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Yale University Department of Music

Flats, Modality, and Musica Ficta in Some Early Renaissance Chansons Author(s): Edward L. Kottick Source: Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Winter, 1968), pp. 264-280 Published by: Duke University Press on behalf of the Yale University Department of Music Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/843313 . Accessed: 01/06/2013 11:33
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264
Flats,

Modality,

and

Musica

Ficta

in

Some

The modality of a cadence in polyphonic modal music is comfinal monly assigned by identifying both the lowest-sounding tone, and the scalic arrangement of the notes leading to it. If the final tone is D, and if the notes preceding it derive from a Dorian scale configuration, we perceive the complex as a caas an dence to D-Dorian, or, in the context of this article, "untransposed" cadence (Example 1). A cadence to G-Dorianfinal tone is G, and whose scalic one whose lowest-sounding A shorter version of this paper was read at the Fall meeting of the Midwest Chapter of the American Musicological Society, Chicago, Illinois, November, 1965.

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265

Early

Renaissance

Chansons

EDWARD L. KOTTICK
configuration is from G to G with the B-flat - may be considered as a Dorian cadence "transposed" by one flat (Example 2). Similarly, a C-Dorian cadence is one "transposed"by two flats (Example 3). *1 In the Early Renaissance chanson this transposition of the mode may be effected in one or more of three ways: first, by flat signatures at the clef - what we would call a "key signature" if we were dealing with functionally tonal music; second, by the presence of internal flats - that is, flats that appear in places other than at the clef; and third, the transposition may be caused by the addition of unwritten but implied flats, or musica ficta. However, examination of the chanson repertoire shows that flat

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266(5
signatures at the clef and internal accidentals (and by inference, musica ficta) can vary in the same piece as it appears in concordant sources. On occasionthese differences may be of such magnitude that a given piece appears in different modal frameworks in different manuscripts. The problem can be stated simply: are the flats used to transpose the mode, or is the transposition of the mode a by-product of some other phenomenon? Other questions come to mind. Does the horizontal element still take precedence over the vertical in early Renaissance style? Should transposed modes, along with partial signatures *2, signatures that change from line to line, and signatures that vary from source to source, be regarded in the light of melodic rather than harmonic conIn answering these questions we will see how siderations? modal transpositions of a given piece may indeed occur as a result of variant flat signatures, and I will offer a pragmatic explanation of this phenomenon. *3 Renaissance theorists, as well as contemporary musicologists, have been interested in the relationships between flats, modprocedures, ality, and musica ficta. Their rules, principles, and explanations generally are helpful, for most often the problems and the solutions are obvious. However, while working on an edition of the Chansonnier Cordiforme (sigla Par 2973) *4, I discovered many specific questions of musica ficta, and instances of partial signatures and changing modalities that are not explained by these theorists. Thus I found myself agreeing with Van den Borren, who said over thirty-five years ago: "When one finds himself confronted by numerous practical cases, those subtle interpretations of passages from theorists like Adam of Fulda, or Glareanus, help but little in the application of the implied accidentals. " *5 Logically, this was the time to examine the internal evidence, to see what the chanson repertoire itself could reveal about flats, modality, and musica ficta. Using Par 2973 as my base manuscript, I tabulated the presence of flat signatures at the in 30 songs from Par 2973, and clef, and internal accidentals, in the same songs as they appeared in other manuscripts. Some of the results of this tabulation are summarized in Appendix B. Sixteen chansons are listed with flat signatures at the clef and concordances for each of the signatures. *6 The signatures are represented as follows: a dash means that that voice has no flat signature at the clef; one flat signifies a signature of bb; two flats, bb and eb. Thus "O pelegrina, o luce" appears in Par 2973 with no signature in the superius, bb in the tenor, and

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267
EXAMPLE

1 Vray

dieu d'amours

(Anon.):cadence

to D-Dorian

[:

1 W]

O pelegrina,

o luce (Anon.): cadence to G-Dorian -

00I

"

J7

3Dona

gentile he belle como l'oro (Dufay):cadence

to C-Dorian

fill, IV IV In,

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268
EXAMPLE 4
Par. 2973: Gentil modono de non me hobondonore

3v-5 .J

[Sedinghom~

'I

o Fre-c
"

saem-ma

)
.
I

o
I IJI M

ma
I

-ga

L O pre-ci sa njen-tiiado

non

for me haban-O

de

mar - g

re.

15 A

,,,

.!

,,
,,.

" ,,1=.

don

.
,

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209

20

r, I

lu

si!?

