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Jun 25, 2013

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Capitolul 3 Rezistenta materialelor

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Capitolul 3 Rezistenta materialelor

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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AREA

Many engineering formulas and applications such as those relating to strength

of beams, columns, shafts, etc., involve the use of different mathematical expressions

which describe, from the mathematical point of view, the shape and dimensions of

the cross sections. These mathematical expressions are called: geometrical

characteristics.

For members under axial loading (tension or compression) the single involved

geometrical characteristic is represented by the cross-sectional area A of the member.

A higher value of the cross-sectional area A of the member means a higher strength of

the member under axial loading (Fig.3.1).

For structural elements in bending,

torsion etc. there are also other

geometrical characteristics involved

within the strength calculus: the static

moments (first moments of an area) and

the moments of inertia (second moments

of an area).

Fig. 3.1

3.1 FIRST MOMENTS OF AN AREA. CENTROID OF AN

AREA

Consider an area A located in the zOy plane (Fig.3.2). Denoting by z and y the

coordinates of an element of area dA, we define the first moment of area A with

respect to z axis as the integral:

A

z

A y S d

. (3.1)

Similarly, the first moment of area A with respect to the y axis is defined as the

integral:

A

y

A z S d

. (3.2)

We note that each of these integrals may be positive, negative or zero,

depending upon the position of the coordinate axes. The first moments of area, S

z

and

S

y

, are expressed in mm

3

, cm

3

, m

3

, etc.

Strength of Materials

Since in almost all cases the area A

of Fig.3.2 is assimilated to the cross-

sectional area of a beam, a shaft etc., it is

presented as being located in the zOy

plane, the Ox axis being directed along

the beam, shaft etc.

The centroid of area A is defined as

the point G of coordinates z

G

and y

G

(Fig.3.2), which satisfy the relations:

Fig. 3.2

'

.

d

;

d

G z

z A

G

G y

y

A

G

y A S

A

S

A

A y

y

z A S

A

S

A

A z

z

(3.3)

Comparing (3.1) and (3.2) with (3.3), we note that the first moments of area A may be

expressed as the products of the area and the coordinates of its centroid:

;

G y

z A S

.

G z

y A S

(3.4)

When an area possesses an axis of

symmetry, the first moment of the area

with respect to that axis is zero. Indeed,

considering the area A of Fig.3.3, which

is symmetric with respect to the Oy axis,

we observe that to every element of area

dA of abscissa z corresponds an element

of area dA of abscissa -z. It follows that

the integral in (3.2) is zero and, thus,

S

y

=0.

Fig. 3.3

It does also follow from the first of the relations (3.3) that z

G

= 0. Thus, if an area A

possesses an axis of symmetry, its centroid G is located on that axis. If an area

possesses two axes of symmetry (Fig.3.4) the centroid G coincides with its geometric

center.The coordinate axes passing through the centroid of a given area are called

centroidal (or central) axes.

It is to be observed that the integrals involved in relations (3.1) and (3.2) are

actually double integrals, which have to be calculated with the well known

mathematical methods (Fig. 3.5).

; d d d

) (

A D

z

y z y A y S

A D

y

y z z A z S

) (

d d d

.

58

First moments and second moments of an area

Fig. 3.4 Fig. 3.5

3.2 SECOND MOMENTS OF AN AREA

Consider again an area A located in the zOy plane (Fig. 3.6) and an element of area dA of coordinates z and y.

The second moment, or moment of

inertia, of area A with respect to the Oz

axis, and the second moment, or the

moment of inertia, of area A with respect

to the Oy axis are defined, respectively,

as:

; d

2

A

z

A y I

. d

2

A

y

A z I

(3.5)

While each of the above integrals is

actually a double integral, it is possible in

many applications to select elements of

area dA

Fig. 3.6

in the shape of thin horizontal or vertical strips, and thus reduce the computation to

simple integration. This will be illustrated later.

