Modeling the Combustion of Coal in a 300MW Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler with Aspen Plus

Zhihui DONG Changqing DONG* Junjiao ZHANG Yongping YANG
National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment North China Electric Power University Beijing, China,102206 (*Corresponding

Abstract—A process model was proposed to predict the combustion of coal in a 300MW CFB boiler. The effects of coal feed flow rate, the temperature of preheated air and air flow rate on the exhaust gas temperature were analyzed. The result showed that the exhaust gas temperature and boiler efficiency was consistent with data from literature. Keywords: CFB; model;exhaust gas temperature;Aspen Plus



CFBC technologies have been paid more attention in the past decades due to its advantages, such as a wide variety of solid fuel, high combustion efficiency, low pollutant emissions, smaller combustor cross section, fewer feed points, good turndown and load capability [1]. In order to settle the problem brought from energy utilization and environmental pollution, both capacity and numbers of CFB boilers in use are increasing [2]. The combustion of coal and/or biomass (sludge, wood waste, RDF, etc.) in a circulating fluidized bed has been a commercial topper for over 20 years[3], and references to principles and applications are numerous and widespread. Afsin Gungor and Nurdil Eskin developed a dynamic 2D model for a CFB combustor to validate against the data from a pilot-scale 50 kW CFB combustor and an industrial-scale 160 MW CFB combustor which used different types of coal. The influence of different operational conditions such as excess air, bed operational velocity and particle diameter on bed temperature and the overall CO, NOx and SO2 emissions from the combustor were investigated with the model [4, 5].Hong Chen, Shuwen Chang studied combustion tests of 300MW CFB boiler with firing Xiao Long tan lignite, providing reasonable optimal operation method:oxygen content at economizer outlet 2%, primary air flow rate 280 kNm3/h, ratio of inner and outer secondary air 80: 20 and bed temperature 850℃ [6]. The Aspen Plus process simulator has been used by different investigators to simulate coal conversion, examples included indirect coal liquefaction process, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants, atmospheric fluidized bed combustor process, compartmented fluidized

bed coal gasifiers and coal gasification simulation [7]. R.Soutdeh-Gharebaagh proposed a model integrating hydrodynamic parameters, reaction model and kinetic subroutines necessarily to simulate coal combustion in a CFBC.Only considering the important steps of coal combustion, the reaction model was simulated using four Aspen Plus reactor models and several subroutines.The resulting model was applied to predict the performance of The CANMET CFBC pilot plant in terms of combustion efficiency, emission levels of CO, SO2 , NO, O2 and CO concentration profiles. The validity of the model was demonstrated using 14 different sets of operating conditions for the CANMET 0.8 MWth CFBC pilot Plant [8, 9]. But most of research was about coal combustion in the boiler furnace, the work of simulating coal-fired CFB boiler system is still seldom, especially including boiler heating surfaces, cyclones and external heat exchangers [10]. In this work, the performance of 300MW CFB boiler system was simulated by Aspen Plus software, and Xiao Long tan lignite with the property of high volatile and moisture content, low ash component, medium sulfur content, lower ignition point and easier burnout was used. Although few data concerning the operation of large scale CFB-units and ripe operation experience about 300MW CFB burning lignite coal(Vdaf >37%) is presented, the main goal of the modeling of CFB boiler is to constitute a system that predicts boiler efficiency and exhaust gas temperature[11,12]. Some guidance to the 300MW CFB operation will be given. II. MODEL DESCRIPTION

A. Simulation Diagram In order to show the overall operation of CFB process, the different stages considered in Aspen Plus simulation, were decomposition of the feed, coal decomposition, coal combustion, gas-solid separation, the heated surfaces at backpass and external heat exchangers. The simulation diagram was given in Fig.1 One DECOM(RYield) block to simulate the decomposition of the coal obtained constituting components including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, ash and moisture in the form of simple substances, by specifying the yield distribution

