Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Chapter Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Introduction to Chemistry Laws of chemical combination Atomic mass, molecular mass Avogadro’s law Mole concept Empirical and Molecular formula Chemical equation and Limiting reagent Concentration terms Concept of equivalent mass Normality

Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry

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Concept Notes
Branches of Chemistry
Chemistry may be defined as the branch of science dealing with the composition, structure and properties of matter. Chemistry has mainly three branches: 1. Physical chemistry 2. Organic chemistry 3. Inorganic chemistry Matter Matter may be defined as anything which occupies space and has mass. Based on the physical state of matter, it can be classified into solids, liquids and gases. An element is a substance which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods. A compound is a substance which can be decomposed into two or more dissimilar substances by chemical reactions. .or example, water (H2O). Mixture A mixture contains two or more components in varying amounts. Mixtures are of two types: a. Homogenous mixtures: Mixtures having the same or uniform composition throughout the sample. .or example, air is a mixture of gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapours. b. Heterogenous mixtures: Mixtures having different composition in different phases. .or example, a mixture of iron fillings and sulphur is a heterogeneous mixture.

Laws of chemical combination
Law of conservation of mass Antoine Lavoisier states that during any physical or chemical change, the total mass of the products is equal to the total mass of the reactants. Or in other words, during any physical or chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed.

AgNO3 Silver nitrate

+ NaCl Sodium chloride

¾¾ ®

AgCl Silver chloride

+ NaNO3 Sodium nitrate

Mass of reactants (AgNO3 + NaCl) = Mass of product (AgCl + NaNO3) Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry ... 2

Law of reciprocal proportions The ratio of the weights of two elements A and B which combine separately with a fixed weight of the third element C is either the same or some simple multiple of the ratio of weights in which A and B combines directely with eachother. the mass of one of the elements. a simple ratio exists between the volumes of the reactants and the products at constant temperature and pressure. 3 . 1 : 16  → 32 : 32. S H S SO H H2S SO2 H O O  → 2 : 32. bear a simple whole number ratio.Law of constant composition or law of definite proportions Louis Proust states that a pure chemical compound always contains same elements combined together in the same proportion by weight. contains H and O in ratio of 1 : 8. 2 Gay Lussac’s law of combining gaseous volume Gay Lussac states that when gases combine to form gaseous products. Pure sample of water. 1 : 1 H2S : SO2 → 1 1 : = 1: 16 16 1 [H2S : SO2 ] : H2O → 1 8 1 × = 16 1 2  1 This simple ratio   explain the law of reciprocal proportion. H2 (g) 1volume + Cl2 (g)  → 2HCl(g) 1 volume 2 volume The ratio is 1 : 1 : 2. The ratio between the different masses of copper combining with the same mass of oxygen in the two compounds Cu2O and CuO is 8 : 4 = 2 : 1 (which is a simple whole number ratio).. Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . which combines with a fixed mass of the other. Law of multiple proportions John Dalton states that when two elements combine to form two or more compounds.. whatever may be its source.

Atomic mass unit is defined as exactly 1 th mass of a 12 12 6 C atom.Dalton’s atomic theory Although the origin of idea that matter is composed of small indivisible particles called ‘a-tomio’ (meaning indivisible). it becomes impossible to weigh it.370 BC). atomic mass of an element is defined as a number.. 4. 1 amu = 35 37 . the relative mass of atoms are used instead of their actual mass. Dalton’s theory could explain the laws of chemical combination. Dalton published ‘A New System of Chemical Philosophy’ in which he proposed the following : 1. it result of several experimental studies which led to the Laws mentioned above. the average atomic mass of chlorine atom = 35 × 3 + 37 × 1 = 35. 1⋅ 67 × 10 –24 g × Mass of one 12 6 C atom = 12 6 ⋅ 023 × 1023 Atoms of the same element may have different masses. These are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.5 4 Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . chlorine has two isotopes 17 Cl and 17 Cl present in relative abundance ratio 3 : 1. which expresses how many times the mass of one atom of the element. 2. Therefore. All the atoms of a given element have identical properties including identical mass. In such cases. 3. Mass of 1 atom of the element 1 × Mass of 1 atom of 12 6 C 12 Atomic mass unit Atomic mass can also be expressed in a unit called atomic mass unit (amu). Chemical reactions involve reorganisation of atoms. International Union of Chemists selected Based on this. 1 1 g . a Greek Philosopher (460 . In 1808. is that of Atomic mass = 12 6 C isotope as the standard. They are known as isotopes. Atomic Mass Since we cannot see atom. Matter consists of indivisible atoms.. the atomic mass of an element is taken as the average of the atomic masses of the various isotopes. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in a fixed ratio.or example. Atoms of different elements differ in mass. 1 th mass of a 12 12 6 C atom. Therefore. dates back to the time of Democritus. 4 .

