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# 8.

## BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The examples of the previous sections were limited to members under axial
machine components are under more involved loading conditions. Even in the case of
members under axial or transverse loading, the normal and shearing stresses on
planes which are not perpendicular to the axis of the involved members, obey
complex and difficult mathematical and physical matters. This is why, before going
further, we have to understand several important basic elements concerning the
theory of elasticity. They will help us to go deeper inside the investigated mechanical
elements or machine components and to find reasonable answers to the problems of
Strength of Materials.
8.1 PLANE STATE OF STRESS
Every elastic body is spatial and, in general, every external loads system is
spatial. Hence, strictly speaking, any strength of materials problem (or elasticity
problem) is a spatial problem. For its solution, we have to consider all the
components of stress, strain and displacement. However, if the body has a particular
shape and the external loads are distributed in a particular manner, we may consider
the spatial problem as a plane one and neglect some of the components.
This will greatly simplify the mathematical aspect of solution while the results
may still be applied in engineering design with sufficient accuracy.
Let us now consider a thin plate of uniform thickness, subjected to loads acting
within the plate middle plane as shown in Fig. 8.1. In such a case the thin plate is said
to be in a plane stress condition.
Fig. 8.1
Strength of Materials
From the thin plate we isolate an infinitely small element in shape of a prism
(Fig. 8.2). For convenience the plate dimension (or that of the infinitely small
element considered) in the Oz direction is taken to be unity.
The problem which arises consists in the determination of stresses at the
arbitrary point O of the plate, on planes which are perpendicular to the plate middle
plane. In other words, we have to determine the normal and shearing stresses on
arbitrary planes BCBC inclined with angle with respect to the Oy axis, as
shown in Fig. 8.2. We assume the elementary area of the rectangular surface BCB

C

to be equal to dA. While the stresses acting on surface BCB

## differ slightly from the

stresses at O, the error involved is small and vanishes as sides OB and OC approach
zero.
On the other hand, due to the action of the external loads P
1
, P
2
,...,P
n
, normal
and shearing stresses develop on the faces OBO

, OCO

and BCB

of the
element shown in Fig. 8.2. These stresses are in fact a direct consequence of the
interaction between the element and the surrounding material of the plate. For
convenience, the element OBCO

## has been represented in Fig. 8.3 in a simplified

manner.
In Fig. 8.3, since the plane
BC approaches point O, the stress
acting on BC will become the stress
acting on the inclined plane
considered passing through the
point O. Now assuming to know
the values of stresses acting on the
planes OB and OC (i.e.
y
,
yx
,
x
,
xy
), we shall determine the stresses
and on the inclined plane BC.
From the summation of moments about point D (Fig. 8.3) we write:
Fig. 8.2
Fig. 8.3
144
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

0 sin
2
cos d cos
2
sin d 0

BC
A
BC
A M
xy yx D
.
yx xy

.
From the mechanical equilibrium of all forces projected on and directions
respectively we have:

F
0 cos sin d sin cos d sin sin d cos cos d d A A A A A
yx xy y x ;

F
. 0 sin sin d cos cos d cos sin d sin cos d d + + A A A A A
yx xy y x
We may write therefore:
( ) ( )

'

+ +
. sin cos cos sin
; cos sin 2 sin cos
2 2
2 2

xy y x
xy y x
(8.1)
Using the relations
2
2 cos 1
sin
2

;
2
2 cos 1
cos
2

,
(8.1) becomes
( )

'

+
+

. 2 cos
2
2 sin
; 2 sin
2
2 cos 1
2
2 cos 1

xy
y x
xy y x
(8.1

)
or

'

+
+

. 2 cos 2 sin
2
; 2 sin 2 cos
2 2

xy
y x
xy
y x y x
(8.1

)
A simple analysis of relations (8.1

## ) tells us that the normal and the shearing stresses

and on surface BCB

inclined with angle (and thus the normal and the shearing
stresses at point O about a surface parallel to BCB

## ) are functions of angle . One

could ask: which are the values of angle that make these quantities ( and )
maximum or minimum? These values may be found by differentiating (8.1

) with
respect to and setting the derivatives equal to zero.
145
Strength of Materials
+