We now define the centrifugal moment of inertia (or the product of inertia) of

area A with respect to Oz and Oy axes (Fig. 3.6) as the integral:

. d

A

zy

A zy I

(3.6)

Relations (3.5) show that the moments of inertia of an area are positive

quantities and are expressed in mm

4

, cm

4

, m

4

etc. On the other hand, relation (3.6)

shows that the centrifugal moment of inertia may be positive, negative or zero,

depending upon the locations of the area relative to the involved axes. It is positive if

the area lies principally in the first or third quadrants and negative if the area lies

principally in the second or fourth quadrants.

We define the polar moment of inertia of area A with respect to point O (Fig.

3.6) as the integral:

59

Strength of Materials

, d

2

A

p

A r I

(3.7)

where r is the distance from O to the element dA. While this integral is again a double

integral, it is possible in the case of a circular area to select elements of area dA in the

shape of thin circular rings, and thus reduce the computation of I

p

to a simple

integration. This will be illustrated later. It is to be noted that the polar moment of

inertia is also a positive quantity, being expressed in mm

4

, cm

4

, m

4

etc.

An important relation may be established between the polar moment of inertia

I

p

of a given area and the moments of inertia I

z

and I

y

of the same area. Noting that

r

2

= z

2

+ y

2

(Fig. 3.6) we write:

,

_

A A A A

p

A y A z A y z A r I d d d d

2 2 2 2 2

or

y z p

I I I +

. (3.8)

If an area has an axis of symmetry,

this axis together with any axis

perpendicular to it will form a set of axes

for which the centrifugal moment of

inertia is zero. Consideration of the

symmetrical section shown in Fig. 3.7

will disclose that, for any differential area

dA, there is a symmetrically placed equal

differential area dA. With respect to the

Oy axis of symmetry, the z coordinates of

dA and dA are equal but of opposite sign,

whereas their y coordinates are equal and

of the same sign regardless of the

position of the Oz axis.

Fig. 3.7

Hence the sum of the products zydA for each such pair of symmetrically

placed elements dA and dA will be zero. It follows, therefore, that the value of

A

A zyd

for the entire area will be zero if either or both reference axes are axes of

symmetry.

3.3 PARALLEL - AXIS THEOREM (STEINERS RELATIONS)

Consider the moments of inertia I

z

and I

y

and the centrifugal moment of inertia

I

zy

of an area A with respect to two arbitrary perpendicular axes Oz and Oy (Fig. 3.8).

We assume to know the quantities I

z

, I

y

and I

zy

, where

60

First moments and second moments of an area

;

2

A

z

A y I d

;

2

A

y

A z I d

.

A

zy

A zy I d

Let us now consider another

coordinate system z

1

O

1

y

1

, translated with

quantities a and b with respect to the axes

Oy and Oz of the first coordinate system.

The problem which arises consists in

determining the quantities

1

z

I

,

1

y

I

and

Fig. 3.8

1 1

y z

I

of the same area A but with respect to the axes of the new coordinate system.

We write:

( ) ( ) +

A A A

z

A b by y A b y A y I d d d

2 2 2 2

1

2

1

; 2 2

2 2 2

A b bS I A b A y b A y

z z

A A A

+ +

d d d

( ) ( ) +

A A A

y

A a az z A a z A z I d d d

2 2 2 2

1

2

1

; 2 2

2 2 2

A a aS I A a A z a A z

y y

A A A

+ +

d d d

( )( ) ( ) +

A A A

y z

A ab ay zb zy A a z b y A y z I d d d

1 1

1 1

. abA aS bS I A ab A y a A z b A zy

z y zy

A A A A

+ +

d d d d

Thus, the mathematical connection between the moments of inertia

z

I

, y

I

and zy

I

of an area A and the same quantities

1

z

I

,

1

y

I

and

1 1

y z

I

calculated with respect

to the translated coordinate system z

1

O

1

y

1

, is described by the following relations:

'

+

+

+

,

2

2

1 1

1

1

2

2

abA aS bS I I

A a aS I I

A b bS I I

z y zy y z

y y y

z z z

(3.9)

where

a is the distance between axes Oy and O

1

y

1

,

b is the distance between axes Oz and O

1

z

1

,

S

z

, S

y

are the static moments (first moments) of area A with respect to axes Oz

and Oy.