008 + 16 × 1) = 18.51× 20 + 0. Thus.or example.51 + 0. This amount of the element is also called one gram atom. a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. Example 1: The natural occurrence of the isotopes 20 21 10 Ne. The molecular mass is a number which expresses how many times the mass of a given molecule is that of Molecular mass = 1 th mass of a 12 12 6 C atom.51%.187 amu (90. 18.28 × 21 + 9. molecular mass of water = (2 × 1. Molecular mass of O2 = 32 Gram molecular mass of O2 = 32 g Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .28% and 9.21× 22 = 20. 10Ne Average atomic mass of Neon atom (Ne) = 90. . respectively. 0.1llustrative Example 22 and 10 Ne is in the ratio 90.016 Gram molecular mass Molecular mass expressed in grams is called gram molecular mass. Calculate the average atomic mass of the element. 5 .016 g of water is 1 g molecule of water..21%.. Relative molecular mass is obtained by adding the atomic masses of all the atoms present in the given molecule.28 + 9. Therefore.21) Gram atomic mass Atomic mass expressed in grams is called gram atomic mass. Mass of a molecule of the subs tance 1 th mass of one 12 6 C atom 12 Relative molecular mass of a molecule is expressed in grams and the actual mass of a molecule is expressed in amu scale. 1 gram atom of oxygen = Gram atomic mass of oxygen = 16 g 1 gram atom of nitrogen = 14 g Atomic mass of oxygen = 16 Molecular Mass 12 Relative mass of a molecule may be obtained in terms of the same standard 6 C used for defining ( ) atomic mass.

under the same conditions of temperature and pressure..02 × 1023 cricket balls is about half the volume of the earth.992 × 10–23 g (1) (2) (3) If 6.02 × 1023 hydrogen atoms were laid side by side.023 × 1023 . Since atomic mass and molecular mass are defined with reference to Avogadro’s number is also defined relative to 12 6 C 12 6 C atom.023 × 1023 molecule Avogadro’s number The number of atoms present in 1 g atom of an element as well as the number of molecules present in 1 g mole of any substance is a constant. ions or molecules).992 × 10–24 g 12 atom 6 C 12 On the amu scale. (Avogadro’s number) A mole is defined as the amount of any substance containing one Avogadro’s number of particles (atom.023 × 1023 = 1.Avogadro’s Law Equal volume of all gases. Mole of a substance can be related to (a) mass and (b) the volume of the substance in gaseous form expressed in grams.023 × 1023 molecule 1 volume of I2 = 1 mole of I2 = 6.. it is denoted by NA = 6. like dozen or century is a number equal to 6. Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .  → 2HI + I2 H2 1 volume 1 volume 2 volume 1 volume of H2 = 1 mole of H2 = 6. contains the same number of molecules. 6 . Mole Concept Mole.023 × 1023 atoms of 12 ∴ Mass of 1 atom of 6 C = 12 = 6 C 12 g g 6. 6 C Avogadro’s number is defined as the number of atoms present in exact 12 g of Mass of 6.66 × 10–24 = 1. atom. The volume of 6.023 × 1023. This is known as Avogadro’s number. 1 mol atoms or molecules = 6. the total length would encircle the earth about a million times. 12 .023 × 1023 atoms or molecules respectively. The mass of 6.02 × 1023 olympic shotput balls is almost equal to the mass of the earth. the mass of a = 12 amu = 12 × 1.

Similarly 28 g of nitrogen.whether we have NH3 or CO2 or CH4.023 × 10 23 g Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .6 × 1022 [approx.Molar mass The mass of one mole is the molar mass.] 22. = 2.7 Realize that the answer is independent of nature of the gas i.023 × 1023 = 2..99 × 10–23 g Example 2: Solution: How many molecules of CO2 would be present in one litre of CO2 at S.023 × 1023 molecules ∴ In 1 litre number of molecules = 6. Gram molecular mass of water (H2O) = 18 g Number of molecule in 1 g molecular mass = Avogadro’s number = 6. .023 × 1023 ∴ Mass of one molecule of H2O = = Gram molecular mass Avogadro ' s number 18 g 6.? Since 22.7 litres of CO2 = 1 mole = 6..P.T. molar mass of [K4. .023 × 1023 particles) is found to occupy a volume of 22.7 L at STP.T. 44 g of carbon dioxide or 1 g mole of any gaseous element or compound occupy a volume of 22.e.P.or example. 1 mole of oxygen (32 g).023 × 1023 = 2. 1llustrative Examples Example 1: Solution: Calculate the mass of one molecule of water. number of molecules in any gas at S. one mole of a gas (6.6 × 1022 (approx) Example 3: What is the mass of 6023 molecules of NH3 gas? Solution: Molar mass of NH3 = 17 g 1 mole = 1 molar mass (17 g) = 6. occupies 22.023 × 1023 molecules ∴ 6023 molecules = = 17 × 10 − 20 g 17 × 6023 6.e (CN)6] = 3 × 39 + 56 + 6 (12 +14) = 329 g Molar volume At STP. 7 .or example.7 L at STP.7 L. molar mass of Na = 23 g Molar mass of Cl2 = 71 g.

