyone, not just nuns like in Christianity or only on Saturday for Jews, or only Sunday for Catholics all of whom cover on those days. Muslimahs should respect God at all times.

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25. Beauty fades eventually, and with hijab people learn to love your inner beauty without the hinder ness of your outer beauty. 26. Your husband and loved ones learn to appreciate your beauty both outside and in more, and these tend to be the most important people in your life of which you grace those special people with your gifts from Allah. 27. You are a shining example how women in Islam are so highly respected and valued and powerful in Islam. For example you are no mans trophy to adorn his hand, you are a companion, mother and friend of the insha'Allah religious brother who appreciates you and your beauty. There are other things where this applies as well. 28. It keeps you warm in the winter. You don’t have to worry about trying to keep a hat on to stop your ears from freezing up! Plus the head is medically known for the place where a HIGH level of heat is released from the body! 29. Long Lasting. Hijab protects your hair for longer and keeps it shiny, healthy and in good condition. 30. Every time a man looks at me because I am not wearing hijab I would be getting sins because I would be helping the man committing a sin by looking at me (Surah 24:30) Conclusion In conclusion your body is on display in the market of Shaitaan seducing the hearts of men. The hairstyles, the tight clothing showing every detail of your figure, the short dresses showing off your legs

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and feet, the showy, decorative and fragrant clothing all angers the Merciful and pleases the Shaitaan. Every day that passes while you are in this condition, distances you further from Allah and brings you closer to Shaitaan. Each day curses and anger are directed toward you from the heavens until you repent. Every day brings you closer to the grave and the Angel of Death is ready to capture your soul. Everyone shall taste death. And only on the Day of Resurrection shall you be paid your wages in full. And whoever is removed away from the Hellfire and admitted to Al-Jannah, is indeed successful. The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception (a deceiving thing). [Soorah Aale 'Imraan 3:185] It is irrelevant if your intention is not bad while you wear hijab, you still have to obey the commands of Allah. Even if you do not agree with the reasons for hijab, that is irrelevant and does not change the fact that it is compulsory on you. Maybe God doesn’t want you to understand; nevertheless HE wants to see if you would still make sacrifices to please him. Get on the train of repentance my sister, before it passes by your station. Deeply consider my sister, what is happening today before tomorrow comes. Think about it, my sister - Now, before it is too late!

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23.00.00 Glossary By: Al-Muhajabah
Here is a glossary of some terms that are used on this website, for both Muslim and non-Muslim visitors. Allah The One God The part of a person's body that must be covered before everybody but a spouse; for men this is from navel to knee, for women from upper chest to knee. It may also be used to refer to what must be concealed of a woman before non-related men Literally means "sign"; used to refer to a verse of the Quran, each of which is a sign of God. Plural is "ayat" Literally means "innovation"; it refers to adding an obligation to the religion that God and the Prophet Muhammad did not

Awra

Ayah Bid'a

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do. Some Muslims feel that adding anything at all to the religion, even if it's not an obligation, is a bid'a Dalil Evidence that is brought from Quran and Sunna to prove a point. For instance, to make a claim about the status of the face veil, one must present dalils The "call" to Islam; inviting people to learn more about Islam to encourage them to convert Also spelled "din". The Arabic word for "religion". Carries the sense of a debt that we owe God, and of a code for judging peoples' actions. Thus it means religion as a whole way of life not just as worship practices Personal prayer or supplication to God, contrasted with salat (which see), the fixed-time ritual prayer. The name means "calling on God" Means "festival"; also spelled "`Id". There are two Eids; Eid al-Fitr at the end of Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha at the time of the end of the hajj Obligatory; performance will be rewarded and neglect will be punished (said of an action) Contrary to popular misconception, a fatwa is not a "death sentence" but is

Da'wah

Deen

Du'a

Eid

Fard Fatwa

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simply an official answer by a scholar to a legal question. One can ask for a fatwa on the status of pepperoni. Plural is "fatawa" Fiqh The science of jurisprudence interpreting the Shari'a or

Hadith

A report about things the Prophet Muhammad said, did, or allowed; the hadiths are a textual source for the Sunna but are not identical to it A special kind of hadith in which the Prophet Muhammad reports on what God said to him other than the Quran; these are considered to be paraphrases while the Quran is God's literal word The pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the five pillars. It is obligatory once in a Muslim's life, if he or she is able to afford it Lawful; something that is halal may be required, recommended, neutral, or even detestable. It is just that it is not forbidden One of the four madhhabs (which see). Generally considered the most liberal One of the four madhhabs (which see). Generally considered the most conservative Forbidden; performance will be punished