If the point O is the centroid of area A, it follows from relations (3.4) that S

z

=

S

y

= 0 and we may write:

61

Strength of Materials

'

+

+

+

.

;

;

1 1

1

1

2

2

abA I I

A a I I

A b I I

zy y z

y y

z z

(3.10)

Relations (3.10) are known as Steiners formulas.

For example, the first relation of (3.10) expresses that the moment of inertia

1

z

I

of an area with respect to an arbitrary Oz

1

axis is equal to the moment of inertia I

z

of the same area with respect to the centroidal Oz axis parallel to the Oz

1

, plus the

product b

2

A of area A and the square of the distance b between the two axes. This

result is also known as the parallel-axis theorem. It makes it possible to determine the

moment of inertia of an area with respect to a given axis, when its moment of inertia

with respect to a centroidal axis of the same direction is known. Conversely, it makes

it possible to determine the moment of inertia I

z

of an area A with respect to a

centroidal axis Oz, when the moment of inertia

1

z

I

of A with respect to a parallel axis

is known, by subtracting from

1

z

I

the product b

2

A. We should note that the parallel-

axis theorem may be used only if one of the two axes involved is a centroidal axis.

3.4 MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF SIMPLE SURFACES

a) Rectangular area

For the rectangular area A shown in

Fig. 3.9, determine the moments of

inertia I

z

, I

y

and I

zy

with respect to the

centroidal Oz and Oy axes.

As mentioned before:

A

z

A y I d

2

.

We select as an element of area (dA)

a horizontal strip of length b and

thickness dy (Fig.3.9). We write:

dA = bdy.

Fig. 3.9

It follows that:

.

12 24

2

8 8 3

1

3

d d

3 3 3 3

2

2 3 2

2

2 2

bh h b h h

b

by

y b y A y I

h

h h

h A

z

1

1

]

1

,

_

62

First moments and second moments of an area

Thus, the moment of inertia I

z

of a rectangular area with respect to the centroidal Oz

axis is:

12

3

bh

I

z

. (3.11)

In the same manner, it follows that :

12

3

hb

I

y

. (3.12)

Since Oz and Oy are axes of symmetry, we have:

. 0

zy

I

b) Circular area

For the circular area shown in Fig. 3.10 determine the polar moment of inertia I

p

and the moments of inertia I

z

, I

y

and I

zy

.

Fig. 3.10 Fig. 3.11

We select as an element of area (dA) a ring of radius r and thickness dr,

(Fig.3.11). The polar moment of inertia of area A is:

32

0

16 2 4

2 d 2 d 2 d

4 4

0

2

4 2

0

3

2

0

2 2

d d r

r r r r r A r I

d

d d

A

p

,

_

.

Thus

32

4

d

I

p

. (3.13)

Due to the symmetry of the circular area, we have I

z

= I

y

.

Recalling (3.8), we write:

63

Strength of Materials

32

4

d

2I 2I I I I

y z y z p

+

and, thus

64

4

d

I I

y z

. (3.14)

c) Triangular area

Determine the moments of inertia for a triangle of base b and altitude h with

respect to an axis coinciding with its base and a centroidal axis parallel to its base.

Select the differential element as shown in Fig. 3.12.

From similar triangles, we have

( )

h

y h b

m

to z

1

axis is obtained from:

( )

h h

A

z

y

h

y h b

y y m y A y I

0

2

0

2 2

d d d

1

.

12 4 3 4 3

3 3 3 4 3

bh bh bh h

h

b bh

We have thus obtained:

Fig. 3.12

12

3

1

bh

I

z

. (3.15)

To determine the centroidal moment of inertia z

I

, we transfer the known value of

1

z

I

, from the base axis z

1

to the parallel axis z. Since the transfer distance is

3

h

as

shown in Fig. 3.12, we write:

2 3

2

1

bh h

I I

z z

,

_

+

.