we can use the following relationship given number 6.675 × 6.5 × 1023 (approx.7 (c) 3 × 5.P.1 × 1023 (approx.023 × 1023 molecules 22.ind number of atoms in (a) 1 g yellow phosphorous [P4] (b) 5.7 Do it yourself.023 ×1023 22. 2] Example 4: .675 mole of H2S = × 6.675 litre = 4 × 6.023 × 10 23 molecules 4 × 31 4 × 31 Since one molecule of P4 = 4 atoms 1g = Solution: (a) ∴ Number of atoms = (b) 5.023 × 1023 = 4. (c) 1 mole of acetic acid [CH3COOH] 2 1 1 moles of P4 = × 6.023 × 1023 = 1.P.To find number of moles in (a) a certain number of molecules (b) certain mass or (c) certain volume of gas at S.675 × 6..T. of atoms = 3 × 5. 3] given mass of substance Molar mass given volume of gas at NTP in litre 22..94 × 1022 (approx) 4 × 31 5.675 litres of H2S gas at S.) You must have used the information that atomic mass of sulphur = 32 or molar mass of SO2 = 64.675 5. 8 .023 × 10 Number of moles ! [See Ex.7 22.7 Since one molecule of H2S = 3 atoms ∴ No.) 22. Can you say that mass of 1 atom of sulphur is 32 g or that mass of 1 molecule of SO2 is 64 g? Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .7 [See Ex. Ans = 24.T.

.T.] 0. What is its V. Molecular mass = 2 × Vapour density Vapour density of a gas = mass of a given volume of vapour of the substance mass of same volume of Hydrogen under similar condition 1llustrative Examples Example 1: Solution: 0.P. i.T. 9 . .or example.D. etc.. Also. ∴n = Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .P. both the empirical and molecular formula are the same.T. C6H6. ∴ Mass of 30 ml of H2 at S. = 0.= Mass of 30 ml of H2 at NTP ∴ Mass of 1 ml of H2 at S.Empirical .D. Realize that (1) V.ind its molecular formula.1g of a gaseous substance occupies 30 ml at S.T.e.ormula Empirical formula is the simplest ratio of all types of atoms present in compound whereas molecular formula gives the exact number of atoms of each type present in the compound. Mass of 22700 ml of H2 at S.0009 g 22700 This is a very useful information.00009 g = 0. Molecular formula = n × Empirical formula Molecular formula is either identical with the empirical formula or a simple multiple of it.. But the molecular formula is different. for molecules like CH4.. the molecular formula is C6H6. and molecular mass. . = 30 × .P.ormula and Molecular . CO. Empirical formula = CH Empirical formula mass = 12 × 1 + 1 × 1 = 13 Molecular mass = 2 × Vapour density = 2 × 39 = 78 Molecular formula mass = n × Empirical formula mass Molecular formula mass 78 Empirical formula mass = 13 = 6 Hence. empirical formula of benzene is CH and molecular formula of benzene is C6H6.0027 ∴ Molecular mass = 2 × 37 = 74 g.or some molecules like C2H2.1 = 37 [approx. = 2 g [molecular mass] 2 = 0. The molecular mass is calculated from vapour density. CH.0027 g Mass of 30 ml of vapour ∴ V. = Example 2: Solution: The vapour density of a compound having empirical formula CH is 39. The student must memorize it. has no units and (2) does not depend on temperature or pressure etc.P. the empirical formula is the same.D.

