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1 "2 e. 2 2 "3 b. 2 "3 d. f. 1 2 2. Find BC using the Pythagorean theorem, AC 2 5 AB 2 1 BC 2. BC 2 5 AC 2 2 AB 2 5 102 2 62 5 64 BC 5 8 opposite Next, use the ratio tan A 5 adjacent . BC tan A 5 AB 8 5 6 4 5 3 3. a. To solve D ABC, find measures of the sides and angles whose values are not given: AB, /B, and /C. Find AB using the Pythagorean theorem, BC 2 5 AB 2 1 AC 2. AB 2 5 BC 2 2 AC 2 5 (37.0)2 2 (22.0)2 5 885 AB 5 "885 8 29.7 opposite Find /B using the ratio sin B 5 hypotenuse. AC sin B 5 BC 22.0 5 37.0 /B 8 36.5 /C 5 90 2 /B /C 5 90 2 36.5 /C 8 53.5 b. Find measures of the angles whose values are not given. Find /A using the cosine law, b2 1 c2 2 a2 . cos A 5 2bc

1. a.

"3 2

c.

52 1 82 2 102 2(5)(8) 2 11 5 80 /A 8 97.9 Find /B using the sine law. sin B sin A 5 a b sin (97.9) sin B 5 5 10 sin B 8 0.5 /B 8 29.7 Find /C using the sine law. sin C sin A 5 c a sin C sin (97.9) 5 8 10 sin C 8 0.8 /C 8 52.4 4. Since the sum of the internal angles of a triangle equals 180, determine the measure of /Z using /X 5 60 and /Y 5 70. /Z 5 1802 ( /X 1 /Y ) 5 1802 (60 1 70) 5 50 Find XY and YZ using the sine law. XY XY 5 sin Y sin Z XY 6 5 sin 70 sin 50 XZ 8 7.36 YZ XY 5 sin X sin Z YZ 6 5 sin 60 sin 50 YZ 8 6.78 5. Find each angle using the cosine law. RS 2 1 RT 2 2 ST 2 cos R 5 2( RS )( RT ) 42 1 72 2 52 5 2(4)(7) 5

6-1

T 70

8.

100 km/h

48 80 km/h

6 km

Find AC and AT using the speed of each vehicle and the elapsed time (in hours) until it was located, distance 5 speed 3 time. 1 AC 5 100 km> h 3 h 4 5 25 km 1 AT 5 80 km> h 3 h 3 2 5 26 km 3 Find CT using the cosine law. CT 2 5 AC 2 1 AT 2 2 2( AC )( AT ) cos A 2 2 5 (25 km)2 1 a 26 km b 3 2 2 2(25 km) a 26 km b cos 48 3 8 443.94 km2 CT 8 21.1 km 9. A

Find AB (the distance between the airplanes) using the cosine law. AB 2 5 AT 2 1 BT 2 2 2( AT )( BT )cos T 5 (3.5 km)2 1 (6 km)2 2 2(3.5 km)(6 km) cos 70 8 33.89 km2 AB 8 5.82 km 7. P

2 km 142 Q 7 km R

5 cm 5 cm C

Find QR using the cosine law. QR 2 5 PQ 2 1 PR 2 2 2( PQ )( PR ) cos P 5 (2 km)2 1 (7 km)2 2 2(2 km)(7 km) cos 142 8 75.06 km2 QR 8 8.66 km

The pentagon can be divided into 10 congruent right triangles with height AC and base BC. 10 3 /A 5 360 /A 5 36 Find AC and BC using trigonometric ratios. AC 5 AB 3 cos A 5 5 cos 36 8 4.0 cm BC 5 AB 3 sin A 5 5 sin 36 8 2.9 cm The area of the pentagon is the sum of the areas of the 10 right triangles. Use the area of ^ ABC to determine the area of the pentagon.

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-2

1. a. False. Two vectors with the same magnitude can have different directions, so they are not equal. b. True. Equal vectors have the same direction and the same magnitude. c. False. Equal or opposite vectors must be parallel and have the same magnitude. If two parallel vectors have different magnitude, they cannot be equal or opposite. d. False. Equal or opposite vectors must be parallel and have the same magnitude. Two vectors with the same magnitude can have directions that are not parallel, so they are not equal or opposite. 2. Vectors must have a magnitude and direction. For some scalars, it is clear what is meant by just the number. Other scalars are related to the magnitude of a vector. Height is a scalar. Height is the distance (see below) from one end to the other end. No direction is given. Temperature is a scalar. Negative temperatures are below freezing, but this is not a direction. Weight is a vector. It is the force (see below) of gravity acting on your mass. Mass is a scalar. There is no direction given. Area is a scalar. It is the amount space inside a two-dimensional object. It does not have direction. Volume is a scalar. It is the amount of space inside a three-dimensional object. No direction is given. Distance is a scalar. The distance between two points does not have direction. Displacement is a vector. Its magnitude is related to the scalar distance, but it gives a direction. Speed is a scalar. It is the rate of change of distance (a scalar) with respect to time, but does not give a direction. Force is a vector. It is a push or pull in a certain direction. Velocity is a vector. It is the rate of change of displacement (a vector) with respect to time. Its magnitude is related to the scalar speed.

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

3. Answers may vary. For example: Friction resists the motion between two surfaces in contact by acting in the opposite direction of motion. A rolling ball stops due to friction which resists the direction of motion. A swinging pendulum stops due to friction resisting the swinging pendulum. 4. Answers may vary. For > > > > example: > > > > a. AD> 5 BC; AB 5 > > DC; AE > 5 EC > ; DE 5 > EB b. AD 5 2 CB 5 2 CD > > ; AB > > ; AE 5 2 CE; ED 5 2 EB ; DA 5 2 BC > > > > > > > > c. AC & DB; AE & EB; EC & DE; AB & CB 5. H

B D E J A C F

a. AB> 5 CD > b. AB > 5 2 EF> > > c. @ AB @ 5 @ EF @ but AB 2 EF > > d. GH > 5 2AB> e. AB 5 2 2JI

>

>

6. a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

7. a. 100 km> h, south b. 50 km> h, west c. 100 km> h, northeast d. 25 km> h, northwest e. 60 km> h, east 6-3

8. a. 400 km> h, due south b. 70 km> h, southwesterly c. 30 km> h southeasterly d. 25 km> h, due east 9. a. i. False. They have equal magnitude, but opposite direction. ii. True. They have equal magnitude. iii. True. The base has sides of equal length, so the vectors have equal magnitude. iv. True. They have equal magnitude and direction. b. E H

F G

A B

D C

> > >

To calculate @ BD @ , @ BE @ and @ BH @ , find the lengths of their corresponding line segments BD, BE and BH using the Pythagorean theorem. BD 2 5 AB 2 1 AD 2 5 32 1 32 BD 5 "18 BE 2 5 AB 2 1 AE 2 5 32 1 82 BE 5 "73 BH 2 5 BD 2 1 DH 2 5 ( "18)2 1 82 BH 5 "82 10. a. The tangent vector describes Jamess velocity at that moment. At point A his speed is 15 km> h and he is heading north. The tangent vector shows his velocity is 15 km> h, north. b. The length of the vector represents the magnitude of Jamess velocity at that point. Jamess speed is the same as the magnitude of Jamess velocity. c. The magnitude of Jamess velocity (his speed) is constant, but the direction of his velocity changes at every point. d. Point C e. This point is halfway between D and A, which is 7 8 of the way around the circle. Since he is running 6-4

15 km> h and the track is 1 km in circumference, he can run around the track 15 times in one hour. That 7 means each lap takes him 4 minutes. 8 of 4 minutes is 3.5 minutes. f. When he has travelled 3 8 of a lap, James will be halfway between B and C and will be heading southwest. > 11. a. Find the magnitude of AB using the distance formula. > @ AB @ 5 " ( xA 2 xB )2 1 ( yB 2 yA )2 5 " ( 2 4 1 1)2 1 (3 2 2)2 5 > "10> or 3.16 > b. CD 5 AB. AB moves from A ( 2 4, 2) to B ( 2 1, 3) or ( xB, yB ) 5 ( xA 1 3, yA 1 1). Use this to find point D. ( xD, yD ) 5 ( xC 1 3, yC 1 1) 5 ( 2 6 1 3, 0 1 1) 5 ( 2 3, 1) > > c. EF 5 AB. Find point E using ( xA, yA ) 5 ( xB 2 3, yB 2 1). ( xE, yE ) 5 ( xF 2 3, yF 2 1) 5 (3 2 3, 2 2 2 1) 5 (0, 2 > > 3) d. GH 5 2 AB, and moves in the opposite > direction as AB. ( xH, yH ) 5 ( xG 2 3, yG 2 1). ( xH, yH ) 5 ( xG 2 3, yG 2 1) 5 (3 2 3, 1 2 1) 5 (0, 0)

1. a.

x y x +y

b.

x y x y

c.

y x x

d.

c.

y y x a

b c abc

2. a. BA

>

d.

C B A a

b c

b. 0

>

B A

ab+c

c. CB

>

4. a.

a

b (b + c) c

B A a + (b + c)

d. CA

>

b.

C B

a

b (a + b) (a + b) + c c

3. a.

c b

c. The resultant vectors are the same. The order in which you add vectors does not matter. > > > > > > Aa 1 b B 1 c 5 a 1 Ab 1 c B

a

a+b+c

5. a. PS

>

RQ

RS

b.

PR c b S PS P

PQ

b. 0

>

Q RS R

a+bc

S a

RQ

PQ

PS P > > > > 6. x 1 y 5 MR 1 RS > > 5 MS > > > z 1 t 5 ST > 1 TQ 5 SQ so > > > > > > ( x 1 y ) 1 ( z 1 t ) 5 MS >1 SQ 5 MQ

6-5

> 7. a. 2 x > b. y > > c. x 1 y > > d. 2 x 1 y > > > e. x 1 y 1 z > > f. 2 x 2 y > > > g. 2 x 1 y 1 z > > h. 2 x 2 z 8. a.

11.

a+w u

y x A

B u

y x y

u x D

y x

b. See the figure in part a. for the drawn vectors. > > > > > > 0 y 2 x 0 2 5 0 y 0 2 1 0 x 0 2 2 2 0 y 0 0 2 x 0 cos ( u ) and > > > >2 > >2 0 2 x 0 5 0 x 0 , so 0 y 2 x 0 5 0 x 2 y 0 9. a. Marias velocity is 11 km> h downstream. b.

4 km/h 11 km/h 7 km/h

c.

4 km/h 7 km/h 3 km/h

f1 + f2 u f2 f1

ship

> > Find 0 a 1 w 0 using the Pythagorean theorem. > >2 > > 0 a 1 w 0 5 0 a 02 1 0 w 02 5 (150 km> h)2 1 (80 km> h)2 5 28 900 > > 0 a 1 w 0 2 5 170 > > Find the direction of a 1 w using the ratio > 0w0 tan( u ) 5 > 0a0 80 km> h u 5 tan21 150 km> h 8 N 28.1 W > > a 1 w 5 170 km> h, N 28.1 W > > > > 12. x , y , and x 1 y form a right triangle. Find > > 0 x 1 y 0 using the Pythagorean theorem. > > > > 0 x 1 y 02 5 0 x 02 1 0 y 02 5 72 1 242 5 625 > > 0 x 1 y 0 5 25 > > > Find the angle between x and x 1 y using the ratio > 0y0 tan ( u ) 5 > 0x0 24 u 5 tan21 7 8 73.7 > > 13. Find @ AB 1 AC @ using the cosine law and the > > supplement to the angle between AB and AC. > > @ AB 1 AC @ 2 > > > > 5 @ AB @ 2 1 @ AC @ 2 2 2 @ AB @ @ AC @ cos (30) "3 5 12 1 12 2 2(1)(1) 2 52 2 " 3 > > @ AB 1 AC @ 8 0.52 14. D C

E

b. The vectors form a triangle with side lengths S S S S S S @ f1 @ , @ f2 @ and @ f1 1 f2 @ . Find @ f1 1 f2 @ using the cosine law.

@ f1 1 f @ 2 5 @ f1 @ 2 1 @ f2 @ 2 2 2 @ f1 @ @ f2 @ cos ( u ) 2

S S S S S S S S S S S S

@ f1 1 f2 0 5 $ @ f1 @ 2 1 @ f2 @ 2 2 2 @ f1 @ @ f2 @ cos ( u )

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. > > > > 52 So EA 5 2 EC > and ED > > EB. > > Therefore, EA 1 EB 1 EC 1 ED 5 0.

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-6

15. P

T b

1. A vector cannot equal a scalar. 2. a.

3 cm

Multiple applications of the Triangle Law for adding vectors show that > > > > RM 1 b 5 a 1 TP> (since both are equal to the undrawn vector TM ), and that > > > > RM 1 a 5 b 1 SQ> (since both are equal to the undrawn vector RQ ) Adding these two equations gives > > > > > > > 2 RM 1 a 1 b> 5 a 1 1 SQ > b 1 TP > 2 TP > RM 5 > 1 SQ > > 16. a 1 b and a 2 b represent the > diagonals of a > parallelogram with sides a and b.

a+b ab b a > > > > @ Since a 1 b @ 5 @ a 2 b @ and the only parallelogram with equal diagonals is a rectangle, the parallelogram must also be a rectangle. 17. P G Q M R

b.

9 cm

c. d.

2 cm

6 cm

3. E25N describes a direction that is 25 toward the north of due east (90 east of north), in other words 90 2 25 5 65 toward the east of due north. N65E and a bearing of 65 both describe a direction that is 65 toward the east of due north. So, each is describing the same direction in a different way. 4. Answers may vary. For example:

> v

Let point M be defined as shown. Two applications of the Law > Triangle > > for > adding vectors show that GQ 1 QM 1 MG 5 0 > > > > GR 1 RM 1 MG 5 0 Adding these two equations gives > > > > > > GQ 1 QM 1 2 MG 1 GR 1 RM 5 0 From >the given > information, 2 MG 5 GP > > and > QM 1 RM 5 0 (since they are opposing vectors of equal length), so > > > > GQ 1 GP 1 GR 5 0, as desired.

a.

> 2v

b. d.

1 > v 2

c. e.

> 2 2v

6-7

5. a.

y

b.

3b y y

c.

3b a b

d.

a

b b

x + 3y

2a + 3b x

e.

2a 3b

b b b

b.

x

y a y y

x 3y

c.

2x + y x

d.

x x

> > > 3 > c 5 2a , b 5 a 2> > > mc 1 nb 5 0 > 3 > > m (2a ) 1 n a a b 5 0 2 > > > m (4a ) 1 n (3a ) 5 0 m 5 3 and n 5 2 4 satisfy the equation, as does any multiple of the pair (3, 2 4). There are infinitely many values possible. > > > 3 > c 5 2a , b 5 a b. 2 > > > > da 1 eb 1 f c 5 0 > 3 > > > da 1 e a a b 1 f (2a ) 5 0 2 > > > > 2da 1 3ea 1 4f a 5 0 d 5 2, e 5 0, and f 5 2 1 satisfy the equation, as does any multiple of the triple (2, 0, 2 1). There are infinitely many values possible. 8. or

7. a.

2x y

> > > > a and b are collinear, so a 5 kb, where k is a nonzero > > scalar. Since 0 a 0 5 @ b @ , k can only be 2 1 or 1. 9.

a b 2a 2 b

4a

a.

Yes 6-8

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

10. Two vectors are collinear if and only if they can > > be related by a scalar multiple. In this case a 2 kb a. collinear b. not collinear c. not collinear d. collinear 1 > 11. a. 0 x> 0 x is a vector with length 1 unit in the same > direction as x . 1 > b. 2 0 x> 0 x is a vector with length 1 unit in the > opposite direction of x . 12. a a

b b b

2.91 > > u 8 9.9 from x towards y > 1 > 16. b 5 > a 0a0 > 1 > @b@ 5 ` > a ` 0a0 > 1 > @b@ 5 > 0 a 0 0a0 > @b@ 5 1 > > b is a positive multiple of a , so it points in the > same direction as a and has magnitude 1. It is a > unit vector in the same direction as a . 17. A

sin u 8 (1)

1 2

2 3 2 > 13. a. 2 a 3 1 > b. a 3 1 > c. 0 a 0 3 2 > d. 0 a 0 3 4 > e. a 3 > > 14. x and y make an angle of 90, so you may find > > 0 2x 1 y 0 using the Pythagorean theorem. > > > > 0 2x 1 y 0 2 5 0 2x 0 2 1 0 y 0 2 5 22 1 12 > > 0 2x 1 y 0 5 "5 or 2.24 > > Find the direction of 2x 1 y using the ratio > 0y0 tan ( u ) 5 > 0 2x 0 1 u 5 tan21 2 > > > 8 26.6 from x towards 2x 1 y > > 15. Find 0 2x 1 y 0 using the cosine law, and the > > supplement to the angle between x and y . > > > > > > 0 2x 1 y 0 2 5 0 2x 0 2 1 0 y 0 2 2 2 0 2x 0 0 y 0 cos (150) m5 5 22 1 12 2 2(2)(1) > > 0 2x 1 y 0 8 2.91 > > Find the direction of 2x 1 y using the sine law. sin u sin (150) > 5 > > 0y0 0 2x 1 y 0

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

c AD C D

> > > AD> 5 c> 1 CD> AD> 5 b 1 BD > > > > 2 AD 5 c 1 b 1 CD 1 BD > > But CD >1 BD 5 > 0. > > 1 > 1 > So 2 AD 5 c 1 b, or AD 5 2 c 1 2 b. > > > > 18. PM> 5 a and > PN >5 b so MN 5 PN PM > 2 > 2 a 5 b > > > > PQ 5 > 2a and > PR 5 > 2b so QR 5 PR > 2 PQ > 5 2b 2 2a Notice > that> > 2MN 5 2b 2 > 2a 5 QR > > We can conclude that QR is parallel to MN and > > @ QR @ 5 2 @ MN @ . 19. A B

2 "3 2

6-9

Answers may vary. For example: > > > > a. u 5 AB> and v 5 CD> > > b. u 5 AD and v 5 AE > > > > c. u 5 AC > and v 5 DB > > > d. u 5 ED and v 5 AD > 20. a. Since the magnitude of x is three times the > > magnitude of y and because the given sum is 0, mx > must be in the opposite direction of ny and 0 n 0 5 30 m 0. > > b. Whether x and y are collinear or not, m 5 0 and given equation true. n 5 0 will > make > the > 21. a. > CD 5 b 2 a > > b. BE 5 2b 2 2a > > 5 2( b 2 a ) > 5 2CD The> two are therefore parallel (collinear) and > @ BE @ 5 2 @ CD @ 22. A B

D E C

a a+b b+a a

3.

b

b a k(a + b) kb

>

Applying the triangle law for adding vectors shows that> > > AC 5 AD 1 DC The given information states that > > 2 AB 5 DC 3 > > 3 AB 5 DC 2 By the properties of trapezoids, this gives

3 2

a+b ka

> > > >

> > >

>

>

AC 5 AE 1 EC , the original equation gives > > > > 3 3 AE 1 AE 5 AD 1 AB 2 2 > > > 5 3 AE 5 AD 1 AB 2 2 > > > 2 3 AE 5 AD 1 AB 5 5

1. a. 0 b. 1> c. 0 d. 1

5. PQ 5 RQ 1 SR 1 TS 1 >PT > > > 5 ( RQ 1 SR>) 1 ( TS> 1 PT>) > 5 ( SR 1 RQ ) 1 ( PT 1 TS ) > > 5 SQ 1 PS > > 5 PS >1 SQ 5 > PQ 6. a. EC > b. 0 c. Yes, the diagonals of a rectangular prism are of equal length > > > > > > > 7. 5 3a 2 >6b 2 15c 2 6a 1 12b 2 6c 2 a > 1 3b 2 3>c > > 5 2 4a> 1 9b > 2 24 >c > > > 8. a. 5 6i 2 8 j 1 2 k 1 6 i 2 9 j 1 3 k > > > 5> 12i 2 > 17j> 1 5k > > > b. 5 3i 2 4j 1 k 2 10i 1 15j 2 5k > > > 5 2 7i> 1 11 > j 2 >4k > > > c. 5 2(3i 2 4 j1k 1 6i> 2 9j 1 3k ) > > > > > 2 3( 2 6 i 1 8 j 2 2 k 1 14 i 2 21 j 1 7 k ) > > > 5 2 6i 1 13j 2 7k > 9. Solve the first equation for x . > 1 > 3 > x5 a2 y 2 2

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-10

Substitute into the second equation. > 1 > 3 > > 6b 5 2 a a 2 y b 1 5y 2 2 1 > 12 > > b y5 a1 13 13 > > > Lastly, find x in terms of a and b. > 1 > 3 1 > 12 > x5 a2 a a1 bb 2 2 13 13 5 > 18 > 5 a2 b 13 13 > > > 10. a 5 x 2 y > 2 > 1 > > 5 y 1 z 2 (b 1 z ) 3 3 > 2 > 2 > 5 y2 z2b 3 3 > 2 > > 5 (y 2 z ) 2 b 3 > 2 > 5 b2b 3 1 > 52 b >3 > > > 11. a. AG> 5 a 1 b 1 c > > > BH> 5 2 a 1 b> 1 c > > CE> 5 2 a 2> b 1 c > > DF >5 a 2 b 1 c > > > 2 2 @ b. AG @ 5 0 a 0 2 1 @ b @ 1 0 c 0 2 >2 >2 > 5 0 2a 0 1 @ b @ 1 0 c 0 2 > 5 @ BH @ 2 12.

Z

1. a. AB> 5 DC> BA> 5 CD > AD> 5 BC > CB 5 DA There is not enough information to determine if > AP . there is a vector equal to > > b. @ PD @ 5 @ DA @ > 5 @ BC @ (parallelogram) > 2. a. RV > b. RV > c. PS > d. RU > e. PS > f. PQ > > 3. a. Find @ a 1 b @ using the cosine law, and the supplement to the angle between the vectors. > > > > > > @ a 1 b @ 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 @ b @ 2 2 2 0 a 0 @ b @ cos 60 1 5 32 1 42 2 2(3)(4) 2 5 3 > > @ a 1 b @ 5 "3 b. Find u using the ratio > @b@ tan u 5 > 0a0 4 5 3 4 u 5 tan21 3 8 53 4. t 5 4 or t 5 2 4 5. In quadrilateral PQRS, look at ^ PQR > . Joining the midpoints B and C creates a vector that is paralBC > > lel to PR and half the length of PR. Look at ^ SPR>. Joining the midpoints > A and D creates a vector> AD > that is parallel to> PR and half the length of PR . BC > is parallel to AD and equal in length to AD. Therefore, ABCD is a parallelogram. > > 6. a. Find 0 u 2 v 0 using the cosine law. Note > > > > 0 2 v 0 5 0 v 0 and the angle between u and 2 v is 120. > > > > > > 0 u 2 v 0 2 5 0 u 0 2 1 0 2 v 0 2 2 2 0 u 0 0 2 v 0 cos 60

> >

Therefore, @ AG @ 5 @ BH @

> >

Applying the triangle law for adding vectors shows that > > > TY 5 TZ 1 ZY The given information states that > > TX 5 2 ZY > > 1 TX 5 ZY 2 By the properties of trapezoids, this gives > > > > > 1 2 TO 5 OY, and since TY 5 TO 1 OY, the original equation gives > > > > 1 1 TO 1 TO 5 TZ 1 TX 2 2

6-11

1 5 8 1 10 2 2(8)(10) a b 2 > > 0 u 2 v 0 5 2"21 > > b. Find the direction of u 2 v using the sine law. sin u sin 60 > 5 > > 0 2v 0 0u 2 v0 5 sin u 5 sin 60 "21 5 u 5 sin21 "28 8 71 1 1 > > > > (u 1 v ) c. > > (u 1 v ) 5 0u 1 v0 2"21 > > d. Find 0 5u 1 2v 0 using the cosine law. > > > > > > 0 5u 1 2v 0 2 5 0 5u 0 2 1 0 2v 0 2 2 2 0 5u 0 0 2v 0 cos 120 1 5 402 1 202 2 2(40)(20) a 2 b 2 > > 0 5u 1 2v 0 5 20"7 > > 7. Find 0 2p 2 q 0 using the cosine law. > > > > > > 0 2p 2 q 0 2 5 0 2p 0 2 1 0 2 q 0 2 2 2 0 2p 0 0 2 q 0 cos 60 1 5 22 1 12 2 2(2)(1) a b 5 3 2 > > > > 8. 0 m 1 n 0 5 0 m 0 2 0 n 0 > > 9. BC> 5 2 y > DC> 5 x > > BD> 5 2 x 2 y > > AC 5 x 2 y > > 10. Construct a parallelogram with sides OA > and OC . Since the diagonals bisect each other, 2OB is the > > > > > diagonal > equal to > OA 1 >OC. Or > OB 5 >OA 1 AB and AB 5 1 AC. So, OB 5 OA 1 1 AC. And > >2 > > > 2 > > AC 5 OC 2 OA . Now OB 5 OA 1 1 2 OA) ( OC > > 2 > Multiplying by 2 gives 2OB 5 OA 1 OC. > > > 11. AC 1 CD 5 AD> > > > 3x 2 y 1 2y 5 AD> > > 3x >1 y 5 >AD > AB 1 BD> 5 AD > > > x 1 BD> 5 3x 1 y > > BD > > 5 2x >1 y AB 1 BC> 5 AC > > > x 1 BC> 5 3x 2 y > > BC 5 2x 2 y > 12. The air velocity of the airplane ( V air ) and the > wind velocity ( W ) have opposite directions.

2 2

3

>

1 3

a+b

b.

2 b

3 2

c.

a

d.