It follows that

36 18 12 2 3

3 3 3

2

1

bh bh bh bh h

I I

z z

,

_

. (3.16)

64

First moments and second moments of an area

3.5 MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF COMPLEX SURFACES

(COMPOSITE AREAS)

To determine of the moments for inertia of a complex surface the following steps

have to be covered:

- the complex surface (area) A has to be divided into several component parts

of areas A

1

, A

2

...;

- determination of the centroidal point G of the complex area;

- since the integral representing the moment of inertia of area A may be

subdivided into integrals extending over A

1

, A

2

..., the moment of inertia of

A with respect to a given axis will be obtained by adding the moments of

inertia of areas A

1

, A

2

... , with respect to the same axis. Before adding the

moments of inertia of the component areas, however, the parallel-axis

theorem should be used to transfer each moment of inertia to the desired

axis. This is shown in the following example.

Determine the moments of inertia I

z

, I

y

and I

zy

of area A shown in Fig. 3.13, with respect to

the centroidal axes.

Fig. 3.13 Fig. 3.14

We first divide the complex area A into the two rectangular areas A

1

and A

2

(Fig 3.14) and

denote their centroids and their own centroidal axes by G

1

,G

2

, z

1

, y

1

, z

2

, y

2

respectively.

We may now determine the coordinates z

G

and y

G

of the centroid G of the composite area A,

using, for example, the coordinate system z

1

G

1

y

1

as follows:

; 5 , 1

5 , 1 4 4

4 5 , 1 3

2

a

a a a

a a a

A

A y

i

i

i

i i

G

y

+

(i = 1,2)

65

Strength of Materials

a

a a a

a a

a

a

A

A z

z

i

i

i

i i

G

75 , 0

5 , 1 4 4

5 , 1 4

2

5 , 1

2

2

+

,

_

.

Recalling the formulas (3.11) and (3.12) and using the parallel-axis theorem we may write

the moments of inertia of the composite area A as follows:

( )

( ) ( )

( )

4 2

3

2 2

3

33 , 23 5 , 1 4 5 , 1 5 , 2

12

4 5 , 1

4 5 , 1

12

4

a a a a a

a a

a a

a a

I

z

+

+ +

;

( )

( )

( )

; 2 , 10

5 , 1 4 75 , 0

2

5 , 1

2

12

5 , 1 4

4 75 , 0

12

4

4

2 3

2

3

a

a a a

a

a

a a

a a a

a a

I

y

+ +

,

_

( ) ( )

. 43 , 7

5 , 1 4 652 , 0

2

5 , 1

2 565 , 1 5 , 2 0 4 652 , 0 565 , 1 0

4

2

a

a a a

a

a a a a a a I

zy

+ + +

1

]

1

,

_

AXES

In some cases, it is necessary to

determine the moments of inertia with

respect to axes that are inclined to the

usual axes. The moments of inertia in

such cases can be obtained by formal

integration, but a general formula is

usually easier to use.

The problem may be stated as

follows: assuming the values I

z

, I

y

and

I

zy

with respect to the Oz and Oy axes

to be known, determine the values of

Fig. 3.15

1

z

I

,

1

y

I

and

1 1

y z

I

with respect to the Oz

1

and Oy

1

axes inclined at an angle with

Oz and Oy axes, as shown in Fig. 3.15.

The coordinates for a typical differential area dA are given by z and y with

respect to the y and z axes, and by y

1

and z

1

relative to the z

1

and y

1

axes. The relation

between these coordinates can be obtained by projecting the coordinates z and y on

the z

1

and y

1

axes. This gives (Fig. 3.15):

'

+

. sin cos

; sin cos

1

1

z y y

y z z

(3.17)

66

First moments and second moments of an area

By definition, the values of

1

z

I

and

1

y

I

are:

A

z

A y I d

2

1

1 ;

A

y

A z I d

2

1

1 ;

A

y z

A y z I d

1 1

1 1 .