41 =1 2. 3.5 = 3.8% carbon.1%.6) = 38.8 3. Calculate the empirical formula and molecular formula.49 » 3 2×1=2 57.82 =2 2.4 + 3..41 ∴ The empirical formula is C4H3O2.6 = 2.45 = 1.8 + 3.6 = 1.41 2.6% hydrogen.4 = 3.41 16 4.Calculation of empirical formula from percentage composition Example 3: Solution: Element C H O An organic compound contains 57. ∴ Empirical formula mass = 12 × 1 + 1 × 1+ 16 × 1 = 29 Molecular mass = 2 × vapour density = 2 × 58 = 116 Molecular formula mass = n × Empirical formula mass Molecular formula mass 116 Empirical formula mass = 29 = 4 ∴ Molecular formula is C4H4O4 ∴n = Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .82 12 3 .46 16 3.1 100 – (41.6 100 – (57. 10 .41 3 . Percentage 57..6 = 3.8 = 4.1 =1 3.1 3.4 3.5 Atomic ratio = Simplest ratio 41.6 1 38.1 »  3.4% and H = 3.45 12 3.1 3. Percentage Atomic mass Element C H O Percentage 41.1  ∴ Empirical formula is CHO. .ind the empirical formula.1 1 55.1) = 55. Example 4: Solution: An organic compound on analysis gave C = 41. Its vapour density is 58.6 Atomic ratio = Percentage Atomic mass Simplest ratio Simplest whole number ratio 2×2=4 2 × 1.46 = 1.1 = 3.49 2.1 »  3.

) 6. 1 mole of O2 will be in excess. 20 g of CaCO3 gives = = 8. → CaO + CO2 CaCO3  ∴ 20 g of CaCO3 gives = = 11. .8 g of CO2 Limiting Reagent The reagent which determines the yield of a reaction is called limiting reagent.4 (approx.4 Approximate atomic mass = Specific heat This is an empirical relation. It is consumed first. In this case. → 2H2O 2H2 + O2  Suppose the reaction mixture contains 2 moles of H2 and 2 moles of O2. Mol.2 g of CaO 56 g × 20 g of CaO 100 g 44 g × 20 g of CO2 100 g Similarly. it is evident that 2 moles of H2 require only 1 mole of O2 to complete the reaction.rom the above equation. Chemical equation A chemical equation is a representation of a chemical reaction by using symbols and molecular formulae.. → 2SO3 2SO2 + O2  1llustrative Example Example 1: Solution: Calculate the mass of calcium oxide and carbon dioxide obtained by the decomposition of 20 g of CaCO3 . H2 is said to be the limiting reagent. Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .Dulong and Petit’s law Atomic heat = Atomic mass × specific heat Atomic heat of most elements ≈ 6. Therefore.. 11 . Mass (40 + 12 + 3 × 16) (40 + 16) (12 + 2 × 16) = 100 = 56 = 44 The above balanced equation shows that 100 g (1 mole) of CaCO3 gives 56 g (1 mole) of CaO and 44 g (1 mole) of CO2. during reaction.

Number of moles of O2 actually present = 1.25 moles Concentration terms If a solution consists of only two components.e. The component present in smaller amount is called the solute while the other present in larger amount is called the solvent.0 = 0. Number of moles of O2 actually present = 1..1llustrative Example Example 1: 4 g H2 reacts with 40 g O2 to yield H2O. Limiting reagent decides the amount of the product.e. 12 . 2H2 + O2 2 moles 1 mole → 2H2O 2 moles Solution: Mass 4 Number of moles of H2 present = Molar mass = = 2 mol 2 Mass 40 = 1.25 – 1. it is called a binary solution.25 mol Number of moles of O2 present = Molar mass = 32 (i) Identification of limiting reactant According to the equation. (iii) Calculate the amount of one of the reactants. which remains unreacted. (ii) Calculation of maximum amount of H2O formed 2 moles of H2 form 2 moles of H2O..25 moles ∴ Number of moles of O2 reacted = 1 mol ∴ Number of moles of O2 unreacted = 1.25 mol. 2 moles of H2 require 1 mol of O2. O2 is in excess and thus. H2 is the limiting reactant. O2) which remain unreacted. (iii) Calculation of amount of one of the reactants (i. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in a number of ways as follows:- Concentration in terms of percentage Percentage by mass = Mass of solute w × 100 = % Mass of solution W Volume of solute v × 100 = % Volume of solution V w Mass of solute × 100 = % V Volume of solution Percentage by volume = Percentage mass by volume = Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . i. (i) Which is the limiting reagent? (ii) Calculate the maximum amount of H2O that can be formed.