1 2

a

1 2

b

> >

>

1. No, as the y-coordinate is not a real number. 2. a. We first arrange the x-, y-, and z-axes (each a copy of the real line) in a way so that each pair of axes are perpendicular to each other (i.e., the x- and y-axes are arranged in their usual way to form the xy-plane, and the z-axis passes through the origin of the xy-plane and is perpendicular to this plane). This is easiest viewed as a right-handed system, where, from the viewers perspective, the positive z-axis points upward, the positive x-axis points out of the page, and the positive y-axis points rightward in the plane of the page. Then, given point P ( a, b, c ), we locate this points unique position by moving a units along the x-axis, then from there b units parallel to the y-axis, and finally c units parallel to the z-axis. Its associated unique position vector is determined by drawing a vector with tail at the origin O (0, 0, 0) and head at P. b. Since this position vector is unique, its coordinates are unique. Therefore a 5 2 4, b 5 2 3, and c 5 2 8. 3. a. Since A and B are really the same point, we can equate their coordinates. Therefore a 5 5, b 5 2 3, and c 5 8.

>

>

>

6-12

b. From part a., A (5, 2 3, 8), so OA 5 (5, 2 3, 8). Here is a depiction of this vector.

z

>

OA (5, 3, 8)

O(0, 0, 0) (4, 0, 0)

y

x (4, 0, 2)

4. This is not an acceptable vector in I 3 as the z-coordinate is not an integer. However, since all of the coordinates are real numbers, this is acceptable as a vector in R 3. 5. z

O(0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 2) (0, 4, 0) (4, 4, 0) (0, 0, 2) (4, 0, 0) x A(4, 4, 2) (4, 0, 2) z (4, 0, 2) B(4, 4, 2)

6. a. A (0, 2 1, 0) is located on the y-axis. B (0, 2 2, 0), C (0, 2, 0), and D (0, 10, 0) are three other points on this axis. > b. OA 5 (0, 2 1, 0), the vector with tail at the origin O (0, 0, 0) and head at A. 7. a. For example: > Answers may vary. > OA> 5 (0, 0, 1), OB 5 (0, 0, 2 1), OC 5 (0, 0, 2 5) b. Yes, these vectors are collinear (parallel), as they all lie on the same line, in this case the z-axis. c. A general vector lying on the z-axis would be of > the form OA 5 (0, 0, a ) for any real number a. Therefore, this vector would be represented by placing the tail at O, and the head at the point (0, 0, a ) on the z-axis. z 8.

F (0, 2, 3) E (2, 0, 3) B (0, 2, 0) A(1, 0, 0) x D (2, 3, 0) C (0, 0, 3) y

9. a.

x

x A(3, 2, 4)

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

C(0, 1, 4) B(1, 1, 4)

6-13

b. Every point on the plane containing points A, B, and C has z-coordinate equal to 2 4. Therefore, the equation of the plane containing these points is z 5 2 4 (a plane parallel to the xy-plane through the point z 5 2 4). 10. a. A(1, 2, 3)

(0, 0, 3) z (1, 0, 3) O (0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0) x (0, 2, 3)

d.

(0, 0, 1) (1, 0, 1) O(0, 0, 0) x (1, 0, 0)

(0, 2, 0) y (1, 2, 0)

e.

(0, 1, 1) E(1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 0)

b.

(2, 0, 0) (0, 0, 1)

z (2, 0, 1)

(1, 1, 0) x

(0, 1, 0) x O(0, 0, 0)

f.

c.

(0, 2, 1)

(0, 1, 1) x F(1, 1, 1)

>

C(1, 2, 1) (0, 2, 0)

11. a. OA 5 (1, 2, 3)

(0, 0, 3) (1, 0, 3) O (0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0) x z (0, 2, 3) OA (0, 2, 0) y (1, 2, 0)

6-14

b. OB 5 ( 2 2, 1, 1)

z (2, 0, 1) (2, 0, 0) (0, 0, 1) (0, 1, 0) x

>

>

f. OF 5 (1, 2 1, 2 1)

B(2, 1, 1) (2, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1) y (1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1) F(1, 1, 1) x OF OB

>

O(0, 0, 0)

c. OC 5 (1, 2 2, 1)

z (0, 2, 1) (0, 2, 0) (1, 0, 1) C(1, 2, 1)

(0, 0, 1) OC O(0, 0, 0) y

(1, 2, 0) x

(1, 0, 0)

d. OD 5 (1, 1, 1)

z D(1, 1, 1) OD (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0)

>

>

(0, 1, 1) y

(1, 0, 0)

e. OE 5 (1, 2 1, 1)

z (0, 1, 1) E(1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0) x (1, 0, 0) OE (0, 0, 1) (1, 0, 1) O(0, 0, 0) y

12. a. Since P and Q represent the same point, we can equate their y- and z-coordinates to get the system of equations a2c56 a 5 11 Substituting this second equation into the first gives 11 2 c 5 6 c55 So a 5 11 and c 5 5. b. Since P and Q represent the same point in R 3, they will > have >the same associated position vector, i.e. OP 5 OQ. So, since these vectors are equal, they will certainly have equal magnitudes, > > i.e. @ OP @ 5 @ OQ @ . 13. P ( x, y, 0) represents a general point on the xy-plane, since the z-coordinate is 0. Similarly, Q ( x, 0, z ) represents a general point in the xz-plane, and R (0, y, z ) represents a general point in the yz-plane. 14. a. Every point on the plane containing points M, N, and P has y-coordinate equal to 0. Therefore, the equation of the plane containing these points is y 5 0 (this is just the xz-plane). b. The plane y 5 0 contains the origin O (0, 0, 0), and so since it also contains the points M, N, and P as well, it will contain the position vectors associated with these points joining O (tail) to the given point (head). That is, the plane y 5 0 contains the vectors > > > OM, ON, and OP. 15. a. A ( 2 2, 0, 0), B ( 2 2, 4, 0), C (0, 4, 0), D (0, 0, 2 7), E (0, 4, 2 7), F ( 2 2, 0, 2 7) b. OA 5 ( 2 2, 0, 0), OB 5 ( 2 2, 4, 0),

OC 5 (0, 4, 0), OD 5 (0, 0, 2 7), OE 5 (0, 4, 2 7), OF 5 ( 2 2, 0, 2 7) c. Rectangle DEPF is 7 units below the xy-plane.

> > > > > >

6-15

d. Every point on the plane containing points B, C, E, and P has y-coordinate equal to 4. Therefore, the equation of the plane containing these points is y 5 4 (a plane parallel to the xz-plane through the point y 5 4). e. Every point contained in rectangle BCEP has y-coordinate equal to 4, and so is of the form (x, 4, z) where x and z are real numbers such that 2 2 # x # 0 and 2 7 # z # 0. 16. a. y

d.

O(0, 0, 0) M(1, 3, 2) x

e.

O(0, 0) x P(4, 2) O(0, 0, 0)

z F(0, 0, 5)

b.

D(3, 4)

f.

O(0, 0) x J(2, 2, 0)

O(0, 0, 0)

c.

z C(2, 4, 5)

O(0, 0, 0)

17. The following box illustrates the three dimensional solid consisting of the set of all points (x, y, z) such that 0 # x # 1, 0 # y # 1, and 0 # z # 1.

z (0, 0, 1) (0, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1) y (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0)

O(0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 1)

(1, 0, 0) x

6-16

18. First, OP 5 OA 1 OB > by the triangle law of 5 (5, vector > addition, where OA > > 2 10, 0), OB 5 (0, 0, 2 10), OP and OA are drawn in standard > position (starting from the origin O (0, > 0, 0)), and OB is drawn > starting from the head of OA > . Notice that OA lies in the xy-plane, and OB is perpendicular > > to the > xy-plane > (so is perpendicular to OA ). So, OP, OA, and OB form> a right triangle and, > > by the Pythagorean theorem, @ OP @ 2 5 @ OA @ 2 1 @ OB @ 2 > > > Similarly, OA 5 a 1 b by the triangle law of > a 5 (5, 0, 0) and vector addition, where > b 5 (0, 2 10, 0), and these three vectors form a right triangle as well. So, > > > @ OA @ 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 @ b @ 2 5 25 1 100 5 125 > Obviously @ OB @ 2 5 100, and so substituting gives

5 125 1 100 5 225 > @ OP @ 5 "225 5 15 > 19. >To find a vector AB equivalent to OP 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6), where B (4, 2 2, 8), we need to move 2 units to the right of the x-coordinate for B (to 4 1 2 5 6), 3 units to the left of the y-coordinate for B (to 2 2 2 3 5 2 5), and 6 units below the z-coordinate for B (to 8 2 6 5 2). So we get the point A (6, 2 5, 2). Indeed, notice that to get from A > to B (which describes vector AB ), we move 2 units left in the x-coordinate, 3 units right in the y-coordinate, and 6 units up in >the z-coordinate. This is equivalent to vector OP 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6).

>

>

>

a. AB 5 (2, 5) 2 ( 21, 3) 5 (3, 2) > > BA 5 2 AB 5 2 (3, 2) 5 ( 23, 22) Here is a sketch of these two vectors in the xy-coordinate plane.

y AB B(2, 5)

>

A(1, 3) BA

@ OP @ 2 5 @ OA @ 2 1 @ OB @ 2

> > >

>

5 "29 > 8 5.39 c. 0 AB 0 5 "32 1 22 5 "13 8 3.61> > BA Also, since > > 5 2 AB, 0 BA 0 5 0 2 AB 0 > 5 0 2 1 0 ? 0 AB 0 5 0 AB 0

>

5 "13 8 3.61

y

1.

A(1, 3) y B(2, 5)

2.

30 25 20 15 10 5 O(0, 0) 9 6 3 0 5 10

A(6, 10) x OA 3 6 9

6-17

a.

20 15 10 5 O(0, 0) 12 9 6 3 0 (3, 5) 5 10 15 20 (12, 20)

(12, 20)

(3, 5) 3 6 9 12

b. The vectors with the same magnitude are > > 1 1 OA and 2 OA, 2 2 > > 2OA and 2 2OA > 3. @ OA @ 5 "32 1 ( 2 4)2

5 "25 5> 5 4. a. The i -component will be equal to the first coordinate in component form, and so a 5 2 3. > Similarly, the j -component will be equal to the second coordinate in component form, and so b 5 5. b. 0 ( 2 3, b ) 0 5 0 ( 2 3, 5) 0 5 "34 8 5.83 > 5. a. 0 a 0 5 " ( 2 60)2 1 112 5 " ( 2 3)2 1 52

5 "1681 >5 41 > b. a 1 b 5 ( 2 60, 11) 1 ( 2 40, 2 9) 5 ( 2 100, 2) > > @ a 1 b @ 5 " ( 2 100)2 1 22 5 "10 004 > 8 100.02 > a 2 b 5 ( 2 60, 11) 2 ( 2 40, 2 9) 5 ( 2 20, 20) > > @ a 2 b @ 5 " ( 2 20)2 1 20 2

1 2 c. 2 (6, 2 2) 1 (6, 15) 2 3 2 1 2 1 5 a2 (6) 1 (6), 2 ( 2 2) 1 (15)b 2 3 2 3 5 (1, 11) > > > > > > 7. x 5 2i 2 j, y 5 2 >i 1 5j > > > > > a. 3x 2 y 5 3(2i 2 j ) 2 ( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 (6 1 1)i 1 ( 2 3 2 5)j > > 5 7i 2 8j > > > > b. 2 ( x 1 2y ) 1 3( 2 x 2 3y ) > > 11>y 5 2 4x 2 > > > 5 2 4(2i 2 j ) 2 11( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 3i 2 51j > > > > c. 2( x 1 3y ) 2 3( y 1 5x ) > > 5 2 13x 1 > 3y> > > 5 2 13(2i 2 j ) 1 3( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 2 29i 1 28j > > > > > > 8. a. x 1 y 5 (2i 2 j ) 1 ( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 i >1 4j > > > 0 x 1 y 0 5 @ i 1 4j @ 5 "12 1 42 5 "17 8 4.12 > > > > > > b. x 2 y 5 (2i 2 j ) 2 ( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 3i 2 6j > > > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 @ 3i 2 6j @ 5 "32 1 ( 2 6)2 5 "45 8 6.71 > > > > > > c. 2x 2 3y 5 2(2i 2 j ) 2 3( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 7i 2 17j > > > > 0 2x 2 3y 0 5 @ 7i 2 17j @ 5 "338 8 18.38 > > > > d. 0 3y 2 2x 0 5 0 2 (2x 2 3y ) 0 > > 5 0 2 1 0 0 2x 2 3y 0 > > 5 0 2x 2 3y 0 so, from part c., > > > > 0 3y 2 2x 0 5 0 2x 2 3y 0 5 "338 8 18.38 5 "72 1 ( 2 17)2

5 "800 8 28.28 6. a. 2( 2 2, 3) 1 (2, 1) 5 (2( 2 2) 1 2, 2(3) 1 1) 5 ( 2 2, 7) b. 2 3(4, 2 9) 2 9(2, 3) 5 ( 2 3(4) 2 9(2), 2 3( 2 9) 2 9(3)) 5 ( 2 30, 0)

6-18

9.

B(4, 4) A(8, 2) 8 6 4 2

y D(4, 5)

so obviously we will have @ OA @ 5 @ BC @ . (It turns out that their common magnitude is "62 1 32 5 "45.) 11. a. y

> >

a. AB 5 ( 2 4, 4) 2 ( 2 8, 2) 5 (4, 2) > CD 5 (4, 5) 2 (2, 1) 5 (2, 4) > EF 5 ( 2 7, 0) 2 ( 2 1, 2 4) 5 ( 2 6, 4) > GH 5 (6, 2 2) 2 (1, 2 2) 5 (5, 0) > b. @ AB @ 5 "42 1 22 5 "20 > 8 4.47 @ CD @ 5 "22 1 42 5 "20 8 4.47 > @ EF @ 5 " ( 2 6)2 1 42

5 "52 8 7.21 > @ GH @ 5 "52 1 02

>

5 "25 55 10. a. By the parallelogram law of vector addition, > > > OC 5 OA 1 OB 5 (6, 3) 1 (11, 2 6) 5 (17, 2 3) For> the other > vectors, > BA 5 OA 2 OB 5 (6, 3) 2 (11, 2 6) 5 ( 2 5, 9) > > > BC 5 OC 2 OB 5 (17, 2 3) 2 (11, 2 6) 5 (6, 3) > b. OA 5 (6, 3) > 5 BC,

> > >

b. AB 5 (6, 6) 2 (2, 3) 5 (4, 3) > @ AB @ 5 "42 1 32 5 "25 >55 AC 5 ( 2 4, 11) 2 (2, 3) 5 ( 2 6, 8) > @ AC @ 5 " ( 2 6)2 1 82 5 "100 > 5 10 CB 5 (6, 6) 2 ( 2 4, 11) 5 (10, 2 5) > @ CB @ 5 "102 1 ( 2 5)2 5 "125 > 8 11.18 > > c. @ CB @ 2 5 125 @ AC @ 2 5 100, @ AB @ 2 5 25

>

6-19

b.

X(6, 12)

y C(2, 8) Z(10, 4)

A(1, 2)

Substituting this into the last equation above, we can now solve for y. 2 2( 2 12) 2 5y 5 4 y54 So x 5 2 12 and y 5 4. 14. a. y

C(x, y) B(6, 9) D(8, 11) A(2, 3)

x B(7, 2)

Y(4, 8)

c. As a first possibility for the fourth vertex, there is X ( x1, x2 ). From the sketch in part b., we see that we would then have> > CX 5 BA ( x1 2 2, x2 2 8) 5 ( 2 1 2 7, 2 2 ( 2 2)) 5 ( 2 8, 4) x1 2 2 5 2 8 x2 2 8 5 4 So X ( 2 6, 12). By similar reasoning for the other points labelled in the> sketch> in part b., AY 5 CB ( y1 2 ( 2 1), y2 2 2) 5 (7 2 2, 2 2 2 8) 5 (5, 2 10) y1 1 1 5 5 y2 2 2 5 2 10 So Y (4, 2 8). Finally, > > BZ 5 AC ( z1 2 7, z2 2 ( 2 2)) 5 (2 2 ( 21), 8 2 2) 5 (3, 6) z1 2 7 5 3 z2 1 2 5 6 So Z (10, 4). In conclusion, the three possible locations for a fourth vertex in a parallelogram with vertices A, B, and C are X ( 2 6, 12), Y (4, 2 8), and Z (10, 4). 13. a. 3( x, 1) 2 5(2, 3y ) 5 (11, 33) (3x 2 5(2), 3 2 5(3y )) 5 (11, 33) (3x 2 10, 3 2 15y ) 5 (11, 33) 3x 2 10 5 11 3 2 15y 5 33 So x 5 7 and y 5 2 2. b. 2 2( x, x 1 y ) 2 3(6, y ) 5 (6, 4) ( 2 2x 2 18, 2 2x 2 5y ) 5 (6, 4) 2 2x 2 18 5 6 2 2x 2 5y 5 4 To solve for x, use 2 2x 2 18 5 6 x 5 2 12 6-20

b. Because ABCD we will have > is a rectangle, > BC 5 AD ( x, y ) 2 ( 2 6, 9) 5 (8, 11) 2 (2, 3) ( x 1 6, y 2 9) 5 (6, 8) x1656 y2958 So, x 5 0 and y 5 17, i.e., C (0, 17). > > 15. a. Since 0 PA 0 5 0 PB 0 , and > PA 5 (5, 0) 2 ( a, 0) 5 (5 2 a, 0), > PB 5 (0, 2) 2 ( a, 0) 5 ( 2 a, 2), this means that (5 2 a )2 5 ( 2 a )2 1 22 25 2 10a 1 a 2 5 a 2 1 4 10a 5 21 21 a5 10 21 So P a , 0 b . 10 b. This point Q on the y-axis will be of the form Q (0, b ) for some real number b. Reasoning similarly to part a., we have > QA 5 (5, 0) 2 (0, b ) 5 (5, 2 b ) > QB 5 (0, 2) 2 (0, b ) 5 (0, 2 2 b ) > > So since @ QA @ 5 @ QB @ , ( 2 b )2 1 52 5 (2 2 b )2 b 2 1 25 5 4 2 4b 1 b 2 4b 5 2 21 21 b52 4 21 So Q a 0, 2 b . 4

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

16. QP is in the direction opposite to PQ, and > > > QP 5 OP 2 OQ 5 (11, 19) 2 (2, 2 21) 5 (9, 40) > @ QP @ 5 "92 1 402 5 "1681 5 41 > A unit vector in the direction of QP is > 1 > u 5 QP 41 9 40 5a , b 41 41 > > Indeed, u is obviously in the same direction as QP > > (since u is a positive scalar multiple of QP ), and notice that 40 2 9 2 > 0u0 5 a b 1 a b 41 41 81 1 1600 5 1681 51 17. a. O, P, and R can be thought of as the vertices of a triangle. > > > PR 5 OR 2 OP 5 ( 2 8, 2 1) 2 ( 2 7, 24) 5 ( 2 1, 2 25) > @ PR @ 2 5 ( 2 1)2 1 ( 2 25)2 > 5 626 @ OR @ 2 5 ( 2 8)2 1 ( 2 1)2 > 5 65 @ OP @ 2 5 ( 2 7)2 1 242 5 625 > By >the cosine law, the angle, u, between OR and OP satisfies > > > @ OR @ 2 1 @ OP @ 2 2 @ PR @ 2 > > cos u 5 2 @ OR @ ? @ OP @ 65 1 625 2 626 5 2 !65 ? !625 65 1 625 2 626 b u 5 cos21 a 2 !65 ? !625 8 80.9 > > So the angle between OR and OP is about 80.86. > b. We > found the > vector PR 5 ( 2 1, 2 25) in part a., so RP 5 2 PR 5 (1, 25) and > > @ RP @ 2 5 @ PR @ 2 5 626

>

>

Also, by the parallelogram law of vector addition, > > > OQ 5 OR 1 OP 5 ( 2 8, 2 1) 1 ( 2 7, 24) 5 ( 2 15, 23) > 2 @ OQ @ 5 ( 2 15)2 1 232 5 754 > > Placing RP 5 (1, 25) and OQ 5 ( 2 15, 23) with their tails at the origin, a triangle is formed by joining the heads of these two vectors. The third side of this > triangle > is the vector > v 5 RP 2 OQ 5 (1, 25) 2 ( 2 15, 23) 5 (16, 2) > 0 v 0 2 5 162 1 22 5 260 Now by reasoning similar to part a., the > cosine > law implies that the angle, u, between RP and OQ satisfies > > > @ RP @ 2 1 @ OQ @ 2 2 @ v @ 2 > > cos u 5 2 @ RP @ ? @ OQ @ 626 1 754 2 260 5 2 !626 ? !754 626 1 754 2 260 u 5 cos21 a b 2 !626 ? !754 8 35.4 > > So the angle between RP and OQ is about 35.40. However, since we are discussing the diagonals of parallelogram OPQR here, it would also have been appropriate to report the supplement of this angle, or about 1802 35.40 5 144.60, as the angle between these vectors.

1. a. OA 5 2 1i 1 2j 1 4k > b. @ OA @ 5 " ( 2 1)2 1 22 1 42 5 "21 8 4.58 > 2. OB 5 (3, 4, 2 4) > @ OB @ 5 "32 1 42 1 ( 2 4)2 5 "41 8 6.40 > 1 > > 3. a 1 b 2 c 5 (1, 3, 2 3) 1 ( 2 1, 2, 4) 3 2 (0, 8, 1) 5 (1 1 ( 2 1) 2 0, 3 1 2 2 8, ( 2 3) 1 4 2 1) 5 (0, 2 3, 0) > 1 > > ` a 1 b 2 c ` 5 "02 1 ( 2 3)2 1 02 3 53 6-21

> > > >

> >

>

>

>

>

> > >

@ AB @ 5 "52 1 ( 2 2)2 1 ( 2 13)2 5 "198 8 14.07 > > AB represents OA the vector from the tip of to the tip > of OB. It is the difference between the two vectors. > > > 5. a. x 2 2y 2 z

5 (1, 4, 2 1) 2 2(1, 3, 2 2) 2 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 (1, 4, 2 1) 2 (2, 6, 2 4) 2 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 (1 2 2 2 ( 2 2), 4 2 6 2 1, 2 1 2 ( 2 4) 2 0) 5 (1, 2 3, 3) > > > b. 2 2x 2 3y 1 z 5 2 2(1, 4, 2 1) 2 3(1, 3, 2 2) 1 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 ( 2 2, 2 8, 2) 2 (3, 9, 2 6) 1 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 ( 2 2 2 3 2 2, 2 8 2 9 1 1, 2 1 6 1 0) 5 ( 2 7, 2 16, 8) 1 > > > c. x 2 y 1 3z 2 1 5 (1, 4, 2 1) 2 (1, 3, 2 2) 1 3( 2 2, 1, 0) 2 1 1 5 a , 2, 2 b 2 (1, 3, 2 2) 1 ( 2 6, 3, 0) 2 2 1 1 5 a 2 1 1 ( 2 6), 2 2 3 1 3, 2 2 ( 2 2) 1 0 b 2 2 13 3 5 a 2 , 2, b 2 2 > > > d. 3x 1 5y 1 3z 5 3(1, 4, 2 1) 1 5(1, 3, 2 2) 1 3( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 (3, 12, 2 3) 1 (5, 15, 2 10) 1 ( 2 6, 3, 0) 5 (3 1 5 2 6, 12 1 15 1 3, 2 3 2 10 1 0) 5 (2, 30, 2 13) > > > > > > > > 6. a. p 1 q 5 (2i 2 j 1 k ) 1 ( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > 5 (2 2 1)i 1 ( 2 1 2 1)j 1 (1 1 1)k > > > 5 i 2 2j 1 2k > > > > > > > > b. p 2 q 5 (2i 2 j 1 k ) 2 ( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > 5 (2 1 1)i 1 ( 2 1 1 1)j 1 (1 2 1)k > > > 5 3i 1 0j 1 0k

> > > > > > > > c. 2p 2 5q 5 2(2i 2 j 1 k ) 2 5( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > > > > 5 (4i 2 2j 1 2k ) 2 ( 2 5i 2 5j 1 5k ) > > > 5 (4 1 5)i 1 ( 2 2 1 5)j 1 (2 2 5)k > > > 5 9i 1 3j 2 3k > > > > > > > > d. 2 2p 1 5q 5 2 2(2i 2 j 1 k ) 1 5( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > > > > 5 ( 2 4i 1 2j 2 2k ) 1 ( 2 5i 2 5j 1 5k ) > > > 5 ( 2 4 2 5)i 1 (2 2 5)j 1 ( 2 2 1 5)k > > > 5 2 9i 2 3j 1 3k > > > > > > > 7. a. m 2 n 5 (2i 2 k )2 ( 2 2i 1 j 1 2k ) > > > 5 (2 2 ( 2 2))i 1 ( 2 1)j 1 ( 2 1 2 2)k > > > 5 4i 2 j 2 3k > > 0 m 2 n 0 5 "42 1 ( 2 1)2 1 ( 2 3)2 5 "26 8 5.10 > > > > > > > b. m 1 n 5 (2i 2 k ) 1 ( 2 2i 1 j 1 2k ) > > > 5 (2 1 ( 2 2))i 1 j 1 ( 2 1 1 2)k > > > 5 0i 1 j 1 k > > 0 m 1 n 0 5 "02 1 12 1 12 5 "2 8 1.41 > > > > > > > c. 2m 1 3n 5 2(2i 2 k ) 1 3( 2 2i 1 j 1 2k ) > > > > > 5 (4i 2 2k ) 1 ( 2 6i 1 3j 1 6k ) > > > 5 (4 1 ( 2 6))i 1 3j 1 ( 2 2 1 6)k > > > 5 2 2i 1 3j 1 4k > > 0 2m 1 3n 0 5 " ( 2 2)2 1 32 1 42 5 "29 8 5.39 > > > > > d. 2 5m 5 2 5(2i 2 k ) 5 2 10i 1 5k > 0 2 5m 0 5 " ( 2 10)2 1 (5)2 5 "125 8 11.18 > > > > > 8. x 1 y 5 2 i 1 2j 1 5k > > > > > 1 x 2 y 5 3i 1 6j 2 7k > > > > 2x 5 2i 1 8j 2 2k Divide > by >2 on > both sides to get: > x 5 i 1 4j 2 k Plug this equation into the first given equation: > > > > > > > i 1 4j 2 k 1 y 5 2 i 1 2j 1 5k > > > > > > > y 5 2 i 1 2j 1 5k 2 ( i 1 4j 2 k ) > > > > y 5 ( 2 1 2 1)i 1 (2 2 4)j 1 (5 1 1)k > > > > y 5 2 2i 2 2j 1 6k > > > 9. a. The vectors OA, OB , and OC represent the xy-plane, xz-plane, and yz-plane, respectively. They are also the vector from the origin to points (a, b, 0), (a, 0, c), and (0, b, c), respectively. > > > > b. OA 5 ai 1 bj 1 0k > > > > OB 5 ai 1 0j 1 ck > > > > OC 5 0i 1 bj 1 ck > c. @ OA @ 5 "a 2 1 b 2

>

6-22

>

>

>

b. @ OB @ 5 " (3)2 1 ( 2 4)2 1 122 5 "169 5 13 > > > c. AB 5 OB 2 OA 5 (3, 2 4, 12) 2 ( 2 2, 2 6, 3) 5 (3 2 ( 2 2), 2 4 2 ( 2 6), 12 2 3) 5 (5, 2, 9) d. @ AB @ 5 "52 1 22 1 92 5 "110 8 10.49

>

e. BA 5 OA 2 OB 5 ( 2 2, 2 6, 3) 2 (3, 2 4, 12) 5 ( 2 5, 2 2, 2 9)

>

>

>

>

> > > 12. 2x 1 y 2 2z 5 2( 2 1, b, c ) 1 ( a, 2 2, c ) 2 2( 2 a, 6, c ) 5 ( 2 2, 2b, 2c ) 1 ( a, 2 2, c ) 2 ( 2 2a, 12, 2c ) 5 ( 2 2 1 a 1 2a, 2b 2 2 2 12, 2c 1 c 2 2c ) 5 ( 2 2 1 3a, 2b 2 14, c ) 5 (0, 0, 0) 2 2 1 3a 5 0; 2b 2 14 5 0; c 5 0 2 3a 5 2; a 5 3 2b 5 14; b 5 7 c50 z 13. a.

