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Methods and Approaches 1.

Grammar Translation Method


Goals/ Characteristics

Teachers Roles

Students Roles

Sample Activities

Johann Seidenstucker, Karl Plotz, H.S. Ollendorf, and Johann Medinger

Its fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. To do this students need to learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language; studying foreign language provides students with good mental exercises which helps develop their minds.

Authority in the classroom The teacher is in command. Thus, a teacher centered environment.

The students do as the teacher says

Translation of a literary passage Reading comprehensions Questions Antonyms/ synonyms Cognates Deductive application of the rule Fill-in-the-blanks Memorization Use words in sentences Composition


Direct Method

F. Frank

In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation.

The teacher directs the classroom activities

Students are less passive. The teachers and students are more like partners in the educative process

Reading aloud Question and Answer Getting students to self correct Conversation practice Map drawing Paragraph writing


Audio Lingual Method

Charles Fries and other structuralists

The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits. There is much practice of dialogues of every situation. New language is first heard and extensively drilled before being seen in its written form; use the target language communicatively.

The role of the teacher is central and active; it is a teacher-dominated method. The teacher models the target language, controls the directions and pace of learning, and corrects the learners performance.

Learners are viewed as organisms that can be3 directed by skilled training techniques to produce correct responses.

Dialogue memorization Repetition drill Chain drill Single-shot substitution drill Multiple-slot substitution drill Question and answer Use of minimal pairs Complete the dialog Grammar games


Community Language Learning

Charles A. Curren

In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student.

The teachers initial role is that of a counselor; the teacher skillfully understands and supports his students in their struggle to master the target language.

Initially, the learner is dependent on the teacher. He is a client of the counselor.

Tape-recording Conversation Transcription Reflective listening Human computer Small group tasks


Oral Approach and Situational Language Learning

Harold Palmer and A.S. Homby

A practical command of the four basic skills of a language, through structure Accuracy in both Pronunciation and grammar Ability to respond quickly and accuracy in speech situations Automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns.

The teachers functions is threefold; serves as a model setting up situations in which the target structure is created and then modeling the new structure for the students to repeat. The teacher is required to be a skillful manipulator.

In the initial stage the learner is only required to listen and repeat. Later, more active participation is encouraged.

Listening practice Choral imitation Individual imitation Isolation Building up to a new model Elicitation Substitution drilling Question and answer drilling Correction


Total Physical Approach

James Asher

TPR works by having the learner respond to simple commands such as "Stand up", "Close your book", "Go to the window and open it." The method stresses the importance of aural comprehension.

Provide the best kind of exposure to language so that the learner can internalize the basic rules of the target language.

They are performers and listeners.

Using commands and direct behavior Role reversal Action sequence


Silent way

Caleb Gattegno

This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to say as little as possible in order that the learner can be in control of what he wants to

The teacher should be silent. His tasks are to teach, to test, and to get out of the way. A teacher is like a

To make use of what they know, to free themselves of any obstacles that would interfere with giving their utmost attention to the

Sound color charts Teachers silence Peer correction Rods Self-correction gestures

say. No use is made of the mother tongue. An immediate objective is to provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar.

complete dramatist.

learning task and to actively engage in exploring the language.

Word chart Fidel charts Structured feedbacks

8. Suggestopedia

Georgi Lozanov

Suggestopedia is from George Lozanov. He believes that language learning can occur at a much faster rate than what ordinarily transpires. He created a method or learning capitalizes on relaxed states of mind for maximum retention of materials. Music was central to his method Suggestopedia is the application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy. These are some of its characteristics. Learning is facilitated in a relaxed, comfortable environment. Students can learn from what is present in the environment, even if his attention is not directed to it. Fantasy reduces barriers to learning. Music and movement reinforce the linguistic material. It is desirable that students achieve a state in infantalization so they will be more open to learning. In an atmosphere of play the conscious attention of the learner does not focus on linguistic forms but rather on

The teacher is the authority in the classroom.

Students must trust and respect the teacher and the students will retain information better from someone in whom they have confidence.

Classroom set-up Peripheral learning Positive suggestion Visualization Choose a new identity Role-play First concert Second concert Primary concert Secondary concert

using the language. Language can be fun.

9. Communicative Language Teaching

Del Hymes, Halliday

in this approach, it is acknowledged that structures and vocabulary are important, but learners cannot use the language with the rules of language usage alone. Learners should accomplish some functions like arguing, persuading, or promising, etc. The following are some of the characteristics of the communicative approach: Students are given opportunities to express; whenever possible, authentic materials are used; authentic language as it is used in real context should be introduced.

The teacher is the facilitator.

Communicators negotiating meaning.

Games Role plays Simulations Task-based communication Oral production activities

10. Natural Approach

Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen

Manifested the major methodological offshoot of Krashens work. Here are some of the distinguishing concepts of this approach. Learners benefit from delaying production until speeches emerges. Learners should be as relaxed as possible in the classroom. A great deal of communication and acquisition should take place as opposed to analysis. It advocates the use of TPR activities at the beginning level of language learning when comprehensible input

The primary source of comprehensible input in the target language.

They provide information about their specific goals so that acquisition activities can focus on the topics ans situations most relevant to their needs.

Comprehensible input is presented in the target language, using techniques like TPR, mime, gestures etc.

is essential for triggering the acquisition of language. It aims at the goal of basic interpersonal communication skills or everyday language situation like conversations, shopping, listening to the radio. The teachers initial task is to provide comprehensible input or spoken language that is understandable to the learner, or just beyond the learners level.

11. Task-Based Language Learning

Willis and Nunan et al.

The focus of the teaching is on the completion of a task which in itself is interesting to the learners. Learners use the language they already have to complete the task and there is little correction of errors. This is the predominant method in middle school ESL teaching at Frankfurt International School. The tasks are subsumed in a major topic that is studied for a number of weeks. In the topic of ecology, for example, students are engaged in a number of tasks culminating in a poster presentation to the rest of the class. The tasks include reading, searching the internet, listening to taped material, selecting important vocabulary to teach other students etc.

Selector and sequence of tasks

Group participant Monitor Risk-taker and innovator

Jigsaw tasks Information-gap tasks Problem solving tasks Decision-making tasks Opinion exchange tasks