- ,tIIu -

oLI-" *

25

te - ne

mi --

ta

In

tu

guar - di

de

no

my

__30
.

_
far
"-, "'-

'-

mo-ri .
---I 1 ;;-] II/:

re.

rF="-"

, . . - " boomr

Accidentals Accidentals Accidentals

above the staves are from Par 362 in the signature or before the notes are from Par 2973 in parenthesis are editorial

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270
bb in the contratenor; is bb and eb. but in Pay 362 the signature of the tenor

while

Appendix B shows clearly that signatures can vary from source to source, and that partial signatures do not always occur in what we consider "normal"'patterns. Although we might expect some manuscripts consistently to have more, and some to have fewer flats in their signatures, this does not appear to be the case. Further, the time and place of compilation seems to have little bearing on a manuscript's supply of flats at the clef and internal flats. In a given manuscript we might expect a chanson with a fuller signature to have fewer internal flats, while in a source with a lesser signature we would hope to find more internal flats. Sometimes this is so, but often it is not. For example, "Je ne veis onques la pareille" appears 13 internal in Par 2973 with a signature of -, 6, b, and contains flats; in Tr 90 it has a signature of -, b, -, and 7 internal flats,
in Flo 2356 the signature

the third

internal flat. The situation is further complicated by "floating" signatures, or signatures that change from line to line. In Par 2973 Busnois' "Est il mercy de quoy" begins with a signature of -, b, -, but a flat at the clef is added to the second line of the The signature, now 6, b, -, remains the same through superius.
line; however, in the fourth line it becomes -, -, ,

is b, -, -,

and there

is but one

and remains

so to the end of the piece.

When a chanson appears in different sources with varying signatures, when the number of internal flats differ, and when "floating" signatures might be present, one of two things can happen to the modal structure of the version less liberally supplied with flats. Either the internal flats, the requirements of musica ficta, or both, can produce a reading in which the essential bb's, or bb's and eb's, are inflected in accordance with a source that has a fuller signature; or, the modal structure can be changed from a transposed to a non-transposed mode, or from a mode transposed by two flats to one transposed by one flat. Bedingham's "Gentil madona de non me habandonare" illustrates In Pa 2973 and in three other manuthe first possibility.
scripts its signature

Appendix B). No internal flats are involved. Together, the tenor and contratenor contain 17 "6's*. The location and probable alteration of the "b's" in the Pay 362 version appear above the staves in the transcription (Example 4), which is from Par 2973. A glance at the transcription will show that the modal scale at the final cadence, F-Ionian, remains the same in both

is -, 6b,f,

but in Pay 362 it is

-, -, - (See

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271
and that most of the essential "b's" flatted by the are flatted musica ficta in Pav 362. of -, 6, by b, if the Lydian and Ionian modal scales represent Furthermore, two versions of a pattern, it is of little consequence which one Performance of the technically is functioning at the moment. two versions will indicate that either reading is musically valid. *7 versions,
signature

Dufay's "Le serviteur hault guerdonnd" provides an example of the second possibility, a change in modal structure. Five sources have a signature at the clef of 66, 66, bb (See Appendix B). Thus, the transcription from Par 2973 (Example 5) represents the normal modal version of this chanson. Wol 287 and Per 431 both have the signature of 6, 6, 6, but in the latter it becomes The proba6, -, 6 after the second line of the tenor. ble inflections of the "e's" in Wol 287's version of Le serviteur In the five manuappear above the staves in the transcription. 6, bb the final cadence of scripts containing signatures of 66, b this chanson is to C-Dorian, or a Dorian pattern transposed by two flats. The final cadence of Le serviteur in Wol 287 would be to C-Mixolydian, or a Mixolydian pattern transposed by one flat. Up to measure 23, the Per 431 version is essentially the same as the Wol 287. Even though the tenor loses its flat after the second line, all "b's" after the second line are flatted by the requirements of musica ficta. Wol 287's internal flats in measures 24, 25, and 26 might have signified that all "e's" from this point on required flatting; if this were so, then the Wol 287 version of Le serviteur also would have ended in CDorian. But there is no such indication in Per 431. The internal flats are lacking and a performance of the chanson from this manuscript would end in C-Mixolydian. Either version seems musically satisfying and stylistically acceptable. The problem of flats, modality, and musica ficta in the early Renaissance chanson can be explained if we agree that melodic did indeed take precedence over harmonic conrequirements siderations. The composer used flats so that his melodies, which he wrote in a desirable range, might be sung smoothly and correctly, avoiding awkward intervals and melodic patterns, and fitting well with the other voices of the piece. He was aware, no doubt, that the introduction of flats might result in a transposed mode, but he was less concerned about it thanthe theorist who might later examine his piece. Furthermore, some melodies sounded just as smooth with fewer flats as they did with more, which is another way of saying that they may sound as well in one modal framework as another. Hence partial signatures, varying signatures, varying internal flats, and

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272
EXAMPLE 5
Par. 2973 : Le serviteur hault guerdonne

33v- 34 *=J [_LDufoy]


I.e
ser -vi-teur hault

guer

-do

-.