Calculate strength of NaOH solution.. Calculate % by mass of NaCl in the solution. Strength (g/L) = Molarity ×Molar mass Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . Mass of solute (in gram) Strength = Volume of solution (in litre ) 1llustrative Examples Example 1: 4 gm of NaOH was dissovled in water and volume was made upto 500 ml. Percentage by mass of NaCl in the solution = 20 × 100 = 16. 13 . M= M= Moles of solute Volume of solution (in litres) Mass of solute × 1000 Molar mass of solute × Volume (in millilitres ) W × 1000 Molar mass= M × V (in millilitres) Also moles of solute = M × V (in litres) Mass Moles of solute = molar mass Milli moles of solute = M × V (in millilitres) In terms of molarity.1llustrative Example Example 1: Solution: 20g NaOH is dissolved in 100g of water.02 moles of H2SO4 is dissolved in water and volume of solution was made upto 800 ml. Calculate strength of acid solution..45 gm / L 800 Molarity It is defined as the number of moles of solute present in one litre of solution. Mass of solute = number of moles × molar mass Strength of acid solution = 0.67% 120 Strength of Solution Amount of solute present in one litre of solution is called strength of solution.02 × 98 × 1000 = 2. Solution: Example 2: Solution: Mass of solute 4 × 1000 Strength of solution = Voluem of solution = 500 = 8 gm / L 0.

98 g/ml and contains 95% mass by volume H2SO4. Strength = Molarity × Molar mass = 0.ind the molality of one molar solution of NaOH.98 = 198 g Mass of water = 198 – 95 = 103 g Molality = 95 × 1000 = 9.1llustrative Examples Example 1: Solution: Example 2: Solution: Calculate molarity of a solution containing 98 g of H2SO4 present in 500 ml of solution. 100 ml solution contains 95 g H2SO4. Moles of solute m = Mass of solvent (in kg ) Mass of solute × 1000 m = Molar mass of solute × Mass of solvent (in grams ) 1llustrative Examples Example 1: Solution: Example 2: Solution: ..ind the molality of H2SO4 solution whose specific gravity(density) is 1. 14 .ind the molality of H2SO4 solution in which 98 g of H2SO4 is dissolved in 500 g of solvent.01 M NaOH solution.40 g/L Molality It is defined as number of moles of solute present in 1 kg (or 1000 g) of solvent. 98 × 1000 =2 m Molality = 98 × 500 . 95 Moles of H2SO4 = 98 Mass of solution = 100 × 1..04 = 1040 g Mass of solute = 1 × 40 = 40 g ∴ Mass of solvent = 1040 – 40 = 1000 g m= 1× 1000 = 1 molal 1000 Example 3: Solution: . Density of solution is 1.04 g/ml. Mass of solute × 1000 98 1000 × =2M Molarity = molar mass × Volume (in millilitres ) = 98 500 Calculate the strength of 0. One molar solution means one mole of solute present in one litre of solution Mass of one litre solution = 1000 × 1.01 × 40 = 0. It is represented by m (small letter).412 m 98 × 103 Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .

.raction The ratio of number of moles of one component to the total number of moles of all the component present in solution is called as mole fraction of that component Let’s consider a binary solution in which n moles of solute and N moles of solvent are present. Calculate mole fraction of H2SO4 and water in given solution. then. XA + XB = 1 1llustrative Example Example 1: 98 gram of H2SO4 is dissolved in 900 ml of water..Mole . MA + MB = 1 Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .e.raction The ratio of mass of one component to the total mass of all components present in solution is called as mass fraction of that component: Lets consider a binary solution containing w g of sloute in W g of solvent. then. Mole fraction of solute (XA) = moles of solute n = moles of solute + mole s of solvent n + N moles of solvent N = moles of solute + moles of solvent n + N Mole fraction of solvent (XB) = The sum of mole fractions of all components of a given solution is unity i. 15 . number of moles of H2SO4 in solution = number of moles of H2O in solution = mole fraction of H2O = 50 50 = 50 + 1 51 1 1 50 1 = = (also mole fraction of H2SO4 = 1– ) 51 51 50 + 1 51 98 massof H2SO4 = =1 molar massof H2SO4 98 Solution: massof water 900 = = 50 molar massof water 18 mole fraction of H2SO4 = Mass . mass of solute w Mass fraction of solute (MA) = mass of solute + mass of solvent = w + W mass of solvent W Mass fraction of solvent (MB) = mass of solute + mass of solvent = w + W The sum of mass fractions of all the components is unity ie.