A OA OB O B OC C y

5 "110 8 10.49

z B(3, 1, 17) BC C(7, 3, 15) DC D(4, 1, 3)

AB A(0, 3, 5) AD y

In order to show that we > ABCD > is a parallelogram, > > must show that AB 5 DC or BC 5 AD. This will show they have the same direction, thus the opposite sides are parallel. By showing the vectors are equal they will have the same magnitude, implying the opposite sides having congruency. > AB 5 (3, 2 1, 17) 2 (0, 3, 5) 5 (3 2 0, 2 1 2 3, 17 2 5) 5 (3, 2 4, 12) > DC 5 (7, 2 3, 15) 2 (4, 1, 3) 5 (7 2 4, 2 3 2 1, 15 2 3) 5 (3, 2 4, 12) > > Thus AB 5 DC. Do the calculations for the other pair > as a check. BC 5 (7, 2 3, 15) 2 (3, 2 1, 17) 5 (7 2 3, 2 3 2 ( 2 1), 15 2 17) 5 (4, 2 2, 2 2) > AD 5 (4, 1, 3) 2 (0, 3, 5) 5 (4 2 0, 1 2 3, 3 2 5) 5 (4, 2 2, 2 2) > > So BC 5 AD. > > > > We have shown AB 5 DC and BC 5 AD, so ABCD is a parallelogram.

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

b. V1 5 (0, 0, 0), the origin > V2 5 end point of OA 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) > V3 5 end point of OB 5 (0, 4, 1) > V4 5 end point of OC 5 (0, 5, 2 1) > > V5 5 OA 1 OB 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) 1 (0, 4, 1) 5 ( 2 2 1 0, 2 1 4, 5 1 1) 5 ( 2 2, 6, 6) > > V6 5 OA 1 OC 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) 1 (0, 5, 2 1) 5 ( 2 2 1 0, 2 1 5, 5 2 1) 5 ( 2 2, 7, 4) > > V7 5 OB 1 OC 5 (0, 4, 1) 1 (0, 5, 2 1) 5 (0 1 0, 4 1 5, 1 2 1) 5 (0, 9, 0) > > > V8 5 OA 1 OB 1 OC 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) 1 (0, 9, 0) (by V7) 5 ( 2 2 1 0, 2 1 9, 5 1 0) 5 ( 2 2, 11, 5) 14. Any point on the x-axis has y-coordinate 0 and z-coordinate 0. The z-coordinate of each of A and B is 3, so the z-component of the distance from the desired point is the same for each of A and B. The y-component of the distance from the desired point will be 1 for each of A and B, 12 5 ( 2 1)2. So, the x-coordinate of the desired point has to be halfway between the x-coordinates of A and B. The desired point is (1, 0, 0).

6-23

15.

a A b

ab

a+b

C

B a

To solve this problem, >we must first > consider the > > triangle formed by a , b, and a 1 b. We will use their magnitudes to solve for angle A, which will be > 1 > used to solve for 2 a 2 b in the triangle formed by > > > > 1 > b, 1 2 a 1 b , and 2 a 2 b. Using the cosine law, we> see that: > > > 2 @b@ 1 @a 1 b@ 2 2 @a @ 2 cos ( A ) 5 > > > 2 @b@ @a 1 b@ 25 1 49 2 9 5 70 13 5 14 > > 1 > b , a 1 b Now, consider the triangle formed by , 2 > > a . and 1 Using the cosine law again: 2 b 2 > 2 > 2 > 1 > 1 > @b@ 2 1 2 @a 1 b@ 2 2 @a 2 b@ cos ( A ) 5 > > > @b@ @a 1 b@ > 2 1 > 149 @a 2 b @ 2 2 13 4 5 35 14 > 65 149 > @ a 2 b @ 2 5 24a 2 b 2 4 > > @ a 2 b @ 2 5 19 > > @ a 2 b @ 5 "19 or 4.36

) (

1. They are collinear, thus a linear combination is not applicable. > 2. It is not possible to use 0 in a spanning set. Therefore, the remaining vectors only span R 2. 3. The set of vectors spanned by (0, 1) is m (0, 1). If we let m 5 2 1, then m (0, 1) 5 (0, 2 1). > 4. i spans the set m (1, 0, 0). This is any vector along the x-axis. Examples: (2, 0, 0), ( 2 21, 0, > 0) 5. As in question 2, it is not possible to use 0 in a spanning set.

6. 5 ( 2 1, 2), ( 2 1, 1)6 , 5 (2, 2 4), ( 2 1, 1)6 , 5 ( 2 1, 1), ( 2 3, 6)6 are all the possible spanning sets for R 2 with 2 vectors. > > > > > > 7. a. 2(2a 2 3b 1 c ) 5 4a 2 6b 1 2c > > > > > > 5 4i 2 8j 2 6j 1 18k 1 2i 2 6j 1 4k > > > 5 6i 2 20j 1 22k > > > > > > 4( 2 a 1 b 2 c ) 5 2 4a 1 4b 2 4c > > > > > > 5 2 4i 1 8j 1 4j 2 12k 2 4i 1 12j 2 8k > > > 5 2 8i 1 24j 2 20k > > > > > > > ( a 2 c ) 5 i 2 2j 2 i 1 3j 2 2k > > 5 j 2 2k > > > > > > > > 2(2a 2 3b 1 c )2 4( 2 a 1 b 2 c ) 1 ( a 2 c ) > > > > > > > > 5 6i 2 20j 1 22k 1 8i 2 24j 1 20k 1 j 2 2k > > > 5 14i 2 43j 1 40k > > 1 > > > > b. (2a 2 4b 2 8c ) 5 a 2 2b 2 4c 2 > > > > > > > 5 i 2 2j 2 2j 1 6k 2 4i 1 12j 2 8k > > > 5 2 3i 1 8j 2 2k > > 1 > > > > (3a 2 6b 1 9c ) 5 a 2 2b 1 3c 3 > > > > > > > 5 i 2 2j 2 2j 1 6k 1 3i 2 9j 1 6k > > > 5 4i 2 15j 1 12k > > 1 > > 1 > > (2a 2 4b 2 8c )2 (3a 2 6b 1 9c ) 2 > > > 3 > > > 5 2 3i> 1 8j 2 2 k 2 > > 4i 1 15j 2 12k 5 2 7i 1 23j 2 14k 8. 5 (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0)6 : ( 2 1, 2, 0) 5 2 1(1, 0, 0) 1 2(0, 1, 0) (3, 4, 0) 5 3(1, 0, 0) 1 4(0, 1, 0) 5 (1, 1, 0), (0, 1, 0)6 ( 2 1, 2, 0) 5 2 1(1, 1, 0) 1 3(0, 1, 0) (3, 4, 0) 5 3(1, 1, 0) 1 (0, 1, 0) 9. a. It is the set of vectors in the xy-plane. b. ( 2 2, 4, 0) 5 2 2(1, 0, 0) 1 4(0, 1, 0) c. By part a. the vector is not in the xy-plane. There is no combination that would produce a number other than 0 for the z-component. d. It would still only span the xy-plane. There would be no need for that vector. 10. Looking at the x-component: 2a 1 3c 5 5 The y-component: 6 1 21 5 b 1 c The z-component: 2c 1 3c 5 15 5c 5 15 c53

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-24

Substituting this into the first and second equation: 2a 1 9 5 5 a 5 22 27 5 b 1 3 b 5 24 11. ( 2 10, 2 34) 5 a ( 2 1, 3) 1 b (1, 5) Looking at the x-component: 2 10 5 2 a 1 b a 5 10 1 b Looking at the y-component: 2 34 5 3a 1 5b Substituting in a:

2 34 5 30 1 3b 1 5b b 5 28 Substituting b into x-component equation: 2 10 5 2 a 1 ( 2 8) a 5 22 ( 2 10, 2 34) 5 2 2( 2 1, 3) 2 8(1, 5)

12. a. a (2, 2 1) 1 b ( 2 1, 1) 5 ( x, y ) x 5 2a 2 b b 5 2a 2 x y 5 2a 1 b Substitute in b: y 5 2 a 1 2a 2 x a5x1y Substitute this back into the first equation: b 5 2x 1 2y 2 x b 5 x 1 2y b. Using the formulas in part a: For (2, 2 3): a 5 x 1 y 5 2 2 3 5 21 b 5 x 1 2y 5 2 2 6 5 2 4 (2, 2 3) 5 2 1(2, 2 1) 2 4( 2 1, 1) For (124, 2 5): a 5 124 2 5 5 119 b 5 124 2 10 5 114 (124, 2 5) 5 119(2, 2 1) 1 114( 2 1, 1) For (4, 2 11) a 5 4 2 11 5 2 7 b 5 4 2 22 5 2 18 (4, 2 11) 5 2 7(2, 2 1) 2 18( 2 1, 1) 13. Try: a ( 2 1, 2, 3) 1 b (4, 1, 2 2) 5 ( 2 14, 2 1, 16) x components: 2 a 1 4b 5 2 14 a 5 14 1 4b y components: 2a 1 b 5 2 1 Substitute in a: 28 1 8b 1 b 5 2 1 b 5 23

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

Substitute this result into the x-components: a 5 14 2 3 5 11 Check by substituting into z-components: 3a 2 2b 5 16 33 1 5 5 16 Therefore: a ( 2 1, 2, 3) 1 b (4, 1, 2 2) 2 ( 2 14, 2 1, 16) for any a and b. They do not lie on the same plane. b. a ( 2 1, 3, 4) 1 b (0, 2 1, 1) 5 ( 2 3, 14, 7) x components: 2a 5 23 a53 y components: 3a 2 b 5 14 Substitute in a: 9 2 b 5 14 b 5 25 Check with z components: 4a 1 b 5 7 12 2 5 5 7 Since there exists an a and b to form a linear combination of 2 of the vectors to form the third, they lie on the same plane. 3( 2 1, 3, 4) 2 5(0, 2 1, 1) 5 ( 2 3, 14, 7) > > 14. Let vector a 5 ( 2 1, 3, 4) and b 5 ( 2 2, 3, 2 1) (vectors from the origin to points A and B, > respectively). To determine x, we let c (vector from > > origin to C) be a linear combination of a and b. a ( 2 1, 3, 4) 1 b ( 2 2, 3, 2 1) 5 ( 2 5, 6, x ) x components: 2 a 2 2b 5 2 5 a 5 5 2 2b y components: 3a 1 3b 5 6 Substitute in a: 15 2 6b 1 3b 5 6 b53 Substitute in b in x component equation: a 5 5 2 6 5 21 z components: 4a 2 b 5 x Substitute in a and b: x 5 24 2 3 5 27 15. m 5 2, n 5 3. Non-parallel vectors cannot be equal, unless their magnitudes equal 0. 16. Answers may vary. For example: Try linear combinations of the 2 vectors such that

6-25

the z component equals 5. Then calculate what p and q would equal. 2 1(4, 1, 7) 1 2( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 ( 2 6, 1, 5) So p 5 2 6 and q 5 1 5(4, 1, 5) 2 5( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 (25, 0, 5) So p 5 25 and q 5 0 1 13 2 (4, 1, 7) 2 ( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 a , , 5 b 3 3 3 2 13 So p 5 and q 5 3 3 17. As in question 15, non-parallel vectors. Their magnitudes must be 0 again to make the equality true. m 2 1 2m 2 3 5 ( m 2 1)( m 1 3) m 5 1, 2 3 m 2 1 m 2 6 5 ( m 2 2)( m 1 3) m 5 2, 2 3 So, when m 5 2 3, their sum will be 0.

> > 1. a. false; Let 5 2 a 2 0 then: b > > > > @ a 1 b @ 5 0 a 1 (2a ) 0 5 000 > 5 0 , 0a0 > > > > b. true; @ a 1 b @ and 0 a 1 c 0 both represent the lengths of the diagonal of a parallelogram, the first > > > with sides a and b and the second with sides a and > > c ; since both parallelograms > have> a as a side and diagonals of equal length @ b @ 5 0 c 0 . > c. Subtracting a from both sides shows that > true; > b5c > d. true; Draw the > > > parallelogram formed by RF and SW . FW and RS are the opposite sides of a parallelogram and must be equal. e. true; The distributive law for scalars > > > > f. false; Let b 5 > 2 a and let c >5 d 2 0. Then, > > > 0 a 0 5 0 2 a 0 5 @ b @ and 0 c 0 5 @ d @ > > > > but @ a 1 b @ 5 0 a 1 (2 a ) 0 5 0 > > > > > @ c 1 d @ 5 0 c 1 c 0 5 0 2c 0 > > > > so @ a 1 b @ 2 @ c 1 d @ > > > 2. a. Substitute the given values of x , y , and z into > > > the expression 2x 2 3y 1 5z > > > 2x 2 3y 1 5z > > > > > > 5 2(2a 2 3b 2 4c ) 2 3 ( 2 2a 1 3b 1 3c ) > > > 1 5(2a 2 3b 1 5c )

> > > > > > > > 5 4a 2 6b 2 8c 1 6a 2 9b 2 9c 1 10a 2 15b > 1 25c > > > > > > > > 5 4a 1 6a 1 10a 2 6b 2 9b 2 15b 2 8c 2 9c > 1 25c > > > 5 20a 2 30b 1 8c b. Simplify the expression before substituting the > > > given values of x , y , and z > > > > > > 3( 2 2x 2 4y 1 z ) 2 (2x 2 y 1 z ) > > > 2 2( 2 4x 2 5y 1 z ) > > > > > > > 5 2 6x 2 12y 1 3z 2 2x 1 y 2 z 1 8x > > 1 10y 2 2z > > > > > > > 5 2 6x 2 2x 1 8x 2 12y 1 y 1 10y 1 3z > > 2 z 2 2z > > > 5 0x 2 y 1 0z > 5 2y > > > 5 2a 2 >3b 2 3>c > 3. a. XY 5 OY 2 OX 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 ( 2 4 2 ( 2 2), 4 2 1, 8 2 2) 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6)

@ XY @ 5 " ( x2 2 x1 )2 1 ( y2 2 y1 )2 1 ( z2 2 z1 )2

>

5 "49 57 b. The components of a unit vector in the same > 2 3 6 direction as XY are 1 7 ( 2 2, 3, 6) 5 ( 2 7 , 7 , 7 ) .

>

4. a. The position vector OP is equivalent to YX. > > OP 5 YX 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 ( 2 1 2 5, 2 2 5, 6 2 12) 5 ( 2 6, 2 3, 2 6) b. @ YX @ 5 " ( 2 6)2 1 ( 2 3)2 1 ( 2 6)2

>

>

5 "81 59 The components > of a unit vector in the same 2 1 2 direction as YX are 1 9 ( 2 6, 2 3, 2 6) 5 ( 2 3 , 2 3 , 2 3 ) > > 5. 2 MN 5 NM 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 (2 2 8, 3 2 1, 5 2 2) 5 ( 2 6, 2, 3)

6-26

5 "49 57 The components > of the unit vector with the opposite 6 2 3 direction to MN are 1 7 ( 2 6, 2, 3) 5 ( 2 7 , 7 , 7 ) 6. a. diagonals can > The two > > > be found by calculating OA 1 OB and OA 2 OB. A

OA OB OA + OB

>

>

>

O

> >

5 "45 Triangle ABC is a right triangle if and only if > > > @ AB @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 @ BC @ 2. 5 14 1 45 > 5 59 @ BC @ 2 5 ("59 )2 5 59 So triangle ABC is a right triangle. b. Area of a triangle 5 1 the 2 bh. For triangle ABC > > > longest side BC is the hypotenuse, so AB and CA are the base and height of the triangle. > > 1 Area 5 ( 0 AB 0 )( 0 CA 0 ) 2 1 5 "14"45 2 1 5 "630 2 3 5 "70 or 12.5 2 c. Perimeter of a triangle equals the sum of the sides. 5 "14 1 "59 1 "45 8 18.13 d. The fourth vertex D is the > head of > the diagonal > vector from A. To find AD take AB 1 AC . > AB 5 (2 2 ( 2 1), 0 2 1, 3 2 1) 5 (3, 2 1, 2) AC 5 (3 2 ( 2 1), 3 2 1, 2 4 2 1) 5 (4, 2, 2 5) AD 5 AB 1 AC 5 (3 1 4, 2 1 1 2, 2 1 ( 2 5)) 5 (7, 1, 2 3) So the fourth vertex is D ( 2 1 1 7, 1 1 1, 1 1 ( 2 3)) or D (6, 2, 2 2).

> > > >

OA 1 OB 5 (3, 2, 2 6) 1 ( 2 6, 6, 2 2) 5 (3 1 2 6, 2 1 6, 2 6 1 2 2) 5 ( 2 3, 8, 2 8) > > OA 2 OB 5 (3, 2, 2 6) 1 ( 2 6, 6, 2 2) 5 (3 2 ( 2 6), 2 2 6, 2 6 2 ( 2 2)) 5 (9, 2 4, 2 4) b. To determine the angle between the sides of the > > @ @ @ @ parallelogram, calculate and OA , OB , > > @ OA 2 OB @ and apply the cosine law.

@ AB @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 ( "14)2 1 ( "45)2

> >

>

>

5 "49 57

5 "76

>

>

5 2"19

> > > >

5 "113

Perimeter 5 @ AB @ 1 @ BC @ 1 @ CA @

> > >

cos u 5

>

6-27

8. a.

ab a ab

ab+c

c > > a b. Since > the vectors > and b are perpendicular, > > 0 a 1 b 0 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 0 b 0 2. So, > > 0 a 1 b 0 2 5 (4)2 1 (3)2 5 16 1 9 > 5 25 > 0 a 1 b 0 5 "25 5 5 > > > 9. Express r as a linear combination of p and q : Solve for a and b: > > > r 5 ap 1 bq ( 2 1, 2) 5 a ( 2 11, 7) 1 b ( 2 3, 1) ( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 11a, 7a ) 1 ( 2 3b, b ) ( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 11a 2 3b, 7a 1 b ) Solve the system of equations: 2 1 5 2 11a 2 3b 2 5 7a 1 b Use the method of elimination: 3(2) 5 3(7a 1 b ) 6 5 21a 1 3b 1 2 1 5 2 11a 2 3b 5 5 10a 1 5a 2 By substitution, b 5 2 3 2

3 Therefore 1 2 ( 2 11, 7) 1 2 2 ( 2 3, 1) 5 ( 2 1, 2) > > > Express q as a linear combination of p and r . Solve for a and b: > > > q 5 ap 1 br ( 2 3, 1) 5 a ( 2 11, 7) 1 b ( 2 1, 2) ( 2 3, 1) 5 ( 2 11a, 7a ) 1 ( 2 b, 2b ) ( 2 3, 1) 5 ( 2 11a 2 b, 7a 1 2b ) Solve the system of equations: 2 3 5 2 11a 2 b 1 5 7a 1 2b Use the method of elimination: 2( 2 3) 5 2( 2 11a 2 b ) 2 6 5 2 22a 2 2b 115 7a 1 2b 2 5 5 2 15a 1 5a 3 By substitution, 2 2 3 5 b 1 Therefore 3 ( 2 11, 7) 1 2 2 3 ( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 3, 1) > > > Express p as a linear combination of q and r .

Solve for a and b: > > > p 5 aq 1 br ( 2 11, 7) 5 a ( 2 3, 1) 1 b ( 2 1, 2) ( 2 11, 7) 5 ( 2 3a, a ) 1 ( 2 b, 2b ) ( 2 11, 7) 5 ( 2 3a 2 b, a 1 2b ) Solve the system of equations: 2 11 5 2 3a 2 b 7 5 a 1 2b Use the method of elimination: 2( 2 11) 5 2( 2 3a 2 b ) 2 22 5 2 6a 2 2b 1 75 a 1 2b 2 15 5 2 5a 35a By substitution, 2 5 b Therefore 3( 2 3, 1) 1 2( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 11, 7) 10. a. Let P ( x, y, z ) be a point equidistant from A > > and B. Then @ PA @ 5 @ PB @ . ( x 2 2)2 1 ( y 2 ( 2 1))2 1 ( z 2 3)2 5 ( x 2 1)2 1 ( y 2 2)2 1 ( z 2 ( 2 3))2

x2 2 4x 1 4 1 y2 1 2y 1 1 1 z2 2 6z 1 9 5 x2 2 2x 1 1 1 y2 2 4y 1 4 1 z2 1 6z 1 9 2 2x 1 6y 2 12z 5 0 x 2 3y 1 6z 5 0

b. (0, 0, 0) and ( 1, 1 3 , 0) clearly satisfy the equation and are equidistant from A and B. 11. a. 1 ( 2 24, 3, 25) 5 2( a, b, 4) 1 (6, 8, c ) 2 3(7, c, 2 4) 2 c ( 2 24, 3, 25) 5 (2a, 2b, 8) 1 a 3, 4, b 2 2 (21, 3c, 2 12) c ( 2 24, 3, 25) 5 a 2a 2 18, 2b 1 4 2 3c, 1 20 b 2 Solve the equations: i. 2 24 5 2a 2 18 2 6 5 2a 23 5 a c ii. 25 5 1 20 2 c 55 2 10 5 c iii. 3 5 2b 1 4 2 3c 3 5 2b 1 4 2 3(18) 3 5 2b 2 50 53 5 2b 26.5 5 b

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-28

b. (3, 2 22, 54) 1 3 5 2 a a, a, a b 1 (3b, 0, 2 5c ) 1 2 a c, c, 0 b 2 2 (3, 2 22, 54) 5 (2a, 2a, a ) 1 (3b, 0, 2 5c ) 1 (2c, 3c, 0) (3, 2 22, 54) 5 (2a 1 3b 1 2c, 2a 1 3c, a 2 5c ) Solve the system of equations: 2 22 5 2a 1 3c 54 5 a 2 5c Use the method of elimination: 2 2(54) 5 2 2( a 2 5c ) 2 108 5 2 2a 1 10c 1 2 22 5 2a 1 3c 2 130 5 13c 2 10 5 c By substitution, 8 5 a Solve the equation: 3 5 2a 1 3b 1 2c 3 5 2(8) 1 3b 1 2( 2 10) 3 5 16 1 3b 2 20 3 5 3b 2 4 7 5 3b 7 5b 3 > > > 12. a. Find @ AB @ , @ BC @ , @ CA @

1Q 5 (2, 4, 6) 2 2R 5 (2, 4, 6)

> >

13. a. Find 0 AB 0 , 0 BC 0 , 0 CA 0

> >

5 "9 53 > @ BC @ 5 " (2 2 1)2 1 (1 2 2)2 1 (3 2 5)2 5 " (1)2 1 ( 2 1)2 1 ( 2 2)2 5 " ( 2 2)2 1 (2)2 1 (1)2

>

5 "6

> > >

5 "3

>

5613 > 59 @ AB @ 2 5 (3)2 59 So triangle ABC is a right triangle. b. Since triangle ABC is a right triangle, cos/ABC 5

> >

@ BC @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 A"6 B 2 1 A"3 B 2

> >

>

> >

>

> >

c. @ AD @ 2 1 @ DC @ 2 5 @ AC @ 2, But @ AC @ 2 5 @ DB @ 2

> > >

>

Therefore, @ AD @ 2 1 @ DC @ 2 5 @ DB @ 2

> >

> > >

5 "10

15. a. C (3, 0, 5); P (3, 4, 5); E (0, 4, 5); F (0, 4, 0) > b. DB 5 (3 2 0, 4 2 0, 0 2 5) 5 (3, 4, 2 5)

CF 5 (0 2 3, 4 2 0, 0 2 5) 5 ( 2 3, 4, 2 5) c. D P

u X

>

5 11 1 10 > 5 21 @ BC @ 2 5 ( "21)2 5 21 So triangle ABC is a right triangle. b. Yes, P (1, 2, 3), Q (2, 4, 6), and R ( 2 1, 2 2, 2 3) are collinear because: 2P 5 (2, 4, 6)

@ AB @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 ( "11)2 1 ( "10)2

> >

6-29

0 DP 0 5 5 by the Pythagorean theorem Thus ODPB is a square and cos u 5 0, so the angle between the vectors is 90. d. E P

>

0 OD 0 5 5

>

@ OA @ 5 3, @ OP @ 5 "5

> >

21

Let > A represent the air speed of the airplane and let W represent the velocity of the wind. In one hour, > > the plane will travel 0 A 1 W 0 kilometers. Because > > A and W make a right angle, use the Pythagorean theorem: > > > > 0 A 1 W 02 5 0 A 02 1 0 W 02 5 (400)2 1 (100)2 5 170 000 > > 0 A 1 W 0 5 "170 000 8 412.3 km So in 3 hours, the plane will travel 3(412.3)km 8 1236.9 km

0W0 b. tan u 5 > 0A0 100 5 400

>

>

16. a.