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also considering the assumption that char contained only carbon and ash.External heat exchangers included low temperature superheater. The flue gas stream heated water in the heated surfaces at backpass simulated by a series of module MHEATX.16 Mair(t/h) 1142. Heat transfer process of all heating surfaces differed from actual behavior.0 1095. N2. and another two streams were going to external heat exchangers to release heat to steam in order to make fuel and desulfurizer circulating and burning several times. two kinds of coal were selected as the model analysis data from the literature. S. all gaseous products were assumed to behave ideally and all condensed products were treated as pure phases except ash. The result from the model had shown good agreement with literature data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Model Results Two kinds of lignite were applied to calculate boiler efficiency and exhaust gas temperature with comparisons and errors listed in TABLEⅢ.0 Mcoal(t/h) 226. The material flow from SEPARATE block entered into CYCLONE (Cyclone) block to represent gas-solid separation at the riser outlet of furnace by setting the diamter and numbers of CYCLONE to reach proportion of gas-solid separation. Fuel DESIGNED CHECKED INITIAL PARAMETERS AT RATED LOAD MCaO(t/h) 14. Complex combustion in the furnace was simplified.according to the coal ultimate analysis. C and ASH ⑶ Char only contained carbon and ash ⑷ Carbon completely reacted C. proximate analysis and the heat of coal combustion on a dry basis. Model Analysis The designed coal was selected as model analysis data presented at rated load of boiler. B. As can be seen in Fig. Ca/S was calcium to sulphur mole ratio.5 Ca/S 2. A. The input variables of the process at rated load were summarized in TABLEⅡ. TABLE I.CYCLONE separated an inlet gas stream containing solids into a solid stream and a gas stream carrying the residual solids. middle temperature superheaters and high temperature reheater [14].7 Notes: Mcoal was coal feed flow rate. III.5 236. exhaust gas temperature increased linearly with air preheater inlet temperature. The solid stream from CYCLONE was divided into three flows by CYCL-SEP (Fsplit) block as a solid drain valve. CYCLE-1 stream directly entered into BURN reactor. the exhaust gas temperature varied from 78 ℃ to 130 ℃ . which ensured an overall energy balance but did not account for the exchanger geometry. Mair was theoretic air flow rate. Exhaust gas temperature versus air preheater inlet temperature.2. Endothermic process of heating surfaces inside boiler chamber was modeled with the module vapor (Heater). Simulation diagram based Aspen Plus assumption that components reactions followed the Gibbs equilibrium. O2. H2O. Coal combustion used BURN (RGibbs) reactor in conformity with the Figure1.0 2. as listed in TABLEⅠ. Initial Parameters To validate the CFB model. Discrepancies were less than 9% owing to the fact that the algorithm of this model was based on the equilibrium calculations. The reason of exhaust gas temperature increasing with air preheater inlet temperature was that great temperature . MCaO was mass flow of CaO in limestone. and water in the heating surfaces boiled by heat stream from BURN reactor were determined. Model Assumptions The following assumptions were considered in the simulation: ⑴ Process was steady state and isothermal ⑵ Coal decomposition took place instantaneously and products mainly consisted of H2.When air preheater inlet temperature changed from 20℃ to 80℃. B. SEPARATE (Ssplit) block was adopted to provide bottom ash manually [13]. The amount of volatile materials can be specified from the coal approximate analysis.87 17. by which thermal and phase conditions of outlet stream. combustion air flow rate and coal feed flow rate were studied in this paper.

25 93.83 TABLE III.5 The boiler efficiency was defined as follows: η = Symbol Meaning expression boiler efficiency.88 39.The reason above was that with air flow rate increasing. kJ/kg Designed value Checked value 20 0 100 102 104 106 108 4 110 112 114 116 130 Air flowrate (x10 kg/h) 120 Exhaust gas temp. While exhaust gas temperature increased to the maximum value 330 ℃ . at the same value of air flow rate. When the designed coal feed rate was 226500 kg/h at rated load of boiler. COMPARISION BETWEEN LITERATURE DATA AND MODEL CALCULATION Combustion conditions Comparison Exhaust gas temperature (℃) lit cal Error (%) Boiler efficiency (%) lit cal Error (%) DESIGNED CHECKED 135 133 123 130 8. the checked fuel containing higher moisture and ash. kJ/kg enthalpy of reheated steam inlet.86 3.57 0.4.4 89. Effect of air flow rate to exhaust gas temperature 110 100 90 80 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Air preheater inlet temp. (℃ ) 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 flow rate of reheated steam.05 4. Effect of air preheater inlet temperature to exhaust gas temperature Considering two kinds of coal with the same air preheater inlet temperature of 75℃. exhaust gas temperature was 123℃.46 40. It can be seen the amount of coal 260000 kg/h was a knee point.3 5.The fact that exhaust gas Figure2. lower value heat resulted in increasing flue flow rate and exhaust gas temperature.difference between gas and steam improved much exchange TABLE II.5 1. exhaust gas temperature of designed coal was lower because the checked fuel containing higher Moisture and ash. From the figure it can be observed air 200 coal feed flow rate.22 89.7 36.28 18. Exhaust gas temperature effected by coal feed rate was presented in Fig.13 17.01 37.23 51. kJ/kg ' ' D gr × ( I gr − I gr ) + D zr × ( I zr − I zr ) Q × M coal η Q Mcoal Dgz Dzr Igr’ Igr Izr’ Izr The effect of air flow rate to the exhaust gas temperature was showed in Fig. kg/h Exhaust gas temp.4 94. Comparing designed coal with checked coal. kJ/kg enthalpy of feed water.3.81 2.12 heat. the air absorbed much heat of flue gas and overall tend of exhaust gas temperature decreased. PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF FUEL Ultimate analysis % as dry basis C H O N S Proximate analysis % as dry basis Volatile Fixed carbon Ash 43. % low heat value as received.89 2.53 21. kg/h flow rate of superheated steam. (℃ ) flow rate for combustion ranged from 1000 to 1150 kg/h.89 2. Fuel DESIGNED CHECKED Moisture % as received 34. while exhaust gas temperature varied from 122 to 132℃. (℃ ) Designed value Checked value Figure3.98 19. lower value heat resulted in increasing flue flow rate and exhaust gas temperature. kJ/kg enthalpy of reheated steam outlet. .54 2.99 56. kg/h enthalpy of superheated steam outlet. overall tend of which had a little drop.