Coming back to the definition.2 ml of water.8 = = = 0.1× 98 9. Solution: number of gramsof solute × 106 Concentration in ppm = number of gramof solution Concentration of SO42– = Concentration of HCO3– = 96 × 106 = 9 ⋅ 6 ppm 10000 × 1000 183 × 106 107 = 18 ⋅ 3ppm Equivalent Mass Equivalent mass of an atom is defined as that mass which either reacts with or displaces 1 g hydrogen or 35.1 mole of H2SO4 is dissolved in 970.5 g chlorine. 16 .1llustrative Example Example 1: 0.5 g chlorine has to be its respective equivalent mass. Given density of water is 1 g/ml.8 + 970. Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .2 980 Mass fraction of water = 1 – 0.. calculate mass fraction of each component. 1 equivalent of any substance A has to react with 1 equivalent of B to produce 1 equivalent of C and so forth or so on” This is a very important and useful law of chemical reactions. from respective molecules. Now the main concept behind this definition is “in genral whatever be the molar ratio of reactants or products in a balanced chemical equation.. Calculate concentration of SO42– and HCO3– in ppm.5 so whatever mass of an element reacts with 1 g H or 35. Equivalent mass of oxygen is 8 when it forms oxide but 16 when it forms a peroxide.999 Concentration in ppm The number of grams of solute present in 106 grams (one million grams) of solution is called as concentration of solute in ppm. since equivalent mass of H is 1 or of chlorine is 35. Concentration in ppm = number of gramsof solute × 106 number of grams of solution 1llustrative Example Example 1: A 104 kg sample of hard water contains 96 grams of SO42– and 183 grams of HCO3– .001 mass of H2SO4 + mass of water 9. Mass .raction of H2SO4 = Solution: mass of H2SO4 0.001 = 0.

H2SO4 and H3PO4.4 litres 2 =1 2 Equivalent mass of compound is calculated in different ways..? Since equivalent mass of hydrogen = 1 20 g calcium will liberate 1 g hydrogen from HCl ∴ 40 g calcium will liberate 2 g hydrogen. What volume of hydrogen at STP would be liberated by 40 g calcium if it reacts with excess of dil.1llustrative Examples Example 1: Solution: 1 g magnesium when heated in excess of oxygen for long time produces oxide.5 = 36. 17 .. As per mole concept. HCl  → H+ + Cl− Equivalent mass of HCl = 1 + 35. What is the equivalent mass of Mg? Weight of oxygen that reacted with Mg = 5 2 −1= g 3 3 5 g of magnesium 3 Now. Equivalent mass of acid Equivalent mass of acid = Number of replacable H+ (Basicity )per molecule of acid Molar mass of acid 1llustrative Example Example 1: Solution: Calculate the equivalent mass of HCl. 1. number of moles in 2 gm hydrogen = And volume of 1 mole of H2 at STP = 22. HCl.5 1 → 2H+ + SO42− H2SO4  Equivalent mass of H2SO4 = 2 × 1 + 32 + 16 × 4 = 49 2 Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . 2 g oxygen reacts with 1 g Mg 3 1 × 8 = 12 g 2/3 ∴ 8 g oxygen would react with Example 2: Solution: Equivalent mass of calcium is 20.

.− H3PO 4  → 3H+ + PO 3 4 Equivalent mass of H3PO4 = 2. Equivalent mass of base 3 × 1 + 30 + 4 × 16 97 = = 32.33 3 3 Molar mass of base Equivalent mass of base = Number of replacable OH− Acidity ( ) 1llustrative Example Example 1: Calculate the equivalent mass of NaOH.5 2 2 − Na 2 SO 4  → 2Na + + SO 2 4 Equivalent mass of Na2SO4 = Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry 2 × 23 + 32 + 4 × 16 142 = = 71 2 2 . 18 . MgCl2  → Mg++ + 2Cl− Equivalent mass of MgCl2 = 24 + 2 × 35.. Ca(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 NaOH  → Na + + OH− Solution: Equivalent mass of NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 40 = = 40 40 1 Ca (OH)2  → Ca2+ + 2OH− Equivalent mass of Ca(OH)2 = 40 + 2 × 16 + 2 × 1 74 = = 37 2 2 Al (OH )3  → Al3 + + 3OH− Equivalent mass of Al(OH)3 = 3.5 = 95 = 47. Equivalent mass of salt 27 + 3 × 16 + 3 × 1 78 = = 26 3 3 Molar mass of salt Equivalent mass of salt = Total positive charge on cations or total negative charge on anions Illustrative Examples Example 1: Solution: Calculate the equivalent mass of NaCl. MgCl2 and Na2SO4.