> > Use the cosine law to evaluate 0 d 1 e 0 > > > > > > 0 d 1 e 0 2 5 0 d 0 2 1 0 e 0 2 2 2 0 d 0 0 e 0 cos u 5 (3)2 1 (5)3 2 2(3)(5) cos 150

d+e 150 e

30 d

>

2 "3 2

> > Use the cosine law to evaluate 0 d 2 e 0 > > > > > > 0 d 2 e 0 2 5 0 d 0 2 1 0 e 0 2 2 2 0 d 0 0 e 0 cos u

8 8.02 > 0 d 2 e 0 8 "8.02 >8 2.83 > > > > > c. 0 e 2 d 0 5 0 2 ( d 2 e ) 0 5 0 d 2 e 0 8 2.83 17. a.

>

1 u 5 tan21 a b 4 8 14.0 The direction of the airplane is S14.0W. 18. a. Any pair of nonzero, noncollinear vectors will span R 2. To show that (2, 3) and (3, 5) are noncollinear, show that there does not exist any number k such that k (2, 3) 5 (3, 5). Solve the system of equations: 2k 5 3 3k 5 5 Solving both equations gives two different values 5 for k, 3 2 and 3 , so (2, 3) and (3, 5) are noncollinear and thus span R 2 b. (323, 795) 5 m (2, 3) 1 n (3, 5) (323, 795) 5 (2m, 3m ) 1 (3n, 5n ) (323, 795) 5 (2m 1 3n, 3m 1 5n ) Solve the system of equations: 323 5 2m 1 3n 795 5 3m 1 5n Use the method of elimination: 2 3(323) 5 2 3(2m 1 3n ) 2(795) 5 2(3m 1 5n ) 2 969 5 2 6m 2 9n 1 1590 5 6m 1 10n 621 5 n By substitution, m 5 2 770.

A: 400 km/h

W: 100 km/h

6-30

19. a. Find a and b such that (5, 9, 14) 5 a ( 2 2, 3, 1) 1 b (3, 1, 4) (5, 9, 14) 5 ( 2 2a, 3a, a ) 1 (3b, b, 4b ) (5, 9, 14) 5 ( 2 2a 1 3b, 3a 1 b, a 1 4b ) i. 5 5 2 2a 1 3b ii. 9 5 3a 1 b iii. 14 5 a 1 4b Use the method of elimination with i. and iii. 2(14) 5 2( a 1 4b ) 28 5 2a 1 8b 1 5 5 2 2a 1 3b 33 5 11b 35b By substitution, a 5 2. > > > it a lies in the plane determined by b and c because > > can be written as a linear combination of and c b . > > > > b. If vector a is in the span of b and c ,> then a can > be written as a linear combination of b and c . Find m and n such that ( 2 13, 36, 23) 5 m ( 2 2, 3, 1) 1 n (3, 1, 4) 5 ( 2 2m, 3m, m ) 1 (3n, n, 4n ) 5 ( 2 2m 1 3n, 3m 1 n, m 1 4n ) Solve the system of equations: 2 13 5 2 2m 1 3n 36 5 3m 1 n 23 5 m 1 4n Use the method of elimination: 2(23) 5 2( m 1 4n ) 46 5 2m 1 8n 1 2 13 5 2 2m 1 3n 33 5 11n 35n By substitution, m 5 11. > > > So, vector a is in the span of b and c . 20. a. z

(0, 0, 4) (0, 4, 4) (4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 0) x (4, 0, 0) (4, 4, 0) (4, 4, 4)

b.

(4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0)

(0, 0, 4)

(0, 4, 4)

(4, 4, 4)

y (0, 4, 0)

x

> >

(4, 0, 0)

(4, 4, 0)

(4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 0) x (4, 0, 0)

> >

(4, 4, 4)

(4, 4, 0)

(0, 0, 4) (0, 4, 4) (4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 0) x (4, 0, 0) (4, 4, 0) (4, 4, 4)

The vector with the coordinates (4, 4, 0). > > > > > > > > 21. 0 2( a 1 b 2 c ) 2 ( a 1 2b ) 1 3( a 2 b 1 c ) 0 > > > > > > > > 5 0 2a 1 2b 2 2c 2 a 2 2b 1 3a 2 3b 1 3c 0 > > > 5 0 4a 2 3b 1 c 0 5 0 4(1, 1, 2 1) 2 3(2, 2 1, 3) 1 (2, 0, 13) 0 5 0 (4, 4, 2 4) 1 ( 2 6, 3, 2 9) 1 (2, 0, 13) 0 5 0 (0, 7, 0) 0 57 6-31

22.

A(3, 4)

C(5, 0)

> > Case 2 c are not collinear, then> by spanning > If b and > > sets, b and c span a plane in R3, and > 2b 1> 4c is in > that plane. If a is perpendicular to b and c , then it is perpendicular to the plane and all vectors in the > > > plane. So, a is perpendicular to 2b 1 4c .

B(3, 4)

>

>

> > 1. Let P be the tail of a and let Q be the head of c . > > > > > > The vector sums 3a 1 ( b 1 c )4 and 3 ( a 1 b ) 1 c 4 can be depicted as in the diagram below, using the triangle law of We see > > addition. > that > > > > PQ 5 a 1 ( b 1 c ) 5 ( a 1 b ) 1 c . This is the associative property for vector addition.

P a (a + b)

>

b (b + c) c

5 20 1 80 > 5 100 @ AB @ 2 5 102 5 100 So, triangle ABC is a right triangle. > > > > > > > 23. a. FL 5 FG 1 GH 1 HL 5 a 1 b 1 c > > > > > b. MK 5 JK 2 JM 5 a 2 b > > > > > > > c. HJ 5 HG 1 GF 1 FJ 5 2 b 2 a 1 c > > > > d. IH 1 KJ 5 FG 1 GF 5 0 > > > > > > e. IK 2 IH 5 HK 5 IJ 5 b 2 c 24. b

a > >2 2 25. a. " 0 a 0 1 0 b 0 by the Pythagorean theorem > > b. " 0 a 0 2 1 0 b 0 2 by the Pythagorean theorem > > c. "4 0 a 0 2 1 9 0 b 0 2 by the Pythagorean theorem > > > > 26. Case 1 If b and c are > collinear, then 2b 1 4c is > > also collinear with both b and c . But a is perpendi> > > > > cular to b and c , so a is perpendicular to 2b 1 4c .

@ BC @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 A 2"5 B 2 1 A"80 B 2

> >

PQ= (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) Q

>

> > >

@ BA @ 5

1 ( 2 8, 2 4, 2 8) 12 2 1 2 5 a2 2 , 2 b 3 3 3 > > > > > > 3. Let x 5 PQ, y 5 QR, and > 2 y 5 QS, as in the > diagram below. Note that 0 RS 0 5 0 2y 0 5 6 and that triangle PQR and triangle PRS share angle u. 5

@ BA @

>

BA

>

6-32

R u y

x+y

xy

By the cosine law: > > > > 0 y 02 1 0 x 1 y 02 2 0 x 02 and cos u 5 > > > 20 y 0 0 x 1 y 0 > > > > > 0 2y 0 2 1 0 x 1 y 0 2 2 0 x 2 y 0 2 cos u 5 . > > > 2 0 2y 0 0 x 1 y 0 Hence, > > > > 0 y 02 1 0 x 1 y 02 2 0 x 02 > > > 20 y 0 0 x 1 y 0 > > > > > 0 2y 0 2 1 0 x 1 y 0 22 0 x 2 y 0 2 5 > > > 2 0 2y 0 0 x 1 y 0 >2 > >2 > 2( 0 y 0 1 0 x 1 y 0 2 0 x 0 2 ) > > > > > 5 0 2y 0 2 1 0 x 1 y 0 2 2 0 x 2 y 0 2 > > > > > > 0 x 2 y 02 5 20 y 02 2 0 x 1 y 02 1 20 x 02 > > > > > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 "2 0 y 0 2 2 0 x 1 y 0 2 1 "2 0 x 0 2 > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 "2(3)2 2 ( "17 )2 1 "2(3)2 > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 "19 > > > > > > 4. a. We have 3x 2 2y 5 a and 5x 2 3y 5 b. Multiplying the first equation by 2 3 and the second > > > equation by 2 yields: 2 9x 1 6y 5 2 3a and > > > 10x 2 >6y 5 2b. Adding these equations, we have: > > this into the first equation x 5 2b 2 3a > . Substituting > > > yields: 3(2b 2 3a ) 2 2y 5 a . Simplifying, we > > > have: y 5 3b 2 5a . b. First, conduct scalar multiplication on the third vector, yielding: (2, 2 1, c ) 1 ( a, b, 1) 2 (6, 3a, 12) 5 ( 2 3, 1, 2c ). Now, each of the three components corresponds to an equation. First, 2 1 a 2 6 5 2 3, which implies a 5 1. Second, 2 1 1 b 2 3a 5 1. Substituting

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

a 5 1 and simplifying yields b 5 5. Third, c 1 1 2 12 5 > 2c, so c 5 2 11. > 5. a. a and b span R 2, because any vector (x, y) in > > R 2 can be written as a linear combination of a and b. These two vectors are not multiples of each other. b. First, conduct scalar multiplication on the vectors, yielding: ( 2 2p, 3p ) 1 (3q, 2 q ) 5 (13, 2 9). Now, each component corresponds to an equation. First, 2 2p 1 3q 5 13. Second, 3p 2 q 5 2 9. Multiplying the second equation by 3 and adding the result to the first equation yields: 7p 5 2 14, which implies p 5 2 2. Substituting this into the first equation and simplifying yields q 5 3. > > > 6. a. a 5 mb 1 nc (1, 12, 2 29) 5 m (3, 1, 4) 1 n (1, 2, 2 3) (1, 12, 2 29) 5 (3m, m, 4m ) 1 ( n, 2n, 2 3n ) Each of the three components corresponds to an equation. First, 1 5 3m 1 n. Second, 12 5 m 1 2n. Third, 2 29 5 4m 2 3n. Multiplying the first equation by 2 2 and adding the result to the second equation yields m 5 2 2. Substituting m 5 2 2 into the first equation yields n 5 7. Since m 5 2 2 and solves the third components equation, n 5 7 also > > > > a 5 mb 1 nc for m 5 2 2 and n 5 7. > Hence, a can > be written as a linear combination of b and c . > > > b. r 5 mp 1 nq (16, 11, 2 24) 5 m ( 2 2, 3, 4) 1 n (4, 1, 2 6) (16, 11, 2 24) 5 ( 2 2m, 3m, 4m ) 1 (4n, n, 2 6n ) Each of the three components corresponds to an equation. First, 16 5 2 2m 1 4n. Second, 11 5 3m 1 n. Third, 2 24 5 4m 2 6n. Multiplying the first equation by 2 and adding the result to the third equation yields n 5 4. Substituting n 5 4 into the first equation yields m 5 0. We have that n 5 4 and m 5 0 is the unique solution to the first and third equations, but n 5 4 and m 5 0 does not solve the second equation. Hence, this system of > equations has no solution, and r cannot be written > > as a linear combination of p and q . In other words, > > > r does not lie in the plane determined by p and q . > > 7. x and y have magnitudes of 1 and 2, respectively, and have an angle of 120 between them, as depicted in the picture below.

120 x

6-33

3x + 2y u 3x

2y 60

By the cosine law: > > > > > > 0 3x 1 2y 0 2 5 0 3x 0 2 1 0 2y 0 2 2 2 0 3x 0 0 2y 0 cos 60 > > > > > > 0 3x 1 2y 0 2 5 9 0 x 0 2 1 4 0 y 0 2 2 6 0 x 0 0 y 0 > > 0 3x 1 2y 0 2 5 9 1 16 2 12 > > 0 3x 1 2y 0 5 "13 or 3.61 > > > The direction of 3x 1 2y is u, the angle from x . This can be computed from the sine law: > > > 0 2y 0 0 3x 1 2y 0 5 sin 60 sin u > 0 2y 0 sin 60 sin u 5 > > 0 3x 1 2y 0

> 0 2y 0 sin 60 u 5 sin a > > b 0 3x 1 2y 0 (4) sin 60 b u 5 sin21 a "13 u 8 73.9 relative to x > > > 8. DE> 5 CE 2 CD > > DE 5 b 2 a Also, > > > BA> 5 CA > 2 CB > BA 5 2b 2 2a Thus, > 1 > DE 5 BA 2

21

6-34

Review of Prerequisite Skills, p. 273

1 "2 e. 2 2 "3 b. 2 "3 d. f. 1 2 2. Find BC using the Pythagorean theorem, AC 2 5 AB 2 1 BC 2. BC 2 5 AC 2 2 AB 2 5 102 2 62 5 64 BC 5 8 opposite Next, use the ratio tan A 5 adjacent . BC tan A 5 AB 8 5 6 4 5 3 3. a. To solve D ABC, find measures of the sides and angles whose values are not given: AB, /B, and /C. Find AB using the Pythagorean theorem, BC 2 5 AB 2 1 AC 2. AB 2 5 BC 2 2 AC 2 5 (37.0)2 2 (22.0)2 5 885 AB 5 "885 8 29.7 opposite Find /B using the ratio sin B 5 hypotenuse. AC sin B 5 BC 22.0 5 37.0 /B 8 36.5 /C 5 90 2 /B /C 5 90 2 36.5 /C 8 53.5 b. Find measures of the angles whose values are not given. Find /A using the cosine law, b2 1 c2 2 a2 . cos A 5 2bc

1. a.

"3 2

c.

52 1 82 2 102 2(5)(8) 2 11 5 80 /A 8 97.9 Find /B using the sine law. sin B sin A 5 a b sin (97.9) sin B 5 5 10 sin B 8 0.5 /B 8 29.7 Find /C using the sine law. sin C sin A 5 c a sin C sin (97.9) 5 8 10 sin C 8 0.8 /C 8 52.4 4. Since the sum of the internal angles of a triangle equals 180, determine the measure of /Z using /X 5 60 and /Y 5 70. /Z 5 1802 ( /X 1 /Y ) 5 1802 (60 1 70) 5 50 Find XY and YZ using the sine law. XY XY 5 sin Y sin Z XY 6 5 sin 70 sin 50 XZ 8 7.36 YZ XY 5 sin X sin Z YZ 6 5 sin 60 sin 50 YZ 8 6.78 5. Find each angle using the cosine law. RS 2 1 RT 2 2 ST 2 cos R 5 2( RS )( RT ) 42 1 72 2 52 5 2(4)(7) 5

6-1

T 70

8.

100 km/h

48 80 km/h

6 km

Find AC and AT using the speed of each vehicle and the elapsed time (in hours) until it was located, distance 5 speed 3 time. 1 AC 5 100 km> h 3 h 4 5 25 km 1 AT 5 80 km> h 3 h 3 2 5 26 km 3 Find CT using the cosine law. CT 2 5 AC 2 1 AT 2 2 2( AC )( AT ) cos A 2 2 5 (25 km)2 1 a 26 km b 3 2 2 2(25 km) a 26 km b cos 48 3 8 443.94 km2 CT 8 21.1 km 9. A

Find AB (the distance between the airplanes) using the cosine law. AB 2 5 AT 2 1 BT 2 2 2( AT )( BT )cos T 5 (3.5 km)2 1 (6 km)2 2 2(3.5 km)(6 km) cos 70 8 33.89 km2 AB 8 5.82 km 7. P

2 km 142 Q 7 km R

5 cm 5 cm C

Find QR using the cosine law. QR 2 5 PQ 2 1 PR 2 2 2( PQ )( PR ) cos P 5 (2 km)2 1 (7 km)2 2 2(2 km)(7 km) cos 142 8 75.06 km2 QR 8 8.66 km

The pentagon can be divided into 10 congruent right triangles with height AC and base BC. 10 3 /A 5 360 /A 5 36 Find AC and BC using trigonometric ratios. AC 5 AB 3 cos A 5 5 cos 36 8 4.0 cm BC 5 AB 3 sin A 5 5 sin 36 8 2.9 cm The area of the pentagon is the sum of the areas of the 10 right triangles. Use the area of ^ ABC to determine the area of the pentagon.

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-2

1. a. False. Two vectors with the same magnitude can have different directions, so they are not equal. b. True. Equal vectors have the same direction and the same magnitude. c. False. Equal or opposite vectors must be parallel and have the same magnitude. If two parallel vectors have different magnitude, they cannot be equal or opposite. d. False. Equal or opposite vectors must be parallel and have the same magnitude. Two vectors with the same magnitude can have directions that are not parallel, so they are not equal or opposite. 2. Vectors must have a magnitude and direction. For some scalars, it is clear what is meant by just the number. Other scalars are related to the magnitude of a vector. Height is a scalar. Height is the distance (see below) from one end to the other end. No direction is given. Temperature is a scalar. Negative temperatures are below freezing, but this is not a direction. Weight is a vector. It is the force (see below) of gravity acting on your mass. Mass is a scalar. There is no direction given. Area is a scalar. It is the amount space inside a two-dimensional object. It does not have direction. Volume is a scalar. It is the amount of space inside a three-dimensional object. No direction is given. Distance is a scalar. The distance between two points does not have direction. Displacement is a vector. Its magnitude is related to the scalar distance, but it gives a direction. Speed is a scalar. It is the rate of change of distance (a scalar) with respect to time, but does not give a direction. Force is a vector. It is a push or pull in a certain direction. Velocity is a vector. It is the rate of change of displacement (a vector) with respect to time. Its magnitude is related to the scalar speed.

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

3. Answers may vary. For example: Friction resists the motion between two surfaces in contact by acting in the opposite direction of motion. A rolling ball stops due to friction which resists the direction of motion. A swinging pendulum stops due to friction resisting the swinging pendulum. 4. Answers may vary. For > > > > example: > > > > a. AD> 5 BC; AB 5 DC ; AE > > > 5 EC > ; DE 5 > EB b. AD 5 2 CB 5 2 CD > > ; AB > > ; AE 5 2 CE; ED 5 > 2 EB; > DA> 5 2 BC > > > > > c. AC & DB; AE & EB; EC & DE; AB & CB 5. H

B D E J A C F

a. AB> 5 CD > b. AB > 5 2 EF> > > c. @ AB @ 5 @ EF @ but AB 2 EF > > d. GH 5 2 AB > > e. AB 5 2 2JI

>

>

6. a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

7. a. 100 km> h, south b. 50 km> h, west c. 100 km> h, northeast d. 25 km> h, northwest e. 60 km> h, east 6-3

1. a. False. Two vectors with the same magnitude can have different directions, so they are not equal. b. True. Equal vectors have the same direction and the same magnitude. c. False. Equal or opposite vectors must be parallel and have the same magnitude. If two parallel vectors have different magnitude, they cannot be equal or opposite. d. False. Equal or opposite vectors must be parallel and have the same magnitude. Two vectors with the same magnitude can have directions that are not parallel, so they are not equal or opposite. 2. Vectors must have a magnitude and direction. For some scalars, it is clear what is meant by just the number. Other scalars are related to the magnitude of a vector. Height is a scalar. Height is the distance (see below) from one end to the other end. No direction is given. Temperature is a scalar. Negative temperatures are below freezing, but this is not a direction. Weight is a vector. It is the force (see below) of gravity acting on your mass. Mass is a scalar. There is no direction given. Area is a scalar. It is the amount space inside a two-dimensional object. It does not have direction. Volume is a scalar. It is the amount of space inside a three-dimensional object. No direction is given. Distance is a scalar. The distance between two points does not have direction. Displacement is a vector. Its magnitude is related to the scalar distance, but it gives a direction. Speed is a scalar. It is the rate of change of distance (a scalar) with respect to time, but does not give a direction. Force is a vector. It is a push or pull in a certain direction. Velocity is a vector. It is the rate of change of displacement (a vector) with respect to time. Its magnitude is related to the scalar speed.

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

3. Answers may vary. For example: Friction resists the motion between two surfaces in contact by acting in the opposite direction of motion. A rolling ball stops due to friction which resists the direction of motion. A swinging pendulum stops due to friction resisting the swinging pendulum. 4. Answers may vary. For > > > > example: > > > > a. AD> 5 BC; AB 5 DC ; AE > > > 5 EC > ; DE 5 > EB b. AD 5 2 CB 5 2 CD > > ; AB > > ; AE 5 2 CE; ED 5 > 2 EB; > DA> 5 2 BC > > > > > c. AC & DB; AE & EB; EC & DE; AB & CB 5. H

B D E J A C F

a. AB> 5 CD > b. AB > 5 2 EF> > > c. @ AB @ 5 @ EF @ but AB 2 EF > > d. GH 5 2 AB > > e. AB 5 2 2JI

>

>

6. a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

7. a. 100 km> h, south b. 50 km> h, west c. 100 km> h, northeast d. 25 km> h, northwest e. 60 km> h, east 6-3

8. a. 400 km> h, due south b. 70 km> h, southwesterly c. 30 km> h southeasterly d. 25 km> h, due east 9. a. i. False. They have equal magnitude, but opposite direction. ii. True. They have equal magnitude. iii. True. The base has sides of equal length, so the vectors have equal magnitude. iv. True. They have equal magnitude and direction. b. E H

F G

A B

D C

> > >

To calculate @ BD @ , @ BE @ and @ BH @ , find the lengths of their corresponding line segments BD, BE and BH using the Pythagorean theorem. BD 2 5 AB 2 1 AD 2 5 32 1 32 BD 5 "18 BE 2 5 AB 2 1 AE 2 5 32 1 82 BE 5 "73 BH 2 5 BD 2 1 DH 2 5 ( "18)2 1 82 BH 5 "82 10. a. The tangent vector describes Jamess velocity at that moment. At point A his speed is 15 km> h and he is heading north. The tangent vector shows his velocity is 15 km> h, north. b. The length of the vector represents the magnitude of Jamess velocity at that point. Jamess speed is the same as the magnitude of Jamess velocity. c. The magnitude of Jamess velocity (his speed) is constant, but the direction of his velocity changes at every point. d. Point C e. This point is halfway between D and A, which is 7 8 of the way around the circle. Since he is running 6-4

5 > "10> or 3.16 > b. CD 5 AB. AB moves from A ( 2 4, 2) to B ( 2 1, 3) or ( xB, yB ) 5 ( xA 1 3, yA 1 1). Use this to find point D. ( xD, yD ) 5 ( xC 1 3, yC 1 1) 5 ( 2 6 1 3, 0 1 1) 5 ( 2 3, 1) > > c. EF 5 AB. Find point E using ( xA, yA ) 5 ( xB 2 3, yB 2 1). ( xE, yE ) 5 ( xF 2 3, yF 2 1) 5 (3 2 3, 2 2 2 1) 5 (0, 2 > > 3) d. GH 5 2 AB, and moves in the opposite > direction as AB. ( xH, yH ) 5 ( xG 2 3, yG 2 1). ( xH, yH ) 5 ( xG 2 3, yG 2 1) 5 (3 2 3, 1 2 1) 5 (0, 0)

15 km> h and the track is 1 km in circumference, he can run around the track 15 times in one hour. That 7 means each lap takes him 4 minutes. 8 of 4 minutes is 3.5 minutes. f. When he has travelled 3 8 of a lap, James will be halfway between B and C and will be heading southwest. > 11. a. Find the magnitude of AB using the distance formula. > @ AB @ 5 " ( xA 2 xB )2 1 ( yB 2 yA )2 5 " ( 2 4 1 1)2 1 (3 2 2)2

1. a.

x y x +y

b.

x y x y

c.

y x x

8. a. 400 km> h, due south b. 70 km> h, southwesterly c. 30 km> h southeasterly d. 25 km> h, due east 9. a. i. False. They have equal magnitude, but opposite direction. ii. True. They have equal magnitude. iii. True. The base has sides of equal length, so the vectors have equal magnitude. iv. True. They have equal magnitude and direction. b. E H

F G

A B

D C

> > >

To calculate @ BD @ , @ BE @ and @ BH @ , find the lengths of their corresponding line segments BD, BE and BH using the Pythagorean theorem. BD 2 5 AB 2 1 AD 2 5 32 1 32 BD 5 "18 BE 2 5 AB 2 1 AE 2 5 32 1 82 BE 5 "73 BH 2 5 BD 2 1 DH 2 5 ( "18)2 1 82 BH 5 "82 10. a. The tangent vector describes Jamess velocity at that moment. At point A his speed is 15 km> h and he is heading north. The tangent vector shows his velocity is 15 km> h, north. b. The length of the vector represents the magnitude of Jamess velocity at that point. Jamess speed is the same as the magnitude of Jamess velocity. c. The magnitude of Jamess velocity (his speed) is constant, but the direction of his velocity changes at every point. d. Point C e. This point is halfway between D and A, which is 7 8 of the way around the circle. Since he is running 6-4

5 > "10> or 3.16 > b. CD 5 AB. AB moves from A ( 2 4, 2) to B ( 2 1, 3) or ( xB, yB ) 5 ( xA 1 3, yA 1 1). Use this to find point D. ( xD, yD ) 5 ( xC 1 3, yC 1 1) 5 ( 2 6 1 3, 0 1 1) 5 ( 2 3, 1) > > c. EF 5 AB. Find point E using ( xA, yA ) 5 ( xB 2 3, yB 2 1). ( xE, yE ) 5 ( xF 2 3, yF 2 1) 5 (3 2 3, 2 2 2 1) 5 (0, 2 > > 3) d. GH 5 2 AB, and moves in the opposite > direction as AB. ( xH, yH ) 5 ( xG 2 3, yG 2 1). ( xH, yH ) 5 ( xG 2 3, yG 2 1) 5 (3 2 3, 1 2 1) 5 (0, 0)

15 km> h and the track is 1 km in circumference, he can run around the track 15 times in one hour. That 7 means each lap takes him 4 minutes. 8 of 4 minutes is 3.5 minutes. f. When he has travelled 3 8 of a lap, James will be halfway between B and C and will be heading southwest. > 11. a. Find the magnitude of AB using the distance formula. > @ AB @ 5 " ( xA 2 xB )2 1 ( yB 2 yA )2 5 " ( 2 4 1 1)2 1 (3 2 2)2

1. a.

x y x +y

b.

x y x y

c.

y x x

d.

c.

y y x a

b c abc

2. a. BA

>

d.