Replacing the values of z

1

and y

1

from (3.17) we have:

( ) ( ) +

A A A

z

A z yz y A z y A y I d sin sin cos 2 cos d sin cos d

2 2 2 2 2 2

1

1

2 2

sin 2 sin cos

y zy z

I I I +

;

( ) ( )

+ + +

A A A

y

A y zy z A y z A z I d sin sin cos 2 cos d sin cos d

2 2 2 2 2 2

1

1

2 sin sin cos

2 2

zy z y

I I I + +

;

( )( ) +

A A

y z

A z y y z A y z I d sin cos sin cos d

1 1

1 1

( ) ( )

2 2

sin cos cos sin +

zy y z

I I I

.

We, thus, obtain:

( ) ( )

'

+

+ +

+

. sin cos cos sin

; cos sin 2 cos sin

; cos sin 2 sin cos

2 2

2 2

2 2

1 1

1

1

zy y z y z

zy y z y

zy y z z

I I I I

I I I I

I I I I

(3.18)

If the relations

2

2 cos 1

sin

2

,

2

2 cos 1

cos

2

'

+

+

+

+

+

2 cos 2 sin

2

; 2 sin

2

2 cos 1

2

2 cos 1

; 2 sin

2

2 cos 1

2

2 cos 1

1 1

1

1

zy

y z

y z

zy y z y

zy y z z

I

I I

I

I I I I

I I I I

or

67

Strength of Materials

'

+

+

. 2 cos 2 sin

2

; 2 sin 2 cos

2 2

; 2 sin 2 cos

2 2

1 1

1

1

zy

y z

y z

zy

y z y z

y

zy

y z y z

z

I

I I

I

I

I I I I

I

I

I I I I

I

(3.19)

When the values of I

z

, I

y

and I

zy

are known, relations (3.19) permit the values of

1 1 1 1

and ,

y z y z

I I I

with respect to the Oz

1

and Oy

1

axes, inclined at an angle to the Oz

and Oy axes, to be determined without further integration. In a sense, these relations

do for inclined axes what the Steiners formula does for parallel axes.

A simple analysis of relations (3.19) tells us that

1 1 1 1

and ,

y z y z

I I I

are functions

of angle . One could ask: which are the values of angle that make these quantities

(

1 1 1 1

and ,

y z y z

I I I

) maximum or minimum? The angles defining the maximum and the

minimum moments of inertia, also called the principal moments of inertia, may be

found by differentiating (3.19) with respect to and setting the derivative equal to

zero:

'

. 0 2 2 cos 2

2

2 sin 2

d

d

; 0 2 2 cos 2

2

2 sin 2

d

d

1 1

1

1 1

1

y z zy

y z

y

y z zy

y z

z

I I

I I

I

I I

I I

I

(3.20)

We find that:

y z

zy

I I

I

tg

2

2

. (3.21)

Equation (3.21) gives us two values of (

2

and

1 2 1

+

) for which

1

z

I

and

1

y

I

have extreme values. This is why the equation (3.21) is always written as:

y z

zy

I I

I

tg

2

2

2 , 1

. (3.22)

The extreme conditions for

1

z

I

,

1

y

I

(3.20 ) - mean in fact that the product of

inertia

1 1

y z

I

equals zero. In the same time, a second differentiation of (3.20) shows

that:

2

2

2

2

d

d

d

d

1 1

y z

I I

, (3.23)

68

First moments and second moments of an area

which means that a maximum value of

1

z

I

implies a minimum value of

1

y

I

and vice

versa.

Substituting for from equation (3.21) into (3.19) we obtain the extreme

values of quantities

1

z

I

and

1

y

I

, called the principal moments of inertia:

( )

2 2

2 , 1

4

2

1

2

zy y z

y z

I I I

I I

I + t

+

(3.24)

with respect to the axes Oz

1

and Oy

1

, rotated with angle

1

.

In this way we found two

perpendicular directions given by

1

and

2

1 2

+

for which the moments of

inertia of the original area have extreme

values (a maximum value I

1

with respect

to one of these directions and a

minimum value I

2

with respect to the

other direction). Usually, the axis of

maximum is denoted by 1 while the axis

of minimum by 2.