0 2 cos 2 2 sin
2
2
d
d

x

xy
y x
0 2 cos 2 sin
2
2
d
d

,
_

xy
y x
. (8.2)
We find that
y x
xy

2
2 tg
. (8.3)
Equation (8.3) gives us two values of (
1
and
2
=
1
+
2

## ) for which the normal

stress has extreme values. This is why, the equation (8.3) is always written as
y x
xy
,

2
2 tg
2 1 . (8.3

)
In other words, the two values of (
1
and
2
) do give us two perpendicular
directions in the plane about which the normal stress has extreme values (a
maximum value
1
with respect to one direction and a minimum value
2
with respect
to the other one). The two extreme stresses
1
and
2
are thus perpendicular to each
other. They may be obtained by substituting from (8.3) into the expression of
from (8.1

). This gives
( )
( )
( )
( )

'

+
+

+ +
+

. 4
2
1
2
; 4
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
xy y x
y x
xy y x
y x

(8.4)
or
( )
( )
2 2
2 1
4
2
1
2
xy y x
y x
,

+ t
+
. (8.5)
The two extreme normal stresses are called principal stresses, while the
corresponding directions (given by
1
and
2
) are called principal directions.
Returning now to the second equation of (8.1

## ), differentiating it with respect

to and setting the derivative equal to zero, we have
0 2 sin 2 2 cos
2
2
d
d
+

xy
y x
. (8.6)
We thus find two perpendicular directions (
3
and
4
=
3
+
2

## ) for which the shearing

stress has extreme values (a maximum value
3
with respect to one direction and a
146
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity
minimum value
4
with respect to the other one). The two directions are given by
equation:
xy
x y
,

2
2 tg 0
d
d
4 3

. (8.7)
Substituting these values of into the second equation of (8.1

) we get to
( )
2 2
4 3
4
2
1
xy y x ,
+ t
, (8.8)
or
( )
2 1 4 3
2
1

,
t
. (8.9)
Since
4 3
2 1
2 tg
1
2 tg
,
,

, (8.10)
the shearing stress reaches its extreme values on planes inclined at 45 with the
planes for which the normal stress reaches its extreme values
1
and
2
.
It is to be noted that the extreme condition (8.2) coincides with
0 2 cos 2 sin
2

xy
y x
.
In other words, on planes coinciding with the principal directions, the shearing stress
is zero.
Returning now to the original thin plate of Fig. 8.2, we may facilitate the
visualization of the
stress condition at point
O by considering an
infinitely small cube of
different orientations,
centered at O and the
stresses exerted on each
of the lateral faces of the
cube, (Fig. 8.4). For a
certain orientation of the
cube B
1
B
2
B
3
B
4
(given by
the two perpendicular
directions 1 and 2) the
stresses acting on the
lateral faces of the cube
reduce to the principal normal stresses
1
and
2
, while the corresponding shearing
stresses become zero (Fig. 8.4).
Fig. 8.4
147
Strength of Materials
Rotating this cube by 45
o
within the plate plane, we get to the cube C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
on whose lateral faces act both the extreme values of the shearing stress (
2
2 1

max

t
) and the normal stresses denoted by
3
and
4
. In other words, on
planes corresponding to the action of the extreme shearing stresses, the normal
stresses do not become zero.
8.2 SPATIAL STATE OF STRESS
Consider now a body subjected to several external loads P
1
,

P
2
,,P
i
,

P
n
in
mechanical equilibrium (Fig. 8.5).
To understand the stress condition created by these loads at some arbitrary point
O within the body, we isolate an infinitely small element in form of a parallelepiped,
with its edges parallel to the coordinate axes and having the lengths dx, dy and dz
(Fig. 8.6a). We sketch this element at a larger scale (Fig. 8.6b).
Generally speaking, the stress components acting on the element faces are
functions of x, y and z. Thus, the stress components on a pair of parallel faces are not
equal but differ by a differential quantity.