C B A a

b c

b. 0

>

B A

ab+c

c. CB

>

4. a.

a

b (b + c) c

B A a + (b + c)

d. CA

>

b.

C B

a

b (a + b) (a + b) + c c

3. a.

c b

c. The resultant vectors are the same. The order in which you add vectors does not matter. > > > > > > Aa 1 b B 1 c 5 a 1 Ab 1 c B

a

a+b+c

5. a. PS

>

RQ

RS

b.

PR c b S PS P

PQ

b. 0

>

Q RS R

a+bc

S a

RQ

PQ

PS P > > > > 6. x 1 y 5 MR 1 RS > 5 MS > > > > z 1 t 5 ST > 1 TQ 5 SQ so > > > > > > ( x 1 y ) 1 ( z 1 t ) 5 MS >1 SQ 5 MQ

6-5

> 7. a. 2 x > b. y > > c. x 1 y > > d. 2 x 1 y > > > e. x 1 y 1 z > > f. 2 x 2 y > > > g. 2 x 1 y 1 z > > h. 2 x 2 z 8. a.

11.

a+w u

y x A

B u

y x y

u x D

y x

b. See the figure in part a. for the drawn vectors. > > > > > > 0 y 2 x 0 2 5 0 y 0 2 1 0 x 0 2 2 2 0 y 0 0 2 x 0 cos ( u ) and > > > > > > 0 2 x 0 5 0 x 0 , so 0 y 2 x 0 2 5 0 x 2 y 0 2 9. a. Marias velocity is 11 km> h downstream. b.

4 km/h 11 km/h 7 km/h

c.

4 km/h 7 km/h 3 km/h

f1 + f2 u f2 f1

ship

> > Find 0 a 1 w 0 using the Pythagorean theorem. > >2 > > 0 a 1 w 0 5 0 a 02 1 0 w 02 5 (150 km> h)2 1 (80 km> h)2 5 28 900 > > 0 a 1 w 0 2 5 170 > > Find the direction of a 1 w using the ratio > 0w0 tan( u ) 5 > 0a0 80 km> h u 5 tan21 150 km> h 8 N 28.1 W > > a 1 w 5 170 km> h, N 28.1 W > > > > 12. x , y , and x 1 y form a right triangle. Find > > 0 x 1 y 0 using the Pythagorean theorem. > > > > 0 x 1 y 02 5 0 x 02 1 0 y 02 5 72 1 242 5 625 > > 0 x 1 y 0 5 25 > > > Find the angle between x and x 1 y using the ratio > 0y0 tan ( u ) 5 > 0x0 24 u 5 tan21 7 8 73.7 > > 13. Find @ AB 1 AC @ using the cosine law and the > > supplement to the angle between AB and AC. > > @ AB 1 AC @ 2 > > > > 5 @ AB @ 2 1 @ AC @ 2 2 2 @ AB @ @ AC @ cos (30) "3 5 12 1 12 2 2(1)(1) 2 52 2 " 3 > > @ AB 1 AC @ 8 0.52 14. D C

E

b. The vectors form a triangle with side lengths S S S S S S @ f1 @ , @ f2 @ and @ f1 1 f2 @ . Find @ f1 1 f2 @ using the cosine law.

@ f1 1 f @ 2 5 @ f1 @ 2 1 @ f2 @ 2 2 2 @ f1 @ @ f2 @ cos ( u ) 2

S S S S S S S S S S S S

@ f1 1 f2 0 5 $ @ f1 @ 2 1 @ f2 @ 2 2 2 @ f1 @ @ f2 @ cos ( u )

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. > > > > 52 So EA 5 2 EC > and ED > > EB. > > Therefore, EA 1 EB 1 EC 1 ED 5 0.

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-6

15. P

T b

1. A vector cannot equal a scalar. 2. a.

3 cm

Multiple applications of the Triangle Law for adding vectors show that > > > > RM 1 b 5 a 1 TP> (since both are equal to the undrawn vector TM ), and that > > > > RM 1 a 5 b 1 SQ> (since both are equal to the undrawn vector RQ ) Adding these two equations gives > > > > > > > 2 RM 1 a 1 b> 5 a 1 b 1 TP 1 SQ > > 2 RM 5 TP 1 SQ > > > > 16. a 1 b and a 2 b represent the > diagonals of a > parallelogram with sides a and b.

a+b ab b a > > > > Since @ a 1 b @ 5 @ a 2 b @ and the only parallelogram with equal diagonals is a rectangle, the parallelogram must also be a rectangle. 17. P G Q M R

b.

9 cm

c. d.

2 cm

6 cm

3. E25N describes a direction that is 25 toward the north of due east (90 east of north), in other words 90 2 25 5 65 toward the east of due north. N65E and a bearing of 65 both describe a direction that is 65 toward the east of due north. So, each is describing the same direction in a different way. 4. Answers may vary. For example:

> v

Let point M be defined as shown. Two applications of the Law > Triangle > > for > adding vectors show that GQ 1 QM 1 MG 5 0 > > > > GR 1 RM 1 MG 5 0 Adding these two equations gives > > > > > > GQ 1 QM 1 2 MG 1 GR 1 RM 5 0 From >the given > information, 2 MG 5 GP > > and > QM 1 RM 5 0 (since they are opposing vectors of equal length), so > > > > GQ 1 GP 1 GR 5 0, as desired.

a.

> 2v

b. d.

1 > v 2

c. e.

> 2 2v

6-7

15. P

T b

1. A vector cannot equal a scalar. 2. a.

3 cm

Multiple applications of the Triangle Law for adding vectors show that > > > > RM 1 b 5 a 1 TP> (since both are equal to the undrawn vector TM ), and that > > > > RM 1 a 5 b 1 SQ> (since both are equal to the undrawn vector RQ ) Adding these two equations gives > > > > > > > 2 RM 1 a 1 b> 5 a 1 b 1 TP 1 SQ > > 2 RM 5 TP 1 SQ > > > > 16. a 1 b and a 2 b represent the > diagonals of a > parallelogram with sides a and b.

a+b ab b a > > > > Since @ a 1 b @ 5 @ a 2 b @ and the only parallelogram with equal diagonals is a rectangle, the parallelogram must also be a rectangle. 17. P G Q M R

b.

9 cm

c. d.

2 cm

6 cm

3. E25N describes a direction that is 25 toward the north of due east (90 east of north), in other words 90 2 25 5 65 toward the east of due north. N65E and a bearing of 65 both describe a direction that is 65 toward the east of due north. So, each is describing the same direction in a different way. 4. Answers may vary. For example:

> v

Let point M be defined as shown. Two applications of the Law > Triangle > > for > adding vectors show that GQ 1 QM 1 MG 5 0 > > > > GR 1 RM 1 MG 5 0 Adding these two equations gives > > > > > > GQ 1 QM 1 2 MG 1 GR 1 RM 5 0 From >the given > information, 2 MG 5 GP > > and > QM 1 RM 5 0 (since they are opposing vectors of equal length), so > > > > GQ 1 GP 1 GR 5 0, as desired.

a.

> 2v

b. d.

1 > v 2

c. e.

> 2 2v

6-7

5. a.

y

b.

3b y y

c.

3b a b

d.

a

b b

x + 3y

2a + 3b x

e.

2a 3b

b b b

b.

x

y a y y

x 3y

c.

2x + y x

d.

x x

> > > 3 > c 5 2a , b 5 a 2> > > mc 1 nb 5 0 > 3 > > m (2a ) 1 n a a b 5 0 2 > > > m (4a ) 1 n (3a ) 5 0 m 5 3 and n 5 2 4 satisfy the equation, as does any multiple of the pair (3, 2 4). There are infinitely many values possible. > > > 3 > c 5 2a , b 5 a b. 2 > > > > da 1 eb 1 f c 5 0 > 3 > > > da 1 e a a b 1 f (2a ) 5 0 2 > > > > 2da 1 3ea 1 4f a 5 0 d 5 2, e 5 0, and f 5 2 1 satisfy the equation, as does any multiple of the triple (2, 0, 2 1). There are infinitely many values possible. 8. or

7. a.

2x y

> > > > a and b are collinear, so a 5 kb, where k is a nonzero > > scalar. Since 0 a 0 5 @ b @ , k can only be 2 1 or 1. 9.

a b 2a 2 b

4a

a.

Yes 6-8

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

10. Two vectors are collinear if and only if they can > > be related by a scalar multiple. In this case a 2 kb a. collinear b. not collinear c. not collinear d. collinear 1 > 11. a. 0 x> 0 x is a vector with length 1 unit in the same > direction as x . 1 > b. 2 0 x> 0 x is a vector with length 1 unit in the > opposite direction of x . 12. a a

b b b

2.91 > > u 8 9.9 from x towards y > 1 > 16. b 5 > a 0a0 > 1 > @b@ 5 ` > a ` 0a0 > 1 > @b@ 5 > 0 a 0 0a0 > @b@ 5 1 > > b is a positive multiple of a , so it points in the > same direction as a and has magnitude 1. It is a > unit vector in the same direction as a . 17. A

sin u 8 (1)

1 2

2 3 2 > 13. a. 2 a 3 1 > b. a 3 1 > c. 0 a 0 3 2 > d. 0 a 0 3 4 > e. a 3 > > 14. x and y make an angle of 90, so you may find > > 0 2x 1 y 0 using the Pythagorean theorem. > > > > 0 2x 1 y 0 2 5 0 2x 0 2 1 0 y 0 2 2 2 52 11 > > 0 2x 1 y 0 5 "5 or 2.24 > > Find the direction of 2x 1 y using the ratio > 0y0 tan ( u ) 5 > 0 2x 0 1 u 5 tan21 2 > > > 8 26.6 from x towards 2x 1 y > > 15. Find 0 2x 1 y 0 using the cosine law, and the > > supplement to the angle between x and y . > > > > > > 0 2x 1 y 0 2 5 0 2x 0 2 1 0 y 0 2 2 2 0 2x 0 0 y 0 cos (150) m5 5 22 1 12 2 2(2)(1) > > 0 2x 1 y 0 8 2.91 > > Find the direction of 2x 1 y using the sine law. sin u sin (150) > 5 > > 0y0 0 2x 1 y 0

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

c AD C D

> > > AD> 5 c> 1 CD> AD> 5 b 1 BD > > > > 2 AD 5 > c 1 b> 1 CD 1 BD But CD >1 BD 5 > 0. > > 1 > 1 > So 2 AD 5 c 1 b, or AD 5 2 c 1 2 b. > > > > 18. PM> 5 a and > PN >5 b so MN 5 PN PM > 2 > 2 a 5 b > > > > PQ 5 > 2a and PR 5 2 b > > so QR 5 PR > 2 PQ > 5 2b 2 2a Notice > that> > 2MN 5 2b 2 > 2a 5 QR > > We can conclude that QR is parallel to MN and > > @ QR @ 5 2 @ MN @ . 19. A B

2 "3 2

6-9

Answers may vary. For example: > > > > a. u 5 AB> and v 5 CD> > > b. u 5 AD and v 5 AE > > > > c. u 5 AC > and v 5 DB > > > d. u 5 ED and v 5 AD > 20. a. Since the magnitude of x is three times the > > magnitude of y and because the given sum is 0, mx > must be in the opposite direction of ny and 0 n 0 5 30 m 0. > > b. Whether x and y are collinear or not, m 5 0 and given equation true. n 5 0 will > make > the > 21. a. > CD 5 b 2 a > > b. BE 5 2b 2 2a > > 5 2( b 2 a ) > 5 2CD The> two are therefore parallel (collinear) and > @ BE @ 5 2 @ CD @ 22. A B

D E C

a a+b b+a a

3.

b

b a k(a + b) kb

>

Applying the triangle law for adding vectors shows that> > > AC 5 AD 1 DC The given information states that > > 2 AB 5 DC 3 > > 3 AB 5 DC 2 By the properties of trapezoids, this gives

3 2

a+b ka

> > > >

> > >

>

>

AC 5 AE 1 EC , the original equation gives > > > > 3 3 AE 1 AE 5 AD 1 AB 2 2 > > > 5 3 AE 5 AD 1 AB 2 2 > > > 2 3 AE 5 AD 1 AB 5 5

1. a. 0 b. 1> c. 0 d. 1

5. PQ 5 RQ 1 SR 1 TS 1 >PT > > > 5 ( RQ 1 SR>) 1 ( TS> 1 PT>) > 5 ( SR 1 RQ ) 1 ( PT 1 TS ) > > 5 SQ 1 PS> > 5 PS >1 SQ 5 > PQ 6. a. EC > b. 0 c. Yes, the diagonals of a rectangular prism are of equal length > > > > > > > 7. 5 3a 2 >6b 2 15c 2 6a 1 12b 2 6c 2 a > 1 3b 2 3>c > > 5 2 4a> 1 9b > 2 24 >c > > > 8. a. 5 6i 2 8j 1 2k 1 6i 2 9j 1 3k > > > 5> 12i 2 > 17j> 1 5k > > > b. 5 3i 2 4j 1 k 2 10i 1 15j 2 5k > > > 5 2 7i> 1 11 > j 2 >4k > > > c. 5 2(3i 2 4 j 1 k 1 6 i 2 9 j 1 3 k )> > > > > > 2 3( 2 6 i 1 8 j 2 2 k 1 14 i 2 21 j 1 7k ) > > > 5 2 6i 1 13j 2 7k > 9. Solve the first equation for x . > 1 > 3 > x5 a2 y 2 2

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-10

Answers may vary. For example: > > > > a. u 5 AB> and v 5 CD> > > b. u 5 AD and v 5 AE > > > > c. u 5 AC > and v 5 DB > > > d. u 5 ED and v 5 AD > 20. a. Since the magnitude of x is three times the > > magnitude of y and because the given sum is 0, mx > must be in the opposite direction of ny and 0 n 0 5 30 m 0. > > b. Whether x and y are collinear or not, m 5 0 and given equation true. n 5 0 will > make > the > 21. a. > CD 5 b 2 a > > b. BE 5 2b 2 2a > > 5 2( b 2 a ) > 5 2CD The> two are therefore parallel (collinear) and > @ BE @ 5 2 @ CD @ 22. A B

D E C

a a+b b+a a

3.

b

b a k(a + b) kb

>

Applying the triangle law for adding vectors shows that> > > AC 5 AD 1 DC The given information states that > > 2 AB 5 DC 3 > > 3 AB 5 DC 2 By the properties of trapezoids, this gives

3 2

a+b ka

> > > >

> > >

>

>

AC 5 AE 1 EC , the original equation gives > > > > 3 3 AE 1 AE 5 AD 1 AB 2 2 > > > 5 3 AE 5 AD 1 AB 2 2 > > > 2 3 AE 5 AD 1 AB 5 5

1. a. 0 b. 1> c. 0 d. 1

5. PQ 5 RQ 1 SR 1 TS 1 >PT > > > 5 ( RQ 1 SR>) 1 ( TS> 1 PT>) > 5 ( SR 1 RQ ) 1 ( PT 1 TS ) > > 5 SQ 1 PS> > 5 PS >1 SQ 5 > PQ 6. a. EC > b. 0 c. Yes, the diagonals of a rectangular prism are of equal length > > > > > > > 7. 5 3a 2 >6b 2 15c 2 6a 1 12b 2 6c 2 a > 1 3b 2 3>c > > 5 2 4a> 1 9b > 2 24 >c > > > 8. a. 5 6i 2 8j 1 2k 1 6i 2 9j 1 3k > > > 5> 12i 2 > 17j> 1 5k > > > b. 5 3i 2 4j 1 k 2 10i 1 15j 2 5k > > > 5 2 7i> 1 11 > j 2 >4k > > > c. 5 2(3i 2 4 j 1 k 1 6 i 2 9 j 1 3 k )> > > > > > 2 3( 2 6 i 1 8 j 2 2 k 1 14 i 2 21 j 1 7k ) > > > 5 2 6i 1 13j 2 7k > 9. Solve the first equation for x . > 1 > 3 > x5 a2 y 2 2

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-10

Substitute into the second equation. > 1 > 3 > > 6b 5 2 a a 2 y b 1 5y 2 2 1 > 12 > > b y5 a1 13 13 > > > Lastly, find x in terms of a and b. > 1 > 3 1 > 12 > x5 a2 a a1 bb 2 2 13 13 5 > 18 > 5 a2 b 13 13 > > > 10. a 5 x 2 y > 2 > 1 > > 5 y 1 z 2 (b 1 z ) 3 3 > 2 > 2 > 5 y2 z2b 3 3 > 2 > > 5 (y 2 z ) 2 b 3 > 2 > 5 b2b 3 1 > 52 b >3 > > > 11. a. AG> 5 a 1 b 1 > c > > BH> 5 2 a 1 b> 1 c > > CE> 5 2 a 2> b 1 c > > DF >5 a 2 b 1 c > >2 > 2 2 b. @ AG @ 5 0 a 0 1 @ b @ 1 0 c 0 2 > > > 2 5 0 2a 0 2 1 @ b @ 1 0 c 0 2 > 5 @ BH @ 2 12.

Z

1. a. AB> 5 DC> BA> 5 CD > AD> 5 BC > CB 5 DA There is not enough information to determine if > AP . there is a vector equal to > > b. @ PD @ 5 @ DA @ > 5 @ BC @ (parallelogram) > 2. a. RV > b. RV > c. PS > d. RU > e. PS > f. PQ > > 3. a. Find @ a 1 b @ using the cosine law, and the supplement to the angle between the vectors. > > > > > > @ a 1 b @ 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 @ b @ 2 2 2 0 a 0 @ b @ cos 60 1 5 32 1 42 2 2(3)(4) 2 53 > > @ a 1 b @ 5 "3 b. Find u using the ratio > @b@ tan u 5 > 0a0 4 5 3 4 u 5 tan21 3 8 53 4. t 5 4 or t 5 2 4 5. In quadrilateral PQRS, look at ^ PQR > . Joining the midpoints B and C creates a vector that is paralBC > > lel to PR and half the length of PR. Look at ^ SPR>. Joining the midpoints > A and D creates a vector> AD > that is parallel to> PR and half the length of PR . BC > is parallel to AD and equal in length to AD. Therefore, ABCD is a parallelogram. > > 6. a. Find 0 u 2 v 0 using the cosine law. Note > > > > 0 2 v 0 5 0 v 0 and the angle between u and 2 v is 120. > >2 >2 >2 > > 0 u 2 v 0 5 0 u 0 1 0 2 v 0 2 2 0 u 0 0 2 v 0 cos 60

> >

Therefore, @ AG @ 5 @ BH @

> >

Applying the triangle law for adding vectors shows that > > > TY 5 TZ 1 ZY The given information states that > > TX 5 2 ZY > > 1 TX 5 ZY 2 By the properties of trapezoids, this gives > > > > > 1 2 TO 5 OY, and since TY 5 TO 1 OY, the original equation gives > > > > 1 1 TO 1 TO 5 TZ 1 TX 2 2

6-11

Substitute into the second equation. > 1 > 3 > > 6b 5 2 a a 2 y b 1 5y 2 2 1 > 12 > > b y5 a1 13 13 > > > Lastly, find x in terms of a and b. > 1 > 3 1 > 12 > x5 a2 a a1 bb 2 2 13 13 5 > 18 > 5 a2 b 13 13 > > > 10. a 5 x 2 y > 2 > 1 > > 5 y 1 z 2 (b 1 z ) 3 3 > 2 > 2 > 5 y2 z2b 3 3 > 2 > > 5 (y 2 z ) 2 b 3 > 2 > 5 b2b 3 1 > 52 b >3 > > > 11. a. AG> 5 a 1 b 1 > c > > BH> 5 2 a 1 b> 1 c > > CE> 5 2 a 2> b 1 c > > DF >5 a 2 b 1 c > >2 > 2 2 b. @ AG @ 5 0 a 0 1 @ b @ 1 0 c 0 2 > > > 2 5 0 2a 0 2 1 @ b @ 1 0 c 0 2 > 5 @ BH @ 2 12.

Z

1. a. AB> 5 DC> BA> 5 CD > AD> 5 BC > CB 5 DA There is not enough information to determine if > AP . there is a vector equal to > > b. @ PD @ 5 @ DA @ > 5 @ BC @ (parallelogram) > 2. a. RV > b. RV > c. PS > d. RU > e. PS > f. PQ > > 3. a. Find @ a 1 b @ using the cosine law, and the supplement to the angle between the vectors. > > > > > > @ a 1 b @ 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 @ b @ 2 2 2 0 a 0 @ b @ cos 60 1 5 32 1 42 2 2(3)(4) 2 53 > > @ a 1 b @ 5 "3 b. Find u using the ratio > @b@ tan u 5 > 0a0 4 5 3 4 u 5 tan21 3 8 53 4. t 5 4 or t 5 2 4 5. In quadrilateral PQRS, look at ^ PQR > . Joining the midpoints B and C creates a vector that is paralBC > > lel to PR and half the length of PR. Look at ^ SPR>. Joining the midpoints > A and D creates a vector> AD > that is parallel to> PR and half the length of PR . BC > is parallel to AD and equal in length to AD. Therefore, ABCD is a parallelogram. > > 6. a. Find 0 u 2 v 0 using the cosine law. Note > > > > 0 2 v 0 5 0 v 0 and the angle between u and 2 v is 120. > >2 >2 >2 > > 0 u 2 v 0 5 0 u 0 1 0 2 v 0 2 2 0 u 0 0 2 v 0 cos 60

> >

Therefore, @ AG @ 5 @ BH @

> >

Applying the triangle law for adding vectors shows that > > > TY 5 TZ 1 ZY The given information states that > > TX 5 2 ZY > > 1 TX 5 ZY 2 By the properties of trapezoids, this gives > > > > > 1 2 TO 5 OY, and since TY 5 TO 1 OY, the original equation gives > > > > 1 1 TO 1 TO 5 TZ 1 TX 2 2

6-11

1 5 8 1 10 2 2(8)(10) a b 2 > > 0 u 2 v 0 5 2"21 > > b. Find the direction of u 2 v using the sine law. sin u sin 60 > 5 > > 0 2v 0 0u 2 v0 5 sin u 5 sin 60 "21 5 u 5 sin21 "28 8 71 1 1 > > > > (u 1 v ) c. > > (u 1 v ) 5 0u 1 v0 2"21 > > d. Find 0 5u 1 2v 0 using the cosine law. > > > > > > 0 5u 1 2v 0 2 5 0 5u 0 2 1 0 2v 0 2 2 2 0 5u 0 0 2v 0 cos 120 1 5 402 1 202 2 2(40)(20) a 2 b 2 > > 0 5u 1 2v 0 5 20"7 > > 7. Find 0 2p 2 q 0 using the cosine law. > > > > > > 0 2p 2 q 0 2 5 0 2p 0 2 1 0 2 q 0 2 2 2 0 2p 0 0 2 q 0 cos 60 1 5 22 1 12 2 2(2)(1) a b 5 3 2 > > > > 8. 0 m 1 n 0 5 0 m 0 2 0 n 0 > > 9. BC> 5 2 y > DC> 5 x > > BD> 5 2 x 2 y > > AC 5 x 2 y > > 10. Construct a parallelogram with sides OA > and OC . Since the diagonals bisect each other, 2OB is the > > > > > diagonal > equal to > OA 1 >OC. Or > OB 5 >OA 1 AB and AB 5 1 AC. So, OB 5 OA 1 1 AC. And > >2 > > > 2 > > AC 5 OC 2 OA . Now OB 5 OA 1 1 OC 2 OA) ( 2 > > > Multiplying by 2 gives 2OB 5 OA 1 OC. > > > 11. AC 1 CD 5 AD> > > > 3x 2 y 1 2y 5 AD> > > 3x >1 y 5 >AD > AB 1 BD> 5 AD > > > x 1 BD> 5 3x 1 y > > BD > > 5 2x >1 y AB 1 BC> 5 AC > > > x 1 BC> 5 3x 2 y > > BC 5 2x 2 y > 12. The air velocity of the airplane ( Vair ) and the > wind velocity ( W ) have opposite directions.

2 2

3

>

1 3

a+b

b.

2 b

3 2

c.

a

d.