(Mohr’s salt) Equivalent mass of .1 N BaCl2 is mixed with 30 ml of 0.2 N Al2(SO4)3. 19 . N= N= N= Number of gram equivalent of solute Volume of solution (in litre ) Mass of solute Equivalent mass of solute × Volume (in litre ) W × 1000 E × V (in ml ) Also number of equivalents = N × V (in litre) Milli equivalent = N × V (in ml) Mass of solute = Number of equivalent of solute × Equivalent mass of solute 1llustrative Examples Example 1: Solution: If 20 ml of 0.2 1000 1000 0 0 2 × 10–3 0 4 × 10–3 2 × 10–3 Hence.(NH4 )2 SO4.eSO4.6H 2O = Normality 392 = 98 gram 4 It is defined as the number of gram-equivalents of a solute present in one litre of solution..eSO4..1 × 0.6H2O. mass of BaSO4 = 2 × 10–3 × Equivalent mass of BaSO4 Since BaSO4 is a divalent n factor of BaSO4 = 2 ∴ Mass of BaSO4 = 2 × 10–3 × Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry Since BaCl2 is limiting reagent 233 = 0.( NH4)2SO4. how many gram of BaSO4 is formed? BaCl2 + Al2 (SO4 )3  → AlCl3 + BaSO4 Equivalents before reaction = 2 × 10–3 = 6 × 10–3 Equivalents after reaction 20 30 × 0.233 g 2 .→ Na+ + Cl– NaCl  Equivalent mass of NaCl = Example 2: Solution: 23 + 17 = 40 1 Calculate the equivalent mass of .

or monovalent compound normality and molarity is same. 1llustrative Example Example 1: Solution: Calculate normality of 0.3 × 3 = 0. normality = 0.0625 N 40 × 800 Relation between normality and molarity Normality = Mass of solute × 1000 Molecular mass of solute × Volume (in ml) n factor Normality = Molarity × n factor N=M×n . n = 1 . d = Density of solution x = Percentage by mass of solute Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .25 N 200 N= Example 3: Solution: Calculate the normality of NaOH solution when 2 g of it are present in 800 ml solution.3 M AlCl3 solution.05 equivalents in 200 ml.9 N Also And Normality = d × 10 × x Equivalent mass d × 10 × x Molarity = Molecular mass where. N= Mass of solute × 1000 Equivalent mass × Volume (in ml ) = 2 × 1000 = 0. .or AlCl3  → Al+++ + 3Cl− n factor = 3 Hence.Example 2: Solution: Calculate the normality of H2SO4 solution having 0..or monovalent compound. 20 ..050 × 1000 = 0. N= Equivalent × 1000 Volume (in ml ) 0.

2 N NaOH. N = N1V1 − N2 V2 V1 + V2 0.ind the normality of the mixture.067 N 750 Strength of HCl = .2 700 500 ml 0.2 × 10−3 Equivalents of NaOH = 250 × 0.2 × 1 × 250 500 + 250 N = 2..5 grams/litre = 2.2 × 1 = 0.2 × 10−3 − 250 × 0.44 N Strength of HCl = . N = V1 + V2 .44 grams/litre N= Relationship between normality and strength (gram/litre of solution) In terms of normality. N2 V2 + N1V1 We know.2M HCl at 25°C.2 × 10−3 egv) = 50 × 10−3 Normality of HCl (excess) = 500 × 10−3 × 103 = 0.2 × 10−3 Equivalent of excess HCl = (500 × 0.1M H2SO4 and 200 ml 0. 21 . What is the strength of the resulting solution? → NaCl + H2O HCl + NaOH  Equivalents of HCl = 500 × 0.067 × 36. N = Example 2: Solution: 500 × 0.2 × 1 × 500 .44 g/litre Alternate Method: Normality of HCl (excess). .or the mixture.1llust rative Examples Example 1: Solution: A mixture is obtained by mixing 500 ml 0.067 × 36.5 g/litre = 2.0.2 N HCl is neutralized with 250 ml 0.. Strength = Normality × Equivalent mass Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry .1× 2 + 200 × 0.