”BOILER MANUFACTURING. 107119).2. while Exhaust gas temperature varied between 78 to 130 ℃ . R.” Fuel 87 (2008) 1083–1095. 2) . H. J. “Combustion characteristics of different fuels in a pilot scale circulating fluidized bed combustor.“Simulation of biomass gasification in fluidized bed reactor using ASPEN PLUS. dissertation.R. “Analysis of combustion efficiency in CFB coal combustors.”12th International Conference on FBC. Senior R. “Circulating fluidised bed fluid and particle mechanics: modelling and experimental studies with application to combustion. while exhaust gas temperature increased to a maximum value 267℃ and then decreased with coal feed flow rate increasing.Sotudeh-Gharebaagh. Grace.Modeling circulating fluidized bed downers. Exhaust gas temperature increased linearly with air preheater inlet temperature. M. Nature Science Foundation of Beijing (3101001. Hong Chen and Shuwen Chang. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thank the financial support for this work provided by National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB219801). “Combustion of coal in circulating fluidized-bed boilers: a review. 77.D. 213 (2009)1-4. so less heat was released to flue gas at backpass. C. Conclusions [10] A model was developed for the operation process of CFB using Aspen Plus simulator. “Experimental study of burning brown coal in a 300MW CFB boiler. Ministry of Education of China (108033. “Two-dimensional coal combustion modeling of CFB. pp. Eskin. R. Afsin Gungor. the key project of [11] [12] [13] [14] . Exhaust gas temperature varied from 122 to 132℃. To provide such a CFB operation model. Flow rate of checked coal 257500 kg/h was a knee point. which was predicted by the model ranged from 20 to 80℃. National Natural Science Foundation of China (50976032).” Energy Conversion and Management 50 (2009) 711–722.temperature decreased with coal feed rate above 260000 kg/h was that coal had burned incompletely with certain amount of air and unreacted fuel absorbed much heat in the furnace. Rubow. Li. exhaust gas temperature was 130℃.Paris.”The University of British Columbia.” BIOMASS AND BIOENERGY 32 (2008)1245–1254. J.Inc. 1998.” Powder Technology 132 (2003) 85– 100.Basu. Vo1. “A mathematical model for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler.. Qinhui Wang and Zhongyang Luo. “One dimensional numerical simulation of small scale CFB combustors. ASME. “Franco Berruti. Exhaust gas temperature was growing up to a top value. N.. Mehrdokht B. 1992. Vancouver.ors 350 300 Exhaust gas temp. Yasemin Bolkan.” Fuel Vol. C. J.” Chemical Engineering Science 54 (1999) 5547-5557. overall tend of which had a little drop. 66 l-666.and Anthony.. Lim. and the calculating results satisfied well with quoted data. 1993. Lynn N. Effect of coal feed flow rate to exhaust gas temperature IV.Proceedings. 3083027).” China Particuology 5(2007) 247–254. Ph. “Analysis of environmental benefits of CFB combustors via one-dimensional model. “Simulation of circulating fluidized bed reactors using ASPEN PLUS. C. NewYork. E. (℃ ) Designed value Checked value [4] [5] [6] 250 200 150 100 50 0 210 220 230 240 250 3 [7] [8] 260 270 Coal feed flowrate (x10 kg/h) [9] Figure4. H.Chaouki and J. Brereton.” Chemical Engineering Journal 131 (2007) 301–317. Gungor . Legros. pp. Aspen Plus User Guide (Version 10. and Doctoral Program of North-China Electric Power University (200822015). Aspen Technology . The agreement between the model prediction and experimental data is satisfactory but more experimental data are still required to confirm the proposed CFBC model in order to make it more comprehensive and reliable.J. “Investigation of operational parameters for an industrial CFB combustor of coal. A.” Energy 24 (1999) 633–653. Several Aspen Plus unit operation blocks were combined and initial parameters were quoted from literature. Canada. From the curve it can be observed the checked coal feed rate was 236700 kg/h at rated load of boiler.”FUEL 87 (2008) 1453–1468. With the increase of coal feed rate..Nikoo and Nader Mahinpey. P. 327-337. The result model was used to predict the performance of two kinds of coal in terms of boiler efficiency and exhaust gas temperature. R. ed.. No.When air flow rate for combustion ranged from 1000 to 1140 kg/h. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] Afsin Gungor. biomass and sludge. National High Technology Research and Development Program (2008AA05Z302).Legros. Manon Van de Velden at el. 4. then coal burning incompletely with certain amount of air and unreacted fuel absorbing much heat led to a decrease of exhaust gas temperature. . Afsin Gungor.

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