1 2

a

1 2

b

> >

>

1. No, as the y-coordinate is not a real number. 2. a. We first arrange the x-, y-, and z-axes (each a copy of the real line) in a way so that each pair of axes are perpendicular to each other (i.e., the x- and y-axes are arranged in their usual way to form the xy-plane, and the z-axis passes through the origin of the xy-plane and is perpendicular to this plane). This is easiest viewed as a right-handed system, where, from the viewers perspective, the positive z-axis points upward, the positive x-axis points out of the page, and the positive y-axis points rightward in the plane of the page. Then, given point P ( a, b, c ), we locate this points unique position by moving a units along the x-axis, then from there b units parallel to the y-axis, and finally c units parallel to the z-axis. Its associated unique position vector is determined by drawing a vector with tail at the origin O (0, 0, 0) and head at P. b. Since this position vector is unique, its coordinates are unique. Therefore a 5 2 4, b 5 2 3, and c 5 2 8. 3. a. Since A and B are really the same point, we can equate their coordinates. Therefore a 5 5, b 5 2 3, and c 5 8.

>

>

>

6-12

1 5 8 1 10 2 2(8)(10) a b 2 > > 0 u 2 v 0 5 2"21 > > b. Find the direction of u 2 v using the sine law. sin u sin 60 > 5 > > 0 2v 0 0u 2 v0 5 sin u 5 sin 60 "21 5 u 5 sin21 "28 8 71 1 1 > > > > (u 1 v ) c. > > (u 1 v ) 5 0u 1 v0 2"21 > > d. Find 0 5u 1 2v 0 using the cosine law. > > > > > > 0 5u 1 2v 0 2 5 0 5u 0 2 1 0 2v 0 2 2 2 0 5u 0 0 2v 0 cos 120 1 5 402 1 202 2 2(40)(20) a 2 b 2 > > 0 5u 1 2v 0 5 20"7 > > 7. Find 0 2p 2 q 0 using the cosine law. > > > > > > 0 2p 2 q 0 2 5 0 2p 0 2 1 0 2 q 0 2 2 2 0 2p 0 0 2 q 0 cos 60 1 5 22 1 12 2 2(2)(1) a b 5 3 2 > > > > 8. 0 m 1 n 0 5 0 m 0 2 0 n 0 > > 9. BC> 5 2 y > DC> 5 x > > BD> 5 2 x 2 y > > AC 5 x 2 y > > 10. Construct a parallelogram with sides OA > and OC . Since the diagonals bisect each other, 2OB is the > > > > > diagonal > equal to > OA 1 >OC. Or > OB 5 >OA 1 AB and AB 5 1 AC. So, OB 5 OA 1 1 AC. And > >2 > > > 2 > > AC 5 OC 2 OA . Now OB 5 OA 1 1 OC 2 OA) ( 2 > > > Multiplying by 2 gives 2OB 5 OA 1 OC. > > > 11. AC 1 CD 5 AD> > > > 3x 2 y 1 2y 5 AD> > > 3x >1 y 5 >AD > AB 1 BD> 5 AD > > > x 1 BD> 5 3x 1 y > > BD > > 5 2x >1 y AB 1 BC> 5 AC > > > x 1 BC> 5 3x 2 y > > BC 5 2x 2 y > 12. The air velocity of the airplane ( Vair ) and the > wind velocity ( W ) have opposite directions.

2 2

3

>

1 3

a+b

b.

2 b

3 2

c.

a

d.

1 2

a

1 2

b

> >

>

1. No, as the y-coordinate is not a real number. 2. a. We first arrange the x-, y-, and z-axes (each a copy of the real line) in a way so that each pair of axes are perpendicular to each other (i.e., the x- and y-axes are arranged in their usual way to form the xy-plane, and the z-axis passes through the origin of the xy-plane and is perpendicular to this plane). This is easiest viewed as a right-handed system, where, from the viewers perspective, the positive z-axis points upward, the positive x-axis points out of the page, and the positive y-axis points rightward in the plane of the page. Then, given point P ( a, b, c ), we locate this points unique position by moving a units along the x-axis, then from there b units parallel to the y-axis, and finally c units parallel to the z-axis. Its associated unique position vector is determined by drawing a vector with tail at the origin O (0, 0, 0) and head at P. b. Since this position vector is unique, its coordinates are unique. Therefore a 5 2 4, b 5 2 3, and c 5 2 8. 3. a. Since A and B are really the same point, we can equate their coordinates. Therefore a 5 5, b 5 2 3, and c 5 8.

>

>

>

6-12

b. From part a., A (5, 2 3, 8), so OA 5 (5, 2 3, 8). Here is a depiction of this vector.

z

>

OA (5, 3, 8)

O(0, 0, 0) (4, 0, 0)

y

x (4, 0, 2)

4. This is not an acceptable vector in I 3 as the z-coordinate is not an integer. However, since all of the coordinates are real numbers, this is acceptable as a vector in R 3. 5. z

O(0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 2) (0, 4, 0) (4, 4, 0) (0, 0, 2) (4, 0, 0) x A(4, 4, 2) (4, 0, 2) z (4, 0, 2) B(4, 4, 2)

6. a. A (0, 2 1, 0) is located on the y-axis. B (0, 2 2, 0), C (0, 2, 0), and D (0, 10, 0) are three other points on this axis. > b. OA 5 (0, 2 1, 0), the vector with tail at the origin O (0, 0, 0) and head at A. 7. a. For example: > Answers may vary. > OA> 5 (0, 0, 1), OB 5 (0, 0, 2 1), OC 5 (0, 0, 2 5) b. Yes, these vectors are collinear (parallel), as they all lie on the same line, in this case the z-axis. c. A general vector lying on the z-axis would be of > the form OA 5 (0, 0, a ) for any real number a. Therefore, this vector would be represented by placing the tail at O, and the head at the point (0, 0, a ) on the z-axis. z 8.

F (0, 2, 3) E (2, 0, 3) B (0, 2, 0) A(1, 0, 0) x D (2, 3, 0) C (0, 0, 3) y

9. a.

x

x A(3, 2, 4)

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

C(0, 1, 4) B(1, 1, 4)

6-13

b. Every point on the plane containing points A, B, and C has z-coordinate equal to 2 4. Therefore, the equation of the plane containing these points is z 5 2 4 (a plane parallel to the xy-plane through the point z 5 2 4). 10. a. A(1, 2, 3)

(0, 0, 3) z (1, 0, 3) O (0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0) x (0, 2, 3)

d.

(0, 0, 1) (1, 0, 1) O(0, 0, 0) x (1, 0, 0)

(0, 2, 0) y (1, 2, 0)

e.

(0, 1, 1) E(1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 0)

b.

(2, 0, 0) (0, 0, 1)

z (2, 0, 1)

(1, 1, 0) x

(0, 1, 0) x O(0, 0, 0)

f.

c.

(0, 2, 1)

(0, 1, 1) x F(1, 1, 1)

>

C(1, 2, 1) (0, 2, 0)

11. a. OA 5 (1, 2, 3)

(0, 0, 3) (1, 0, 3) O (0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0) x z (0, 2, 3) OA (0, 2, 0) y (1, 2, 0)

6-14

b. OB 5 ( 2 2, 1, 1)

z (2, 0, 1) (2, 0, 0) (0, 0, 1) (0, 1, 0) x

>

>

f. OF 5 (1, 2 1, 2 1)

B(2, 1, 1) (2, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1) y (1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0) (0, 1, 1) F(1, 1, 1) x OF OB

>

O(0, 0, 0)

c. OC 5 (1, 2 2, 1)

z (0, 2, 1) (0, 2, 0) (1, 0, 1) C(1, 2, 1)

(0, 0, 1) OC O(0, 0, 0) y

(1, 2, 0) x

(1, 0, 0)

d. OD 5 (1, 1, 1)

z D(1, 1, 1) OD (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0)

>

>

(0, 1, 1) y

(1, 0, 0)

e. OE 5 (1, 2 1, 1)

z (0, 1, 1) E(1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0) x (1, 0, 0) OE (0, 0, 1) (1, 0, 1) O(0, 0, 0) y

12. a. Since P and Q represent the same point, we can equate their y- and z-coordinates to get the system of equations a2c56 a 5 11 Substituting this second equation into the first gives 11 2 c 5 6 c55 So a 5 11 and c 5 5. b. Since P and Q represent the same point in R 3, they will > have >the same associated position vector, i.e. OP 5 OQ. So, since these vectors are equal, they will certainly have equal magnitudes, > > i.e. @ OP @ 5 @ OQ @ . 13. P ( x, y, 0) represents a general point on the xy-plane, since the z-coordinate is 0. Similarly, Q ( x, 0, z ) represents a general point in the xz-plane, and R (0, y, z ) represents a general point in the yz-plane. 14. a. Every point on the plane containing points M, N, and P has y-coordinate equal to 0. Therefore, the equation of the plane containing these points is y 5 0 (this is just the xz-plane). b. The plane y 5 0 contains the origin O (0, 0, 0), and so since it also contains the points M, N, and P as well, it will contain the position vectors associated with these points joining O (tail) to the given point (head). That is, the plane y 5 0 contains the vectors > > > OM, ON, and OP. 15. a. A ( 2 2, 0, 0), B ( 2 2, 4, 0), C (0, 4, 0), D (0, 0, 2 7), E (0, 4, 2 7), F ( 2 2, 0, 2 7) b. OA 5 ( 2 2, 0, 0), OB 5 ( 2 2, 4, 0),

OC 5 (0, 4, 0), OD 5 (0, 0, 2 7), OE 5 (0, 4, 2 7), OF 5 ( 2 2, 0, 2 7) c. Rectangle DEPF is 7 units below the xy-plane.

> > > > > >

6-15

d. Every point on the plane containing points B, C, E, and P has y-coordinate equal to 4. Therefore, the equation of the plane containing these points is y 5 4 (a plane parallel to the xz-plane through the point y 5 4). e. Every point contained in rectangle BCEP has y-coordinate equal to 4, and so is of the form (x, 4, z) where x and z are real numbers such that 2 2 # x # 0 and 2 7 # z # 0. 16. a. y

d.

O(0, 0, 0) M(1, 3, 2) x

e.

O(0, 0) x P(4, 2) O(0, 0, 0)

z F(0, 0, 5)

b.

D(3, 4)

f.

O(0, 0) x J(2, 2, 0)

O(0, 0, 0)

c.

z C(2, 4, 5)

O(0, 0, 0)

17. The following box illustrates the three dimensional solid consisting of the set of all points (x, y, z) such that 0 # x # 1, 0 # y # 1, and 0 # z # 1.

z (0, 0, 1) (0, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1) y (0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0)

O(0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 1)

(1, 0, 0) x

6-16

18. First, OP 5 OA 1 OB > by the triangle law of 5 (5, OA vector addition, where > > > 2 10, 0), OB 5 (0, 0, 2 10), OP and OA are drawn in standard > position (starting from the origin O (0, > 0, 0)), OA and OB is drawn starting from the head of > > . Notice that OA lies in the xy-plane, and OB is perpendicular > > to the > xy-plane > (so is perpendicular to OA ). So, OP, OA, and OB form> a right triangle and, > > 2 2 by the Pythagorean theorem, @ OP @ 5 @ OA @ 1 @ OB @ 2 > > > Similarly, OA 5 a 1 b by the triangle law of > vector addition, where a 5 (5, 0, 0) and > b 5 (0, 2 10, 0), and these three vectors form a right triangle as well. So, > > > @ OA @ 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 @ b @ 2 5 25 1 100 5 125 > Obviously @ OB @ 2 5 100, and so substituting gives

5 125 1 100 5 225 > @ OP @ 5 "225 5 15 > 19. >To find a vector AB equivalent to OP 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6), where B (4, 2 2, 8), we need to move 2 units to the right of the x-coordinate for B (to 4 1 2 5 6), 3 units to the left of the y-coordinate for B (to 2 2 2 3 5 2 5), and 6 units below the z-coordinate for B (to 8 2 6 5 2). So we get the point A (6, 2 5, 2). Indeed, notice that to get from A > to B (which describes vector AB ), we move 2 units left in the x-coordinate, 3 units right in the y-coordinate, and 6 units up in >the z-coordinate. This is equivalent to vector OP 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6).

>

>

>

a. AB 5 (2, 5) 2 ( 21, 3) 5 (3, 2) > > BA 5 2 AB 5 2 (3, 2) 5 ( 23, 22) Here is a sketch of these two vectors in the xy-coordinate plane.

y AB B(2, 5)

>

A(1, 3) BA

@ OP @ 2 5 @ OA @ 2 1 @ OB @ 2

> > >

>

5 "29 > 8 5.39 c. 0 AB 0 5 "32 1 22 5 "13 8 3.61> > BA 5 2 AB , Also, since > > 0 BA 0 5 0 2 AB 0 > 5 0 2 1 0 ? 0 AB 0 5 0 AB 0

>

5 "13 8 3.61

y

1.

A(1, 3) y B(2, 5)

2.

30 25 20 15 10 5 O(0, 0) 9 6 3 0 5 10

A(6, 10) x OA 3 6 9

6-17

18. First, OP 5 OA 1 OB > by the triangle law of 5 (5, OA vector addition, where > > > 2 10, 0), OB 5 (0, 0, 2 10), OP and OA are drawn in standard > position (starting from the origin O (0, > 0, 0)), OA and OB is drawn starting from the head of > > . Notice that OA lies in the xy-plane, and OB is perpendicular > > to the > xy-plane > (so is perpendicular to OA ). So, OP, OA, and OB form> a right triangle and, > > 2 2 by the Pythagorean theorem, @ OP @ 5 @ OA @ 1 @ OB @ 2 > > > Similarly, OA 5 a 1 b by the triangle law of > vector addition, where a 5 (5, 0, 0) and > b 5 (0, 2 10, 0), and these three vectors form a right triangle as well. So, > > > @ OA @ 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 @ b @ 2 5 25 1 100 5 125 > Obviously @ OB @ 2 5 100, and so substituting gives

5 125 1 100 5 225 > @ OP @ 5 "225 5 15 > 19. >To find a vector AB equivalent to OP 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6), where B (4, 2 2, 8), we need to move 2 units to the right of the x-coordinate for B (to 4 1 2 5 6), 3 units to the left of the y-coordinate for B (to 2 2 2 3 5 2 5), and 6 units below the z-coordinate for B (to 8 2 6 5 2). So we get the point A (6, 2 5, 2). Indeed, notice that to get from A > to B (which describes vector AB ), we move 2 units left in the x-coordinate, 3 units right in the y-coordinate, and 6 units up in >the z-coordinate. This is equivalent to vector OP 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6).

>

>

>

a. AB 5 (2, 5) 2 ( 21, 3) 5 (3, 2) > > BA 5 2 AB 5 2 (3, 2) 5 ( 23, 22) Here is a sketch of these two vectors in the xy-coordinate plane.

y AB B(2, 5)

>

A(1, 3) BA

@ OP @ 2 5 @ OA @ 2 1 @ OB @ 2

> > >

>

5 "29 > 8 5.39 c. 0 AB 0 5 "32 1 22 5 "13 8 3.61> > BA 5 2 AB , Also, since > > 0 BA 0 5 0 2 AB 0 > 5 0 2 1 0 ? 0 AB 0 5 0 AB 0

>

5 "13 8 3.61

y

1.

A(1, 3) y B(2, 5)

2.

30 25 20 15 10 5 O(0, 0) 9 6 3 0 5 10

A(6, 10) x OA 3 6 9

6-17

a.

20 15 10 5 O(0, 0) 12 9 6 3 0 (3, 5) 5 10 15 20 (12, 20)

(12, 20)

(3, 5) 3 6 9 12

b. The vectors with the same magnitude are > > 1 1 OA and 2 OA, 2 2 > > 2OA and 2 2OA > 3. @ OA @ 5 "32 1 ( 2 4)2

5 "25 5> 5 4. a. The i -component will be equal to the first coordinate in component form, and so a 5 2 3. > Similarly, the j -component will be equal to the second coordinate in component form, and so b 5 5. b. 0 ( 2 3, b ) 0 5 0 ( 2 3, 5) 0 5 "34 8 5.83 > 5. a. 0 a 0 5 " ( 2 60)2 1 112 5 " ( 2 3)2 1 52

5 "1681 >5 41 > b. a 1 b 5 ( 2 60, 11) 1 ( 2 40, 2 9) 5 ( 2 100, 2) > > @ a 1 b @ 5 " ( 2 100)2 1 22 5 "10 004 > 8 100.02 > a 2 b 5 ( 2 60, 11) 2 ( 2 40, 2 9) 5 ( 2 20, 20) > > @ a 2 b @ 5 " ( 2 20)2 1 20 2

1 2 c. 2 (6, 2 2) 1 (6, 15) 2 3 2 1 2 1 5 a2 (6) 1 (6), 2 ( 2 2) 1 (15)b 2 3 2 3 5 (1, 11) > > > > > > 7. x 5 2i 2 j, y 5 > 2 >i 1 5j > > > > a. 3x 2 y 5 3(2i 2 j ) 2 ( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 (6 1 1)i 1 ( 2 3 2 5)j > > 5 7i 2 8j > > > > b. 2 ( x 1 2y ) 1 3( 2 x 2 3y ) > > 11>y 5 2 4x 2 > > > 5 2 4(2i 2 j ) 2 11( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 3i 2 51j > > > > c. 2( x 1 3y ) 2 3( y 1 5x ) > > 5 2 13x 1 > 3y> > > 5 2 13(2i 2 j ) 1 3( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 2 29i 1 28j > > > > > > 8. a. x 1 y 5 (2i 2 j ) 1 ( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 i >1 4j > > > 0 x 1 y 0 5 @ i 1 4j @ 5 "12 1 42 5 "17 8 4.12 > > > > > > b. x 2 y 5 (2i 2 j ) 2 ( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 3i 2 6j > > > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 @ 3i 2 6j @ 5 "32 1 ( 2 6)2 5 "45 8 6.71 > > > > > > c. 2x 2 3y 5 2(2i 2 j ) 2 3( 2 i 1 5j ) > > 5 7i 2 17j > > > > 0 2x 2 3y 0 5 @ 7i 2 17j @ 5 "338 8 18.38 > > > > d. 0 3y 2 2x 0 5 0 2 (2x 2 3y ) 0 > > 5 0 2 1 0 0 2x 2 3y 0 > > 5 0 2x 2 3y 0 so, from part c., > > > > 0 3y 2 2x 0 5 0 2x 2 3y 0 5 "338 8 18.38 5 "72 1 ( 2 17)2

5 "800 8 28.28 6. a. 2( 2 2, 3) 1 (2, 1) 5 (2( 2 2) 1 2, 2(3) 1 1) 5 ( 2 2, 7) b. 2 3(4, 2 9) 2 9(2, 3) 5 ( 2 3(4) 2 9(2), 2 3( 2 9) 2 9(3)) 5 ( 2 30, 0)

6-18

9.

B(4, 4) A(8, 2) 8 6 4 2

y D(4, 5)

so obviously we will have @ OA @ 5 @ BC @ . (It turns out that their common magnitude is "62 1 32 5 "45.) 11. a. y

> >

a. AB 5 ( 2 4, 4) 2 ( 2 8, 2) 5 (4, 2) > CD 5 (4, 5) 2 (2, 1) 5 (2, 4) > EF 5 ( 2 7, 0) 2 ( 2 1, 2 4) 5 ( 2 6, 4) > GH 5 (6, 2 2) 2 (1, 2 2) 5 (5, 0) > b. @ AB @ 5 "42 1 22 5 "20 > 8 4.47 @ CD @ 5 "22 1 42 5 "20 8 4.47 > @ EF @ 5 " ( 2 6)2 1 42

5 "52 8 7.21 > @ GH @ 5 "52 1 02

>

5 "25 55 10. a. By the parallelogram law of vector addition, > > > OC 5 OA 1 OB 5 (6, 3) 1 (11, 2 6) 5 (17, 2 3) For> the other > vectors, > BA 5 OA 2 OB 5 (6, 3) 2 (11, 2 6) 5 ( 2 5, 9) > > > BC 5 OC 2 OB 5 (17, 2 3) 2 (11, 2 6) 5 (6, 3) > b. OA 5 (6, 3) > 5 BC,

> > >

b. AB 5 (6, 6) 2 (2, 3) 5 (4, 3) > @ AB @ 5 "42 1 32 5 "25 >55 AC 5 ( 2 4, 11) 2 (2, 3) 5 ( 2 6, 8) > @ AC @ 5 " ( 2 6)2 1 82 5 "100 > 5 10 CB 5 (6, 6) 2 ( 2 4, 11) 5 (10, 2 5) > @ CB @ 5 "102 1 ( 2 5)2 5 "125 > 8 11.18 > > @ c. CB @ 2 5 125 @ AC @ 2 5 100, @ AB @ 2 5 25

>

6-19

b.

X(6, 12)

y C(2, 8) Z(10, 4)

A(1, 2)

Substituting this into the last equation above, we can now solve for y. 2 2( 2 12) 2 5y 5 4 y54 So x 5 2 12 and y 5 4. 14. a. y

C(x, y) B(6, 9) D(8, 11) A(2, 3)

x B(7, 2)

Y(4, 8)

c. As a first possibility for the fourth vertex, there is X ( x1, x2 ). From the sketch in part b., we see that we would then have> > CX 5 BA ( x1 2 2, x2 2 8) 5 ( 2 1 2 7, 2 2 ( 2 2)) 5 ( 2 8, 4) x1 2 2 5 2 8 x2 2 8 5 4 So X ( 2 6, 12). By similar reasoning for the other points labelled in the> sketch> in part b., AY 5 CB ( y1 2 ( 2 1), y2 2 2) 5 (7 2 2, 2 2 2 8) 5 (5, 2 10) y1 1 1 5 5 y2 2 2 5 2 10 So Y (4, 2 8). Finally, > > BZ 5 AC ( z1 2 7, z2 2 ( 2 2)) 5 (2 2 ( 21), 8 2 2) 5 (3, 6) z1 2 7 5 3 z2 1 2 5 6 So Z (10, 4). In conclusion, the three possible locations for a fourth vertex in a parallelogram with vertices A, B, and C are X ( 2 6, 12), Y (4, 2 8), and Z (10, 4). 13. a. 3( x, 1) 2 5(2, 3y ) 5 (11, 33) (3x 2 5(2), 3 2 5(3y )) 5 (11, 33) (3x 2 10, 3 2 15y ) 5 (11, 33) 3x 2 10 5 11 3 2 15y 5 33 So x 5 7 and y 5 2 2. b. 2 2( x, x 1 y ) 2 3(6, y ) 5 (6, 4) ( 2 2x 2 18, 2 2x 2 5y ) 5 (6, 4) 2 2x 2 18 5 6 2 2x 2 5y 5 4 To solve for x, use 2 2x 2 18 5 6 x 5 2 12 6-20

b. Because ABCD we will have > is a rectangle, > BC 5 AD ( x, y ) 2 ( 2 6, 9) 5 (8, 11) 2 (2, 3) ( x 1 6, y 2 9) 5 (6, 8) x1656 y2958 So, x 5 0 and y 5 17, i.e., C (0, 17). > > 15. a. Since 0 PA 0 5 0 PB 0 , and > PA 5 (5, 0) 2 ( a, 0) 5 (5 2 a, 0), > PB 5 (0, 2) 2 ( a, 0) 5 ( 2 a, 2), this means that (5 2 a )2 5 ( 2 a )2 1 22 25 2 10a 1 a 2 5 a 2 1 4 10a 5 21 21 a5 10 21 So P a , 0 b . 10 b. This point Q on the y-axis will be of the form Q (0, b ) for some real number b. Reasoning similarly to part a., we have > QA 5 (5, 0) 2 (0, b ) 5 (5, 2 b ) > QB 5 (0, 2) 2 (0, b ) 5 (0, 2 2 b ) > > So since @ QA @ 5 @ QB @ , ( 2 b )2 1 52 5 (2 2 b )2 b 2 1 25 5 4 2 4b 1 b 2 4b 5 2 21 21 b52 4 21 So Q a 0, 2 b . 4

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

16. QP is in the direction opposite to PQ, and > > > QP 5 OP 2 OQ 5 (11, 19) 2 (2, 2 21) 5 (9, 40) > @ QP @ 5 "92 1 402 5 "1681 5 41 > A unit vector in the direction of QP is > 1 > u 5 QP 41 9 40 5a , b 41 41 > > Indeed, u is obviously in the same direction as QP > > (since u is a positive scalar multiple of QP ), and notice that 40 2 9 2 > 0u0 5 a b 1 a b 41 41 81 1 1600 5 1681 51 17. a. O, P, and R can be thought of as the vertices of a triangle. > > > PR 5 OR 2 OP 5 ( 2 8, 2 1) 2 ( 2 7, 24) 5 ( 2 1, 2 25) > @ PR @ 2 5 ( 2 1)2 1 ( 2 25)2 > 5 626 @ OR @ 2 5 ( 2 8)2 1 ( 2 1)2 > 5 65 @ OP @ 2 5 ( 2 7)2 1 242 5 625 > By >the cosine law, the angle, u, between OR and OP satisfies > > > @ OR @ 2 1 @ OP @ 2 2 @ PR @ 2 > > cos u 5 2 @ OR @ ? @ OP @ 65 1 625 2 626 5 2 !65 ? !625 65 1 625 2 626 b u 5 cos21 a 2 !65 ? !625 8 80.9 > > So the angle between OR and OP is about 80.86. > b. We > found the > vector PR 5 ( 2 1, 2 25) in part a., so RP 5 2 PR 5 (1, 25) and > > @ RP @ 2 5 @ PR @ 2 5 626

>

>

Also, by the parallelogram law of vector addition, > > > OQ 5 OR 1 OP 5 ( 2 8, 2 1) 1 ( 2 7, 24) 5 ( 2 15, 23) > @ OQ @ 2 5 ( 2 15)2 1 232 5 754 > > Placing RP 5 (1, 25) and OQ 5 ( 2 15, 23) with their tails at the origin, a triangle is formed by joining the heads of these two vectors. The third side of this > triangle > is the vector > v 5 RP 2 OQ 5 (1, 25) 2 ( 2 15, 23) 5 (16, 2) >2 0 v 0 5 162 1 22 5 260 Now by reasoning similar to part a., the > cosine > law implies that the angle, u, between RP and OQ satisfies > > > @ RP @ 2 1 @ OQ @ 2 2 @ v @ 2 > > cos u 5 2 @ RP @ ? @ OQ @ 626 1 754 2 260 5 2 !626 ? !754 626 1 754 2 260 u 5 cos21 a b 2 !626 ? !754 8 35.4 > > So the angle between RP and OQ is about 35.40. However, since we are discussing the diagonals of parallelogram OPQR here, it would also have been appropriate to report the supplement of this angle, or about 1802 35.40 5 144.60, as the angle between these vectors.