Hadith Qudsi

Hajj

Halal

Hanafi Hanbali Haram

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and neglect will be rewarded (said of an action) Hijab The modest dress of the Muslim woman; the word is sometimes used to refer only to the headscarf. A woman who wears hijab is a hijabi The sacred state of the pilgrim on hajj; involves certain restrictions on conduct and certain changes in dress Faith God willing; if God wills (said when discussing the future) A type of salat; it is offered when a Muslim faces a difficult decision, seeking God's aid Paradise; the abode of the righteous in the Hereafter. The Arabic word "Jannah" means "garden" Contrary to popular opinion in the West, this does not mean "holy war". A literal translation is "struggle". The struggle to establish justice and righteousness may or may not involve military action. Just as Westerners talk about their "crusade against poverty", so Muslims can use jihad in the same sense. There is also the "greater jihad", which is entirely against the caprices of the soul; the jihad in the world is the "lesser jihad"

Ihram Iman Inshallah Istikhara

Jannah

Jihad

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Jilbab

A long coat or cloak; more generally, any type of outergarment that covers from the shoulders to the ankles. Commanded in Quran Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 One of the created orders, made of smokeless fire. The jinn according to the Quran may choose good or evil. Those who choose evil are referred to as "the satans". They seem to be similar to the evil spirits mentioned in the Talmud and the Gospels. The singular form is properly "jinni" and the English word "genie" seems to be a corruption of this An Arabic term meaning "Congratulations!" or "May you be blessed" A term referring to a legal school in Islam. Each has a slightly different way of engaging in fiqh (which see) Someone with whom there can never be marriage because of consanguinity or affinity. For example, a father is a mahram relative for a woman Detestable; performance will not be punished, but neglect will be rewarded (said of an action) One of the four madhhabs (which see). Generally considered moderately liberal What God has willed (said whenever

Jinn

Mabruk

Madhhab

Mahram

Makruh Maliki Mashallah

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something good or bad happens) The Arabic word from which the English word "mosque" is derived; it means "place of prostration" or more broadly "place of worship". The mosque is just the Muslim place of worship Neutral; peformance will not be rewarded and neglect will not be punished (said of an action)

Masjid

Mubah

Recommended; performance will be Mustahabb rewarded but neglect is not punished (said of an action) Niqab The face veil; styles of dress that involve veiling the face. A woman who wears niqab is a niqabi The Day of Resurrection; Judgement Day. The Arabic word "qiyamah" carries a sense of it being the day on which everybody is called to stand (before God) The revealed Scripture of Islam; transmitted word-for-word from God to the Prophet Muhammad via the angel Gabriel An abbreviation for "radi Allahu anhu"; used after the names of the first few generations of Muslims, it means "May God be satisfied with him/her" The month of fasting; one of the five

Qiyamah, Day of

Quran

(rAa) Ramadan

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pillars. The fast is from dawn to sunset and involves abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations (if married) A person who returns to a religion they previously had; Muslim custom is to apply this term to converts to Islam as well, on the grounds that Islam is the religion that every person was born into, but their parents made them another religion The practice of charging interest on loans; sometimes translated as "usury". Riba is forbidden under Islamic law, which makes the modern finance system challenging for Muslims An abbreviation for "salli Allahu alayhi wa sallam"; used after the name of the Prophet Muhammad, it means "may the blessings of God and peace be upon him" An Arabic word meaning "perseverance" or "patience". The quality of continuing to trust in God even when everything seems to be going wrong. Sabr is one of the qualities that can lead to Paradise. Quran 33:35 mentions "the men who persevere and the women who persevere" as among those who will receive a great reward from God The Companions of the Prophet

Revert

Riba

(sAas)

Sabr

Sahaba

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Muhammad; the singular is "sahabi" and the feminine plural is "sahabiyat" Salaf A general term for the early generations of Muslims The fixed-time ritual prayer of Islam and one of the five pillars. It is offered five times a day: at dawn, mid-day, midafternoon, sunset, and nightfall One of the four madhhabs (which see). Generally considered relatively conservative The testimony of faith "Laa ilaha ill'Allah. Muhammadan rasul Allah" that makes a person a Muslim under the law Islamic law; the two sources are the Quran and the Sunna The satan. The English word "satan" is actually adapted from a Hebrew word which means "adversary". The Arabic word "shaytan" is a cognate to this. Satan in Islamic teaching (where he is also named Iblis) is from the race of the jinn (which see) rather than being a fallen angel as in Christian teaching The associating of partners with God; usually translated as "polytheism" or "idolatry" The deeds, sayings, and silent approvals