Fig. 3.16

It is important to be mentioned again that the product of inertia of the original

area with respect to the coordinate system 1O2 (Fig. 3.16) is zero.

Axes 1 and 2 are called principal axes.

One could demonstrate that if I

zy

< 0 the axis of maximum is placed in the first

quadrant while, if I

zy

> 0, the axis of maximum is placed in the second quadrant.

3.7 RADIUS OF GYRATION. ELLIPSE OF INERTIA

The term radius of gyration is used to describe another mathematical

expression and occurs most frequently in column formulas. Radius of gyration is

usually denoted by the symbol i and is defined as:

A

I

i , (3.24)

where I is the moment of inertia and A the area.

Thus, we have:

A

I

i

z

z

;

A

I

i

y

y

;

A

I

i

1

1

;

A

I

i

2

2

.

(3.25

)

69

Strength of Materials

The following is a geometric interpretation of this relation. Assume the area of Fig. 3.2 to be squeezed into a long

narrow strip as shown in Fig. 3.17.

Each differential element of area

dA will then have the same distance i

z

from the Oz axis. The moment of inertia

is given by:

A

z

A

z

A i A y I d d

2 2

. d

2 2

A i A i

z

A

z

Fig. 3.17

The strip may be placed on either side of the reference axis, since if i

z

is negative,

squaring it will automatically make it plus. Also, part of the strip may be at a distance

i

z

from one side of the reference axis and the remainder of the strip at equal distance

i

z

from the other side of the axis.

In view of this discussion, the radius of gyration is frequently considered to be

the uniform distance from the reference axis at which the entire area may be assumed

to be distributed. For an area whose dimensions perpendicular to a reference axis are

negligibly small compared with its distance from that axis, the radius of gyration is

practically equivalent to the centroidal location of the area.

The ellipse of equation

0 1

2

1

2

2

2

2

+

i

y

i

z

(3.26)

represents the centroidal principal ellipse of inertia with respect to a certain area A.

Sample problems

1. For the area shown in Fig. 3.18 determine: (a) the centroidal point G of the area A; (b) the

moments of inertia I

z

, I

y

and I

zy

with respect to the centroidal reference system zGy; (c) the

principal axes of inertia 1 and 2; (d) the principal moments of inertia I

1

and I

2

; (e) the

principal radii of inertia i

1

and i

2

and (f) draw the ellipse of inertia.

Solution

70

First moments and second moments of an area

We first divide the area A of the whole

surface into three rectangular areas with centroidal

points G

1

, G

2

and G

3

(Fig. 3.18). We observe that

the centroid of the second rectangular area G

2

coincides with the centroid G of the whole area A.

Thus, axes z

2

and y

2

coincide with the centroidal

axes G

z

and G

y

of the whole area A.

Recalling (3.11) and (3.12) and using the

parallel-axis theorem we may write the moments of

Fig. 3.18

4 8

3

2

3

10 9038 , 0

12

30 240

2 30 165 5 , 82

12

165 30

mm I

y

+ +

1

]

1

;

( )

4 8

10 1026 , 1 2 165 30 5 , 82 135 mm I

zy

.

The principal directions of inertia are given by

. 81 , 59

2

; 19 , 30

9038 , 0 1573 , 2

1026 , 1 2

2

2

1 2 1 2 , 1

+

y z

zy

I I

I

tg

Since I

zy

> 0, the principal axis of maximum is placed in the second quadrant (Fig. 3.18).

The principal moments of inertia are:

( ) + t

+

2 2

2 , 1

4

2

1

2

zy y z

y z

I I I

I I

I

( ) ( )

2 8 2 8 8

8 8

10 1026 , 1 4 10 9038 , 0 10 1573 , 2

2

1

2

10 9038 , 0 10 1573 , 2

+ t

+

.

We finally have:

'

. 10 262 , 0

; 10 799 , 2

4 8

2

4 8

1

mm I

mm I

The principal centroidal radii of inertia are:

; 94 , 127

240 30 2 165 30

10 799 , 2

8

1

1

mm

A

I

i

+

71

Strength of Materials

. 14 , 39

240 30 2 165 30

10 262 , 0

8

2

2

mm

A

I

i

+

The principal centroidal ellipse of inertia has been represented in Fig. 3.18.