1. a. OA 5 2 1i 1 2j 1 4k > b. @ OA @ 5 " ( 2 1)2 1 22 1 42 5 "21 8 4.58 > 2. OB 5 (3, 4, 2 4) > @ OB @ 5 "32 1 42 1 ( 2 4)2 5 "41 8 6.40 > 1 > > 3. a 1 b 2 c 5 (1, 3, 2 3) 1 ( 2 1, 2, 4) 3 2 (0, 8, 1) 5 (1 1 ( 2 1) 2 0, 3 1 2 2 8, ( 2 3) 1 4 2 1) 5 (0, 2 3, 0) > 1 > > ` a 1 b 2 c ` 5 "02 1 ( 2 3)2 1 02 3 53 6-21

> > > >

16. QP is in the direction opposite to PQ, and > > > QP 5 OP 2 OQ 5 (11, 19) 2 (2, 2 21) 5 (9, 40) > @ QP @ 5 "92 1 402 5 "1681 5 41 > A unit vector in the direction of QP is > 1 > u 5 QP 41 9 40 5a , b 41 41 > > Indeed, u is obviously in the same direction as QP > > (since u is a positive scalar multiple of QP ), and notice that 40 2 9 2 > 0u0 5 a b 1 a b 41 41 81 1 1600 5 1681 51 17. a. O, P, and R can be thought of as the vertices of a triangle. > > > PR 5 OR 2 OP 5 ( 2 8, 2 1) 2 ( 2 7, 24) 5 ( 2 1, 2 25) > @ PR @ 2 5 ( 2 1)2 1 ( 2 25)2 > 5 626 @ OR @ 2 5 ( 2 8)2 1 ( 2 1)2 > 5 65 @ OP @ 2 5 ( 2 7)2 1 242 5 625 > By >the cosine law, the angle, u, between OR and OP satisfies > > > @ OR @ 2 1 @ OP @ 2 2 @ PR @ 2 > > cos u 5 2 @ OR @ ? @ OP @ 65 1 625 2 626 5 2 !65 ? !625 65 1 625 2 626 b u 5 cos21 a 2 !65 ? !625 8 80.9 > > So the angle between OR and OP is about 80.86. > b. We > found the > vector PR 5 ( 2 1, 2 25) in part a., so RP 5 2 PR 5 (1, 25) and > > @ RP @ 2 5 @ PR @ 2 5 626

>

>

Also, by the parallelogram law of vector addition, > > > OQ 5 OR 1 OP 5 ( 2 8, 2 1) 1 ( 2 7, 24) 5 ( 2 15, 23) > @ OQ @ 2 5 ( 2 15)2 1 232 5 754 > > Placing RP 5 (1, 25) and OQ 5 ( 2 15, 23) with their tails at the origin, a triangle is formed by joining the heads of these two vectors. The third side of this > triangle > is the vector > v 5 RP 2 OQ 5 (1, 25) 2 ( 2 15, 23) 5 (16, 2) >2 0 v 0 5 162 1 22 5 260 Now by reasoning similar to part a., the > cosine > law implies that the angle, u, between RP and OQ satisfies > > > @ RP @ 2 1 @ OQ @ 2 2 @ v @ 2 > > cos u 5 2 @ RP @ ? @ OQ @ 626 1 754 2 260 5 2 !626 ? !754 626 1 754 2 260 u 5 cos21 a b 2 !626 ? !754 8 35.4 > > So the angle between RP and OQ is about 35.40. However, since we are discussing the diagonals of parallelogram OPQR here, it would also have been appropriate to report the supplement of this angle, or about 1802 35.40 5 144.60, as the angle between these vectors.

1. a. OA 5 2 1i 1 2j 1 4k > b. @ OA @ 5 " ( 2 1)2 1 22 1 42 5 "21 8 4.58 > 2. OB 5 (3, 4, 2 4) > @ OB @ 5 "32 1 42 1 ( 2 4)2 5 "41 8 6.40 > 1 > > 3. a 1 b 2 c 5 (1, 3, 2 3) 1 ( 2 1, 2, 4) 3 2 (0, 8, 1) 5 (1 1 ( 2 1) 2 0, 3 1 2 2 8, ( 2 3) 1 4 2 1) 5 (0, 2 3, 0) > 1 > > ` a 1 b 2 c ` 5 "02 1 ( 2 3)2 1 02 3 53 6-21

> > > >

> >

>

>

>

>

> > >

@ AB @ 5 "52 1 ( 2 2)2 1 ( 2 13)2 5 "198 8 14.07 > > AB represents the vector from the tip of OA to the tip > of OB. It is the difference between the two vectors. > > > 5. a. x 2 2y 2 z

5 (1, 4, 2 1) 2 2(1, 3, 2 2) 2 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 (1, 4, 2 1) 2 (2, 6, 2 4) 2 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 (1 2 2 2 ( 2 2), 4 2 6 2 1, 2 1 2 ( 2 4) 2 0) 5 (1, 2 3, 3) > > > b. 2 2x 2 3y 1 z 5 2 2(1, 4, 2 1) 2 3(1, 3, 2 2) 1 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 ( 2 2, 2 8, 2) 2 (3, 9, 2 6) 1 ( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 ( 2 2 2 3 2 2, 2 8 2 9 1 1, 2 1 6 1 0) 5 ( 2 7, 2 16, 8) 1 > > > c. x 2 y 1 3z 2 1 5 (1, 4, 2 1) 2 (1, 3, 2 2) 1 3( 2 2, 1, 0) 2 1 1 5 a , 2, 2 b 2 (1, 3, 2 2) 1 ( 2 6, 3, 0) 2 2 1 1 5 a 2 1 1 ( 2 6), 2 2 3 1 3, 2 2 ( 2 2) 1 0 b 2 2 13 3 5 a 2 , 2, b 2 2 > > > d. 3x 1 5y 1 3z 5 3(1, 4, 2 1) 1 5(1, 3, 2 2) 1 3( 2 2, 1, 0) 5 (3, 12, 2 3) 1 (5, 15, 2 10) 1 ( 2 6, 3, 0) 5 (3 1 5 2 6, 12 1 15 1 3, 2 3 2 10 1 0) 5 (2, 30, 2 13) > > > > > > > > 6. a. p 1 q 5 (2i 2 j 1 k ) 1 ( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > 5 (2 2 1)i 1 ( 2 1 2 1)j 1 (1 1 1)k > > > 5 i 2 2j 1 2k > > > > > > > > b. p 2 q 5 (2i 2 j 1 k ) 2 ( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > 5 (2 1 1)i 1 ( 2 1 1 1)j 1 (1 2 1)k > > > 5 3i 1 0j 1 0k

> > > > > > > > c. 2p 2 5q 5 2(2i 2 j 1 k ) 2 5( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > > > > 5 (4i 2 2j 1 2k ) 2 ( 2 5i 2 5j 1 5k ) > > > 5 (4 1 5)i 1 ( 2 2 1 5)j 1 (2 2 5)k > > > 5 9i 1 3j 2 3k > > > > > > > > d. 2 2p 1 5q 5 2 2(2i 2 j 1 k ) 1 5( 2 i 2 j 1 k ) > > > > > > 5 ( 2 4i 1 2j 2 2k ) 1 ( 2 5i 2 5j 1 5k ) > > > 5 ( 2 4 2 5)i 1 (2 2 5)j 1 ( 2 2 1 5)k > > > 5 2 9i 2 3j 1 3k > > > > > > > 7. a. m 2 n 5 (2i 2 k )2 ( 2 2i 1 j 1 2k ) > > > 5 (2 2 ( 2 2))i 1 ( 2 1)j 1 ( 2 1 2 2)k > > > 5 4i 2 j 2 3k > > 0 m 2 n 0 5 "42 1 ( 2 1)2 1 ( 2 3)2 5 "26 8 5.10 > > > > > > > b. m 1 n 5 (2i 2 k ) 1 ( 2 2i 1 j 1 2k ) > > > 5 (2 1 ( 2 2))i 1 j 1 ( 2 1 1 2)k > > > 5 0i 1 j 1 k > > 0 m 1 n 0 5 "02 1 12 1 12 5 "2 8 1.41 > > > > > > > c. 2m 1 3n 5 2(2i 2 k ) 1 3( 2 2i 1 j 1 2k ) > > > > > 5 (4i 2 2k ) 1 ( 2 6i 1 3j 1 6k ) > > > 5 (4 1 ( 2 6))i 1 3j 1 ( 2 2 1 6)k > > > 5 2 2i 1 3j 1 4k > > 0 2m 1 3n 0 5 " ( 2 2)2 1 32 1 42 5 "29 8 5.39 > > > > > d. 2 5m 5 2 5(2i 2 k ) 5 2 10i 1 5k > 0 2 5m 0 5 " ( 2 10)2 1 (5)2 5 "125 8 11.18 > > > > > 8. x 1 y 5 2 i 1 2j 1 5k > > > > > 1 x 2 y 5 3i 1 6j 2 7k > > > > 2x 5 2i 1 8j 2 2k Divide > by >2 on > both sides to get: > x 5 i 1 4j 2 k Plug this equation into the first given equation: > > > > > > > i 1 4j 2 k 1 y 5 2 i 1 2j 1 5k > > > > > > > y 5 2 i 1 2j 1 5k 2 ( i 1 4j 2 k ) > > > > y 5 ( 2 1 2 1)i 1 (2 2 4)j 1 (5 1 1)k > > > > y 5 2 2i 2 2j 1 6k > > > 9. a. The vectors OA, OB , and OC represent the xy-plane, xz-plane, and yz-plane, respectively. They are also the vector from the origin to points (a, b, 0), (a, 0, c), and (0, b, c), respectively. > > > > b. OA 5 ai 1 bj 1 0k > > > > OB 5 ai 1 0j 1 ck > > > > OC 5 0i 1 bj 1 ck > c. @ OA @ 5 "a 2 1 b 2

>

6-22

>

>

>

b. @ OB @ 5 " (3)2 1 ( 2 4)2 1 122 5 "169 5 13 > > > c. AB 5 OB 2 OA 5 (3, 2 4, 12) 2 ( 2 2, 2 6, 3) 5 (3 2 ( 2 2), 2 4 2 ( 2 6), 12 2 3) 5 (5, 2, 9) d. @ AB @ 5 "52 1 22 1 92 5 "110 8 10.49

>

e. BA 5 OA 2 OB 5 ( 2 2, 2 6, 3) 2 (3, 2 4, 12) 5 ( 2 5, 2 2, 2 9)

>

>

>

>

> > > 12. 2x 1 y 2 2z 5 2( 2 1, b, c ) 1 ( a, 2 2, c ) 2 2( 2 a, 6, c ) 5 ( 2 2, 2b, 2c ) 1 ( a, 2 2, c ) 2 ( 2 2a, 12, 2c ) 5 ( 2 2 1 a 1 2a, 2b 2 2 2 12, 2c 1 c 2 2c ) 5 ( 2 2 1 3a, 2b 2 14, c ) 5 (0, 0, 0) 2 2 1 3a 5 0; 2b 2 14 5 0; c 5 0 2 3a 5 2; a 5 3 2b 5 14; b 5 7 c50 z 13. a.

A OA OB O B OC C y

5 "110 8 10.49

z B(3, 1, 17) BC C(7, 3, 15) DC D(4, 1, 3)

AB A(0, 3, 5) AD y

In order to show that we > ABCD > is a parallelogram, > > must show that AB 5 DC or BC 5 AD. This will show they have the same direction, thus the opposite sides are parallel. By showing the vectors are equal they will have the same magnitude, implying the opposite sides having congruency. > AB 5 (3, 2 1, 17) 2 (0, 3, 5) 5 (3 2 0, 2 1 2 3, 17 2 5) 5 (3, 2 4, 12) > DC 5 (7, 2 3, 15) 2 (4, 1, 3) 5 (7 2 4, 2 3 2 1, 15 2 3) 5 (3, 2 4, 12) > > Thus AB 5 DC. Do the calculations for the other pair > as a check. BC 5 (7, 2 3, 15) 2 (3, 2 1, 17) 5 (7 2 3, 2 3 2 ( 2 1), 15 2 17) 5 (4, 2 2, 2 2) > AD 5 (4, 1, 3) 2 (0, 3, 5) 5 (4 2 0, 1 2 3, 3 2 5) 5 (4, 2 2, 2 2) > > So BC 5 AD. > > > > We have shown AB 5 DC and BC 5 AD, so ABCD is a parallelogram.

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

b. V1 5 (0, 0, 0), the origin > V2 5 end point of OA 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) > V3 5 end point of OB 5 (0, 4, 1) > V4 5 end point of OC 5 (0, 5, 2 1) > > V5 5 OA 1 OB 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) 1 (0, 4, 1) 5 ( 2 2 1 0, 2 1 4, 5 1 1) 5 ( 2 2, 6, 6) > > V6 5 OA 1 OC 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) 1 (0, 5, 2 1) 5 ( 2 2 1 0, 2 1 5, 5 2 1) 5 ( 2 2, 7, 4) > > V7 5 OB 1 OC 5 (0, 4, 1) 1 (0, 5, 2 1) 5 (0 1 0, 4 1 5, 1 2 1) 5 (0, 9, 0) > > > V8 5 OA 1 OB 1 OC 5 ( 2 2, 2, 5) 1 (0, 9, 0) (by V7) 5 ( 2 2 1 0, 2 1 9, 5 1 0) 5 ( 2 2, 11, 5) 14. Any point on the x-axis has y-coordinate 0 and z-coordinate 0. The z-coordinate of each of A and B is 3, so the z-component of the distance from the desired point is the same for each of A and B. The y-component of the distance from the desired point will be 1 for each of A and B, 12 5 ( 2 1)2. So, the x-coordinate of the desired point has to be halfway between the x-coordinates of A and B. The desired point is (1, 0, 0).

6-23

15.

a A b

ab

a+b

C

B a

To solve this problem, >we must first > consider the > > triangle formed by a , b, and a 1 b. We will use their magnitudes to solve for angle A, which will be > > a 2 b used to solve for 1 in the triangle formed by 2 > > > 1 > 1 > b, 2 a 1 b , and 2 a 2 b. Using the cosine law, we> see that: > > > @b@ 2 1 @a 1 b@ 2 2 @a @ 2 cos ( A ) 5 > > > 2 @b@ @a 1 b@ 25 1 49 2 9 5 70 13 5 14 > > > Now, consider the triangle formed by b, 1 2 a 1 b, > > and 1 2 a 2 b. Using the cosine law again: > 2 > 2 > 1 > 1 > @b@ 2 1 2 @a 1 b@ 2 2 @a 2 b@ cos ( A ) 5 > > > @b@ @a 1 b@ > 2 1 > 149 2 2 @a 2 b @ 13 4 5 35 14 > 65 149 > @ a 2 b @ 2 5 24a 2 b 2 4 > > @ a 2 b @ 2 5 19 > > @ a 2 b @ 5 "19 or 4.36

) (

1. They are collinear, thus a linear combination is not applicable. > 2. It is not possible to use 0 in a spanning set. Therefore, the remaining vectors only span R 2. 3. The set of vectors spanned by (0, 1) is m (0, 1). If we let m 5 2 1, then m (0, 1) 5 (0, 2 1). > 4. i spans the set m (1, 0, 0). This is any vector along the x-axis. Examples: (2, 0, 0), ( 2 21, 0, > 0) 5. As in question 2, it is not possible to use 0 in a spanning set.

6. 5 ( 2 1, 2), ( 2 1, 1)6 , 5 (2, 2 4), ( 2 1, 1)6 , 5 ( 2 1, 1), ( 2 3, 6)6 are all the possible spanning sets for R 2 with 2 vectors. > > > > > > 7. a. 2(2a 2 3b 1 c ) 5 4a 2 6b 1 2c > > > > > > 5 4i 2 8j 2 6j 1 18k 1 2i 2 6j 1 4k > > > 5 6i 2 20j 1 22k > > > > > > 4( 2 a 1 b 2 c ) 5 2 4a 1 4b 2 4c > > > > > > 5 2 4i 1 8j 1 4j 2 12k 2 4i 1 12j 2 8k > > > 5 2 8i 1 24j 2 20k > > > > > > > ( a 2 c ) 5 i 2 2j 2 i 1 3j 2 2k > > 5 j 2 2k > > > > > > > > 2(2a 2 3b 1 c )2 4( 2 a 1 b 2 c ) 1 ( a 2 c ) > > > > > > > > 5 6i 2 20j 1 22k 1 8i 2 24j 1 20k 1 j 2 2k > > > 5 14i 2 43j 1 40k > > 1 > > > > b. (2a 2 4b 2 8c ) 5 a 2 2b 2 4c 2 > > > > > > > 5 i 2 2j 2 2j 1 6k 2 4i 1 12j 2 8k > > > 5 2 3i 1 8j 2 2k > > 1 > > > > (3a 2 6b 1 9c ) 5 a 2 2b 1 3c 3 > > > > > > > 5 i 2 2j 2 2j 1 6k 1 3i 2 9j 1 6k > > > 5 4i 2 15j 1 12k > > 1 > > 1 > > (2a 2 4b 2 8c )2 (3a 2 6b 1 9c ) 2 3 > > > > > > 5 2 3i> 1 8j 2 > 2k 2 > 4i 1 15j 2 12k 5 2 7i 1 23j 2 14k 8. 5 (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0)6 : ( 2 1, 2, 0) 5 2 1(1, 0, 0) 1 2(0, 1, 0) (3, 4, 0) 5 3(1, 0, 0) 1 4(0, 1, 0) 5 (1, 1, 0), (0, 1, 0)6 ( 2 1, 2, 0) 5 2 1(1, 1, 0) 1 3(0, 1, 0) (3, 4, 0) 5 3(1, 1, 0) 1 (0, 1, 0) 9. a. It is the set of vectors in the xy-plane. b. ( 2 2, 4, 0) 5 2 2(1, 0, 0) 1 4(0, 1, 0) c. By part a. the vector is not in the xy-plane. There is no combination that would produce a number other than 0 for the z-component. d. It would still only span the xy-plane. There would be no need for that vector. 10. Looking at the x-component: 2a 1 3c 5 5 The y-component: 6 1 21 5 b 1 c The z-component: 2c 1 3c 5 15 5c 5 15 c53

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-24

15.

a A b

ab

a+b

C

B a

To solve this problem, >we must first > consider the > > triangle formed by a , b, and a 1 b. We will use their magnitudes to solve for angle A, which will be > > a 2 b used to solve for 1 in the triangle formed by 2 > > > 1 > 1 > b, 2 a 1 b , and 2 a 2 b. Using the cosine law, we> see that: > > > @b@ 2 1 @a 1 b@ 2 2 @a @ 2 cos ( A ) 5 > > > 2 @b@ @a 1 b@ 25 1 49 2 9 5 70 13 5 14 > > > Now, consider the triangle formed by b, 1 2 a 1 b, > > and 1 2 a 2 b. Using the cosine law again: > 2 > 2 > 1 > 1 > @b@ 2 1 2 @a 1 b@ 2 2 @a 2 b@ cos ( A ) 5 > > > @b@ @a 1 b@ > 2 1 > 149 2 2 @a 2 b @ 13 4 5 35 14 > 65 149 > @ a 2 b @ 2 5 24a 2 b 2 4 > > @ a 2 b @ 2 5 19 > > @ a 2 b @ 5 "19 or 4.36

) (

1. They are collinear, thus a linear combination is not applicable. > 2. It is not possible to use 0 in a spanning set. Therefore, the remaining vectors only span R 2. 3. The set of vectors spanned by (0, 1) is m (0, 1). If we let m 5 2 1, then m (0, 1) 5 (0, 2 1). > 4. i spans the set m (1, 0, 0). This is any vector along the x-axis. Examples: (2, 0, 0), ( 2 21, 0, > 0) 5. As in question 2, it is not possible to use 0 in a spanning set.

6. 5 ( 2 1, 2), ( 2 1, 1)6 , 5 (2, 2 4), ( 2 1, 1)6 , 5 ( 2 1, 1), ( 2 3, 6)6 are all the possible spanning sets for R 2 with 2 vectors. > > > > > > 7. a. 2(2a 2 3b 1 c ) 5 4a 2 6b 1 2c > > > > > > 5 4i 2 8j 2 6j 1 18k 1 2i 2 6j 1 4k > > > 5 6i 2 20j 1 22k > > > > > > 4( 2 a 1 b 2 c ) 5 2 4a 1 4b 2 4c > > > > > > 5 2 4i 1 8j 1 4j 2 12k 2 4i 1 12j 2 8k > > > 5 2 8i 1 24j 2 20k > > > > > > > ( a 2 c ) 5 i 2 2j 2 i 1 3j 2 2k > > 5 j 2 2k > > > > > > > > 2(2a 2 3b 1 c )2 4( 2 a 1 b 2 c ) 1 ( a 2 c ) > > > > > > > > 5 6i 2 20j 1 22k 1 8i 2 24j 1 20k 1 j 2 2k > > > 5 14i 2 43j 1 40k > > 1 > > > > b. (2a 2 4b 2 8c ) 5 a 2 2b 2 4c 2 > > > > > > > 5 i 2 2j 2 2j 1 6k 2 4i 1 12j 2 8k > > > 5 2 3i 1 8j 2 2k > > 1 > > > > (3a 2 6b 1 9c ) 5 a 2 2b 1 3c 3 > > > > > > > 5 i 2 2j 2 2j 1 6k 1 3i 2 9j 1 6k > > > 5 4i 2 15j 1 12k > > 1 > > 1 > > (2a 2 4b 2 8c )2 (3a 2 6b 1 9c ) 2 3 > > > > > > 5 2 3i> 1 8j 2 > 2k 2 > 4i 1 15j 2 12k 5 2 7i 1 23j 2 14k 8. 5 (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0)6 : ( 2 1, 2, 0) 5 2 1(1, 0, 0) 1 2(0, 1, 0) (3, 4, 0) 5 3(1, 0, 0) 1 4(0, 1, 0) 5 (1, 1, 0), (0, 1, 0)6 ( 2 1, 2, 0) 5 2 1(1, 1, 0) 1 3(0, 1, 0) (3, 4, 0) 5 3(1, 1, 0) 1 (0, 1, 0) 9. a. It is the set of vectors in the xy-plane. b. ( 2 2, 4, 0) 5 2 2(1, 0, 0) 1 4(0, 1, 0) c. By part a. the vector is not in the xy-plane. There is no combination that would produce a number other than 0 for the z-component. d. It would still only span the xy-plane. There would be no need for that vector. 10. Looking at the x-component: 2a 1 3c 5 5 The y-component: 6 1 21 5 b 1 c The z-component: 2c 1 3c 5 15 5c 5 15 c53

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-24

Substituting this into the first and second equation: 2a 1 9 5 5 a 5 22 27 5 b 1 3 b 5 24 11. ( 2 10, 2 34) 5 a ( 2 1, 3) 1 b (1, 5) Looking at the x-component: 2 10 5 2 a 1 b a 5 10 1 b Looking at the y-component: 2 34 5 3a 1 5b Substituting in a:

2 34 5 30 1 3b 1 5b b 5 28 Substituting b into x-component equation: 2 10 5 2 a 1 ( 2 8) a 5 22 ( 2 10, 2 34) 5 2 2( 2 1, 3) 2 8(1, 5)

12. a. a (2, 2 1) 1 b ( 2 1, 1) 5 ( x, y ) x 5 2a 2 b b 5 2a 2 x y 5 2a 1 b Substitute in b: y 5 2 a 1 2a 2 x a5x1y Substitute this back into the first equation: b 5 2x 1 2y 2 x b 5 x 1 2y b. Using the formulas in part a: For (2, 2 3): a 5 x 1 y 5 2 2 3 5 21 b 5 x 1 2y 5 2 2 6 5 2 4 (2, 2 3) 5 2 1(2, 2 1) 2 4( 2 1, 1) For (124, 2 5): a 5 124 2 5 5 119 b 5 124 2 10 5 114 (124, 2 5) 5 119(2, 2 1) 1 114( 2 1, 1) For (4, 2 11) a 5 4 2 11 5 2 7 b 5 4 2 22 5 2 18 (4, 2 11) 5 2 7(2, 2 1) 2 18( 2 1, 1) 13. Try: a ( 2 1, 2, 3) 1 b (4, 1, 2 2) 5 ( 2 14, 2 1, 16) x components: 2 a 1 4b 5 2 14 a 5 14 1 4b y components: 2a 1 b 5 2 1 Substitute in a: 28 1 8b 1 b 5 2 1 b 5 23

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

Substitute this result into the x-components: a 5 14 2 3 5 11 Check by substituting into z-components: 3a 2 2b 5 16 33 1 5 5 16 Therefore: a ( 2 1, 2, 3) 1 b (4, 1, 2 2) 2 ( 2 14, 2 1, 16) for any a and b. They do not lie on the same plane. b. a ( 2 1, 3, 4) 1 b (0, 2 1, 1) 5 ( 2 3, 14, 7) x components: 2a 5 23 a53 y components: 3a 2 b 5 14 Substitute in a: 9 2 b 5 14 b 5 25 Check with z components: 4a 1 b 5 7 12 2 5 5 7 Since there exists an a and b to form a linear combination of 2 of the vectors to form the third, they lie on the same plane. 3( 2 1, 3, 4) 2 5(0, 2 1, 1) 5 ( 2 3, 14, 7) > > 14. Let vector a 5 ( 2 1, 3, 4) and b 5 ( 2 2, 3, 2 1) (vectors from the origin to points A and B, > respectively). To determine x, we let c (vector from > > origin to C) be a linear combination of a and b. a ( 2 1, 3, 4) 1 b ( 2 2, 3, 2 1) 5 ( 2 5, 6, x ) x components: 2 a 2 2b 5 2 5 a 5 5 2 2b y components: 3a 1 3b 5 6 Substitute in a: 15 2 6b 1 3b 5 6 b53 Substitute in b in x component equation: a 5 5 2 6 5 21 z components: 4a 2 b 5 x Substitute in a and b: x 5 24 2 3 5 27 15. m 5 2, n 5 3. Non-parallel vectors cannot be equal, unless their magnitudes equal 0. 16. Answers may vary. For example: Try linear combinations of the 2 vectors such that

6-25

the z component equals 5. Then calculate what p and q would equal. 2 1(4, 1, 7) 1 2( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 ( 2 6, 1, 5) So p 5 2 6 and q 5 1 5(4, 1, 5) 2 5( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 (25, 0, 5) So p 5 25 and q 5 0 1 13 2 (4, 1, 7) 2 ( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 a , , 5 b 3 3 3 2 13 So p 5 and q 5 3 3 17. As in question 15, non-parallel vectors. Their magnitudes must be 0 again to make the equality true. m 2 1 2m 2 3 5 ( m 2 1)( m 1 3) m 5 1, 2 3 m 2 1 m 2 6 5 ( m 2 2)( m 1 3) m 5 2, 2 3 So, when m 5 2 3, their sum will be 0.