Salat

Shafi'i

Shahadah Shari'a

Shaytan

Shirk Sunna (1)

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of the Prophet Muhammad; this consitutes the second source of Shari'a. It is obligatory for Muslims to follow the Sunna as well as the Quran Sunna (2) Some action taken by the Prophet Muhammad; for instance one of the Prophet's sunnas is to fast three days each month Recommended; performance will be rewarded but neglect is not punished (said of an action). This is nearly synonymous with "mustahabb" but carries the sense that the form has specifically been established by the Prophet Muhammad Refers to the "chapters" of the Quran; there are 114 surahs An abbreviation for "Subhana wa Ta'ala"; used after God's name, it means "be He glorified and exalted" The Successors; this refers to the second generation of Muslims, who were succcessors to the Sahaba A commentary on the Quran, explaining the meaning of its verses Islamic mysticism; the English term is Sufism Islamic monotheism

Sunna (3)

Surah SWT

Tabi'un Tafsir Tasawwuf Tawhid

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Ulama

The religious scholars of Islam. The singular is "alim" and the term "mullah" is synonymous. The place of ulama in Islam is similar in many ways to that of rabbis in Judaism An Arabic word meaning "community" or "nation"; specifically used to refer to the worldwide community of Muslims, as united by faith

Umma

An Arabic phrase meaning "mothers of the faithful". It is a title given to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad, based Ummahat on Surah al-Ahzab verse 6 which says al-Muminin "The Prophet is nearer to the faithful than their own souls, and his wives are their mothers" Wudu Zakat The ritual ablutions that precede the salat, which involve washing the hands, mouth, nose, face, forearms, hair, ears, and feet One of the five pillars, it involves giving 2.5% of surplus wealth to help the needy

Here is also a glossary of different names that are given to the dress of the Muslim woman and their various meanings

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Abaya

A type of outergarment that covers the head and body; it is all but shapeless A veil that is tied on at the forehead and falls to cover the entire face but has no cutout for the eyes; instead, the fabric is sheer enough to be seen through This is similar to Khimar (2) - see below - but comes down just to the bosom. Sometimes called "Amira hijab" if it has embroidery at the edge

Boushiya

Buknuk

Burqa (1)

A veil that covers the face and entire head but with a place cut out for the eyes

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Burqa (2)

Also known as the Afghan Burqa. Covers the entire body and has a grille over the face that the woman looks through. May have slits for the hands

Chador

A type of outergarment that covers the head and body; it is sort of like Khimar (2) see below - but comes down to the ankles or the ground. May have slits for the hands

Dupatta

Also called "shayla" and "milfeh"; a type of headcovering that is wrapped around the head The entire modest dress of the Muslim woman

Hijab (1)

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Hijab (2)

The headscarf; this is properly referred to as a "khimar" A type of headcovering that is a square of fabric folded into a triangle then placed over the head and fastened under the chin; this is probably the most common style The term used in the Quran (Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59) to refer to the outergarment A type of outergarment that looks like a long raincoat or trenchcoat The term used in the Quran (Surah an-Nur ayah 31) to refer to the headscarf; the word "hijab" is more commonly used with this meaning

Hijab (3)

Jilbab (1)

Jilbab (2)

Khimar (1)

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Khimar (2)

The word "khimar" is most commonly used to refer to a circular type of headcovering with a hole cut out for the face, which usually comes down to the waist. Note the variations Buknuk and Chador above, which are the same style but different lengths

Milfeh

See Dupatta

Niqab (1)

Any type of veil for the face or outfit that covers the face A veil that is tied on at the forehead and falls to cover the entire face with a place cut out for the eyes. Also called "full niqab"

Niqab (2)

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Niqab (3)

A veil that is tied on at the bridge of the nose and falls to cover the lower face. Also called "half niqab"

Shalwar Kameez

An outfit common in Pakistan that involves a very long tunic (at least knee length) and trousers. Also worn by men

Shayla

See Dupatta

The materials on this page are written by AlMuhajabah. You may copy, display, or distribute these materials for non-commercial purposes as long as you give me proper attribution as the author.

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Allah have sent down to you a garment which covers your shame and provides protection and Adornment
Submit a manuscript

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