(1990) A solution 6. (2003) 2.75 cm3/g. Determine the volume of dil.. The density of a 3 M sodium thiosulphate solution (Na2S2O3) is 1. Calculate (i) the percentage by weight of sodium thiosulphate (ii) the mole fraction of sodium thiosulphate and (iii) 2− ions.000 ml of solution will be (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 1.5 MH2SO4 are needed to dissolve 0.32 g (d) 2.Take-Off 1.062 (d) 1. (1999) A drug marijuana owes its activity to tetra-hydrocannabinol. molality and mole-fraction of Na2SO4 in the solution.2 g contains 34.64 g The molarity of a solution in which 2 moles of CH4 are dissolved in 1. (1994) How many ml of 0. 9.42 g/ml. Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . 8. (1988) 11.2 kg m–3. If the virus is considered to be a single particle.00318.842 (b) 2. Assuming fully decomposed. Calculate the density of the solution. (1983) the molalities of Na+ and S2O3 A sugar syrup of weight 214. The number of moles in a gram of tetra-hydrocannabinol is 0.76 g of silver carbonate (atomic mass of Ag = 108) on being heated strongly yields a residue weighing (a) 2. A plant virus is found to consist of uniform cylinderical particles of 150Å in diameter and 5000Å long. Calculate the molality of 1 litre solution of 93% H2SO4 (Weight/volume). 4.90 M of KOH in water contains 30% by mass of KOH. 3.48 g (c) 2. 10.5 Calculate the molarity of water if its density is 1000 kg/m3.84g/mL. HNO3 (d = 1.16 g (b) 2. The density of the solution is 1. 22 13. Calculate the molarity. which contains 70% as many carbon atoms as hydrogen atoms and 15 times as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms. 69.5 g of copper (II) carbonate? (1999) . 6. Determine its molecular formula.85 g of (Atomic mass Ba = 137) BaCO3 will be (a) 0. 50 ml of Conc. find its molar mass. 8.0575 ×10–2 kg of Glauber’s salt is dissolved in water to obtain 1 dm3 of a solution of density 1077. 7. 19% HNO3) that can be prepared by diluting with water.11 g/ml. 12. The specific volume of the virus is 0.8% HNO3).242 (c) 4.122 2.. the volume of CO2 released in litres at STP on heating 9.2 g of sugar (C12 H22 O11) Calculate (i) molal concentration and (ii) mole-fraction of sugar in the syrup.25 gml–1. HNO3 (d = 1. 5.

Aqueous solution required 1 mol of HCl. Calculate the normality of the resulting mixture.0 g of NaOH per litre.2 in a series of reaction gives 1. H2O is added. Ca (OH)2 + H3PO4  → CaHPO4 + 2H2O 20. An excess of silver nitrate was added to precipitate the chloride ion as silver chloride. 100 ml of a solution of this acid containing 39. .. *18.14.722 g of bromide of an element A having atomic weight 91.32 g of AgBr.eCl3 (d) . How much of NaOH is required to neutralise 1. 16. 23 22. 23.eCl2 (a) . Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . What is the basicity of the acid? 17..0 g of the acid per litre were completely neutralised by 95.3 M H2SO4 are mixed. How much AgCl will be formed by adding 200 ml of 5 N HCl to a solution containing 1.e2Cl3 (c) .eCl One mol of N2 and 4 mol of H2 are allowed to react in a vessel and after reaction. Mole fraction of H2 in the gaseous mixture after reaction is 1 5 (b) (a) 6 8 1 (c) (d) None of these 3 0. . *24. How much NaOH would it require for conversion into Na2CO3 if the mixture (one mole) is completely oxidised to CO2? (a) 60 g (b) 80 g (c) 40 g (d) 20 g A compound of iron and chlorine is soluble in water. 300 ml of 0. If 134.0 ml of aqueous NaOH containing 40. 12 ml of which neutralises 15 ml of N NaOH solution? 10 The formula mass of an acid is 82.500 ml of 0. 21.1 N HCl? (Na = 23) (a) 40 g (b) 4 g (c) 6 g (d) 60 g What is the strength in grams per litre of a solution of H2SO4.0. The equivalent weight of MnSO4 is half its molecular weight when it is converted to: (a) Mn2O3 (b) MnO2 (c) MnO− 4 − (d) MnO2 4 (1988) 15.7 g AgNO3? One mole of a mixture of CO and CO2 requires exactly 20 g of NaOH in solution for complete conversion of all the CO2 into Na2CO3. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 5 .ind out the equivalent mass of H3PO4 in the following reaction. the formula of the compound is (b) .1 M HCl and 200 ml of 0.8 mg of AgCl. 19.ind the valency of element A.8 mg of the compound gave 304.

0043 13. 0. b 2..0099 12.732 m and 3.92% (ii) 0. 1.435 g 22.3N 17. 49 21. a 6. b 14.865 m 11.55 M 7. 70. b 15. c 18. (i) 0.55 (ii) 0. 55. 8. 6..239 m. b 24. 10. 24 . C21H30O2 5. b Chemistry /Basic Concepts of Chemistry . b 23. 0. 235 mL 8.25 M.42 9. 0. 0.96 × 106 g/mol 3. 2 20.065 (iii) 7.097 L 16.125 g/L 19. 1.Answer Keys Key Basic Concepts of Chemistry 1.288 g/mL 10. d 4. (i) 37.

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