6.5

le'.

As-

biY

et

bien

for

Iu

[-

-.----------

.._- -10

AL

15"

ce

(de

Fran -

ce)

Me

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273

20

I rpll

-,

pour

....

Ii

"-

25

voian -

pour- voiari -

ce]

F F

D ung

tout

se_

mt

031

D'ungbienordon or - don '-ne.

. .t-VI

'I

Accidentals Accidentals Accidentals

above the staves are from Wol 287 in the signature or before the notes are from Par 2973 in parenthesis are editorial

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274
floating signatures, along with the art of musica ficta, often reflect the freedom of choice the composer yielded to the scribe and the performer. This explanation seems even more reasonable when other facets of the repertoire are taken into account. We have been discussing aspects of a musical practice in which a three-part chanson might be performed as a duo by omitting a voice, or in four parts by adding a newly composed part, in which subwas stituting one's own contratenor part for the composer's Chansons were written for amateurs who acceptable practice. performed them with any combination of voices or instruments that happened to be available. Rhythmic and melodic elements could vary in the same piece from manuscript to manuscript. The decoration of a cadence often was decided by the scribe, who also had his own ideas about which notes should be ligatured and which should not. The accurate setting of a text, or even, as in some cases, the existence of a text, seemed to be a matter of little concern, and literary readings varied even more than musical readings. Chansonniers were compiled not for performance, but to grace the fifteenth-century equivalent of the living-room coffee table. All these elements of the early Renaissance chanson repertoire were subject to such variation as a matter of course. It was no different with flats, modality, and musica ficta.

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275
REFEREN C ES

In his article, "The Function of Conflicting Signatures in Early Polyphonic Music " The Musical Quarterly, XXXI (1945), pp. 227-260, Edward Lowinsky uses the terms "once transposed" and "twice transposed" to describe these occurrences. Partial signatures have been the subject of some heated debate in musicological Willi Apel, in his Accidentien und TonalitSt in den Musikdenkmalern circles. des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1936), his "The Partial Signatures in the Sources up to 1450", Acta Musicologica X (1938), pp. 1-13, and XI (1939), pp. 40-42, and his Notation of Polyphonic Music (Cambridge, Mass., 1953), concluded that partial signatures reflected different "tonal realms" within the modal framework. Edward Lowinsky took exception to Apel's views and stated in "The Function of Conflicting Signatures in Early Polyphonic Music", The Musical Quarterly, XXXI(1945), pp. 227-260, that partial signatures resulted from certain cadential formulae that appeared in the music. Richard Hoppin disagreed with bothApel and Lowinsky in his "Partial Signatures and Musica Ficta in Some Early 15th-Century Sources", Journal of the American Musicological Society, VI(1953), pp. 197-215, and theorized that partial signatures indicated the simultaneous use of two modes, or of one mode in its transposed and untransposed forms. Professor Lowinsky published a rebuttal to Hoppin, "Conflicting Views on Conflicting Signatures", Journal of the American Musicological Society, VII "Con(1954), pp. 181-204; Professor Hoppin returned with a counter-rebuttal, flicting Signatures Reviewed", Journal of the American Musicological Society, IX (1956), pp. 97-117. In his article, "Tone System in the Secular Works of Guillaume Dufay", Journal of the American Musicological Society, XVIII (1965), pp. 131-169, Leo Treitler discusses differences in signatures of Dufay works as they appear in various Near the end of his paper (p. 166), Treitler poses three unanmanuscripts. swered questions about these variant signatures: (1) can they be attributed to scribal errors, or (2) were they reflected in differences in performance, or (3) do they cast doubts on the theory that tonalities in this music are reflected by signatures? This manuscript was the subject of my doctoral dissertation entitled, "The Music of the Chansonnier Cordiforme: Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Rothschild 2973", 2 vols. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1962). The texts edited by Robert White Linker. Charles Van den Borren (ed.). Polyphonia Sacra: the Fifteenth Century (London, 1932), ii. a Continental Miscellany of

5 6

For complete concordances of these chansons see E. Kottick, "The Chansonnier Cordiforme', Journal of the American Musicological Society, XX (1967), pp. 927. It should be mentioned that my figures show that almost half the chansons have signatures of the repertoire have no flat signature at the clef. About 250% of bb for all the parts, or bb and e6 for all the parts. Hence, partial signatures and floating signatures occur in approximately one-quarter of the chansons in this repertoire.