Fig. 8.5
a. b.
Fig. 8.6
148
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity
For instance, if the average normal stress component on a face is
x
, then, that on the
parallel face, due to the variation of x, will be

dx
x

x
x

+
.
Applying the same reasoning like in the preceding section, one could find a certain
spatial orientation of the element considered, so that the shearing stresses on the
element faces to be zero and, hence, the corresponding normal stresses to become the
principal stresses
1
,
2
and
3
(Fig. 8.7).
One could demonstrate that the principal stresses
1
,

2
and
3
(where 3 2 1

) may be computed as the real roods of equation
0
3 2
2
1
3
+ I I I
, (8.11)

'

z y x
I + +
1 ;
(8.12)
2 2 2
2 yz xz xy z y z x y x
I + +
;
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x

I
3 .
We get to this result letting dx, dy and dz approach zero (Fig. 8.6b), so that the
element in form of a parallelepiped is contracted to point O.
Using the same analogy we may also reach to the expressions of the extreme
shearing stresses:

( )
2
2 1
2 1

,

t ;
( )
2
3 1
3 1

,

t ;

( )
2
3 2
3 2

,

t
.
(8.13)
Fig. 8.7
149
Strength of Materials
These shearing stresses correspond to the planes passing through each of the principal
axes of stress and bisecting the right angle between the other two principal axes of
stress. Thus we see that:
the magnitude of the largest shearing stress is equal to half the difference
between the largest and the smallest principal stresses;
the largest shearing stress acts on the plane bisecting the angle between these
two principal stresses and passing through the line of action of the third
principal stress.
8.3 MONOAXIAL (UNIAXIAL) STATE OF STRESS
With the above presented concepts in mind, we may now return to the
monoaxial state of stress. This is in fact a plane state of stress for which
0
y

and
0
yx xy

.
Let us consider again the case of a member under axial loading (Fig. 8.8).
From this member we detach an infinitely small element in shape of a prism and, for
convenience, we represent it in plane, separately (Fig. 8.8b). This element is in fact
the one represented in Fig. 8.3, making
y =
yx =
xy
= 0. We note therefore that the
conditions of stress in the member may be described as shown in Fig. 8.8b. The only
stresses exerted on the face OC of the prism (which is perpendicular to the x axis) are
the normal stresses
x
. However, on planes inclined with an angle , normal and
shearing stresses (, ) develop. We thus conclude that the same loading condition
may lead to different interpretations of the stress condition at a given point,
depending upon the orientation of the plane BC (Fig. 8.8b). Using equation (8.3)
y x
xy

2
2 tg
1,2 ,
with
0
y xy

, we find that

a. b.
Fig. 8.8
150
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity
0
1

;
2 2
1 2

+
.
In other words, the two principal directions are parallel to the axes Ox and Oy. The
corresponding principal stresses
1
and
2
are (Eq. 8.5):
( )
x
x
xy y x
y x
,

4
2

2
1
2 2
1
2
2 1
t + t
+
,
which finally gives:

'

.

x
0
;
2
1
(8.14)
In the same time, using equation (8.9), the maximum shearing stress is given by
2 2
2 1 x
max

t

t
, (8.15)
acting on a plane inclined at 45
o
with Oy axis ( = 45
o
, Fig. 8.8).
8.4 PURE SHEAR STATE
Let us assume that a pure state of stress exists at an arbitrary point O of a body
subjected to several external loads in mechanical equilibrium. In such a case
x
=
y =
0, the pure state of stress being
defined by the stress components
xy
=

yx
as shown in Fig. 8.9. Using
equation (8.3

)
y x
xy
,

2
2 tg
2 1 ,
with
x
=
y
= 0, we find that
Fig. 8.9
151
Strength of Materials

'

4
3
2 4
4
2
1
The principal stresses are given by:
( )
xy xy y x
y x
,

t + t
+

2 2
2 1
4
2
1
2
.
In other words, this means that a pure shear state is equivalent to a state of
stress consisting in a tensile stress
1
and a compressive stress
2
of the same
magnitude (
1
=
xy
;
2
= -
xy
). The principal stresses
1
and
2
act on planes inclined at
45
o
and 135
o
with Ox axis as shown in Fig. 8.9.
8.5 GENERALIZED HOOKES LAW
First of all we have to recall that, for a member in tension or compression
which undergoes small deformations, involving only the straight-line portion of the
corresponding stress-strain diagram, the Hookes law may be written in its simple
form as follows:

E
. (8.16)
As mentioned in the preceding sections, E is called the modulus of elasticity of the
material involved. In other words, the validity of such a law means that the stress is
directly proportional to the strain .
In the same manner, for values of the shearing stress () which do not exceed
the proportional limit in shear (in case of members subjected to shear) the Hookes
law for shearing stress and strain may be written as
G
, (8.17)
where G is called the shear modulus of the material involved.
If a rectangular coordinate system Oxyz is being used, the quantities in the
above two relations may become
x
,
y
,
z
,
x
,
y
,
z
,
xy
,
xz
,
yz
,
xy
,
xz
,
yz
and
152
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

'

.
;
;
;
;
;
yz yz
xz xz
xy xy
z z
y y
x x
G
G
G
E
E
E

(8.18)
Let us now consider a body (made of a homogeneous isotropic material)
subjected to several external loads in mechanical equilibrium P
1
, P
2
,, P
k
, P
n
(Fig.
8.10a).
We assume that the most general state of stress occurs within the body, due to
the action of the external loads.
This means that, if we isolate
an elementary parallelepiped from
the body, with its edges parallel to
the coordinate axes, normal and
shearing stresses develop on each
face of such a parallelepiped (Fig.
8.10b). For convenience, the
variation of stresses from one face to
the other parallel face has been
neglected.
Let us now consider first only the effect of the stress component
x
(Fig. 8.11).
a. b.
Fig. 8.10
Fig. 8.11
153
Strength of Materials
We recall that
x
causes a normal strain
E

x
x

in the Ox direction and strains equal
to
E

x

## in each of the Oy and Oz directions. We may write therefore:

E E E
x
x z
x
x y
x
x

; ;
. (8.19)
Similarly, the stress component
y
, if applied separately will cause a strain
E
y

in the
Oy direction and strains
E
y

in the other two directions. Finally, the stress
component
z
causes a strain
E
z

## in the z direction and strains

E
z

in the Ox and
Oy directions. We write
E E E
y
z
y
y
y
y x

; ; ; (8.20)
E E E
z
z
z
y
z
z x

; ;
. (8.21)
Combining the results obtained, we may write that the components of strain
corresponding to a multiaxial loading of the parallelepiped involved (the state in
which only the normal stresses
x
,
y
and
z
act, being all different from zero is

( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]

'

+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
.
1
;
1
;
1
y x z
z
y
x
z z z z
z x y
z
y
x
y y y y
z y x
z
y
x
x x x x
E E E E
E E E E
E E E E

(8.22)
154
action of
x
action of
y
action of
z
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity
These relations are referred to as the
generalized Hookes law. They are valid
only as long as the stresses do not exceed
the proportional limit, and as long as the
deformations involved remain small.
It is important to mention again that a positive value for a normal stress
component signifies tension, while a negative value signifies compression.
We are now in the position to complete the generalized Hookes law
corresponding to the state of stress of the parallelepiped sketched in Fig. 8.10b, by
xy
,
xz
, and
yz
as follows (Fig. 8.13):
G G G
yz
yz
xz
xz
xy
xy

; ;
. (8.23)
We conclude therefore that relations (8.22) and (8.23) represent the complete
form of the generalized Hookes law for a homogeneous isotropic material.
For a plane state of stress (
z
= 0,
xz
=
yz
= 0) the generalized Hookes law
becomes:
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] ;
1
;
1
;
1
x z
x y y
y x x
E
E
E

G
xy
xy

.
(8.24)
A simple examination of the relations (8.22) and (8.23) might lead us to
believe that three distinct constants E, G and must first be determined
experimentally, if we are to predict the deformation caused in a given material by an
arbitrary combination of stresses. Actually, only two of these constants need to be
determined experimentally for any given material. But this will be discussed later,
when a relation among E, G and will be found.
Fig. 8.12
155
Strength of Materials
8.6 STRAIN ENERGY
Consider a solid deformable body subjected to several external loads P
1
,

P
2
,,
P
k
,

P
n
in mechanical equilibrium (Fig. 8.14). If the loads applied increase slowly from
zero up to their nominal values, the loads application points A, B, K, N displace to
Fig. 8.13
156
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity
different positions A', B', K', N' respectively, an external work L being done in this
way (Fig. 8.14).
The work done by the applied loads P
1
,