2. For the composite area of Fig. 3.19, composed of two U-shaped profiles, determine the same

quantities like in the previous example.

Solution

We first divide the area A of the whole surface

into two areas 1 and 2 (the two U shapes) having

the centroidal points at G

1

and G

2

(Fig. 3.19).

From the appropriate tables containing the

geometrical characteristics of rolled-steel shapes

(APPENDIX III) we may get all the necessary

data:

'

; 10 3 , 42

; 10 3600

; 10 248

: 1

2 2

1

4 4

1

4 4

1

mm A

mm I

mm I

y

z

'

. 10 3 , 42

; 10 248

; 10 3600

: 2

2 2

2

4 4

2

4 4

2

mm A

mm I

mm I

y

z

Fig 3.19

In these tables we may also find the location

of the centroidal point with respect to the U-

shaped section (22,3 mm - Fig. 3.19).

Using the coordinate system z

1

G

1

y

1

, we

can compute now the position of the

centroidal point G of the entire area as

follows:

( )

; 85 , 48

10 3 , 42 2

10 3 , 42 3 , 22 120

2

2

mm

A

A y

y

i

i i

G

( )

. 15 , 71

10 3 , 42 2

10 3 , 42 3 , 22 120

2

2

mm

A

A z

z

i

i i

G

+

We have thus located the centroidal reference coordinate system of the composite area: zGy

(Fig.3.19).

Recalling again the formulas (3.11) and (3.12) and using the parallel axis theorem we may

write the moments of inertia of the composite area as follows:

( ) + + +

2 2 4 2 2 4

10 3 , 42 85 , 48 3 , 22 120 10 3600 10 3 , 42 85 , 48 10 248

z

I

; 10 668 , 58

4 6

mm

72

First moments and second moments of an area

( ) + + +

2 2 4 2 2 4

10 3 , 42 3 , 22 15 , 71 120 10 248 10 3 , 42 15 , 71 10 3600

y

I

; 10 30 , 81

4 6

mm

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + + 3 , 22 15 , 71 120 85 , 48 3 , 22 120 0 10 3 , 42 15 , 71 85 , 48 0

2

zy

I

. 10 4 , 29 10 3 , 42

4 6 2

mm

The principal directions of inertia are given by

( )

6

6

2 , 1

10 30 , 81 668 , 58

10 4 , 29 2

2

2

y z

zy

I I

I

tg

'

. 47 , 124

; 47 , 34

2

1

Since I

zy

> 0, the principal axis of maximum is placed in the second quadrant (Fig 3.19). The

principal moments of inertia are

( )

2 2

2 , 1

4

2

1

2

zy y z

y z

I I I

I I

I + t

+

.

We finally have

'

. 10 48 , 38

; 10 48 , 101

4 6

2

4 6

1

mm I

mm I

The principal centroidal radii of inertia are:

; 52 , 109

10 3 , 42 2

10 48 , 101

2

6

1

1

mm

A

I

i

. 44 , 67

10 3 , 42 2

10 48 , 38

2

6

2

2

mm

A

I

i

The principal centroidal ellipse of inertia is shown in Fig. 3.19.

PROBLEMS TO BE ASSIGNED

P.3

For the areas shown in the figures below, locate the centroids of the areas and then determine:

the second moments of the involved areas ( I

z

, I

y

and I

zy

) with respect to the centroidal axes;

the principal axes of inertia 1 and 2 ;

the principal moments of inertia I

1

and I

2

;

the principal radii of inertia i

1

and i

2

, and, finally, draw the ellipse of inertia.

73

Strength of Materials

Fig. P.3.1 Fig. P.3.2 Fig. P.3.3

Fig. P.3.4 Fig. P.3.5 Fig. P.3.6

Fig. P.3.7 Fig. P.3.8 Fig. P.3.9 Fig. P3.10

74

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