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2765

No doubt the reader will wish to replace my musica ficta with his own, but this should cause no damage to the general thesis. My guidelines for the application of musica ficta are derived mostly from the evidence of internal accidentals and are as follows: MELODIC PRINCIPLES (1) A flat is used to perfect the melodic interval of a fourth or fifth, and the same intervals occurring in a strong rhythmic relationship with intervening notes. For example, if the note "b" is (2) A flat is used to avoid chromaticism. flatted for one of the reasons given here, then a "b" occurring one or two notes later in the same voice most likely also should be flatted. (3) An internal accidental before a note usually applies to the subsequent notes of that pitch until the end of the phrase is reached. (4) A flat is used to preserve unison or octave. like intervals in imitative passages at the

(5) A flat may be applied without specific melodic or harmonic justification to a structurally important note that is part of a phrase which is a repetition or variation of a previous phrase that contained the accidental. should be flatted if (6) A "b" between two "a's" or an "e" between two "d's." this melodic fragment occurs prominently in other parts of the song in the flatted form. The same principle applies to melodic fragments including "d's", "a's", and "b's". (7) A "b" or an "e" is flatted if its immediately preceding upper or lower octave has been flatted by either the signature at the clef, an interval accidental, or by the application of one of these principles. HARMONIC PRINCIPLES (8) A flat is used to perfect the harmonic interval of an octave. (9) A flat is used to perfect the harmonic interval of a fifth when the interval is in a structurally significant position. (10) between two notes of the A flat is used to prevent a cross-relationship same pitch in different voices when they occur in two adjacent or nearly adjacent chords of the same harmonic content, provided that the crossrelationship cannot be justified as a necessary consequence of the voice leading.

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277

APPENDIX A: SOURCES AND SIGLA Bol Q16 Cop 2918 Dij 517 Esc IV, a. 24 Flo 27 Flo XIX, 59 Flo XIX, 121 Flo XIX, 176 Flo XIX, 178 Flo 2356 Flo 2794 Lon 31922 Mun 351a NH Mel Odh Par 15123 Par 676 Par 2973 Pay 362 Per 431 Rom XIII, 27 Bologna, Museo Civico Bibliografico Musicale (olim Liceo Musicale), Cod. Q16. Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek, MS Thott 2918 (Chansonnier Copenhagen). Dijon, Bibliothbque de la Ville, Escorial, Florence, Florence, Florence, Florence, Florence, Florence, Florence, MS 517. MS IV, a. 24. MS Panciatichi 27.

Biblioteca del Monasterio,

Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, B.N.C., B. N.C., B.N.C., B.N.C.,

MS Magl. XIX, 59 (B. R. 229). MS Magl. XIX, 121. MS Magl. XIX, 176. MS Magl. XIX, 178. MS 2356. MS 2794.

Biblioteca Riccardiana, Biblioteca Riccardiana,

London, British Museum, Additional MS 31922. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, (Schedelsche Liederbuch). New Haven, Conn., Yale University Harmonice 1501). Paris, Paris, Paris, B.N., B.N., B.N., musices Cim. 351a (Mus. MS 3232) Mellon Chansonnier. Ottaviano dei Petrucci, Pixerecourt).

Library,

odhecaton A (Venice:

fonds fr. 15123 (-hansonnier Rdserve Vm7676.

Rothschild 2973 (Chansonnier Cordiforme). Cod. Aldini 362.

Pavia, Biblioteca Universitaria, Perugia,

Biblioteca Comunale, Cod. 431 (G. 20).

Rome, Citta del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Archivio della Cappella Giulia, MS XIII, 27 (Medici Codex).

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278

Rom

1411

Rome, Cittadel Vaticano, Cod. Urb. Lat. 1411. Rome, Trent, Trent, Verona, Biblioteca Biblioteca Biblioteca Biblioteca

Bibl.