P
2
,,P
k
,

P
n
must result in the increase of
some energy associated with the deformation of the body. This energy is referred to
as the strain energy of the body involved. We denote this energy by U. If the
deformations of the body do not exceed the elastic limit of the material, then, the
storaged strain energy U will be completely released to the surrounding environment
1
,

P
2
,, P
k
,

P
n
are removed. In such a case U is called the
elastic strain energy. On the other hand, we may consider that the whole performed
external work is completely transformed into strain energy. We write therefore

U L
. (8.25)
Consider a straight rod BC of length , fixed at one end and subjected to an
axial external force P as shown in Fig.
8.15. We assume that the rod material
obeys the Hookes law and the
proportional limit is not exceeded. We
do also assume that the force P is
applied statically (P does slowly
increase from zero up to its nominal
value, as shown in Fig. 8.16).
Since the material does not exceed the proportional limit, during the
application of force P, the axial force N in the rod will increase directly proportional
to the horizontal displacement u of point C as shown in Fig. 8.17a.
Fig. 8.14
Fig. 8.15
157
Strength of Materials
When N reaches the value P, the
displacement u reaches the final value
of the rod elongation . In the same
manner the normal stress in the rod,
during the application of force P, does
slowly increase and directly
proportional to the normal strain , as
shown in Fig. 8.17b.
The work done by force P, as the rod elongates is equal to the hachured area
located under the force deformation diagram (Fig. 8.17a). We may write therefore:

0
2
d
P
u N L
. (8.26)

V
A A A P
L U

2 2 2 2 2

, (8.27)
where
A V
represents the volume of the rod. Since the Hookes law is valid (
E
), we may also write
V
E
V
E
V U

2 2 2
2

. (8.28)
Work and energy are expressed in the same units, obtained by multiplying
units of length by units of force. Thus, if the International System metric units are
used, work and energy are expressed in
m N
, this unit being called a joule (J).
Returning now to the relations (8.27) and (8.28), we observe that the strain
energy depends upon the dimensions of the rod involved. To eliminate the effect of
size and to direct our attention to the properties of the material we shall define the
concept of elastic strain energy per unit volume. This quantity is referred to as the
elastic strain-energy density and is denoted by D
U
.
We write therefore
E V
U
U
D
2 2
2

. (8.29)
In this way the elastic strain energy absorbed by an infinitely small element of
material of volume dV is

Fig. 8.16
a. b.
Fig. 8.17
158
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity
V
E
V V U U
D
d
2
d
2
d d
2

. (8.30)
Thus, the total strain energy U
t

V V V
D t
V
E
V V U U d
2
d
2
d
2

. (8.31)
8.6.2 SHEARING STRESSES ELASTIC STRAIN ENERGY
If a material is subjected to plane shearing stresses (Fig. 8.18) the elastic strain
energy may be computed in a similar manner.
For such a case, the elastic strain energy density may be written therefore as
G
U
D
2 2
2

. (8.32)
Thus, the total elastic strain energy U
t
of a body under shearing stresses is

V V
t
V
G
V U d
2
d
2
2

. (8.33)
where V is the volume of the body involved.
8.6.3 STRAIN ENERGY FOR A GENERAL STATE OF STRESS
In the preceding sections we have determined the expression of the elastic
strain energy of a body under normal and shearing stresses. Let us now consider a
body subjected to several external loads in mechanical equilibrium (Fig. 8.19a).
Fig. 8.18
159
Strength of Materials
We do also assume that the most general state of stress develops in the body due to
the action of the external loads. Now we shall isolate an elementary parallelepiped
from the body (Fig. 8.19b). In such a case the general state of stress is characterized
by the six stress components
x
,
y
,
z
,
xy
,
xz
, and
yz
(for convenience, in Fig. 8.19b,
the stresses have been represented only on the visible faces of the elementary
parallelepiped considered). If the body behaves linear elastically, the elastic-strain
energy density for a general state of stress may be obtained by adding the expressions
given within the preceding sections. In this way, the elastic strain-energy density may
be expressed as follows:
2 2 2 2 2 2
yz yz
xz xz
xy xy
z z
y y
x x
D
U

+ + + + + . (8.34)
Recalling the expressions representing the Hookes law for a homogeneous,
elastic and isotropic body:
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]

'

+
+
+
.
1
;
1
;
1
y x z z
z x y y
z y x x
E
E
E

G G G
yz
yz
xz
xz
xy
xy

; ;
and substituting for the strain components
x
,
y
,
z
,
xy
,
xz
,
yz
into (8.34), we obtain
the elastic strain-energy density as follows:
a. b.
Fig. 8.19
160
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

[ ] ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
1
2
1
yz xz xy z y z x y x z y x D
G E E
U

+ + + + + + +
. (8.35)
If the principal axes are used as coordinate axes, the shearing stresses become
zero and (8.35) reduces to
( ) ( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1

+ + + +
E E
U
D
. (8.36)
Thus, the total elastic strain energy (U
t
) of a body under the most general stress
condition may be written as

V
D t
V U U d
, (8.37)
where V is the volume of the body involved and U
D
the elastic strain-energy density
mentioned above.
8.6.4 ELASTIC STRAIN-ENERGY DENSITY ASSOCIATED WITH A
CHANGE IN VOLUME. ELASTIC STRAIN-ENERGY DENSITY
ASSOCIATED WITH A DISTORTION (A CHANGE IN SHAPE)
Due to the action of the external loads a solid body changes both its volume and
its shape. In this way we may separate the elastic-strain energy density at a given
point of the body into two components:
a component U
v
associated with a change in volume of the material at that
point;
a component U
S
associated with a change in shape (a distortion) of the material
at the same point.
A given state of stress may be obtained by superposing two states of stress as shown
in Fig. 8.20, where
1
,
2
,
3
are the principal stresses and
ave
(or

) is the average
value of the principal stresses:

+ +

3
3 2 1
ave
. (8.38)
a. b. c.
Fig. 8.20
161
Strength of Materials
The state of stress described in Fig. 8.20b tends to change the volume of the element,
but not its shape, since all the faces of the element are subjected to the same stress
ave
(or

). The state of stress described in Fig. 8.20c tends to change the shape of the
element.
Recalling (8.36), the elastic-strain energy density associated with the state of
stress described in Fig. 8.20b may be written as
( ) ( ) + + + +
3 2 3 1 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1

E E
U
V
( ) ( ) + + + +

E E
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
( )
( )
,
_

+ +

2
3 2 1
2 2 2
3
2 1
2
3
2
2 1 3 3
2
3

E E E E
( )
2
3 2 1
6
2 1

+ +

E
. (8.39)
In the same manner, the elastic strain-energy density associated with the state of
stress described in Fig. 8.20c, may be written as:
( ) ( ) ( )
2
3
2
2
2
1 3 2 3 1 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
6
2 1
2
1

+ +

+ + + +
E E E
U U U
V D S ,
which finally gives
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2
3 2
2
3 1
2
2 1
6
1

+ +
+

E
U
S (8.40)
or
( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
3
1

+ +
+

E
U
S . (8.41)
8.6.5 RELATION AMONG E, G AND
Consider a rectangular plate of uniform thickness, made of a homogeneous and
isotropic material (Fig. 8.21). The plate is assumed to be in a plane stress condition,
being subjected to tension about Ox axis ( 0
+
x ) and to compression about Oy axis
( 0

y ) as shown in the figure.
162
Basic elements of the theory of elasticity
Recalling now the
pure shear state
properties described in
section 8.4, the stress
condition mentioned above
is equivalent to a pure shear
state at 45
o
, as shown in Fig.
8.21.
Since the elastic-strain energy densities associated with the two states of stress
have the same value, we may write
II I D D
U U
, (8.42)
where
( ) ( ) + + + +
3 2 3 1 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1

E E
U
I D
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) + +
0 0
2
0
2
0 2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1

E E E E
( )

+ + 1
2
0
2
0
2
0
E E E
,
and (8.35)
[ ] ( ) ( )
G G G E E
U
xy
yz xz xy z y z x y x z y x DII
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
0
2
2 2 2 2 2 2

+ + + + + + + .
We may write therefore:
( )
G E 2
1
2
0
2
0

+
.
It thus follows that
( ) +

1 2
E
G
. (8.43)
This relation may be used to determine one of the constants E, G or from the other
two.
Fig. 8.21
163