Ap. Vat.,

Arch.

della Cappella

Giulia,

Rom 2856 Tr 89 Tr 90 VerDCCLVII Wash 252

Casanatense, di Castello di Castello Capitolare, Library

Cod.

2856. Cod. Cod. 89. 90.

del Buon Consiglio, del Buon Consiglio, Cod. Mus.

DCCLVII. MS. M2.I L252 Case (Chan-

D.C., Washington, sonnier Laborde). Wolfenbiittel,

of Congress,

Wol 287

Landesbibliothek,

MS extrav.

287.

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279

B: FLAT SIGNATURES AT THE CLEF APPENDIX IN SIXTEEN EARLY RENAISSANCE CHANSONS

Gentil

madona

de non me habandonare Par 2973,

[Bedingham] Par 15123: -, 6, b.

Esc IV, a. 24, NH Mel, Pay 362: -, -, -. O pelegrina, Par 2973: O rosa bella o luce -,6,~ .

Pay 362:

-,.6,b.

[Dunstable] Wol 287:

Esc IV, a. 24, Par 15123, Rom 1411, Par 2973, Pay 362: -, , -. Tr 89, Tr 90: -, -,. Dij 517: 6, ~, -. J'ay pris amours a ma devise Par

6, 6, b.

Bol Q16, Flo 27, Par 2973, Per 431: -,-,-. Wash 252: -, , b. De tous biens plaine

15123,

est ma maistresse

[Hayne]

Bol Q16, Flo XIX, 121, Flo XIX, 178, Flo 2356, Flo 2794, NHMel, Odh, Par 15123, Rom 2856: 6, 6, b. 6, ', ~b. Dij 517, Wash 252, Cop 2918, Lon 31922: Par 676, Par 2973: 6, bL, -. Wol 287: -, -, -. Pay 362: -, , -. Per 431: 666, b. , J'ay moins de bien [Busnois]

Dij 517: 6, -, -. Flo XIX, 59: 6, 6, b.

Par 2973: Wash252:


Cent mille escus

,,-.

6, , bb.
[Caron] Per 431, Rom XIX, 27

Dij 517, Flo XIX, 59, Flo XIX, 178, Rom 2856, Ver DCCLVII: -, 6, b. Par 15123: -, , -. Par 2973: -, -, . Le souvenir de vous me tue [Morton]

Cop 2918, Dij 517, Par 2973, Wol 287: Bol 216, Par 15123, Wash252: , , b. Flo XIX, 176: -, K,-.
Flo Per 2356: 431: -, -,

- -,-

K. , b, -.

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260

L'omme Dij NH Pay Par N'aray

bany de sa plaisance 517, Flo XIX, 176, Mel: 6, bb, bb.

[Barbingant] Par 15123, Wash 252:

' ' 66,

b.

362: -,
2973: je jemais -,

bb,bb.
, b. mieulx

que j'ay?

[Morton] NH mel, Par 2973, Par 15123,

Cop 2918, Dij 517, Flo 2356, Wash 252, Wol 287: -, -, -. Esc IV, a. 24: -, b, b. Flo XIX, 176: -, , -. Le serviteur hault guerdonne

[Dufay] 15123, Rom XIII, 27:

Dij 517, Esc IV, a. 24, Par 2973, Par Flo 2794, Per 431, Wol 287: 6, ,b.

bb, bb, 66.

Pavy 362:
Tr 90: Est il mercy Dij 517,

,6 6, 6b.
de quoy [Busnois] Par 2973, -,-,-. Wol 287: -, , -.

6., 96, -.

Wash 252: 6, 6, b.
NH mel: Tout a par moy [Frye] Par NH Flo Wol 2973, Wash 252: Mel: -, -, b. 2356: , -, -. 287: -, -, -. rit et ma pensee -, , -.

Ma bouche

pleure

[Ockeghem]

Flo 2356, Flo XIX, 176, Mum 351a, NH Mel, Par 2973, Par 15123, Rom 2856, Rom XIII, 27, Wol 287: -,-,-. Wash 252: -, 6, b. Mon seul plaisir, ma doulce joye [Dufay, Bedingham] Par 15123, Pay 362,

Flo 2356, Flo XIX, 176, Wol 287: -,-, Esc IV, a. 24, Par 2973: Wash 252: -, -, b. Je ne veis onques la pareille

Mun 351a, -, 6, b.

Mun 351a, Par 2973, Wol 287: -, 6, b. Flo XIX, 176, Wash 252: ,b, b.
Flo 2356: , -,-

Tr 90:

-,

, -.

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