> > 1. a. false; Let b 5 2 a 2 0 then: > > > > @ a 1 b @ 5 0 a 1 (2a ) 0 5 000 > 5 0 , 0a0 > > > > b. true; @ a 1 b @ and 0 a 1 c 0 both represent the lengths of the diagonal of a parallelogram, the first > > > with sides a and b and the second with sides a and > > c ; since both parallelograms > have> a as a side and diagonals of equal length @ b @ 5 0 c 0 . > c. Subtracting a from both sides shows that > true; > b5c > d. true; Draw the > > > parallelogram formed by RF and SW . FW and RS are the opposite sides of a parallelogram and must be equal. e. true; The distributive law for scalars > > > > f. false; Let b 5 > 2 a and let c >5 d 2 0. Then, > > > 0 a 0 5 0 2 a 0 5 @ b @ and 0 c 0 5 @ d @ > > > > but @ a 1 b @ 5 0 a 1 (2 a ) 0 5 0 > > > > > @ c 1 d @ 5 0 c 1 c 0 5 0 2c 0 > > > > so @ a 1 b @ 2 @ c 1 d @ > > > 2. a. Substitute the given values of x , y , and z into > > > the expression 2x 2 3y 1 5z > > > 2x 2 3y 1 5z > > > > > > 5 2(2a 2 3b 2 4c ) 2 3 ( 2 2a 1 3b 1 3c ) > > > 1 5(2a 2 3b 1 5c )

> > > > > > > > 5 4a 2 6b 2 8c 1 6a 2 9b 2 9c 1 10a 2 15b > 1 25c > > > > > > > > 5 4a 1 6a 1 10a 2 6b 2 9b 2 15b 2 8c 2 9c > 1 25c > > > 5 20a 2 30b 1 8c b. Simplify the expression before substituting the > > > given values of x , y , and z > > > > > > 3( 2 2x 2 4y 1 z ) 2 (2x 2 y 1 z ) > > > 2 2( 2 4x 2 5y 1 z ) > > > > > > > 5 2 6x 2 12y 1 3z 2 2x 1 y 2 z 1 8x > > 1 10y 2 2z > > > > > > > 5 2 6x 2 2x 1 8x 2 12y 1 y 1 10y 1 3z > > 2 z 2 2z > > > 5 0x 2 y 1 0z > 5 2y > > > 5 2a 2 >3b 2 3>c > 3. a. XY 5 OY 2 OX 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 ( 2 4 2 ( 2 2), 4 2 1, 8 2 2) 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6)

@ XY @ 5 " ( x2 2 x1 )2 1 ( y2 2 y1 )2 1 ( z2 2 z1 )2

>

5 "49 57 b. The components of a unit vector in the same > 2 3 6 direction as XY are 1 7 ( 2 2, 3, 6) 5 ( 2 7 , 7 , 7 ) .

>

4. a. The position vector OP is equivalent to YX. > > OP 5 YX 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 ( 2 1 2 5, 2 2 5, 6 2 12) 5 ( 2 6, 2 3, 2 6) b. @ YX @ 5 " ( 2 6)2 1 ( 2 3)2 1 ( 2 6)2

>

>

5 "81 59 The components > of a unit vector in the same 2 1 2 direction as YX are 1 9 ( 2 6, 2 3, 2 6) 5 ( 2 3 , 2 3 , 2 3 ) > > 5. 2 MN 5 NM 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 (2 2 8, 3 2 1, 5 2 2) 5 ( 2 6, 2, 3)

6-26

the z component equals 5. Then calculate what p and q would equal. 2 1(4, 1, 7) 1 2( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 ( 2 6, 1, 5) So p 5 2 6 and q 5 1 5(4, 1, 5) 2 5( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 (25, 0, 5) So p 5 25 and q 5 0 1 13 2 (4, 1, 7) 2 ( 2 1, 1, 6) 5 a , , 5 b 3 3 3 2 13 So p 5 and q 5 3 3 17. As in question 15, non-parallel vectors. Their magnitudes must be 0 again to make the equality true. m 2 1 2m 2 3 5 ( m 2 1)( m 1 3) m 5 1, 2 3 m 2 1 m 2 6 5 ( m 2 2)( m 1 3) m 5 2, 2 3 So, when m 5 2 3, their sum will be 0.

> > 1. a. false; Let b 5 2 a 2 0 then: > > > > @ a 1 b @ 5 0 a 1 (2a ) 0 5 000 > 5 0 , 0a0 > > > > b. true; @ a 1 b @ and 0 a 1 c 0 both represent the lengths of the diagonal of a parallelogram, the first > > > with sides a and b and the second with sides a and > > c ; since both parallelograms > have> a as a side and diagonals of equal length @ b @ 5 0 c 0 . > c. Subtracting a from both sides shows that > true; > b5c > d. true; Draw the > > > parallelogram formed by RF and SW . FW and RS are the opposite sides of a parallelogram and must be equal. e. true; The distributive law for scalars > > > > f. false; Let b 5 > 2 a and let c >5 d 2 0. Then, > > > 0 a 0 5 0 2 a 0 5 @ b @ and 0 c 0 5 @ d @ > > > > but @ a 1 b @ 5 0 a 1 (2 a ) 0 5 0 > > > > > @ c 1 d @ 5 0 c 1 c 0 5 0 2c 0 > > > > so @ a 1 b @ 2 @ c 1 d @ > > > 2. a. Substitute the given values of x , y , and z into > > > the expression 2x 2 3y 1 5z > > > 2x 2 3y 1 5z > > > > > > 5 2(2a 2 3b 2 4c ) 2 3 ( 2 2a 1 3b 1 3c ) > > > 1 5(2a 2 3b 1 5c )

> > > > > > > > 5 4a 2 6b 2 8c 1 6a 2 9b 2 9c 1 10a 2 15b > 1 25c > > > > > > > > 5 4a 1 6a 1 10a 2 6b 2 9b 2 15b 2 8c 2 9c > 1 25c > > > 5 20a 2 30b 1 8c b. Simplify the expression before substituting the > > > given values of x , y , and z > > > > > > 3( 2 2x 2 4y 1 z ) 2 (2x 2 y 1 z ) > > > 2 2( 2 4x 2 5y 1 z ) > > > > > > > 5 2 6x 2 12y 1 3z 2 2x 1 y 2 z 1 8x > > 1 10y 2 2z > > > > > > > 5 2 6x 2 2x 1 8x 2 12y 1 y 1 10y 1 3z > > 2 z 2 2z > > > 5 0x 2 y 1 0z > 5 2y > > > 5 2a 2 >3b 2 3>c > 3. a. XY 5 OY 2 OX 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 ( 2 4 2 ( 2 2), 4 2 1, 8 2 2) 5 ( 2 2, 3, 6)

@ XY @ 5 " ( x2 2 x1 )2 1 ( y2 2 y1 )2 1 ( z2 2 z1 )2

>

5 "49 57 b. The components of a unit vector in the same > 2 3 6 direction as XY are 1 7 ( 2 2, 3, 6) 5 ( 2 7 , 7 , 7 ) .

>

4. a. The position vector OP is equivalent to YX. > > OP 5 YX 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 ( 2 1 2 5, 2 2 5, 6 2 12) 5 ( 2 6, 2 3, 2 6) b. @ YX @ 5 " ( 2 6)2 1 ( 2 3)2 1 ( 2 6)2

>

>

5 "81 59 The components > of a unit vector in the same 2 1 2 direction as YX are 1 9 ( 2 6, 2 3, 2 6) 5 ( 2 3 , 2 3 , 2 3 ) > > 5. 2 MN 5 NM 5 ( x2, y2, z2 ) 2 ( x1, y1, z1 ) 5 ( x2 2 x1, y2 2 y1, z2 2 z1 ) 5 (2 2 8, 3 2 1, 5 2 2) 5 ( 2 6, 2, 3)

6-26

5 "49 57 The components > of the unit vector with the opposite 6 2 3 direction to MN are 1 7 ( 2 6, 2, 3) 5 ( 2 7 , 7 , 7 ) 6. a. diagonals can > The two > > > be found by calculating OA 1 OB and OA 2 OB. A

OA OB OA + OB

>

>

>

O

> >

5 "45 Triangle ABC is a right triangle if and only if > > > @ AB @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 @ BC @ 2. 5 14 1 45 > 5 59 @ BC @ 2 5 ("59 )2 5 59 So triangle ABC is a right triangle. b. Area of a triangle 5 1 the 2 bh. For triangle ABC > > > longest side BC is the hypotenuse, so AB and CA are the base and height of the triangle. > > 1 Area 5 ( 0 AB 0 )( 0 CA 0 ) 2 1 5 "14"45 2 1 5 "630 2 3 5 "70 or 12.5 2 c. Perimeter of a triangle equals the sum of the sides. 5 "14 1 "59 1 "45 8 18.13 d. The fourth vertex D is the > head of > the diagonal > vector from A. To find AD take AB 1 AC . > AB 5 (2 2 ( 2 1), 0 2 1, 3 2 1) 5 (3, 2 1, 2) AC 5 (3 2 ( 2 1), 3 2 1, 2 4 2 1) 5 (4, 2, 2 5) AD 5 AB 1 AC 5 (3 1 4, 2 1 1 2, 2 1 ( 2 5)) 5 (7, 1, 2 3) So the fourth vertex is D ( 2 1 1 7, 1 1 1, 1 1 ( 2 3)) or D (6, 2, 2 2).

> > > >

OA 1 OB 5 (3, 2, 2 6) 1 ( 2 6, 6, 2 2) 5 (3 1 2 6, 2 1 6, 2 6 1 2 2) 5 ( 2 3, 8, 2 8) > > OA 2 OB 5 (3, 2, 2 6) 1 ( 2 6, 6, 2 2) 5 (3 2 ( 2 6), 2 2 6, 2 6 2 ( 2 2)) 5 (9, 2 4, 2 4) b. To determine the angle between the sides of the > > @ @ @ @ parallelogram, calculate OA , OB , and > > @ OA 2 OB @ and apply the cosine law.

@ AB @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 ( "14)2 1 ( "45)2

> >

>

>

5 "49 57

5 "76

>

>

5 2"19

> > > >

5 "113

Perimeter 5 @ AB @ 1 @ BC @ 1 @ CA @

> > >

cos u 5

>

6-27

8. a.

ab a ab

ab+c

c > > a b. Since > the vectors > and b are perpendicular, > > 0 a 1 b 0 2 5 0 a 0 2 1 0 b 0 2. So, > > 0 a 1 b 0 2 5 (4)2 1 (3)2 5 16 1 9 > 5 25 > 0 a 1 b 0 5 "25 5 5 > > > 9. Express r as a linear combination of p and q : Solve for a and b: > > > r 5 ap 1 bq ( 2 1, 2) 5 a ( 2 11, 7) 1 b ( 2 3, 1) ( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 11a, 7a ) 1 ( 2 3b, b ) ( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 11a 2 3b, 7a 1 b ) Solve the system of equations: 2 1 5 2 11a 2 3b 2 5 7a 1 b Use the method of elimination: 3(2) 5 3(7a 1 b ) 6 5 21a 1 3b 1 2 1 5 2 11a 2 3b 5 5 10a 1 5a 2 By substitution, b 5 2 3 2

3 Therefore 1 2 ( 2 11, 7) 1 2 2 ( 2 3, 1) 5 ( 2 1, 2) > > > Express q as a linear combination of p and r . Solve for a and b: > > > q 5 ap 1 br ( 2 3, 1) 5 a ( 2 11, 7) 1 b ( 2 1, 2) ( 2 3, 1) 5 ( 2 11a, 7a ) 1 ( 2 b, 2b ) ( 2 3, 1) 5 ( 2 11a 2 b, 7a 1 2b ) Solve the system of equations: 2 3 5 2 11a 2 b 1 5 7a 1 2b Use the method of elimination: 2( 2 3) 5 2( 2 11a 2 b ) 2 6 5 2 22a 2 2b 115 7a 1 2b 2 5 5 2 15a 1 5a 3 By substitution, 2 2 3 5 b ( 2 11, 7) 1 22 Therefore 1 3 ( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 3, 1) >3 > > Express p as a linear combination of q and r .

Solve for a and b: > > > p 5 aq 1 br ( 2 11, 7) 5 a ( 2 3, 1) 1 b ( 2 1, 2) ( 2 11, 7) 5 ( 2 3a, a ) 1 ( 2 b, 2b ) ( 2 11, 7) 5 ( 2 3a 2 b, a 1 2b ) Solve the system of equations: 2 11 5 2 3a 2 b 7 5 a 1 2b Use the method of elimination: 2( 2 11) 5 2( 2 3a 2 b ) 2 22 5 2 6a 2 2b 1 75 a 1 2b 2 15 5 2 5a 35a By substitution, 2 5 b Therefore 3( 2 3, 1) 1 2( 2 1, 2) 5 ( 2 11, 7) 10. a. Let P ( x, y, z ) be a point equidistant from A > > and B. Then @ PA @ 5 @ PB @ . ( x 2 2)2 1 ( y 2 ( 2 1))2 1 ( z 2 3)2 5 ( x 2 1)2 1 ( y 2 2)2 1 ( z 2 ( 2 3))2

x2 2 4x 1 4 1 y2 1 2y 1 1 1 z2 2 6z 1 9 5 x2 2 2x 1 1 1 y2 2 4y 1 4 1 z2 1 6z 1 9 2 2x 1 6y 2 12z 5 0 x 2 3y 1 6z 5 0

b. (0, 0, 0) and ( 1, 1 3 , 0) clearly satisfy the equation and are equidistant from A and B. 11. a. 1 ( 2 24, 3, 25) 5 2( a, b, 4) 1 (6, 8, c ) 2 3(7, c, 2 4) 2 c ( 2 24, 3, 25) 5 (2a, 2b, 8) 1 a 3, 4, b 2 2 (21, 3c, 2 12) c ( 2 24, 3, 25) 5 a 2a 2 18, 2b 1 4 2 3c, 1 20 b 2 Solve the equations: i. 2 24 5 2a 2 18 2 6 5 2a 23 5 a c ii. 25 5 1 20 2 c 55 2 10 5 c iii. 3 5 2b 1 4 2 3c 3 5 2b 1 4 2 3(18) 3 5 2b 2 50 53 5 2b 26.5 5 b

Chapter 6: Introduction to Vectors

6-28

b. (3, 2 22, 54) 1 3 5 2 a a, a, a b 1 (3b, 0, 2 5c ) 1 2 a c, c, 0 b 2 2 (3, 2 22, 54) 5 (2a, 2a, a ) 1 (3b, 0, 2 5c ) 1 (2c, 3c, 0) (3, 2 22, 54) 5 (2a 1 3b 1 2c, 2a 1 3c, a 2 5c ) Solve the system of equations: 2 22 5 2a 1 3c 54 5 a 2 5c Use the method of elimination: 2 2(54) 5 2 2( a 2 5c ) 2 108 5 2 2a 1 10c 1 2 22 5 2a 1 3c 2 130 5 13c 2 10 5 c By substitution, 8 5 a Solve the equation: 3 5 2a 1 3b 1 2c 3 5 2(8) 1 3b 1 2( 2 10) 3 5 16 1 3b 2 20 3 5 3b 2 4 7 5 3b 7 5b 3 > > > 12. a. Find @ AB @ , @ BC @ , @ CA @

1Q 5 (2, 4, 6) 2 2R 5 (2, 4, 6)

> >

13. a. Find 0 AB 0 , 0 BC 0 , 0 CA 0

> >

5 "9 53 > @ BC @ 5 " (2 2 1)2 1 (1 2 2)2 1 (3 2 5)2 5 " (1)2 1 ( 2 1)2 1 ( 2 2)2 5 " ( 2 2)2 1 (2)2 1 (1)2

>

5 "6

> > >

5 "3

>

5613 > 59 @ AB @ 2 5 (3)2 59 So triangle ABC is a right triangle. b. Since triangle ABC is a right triangle, cos/ABC 5

> >

@ BC @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 A"6 B 2 1 A"3 B 2

> >

>

> >

>

> >

c. @ AD @ 2 1 @ DC @ 2 5 @ AC @ 2, But @ AC @ 2 5 @ DB @ 2

> > >

>

Therefore, @ AD @ 2 1 @ DC @ 2 5 @ DB @ 2

> >

> > >

5 "10

5 " (3) 1 ( 2 1)

2

15. a. C (3, 0, 5); P (3, 4, 5); E (0, 4, 5); F (0, 4, 0) > b. DB 5 (3 2 0, 4 2 0, 0 2 5) 5 (3, 4, 2 5)

CF 5 (0 2 3, 4 2 0, 0 2 5) 5 ( 2 3, 4, 2 5) c. D P

u X

>

5 11 1 10 > 5 21 @ BC @ 2 5 ( "21)2 5 21 So triangle ABC is a right triangle. b. Yes, P (1, 2, 3), Q (2, 4, 6), and R ( 2 1, 2 2, 2 3) are collinear because: 2P 5 (2, 4, 6)

@ AB @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 ( "11)2 1 ( "10)2

> >

6-29

0 DP 0 5 5 by the Pythagorean theorem Thus ODPB is a square and cos u 5 0, so the angle between the vectors is 90. d. E P

>

0 OD 0 5 5

>

@ OA @ 5 3, @ OP @ 5 "5

> >

Let > A represent the air speed of the airplane and let W represent the velocity of the wind. In one hour, > > the plane will travel 0 A 1 W 0 kilometers. Because > > A and W make a right angle, use the Pythagorean theorem: > > > > 0 A 1 W 02 5 0 A 02 1 0 W 02 5 (400)2 1 (100)2 5 170 000 > > 0 A 1 W 0 5 "170 000 8 412.3 km So in 3 hours, the plane will travel 3(412.3)km 8 1236.9 km

0W0 b. tan u 5 > 0A0 100 5 400

>

>

16. a.

> > Use the cosine law to evaluate 0 d 1 e 0 > > > > > > 0 d 1 e 0 2 5 0 d 0 2 1 0 e 0 2 2 2 0 d 0 0 e 0 cos u 5 (3)2 1 (5)3 2 2(3)(5) cos 150

d+e 150 e

30 d

2 "3 2

> > Use the cosine law to evaluate 0 d 2 e 0 > > > > > > 0 d 2 e 0 2 5 0 d 0 2 1 0 e 0 2 2 2 0 d 0 0 e 0 cos u

8 8.02 > 0 d 2 e 0 8 "8.02 >8 2.83 > > > > > c. 0 e 2 d 0 5 0 2 ( d 2 e ) 0 5 0 d 2 e 0 8 2.83 17. a.

>

1 u 5 tan21 a b 4 8 14.0 The direction of the airplane is S14.0W. 18. a. Any pair of nonzero, noncollinear vectors will span R 2. To show that (2, 3) and (3, 5) are noncollinear, show that there does not exist any number k such that k (2, 3) 5 (3, 5). Solve the system of equations: 2k 5 3 3k 5 5 Solving both equations gives two different values 5 for k, 3 2 and 3 , so (2, 3) and (3, 5) are noncollinear and thus span R 2 b. (323, 795) 5 m (2, 3) 1 n (3, 5) (323, 795) 5 (2m, 3m ) 1 (3n, 5n ) (323, 795) 5 (2m 1 3n, 3m 1 5n ) Solve the system of equations: 323 5 2m 1 3n 795 5 3m 1 5n Use the method of elimination: 2 3(323) 5 2 3(2m 1 3n ) 2(795) 5 2(3m 1 5n ) 2 969 5 2 6m 2 9n 1 1590 5 6m 1 10n 621 5 n By substitution, m 5 2 770.

A: 400 km/h

W: 100 km/h

6-30

19. a. Find a and b such that (5, 9, 14) 5 a ( 2 2, 3, 1) 1 b (3, 1, 4) (5, 9, 14) 5 ( 2 2a, 3a, a ) 1 (3b, b, 4b ) (5, 9, 14) 5 ( 2 2a 1 3b, 3a 1 b, a 1 4b ) i. 5 5 2 2a 1 3b ii. 9 5 3a 1 b iii. 14 5 a 1 4b Use the method of elimination with i. and iii. 2(14) 5 2( a 1 4b ) 28 5 2a 1 8b 1 5 5 2 2a 1 3b 33 5 11b 35b By substitution, a 5 2. > > > it a lies in the plane determined by b and c because > > can be written as a linear combination of and c b . > > > > b. If vector a is in the span of b and c ,> then a can > be written as a linear combination of b and c . Find m and n such that ( 2 13, 36, 23) 5 m ( 2 2, 3, 1) 1 n (3, 1, 4) 5 ( 2 2m, 3m, m ) 1 (3n, n, 4n ) 5 ( 2 2m 1 3n, 3m 1 n, m 1 4n ) Solve the system of equations: 2 13 5 2 2m 1 3n 36 5 3m 1 n 23 5 m 1 4n Use the method of elimination: 2(23) 5 2( m 1 4n ) 46 5 2m 1 8n 1 2 13 5 2 2m 1 3n 33 5 11n 35n By substitution, m 5 11. > > > So, vector a is in the span of b and c . 20. a. z

(0, 0, 4) (0, 4, 4) (4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 0) x (4, 0, 0) (4, 4, 0) (4, 4, 4)

b.

(4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0)

(0, 0, 4)

(0, 4, 4)

(4, 4, 4)

y (0, 4, 0)

x

> >

(4, 0, 0)

(4, 4, 0)

(4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 0) x (4, 0, 0)

> >

(4, 4, 4)

(4, 4, 0)

(0, 0, 4) (0, 4, 4) (4, 0, 4) (0, 0, 0) (0, 4, 0) x (4, 0, 0) (4, 4, 0) (4, 4, 4)

The vector with the coordinates (4, 4, 0). > > > > > > > > 21. 0 2( a 1 b 2 c ) 2 ( a 1 2b ) 1 3( a 2 b 1 c ) 0 > > > > > > > > 5 0 2a 1 2b 2 2c 2 a 2 2b 1 3a 2 3b 1 3c 0 > > > 5 0 4a 2 3b 1 c 0 5 0 4(1, 1, 2 1) 2 3(2, 2 1, 3) 1 (2, 0, 13) 0 5 0 (4, 4, 2 4) 1 ( 2 6, 3, 2 9) 1 (2, 0, 13) 0 5 0 (0, 7, 0) 0 57 6-31

22.

A(3, 4)

C(5, 0)

> > Case 2 If and c are not collinear, then> by spanning b > > > sets, b and c span a plane in R3, and > 2b 1> 4c is in > that plane. If a is perpendicular to b and c , then it is perpendicular to the plane and all vectors in the > > > plane. So, a is perpendicular to 2b 1 4c .

B(3, 4)

>

>

> > 1. Let P be the tail of a and let Q be the head . > > of c > > > > The vector sums 3a 1 ( b 1 c )4 and 3 ( a 1 b ) 1 c 4 can be depicted as in the diagram below, using the triangle law of We see > > addition. > that > > > > PQ 5 a 1 ( b 1 c ) 5 ( a 1 b ) 1 c . This is the associative property for vector addition.

P a (a + b)

>

b (b + c) c

5 20 1 80 > 5 100 @ AB @ 2 5 102 5 100 So, triangle ABC is a right triangle. > > > > > > > 23. a. FL 5 FG 1 GH 1 HL 5 a 1 b 1 c > > > > > b. MK 5 JK 2 JM 5 a 2 b > > > > > > > c. HJ 5 HG 1 GF 1 FJ 5 2 b 2 a 1 c > > > > d. IH 1 KJ 5 FG 1 GF 5 0 > > > > > > e. IK 2 IH 5 HK 5 IJ 5 b 2 c 24. b

a > >2 2 25. a. " 0 a 0 1 0 b 0 by the Pythagorean theorem > > b. " 0 a 0 2 1 0 b 0 2 by the Pythagorean theorem > > c. "4 0 a 0 2 1 9 0 b 0 2 by the Pythagorean theorem > > > > 26. Case 1 If b and c are > collinear, then 2b 1 4c is > > also collinear with both b and c . But a is perpendi> > > > > cular to b and c , so a is perpendicular to 2b 1 4c .

@ BC @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 A 2"5 B 2 1 A"80 B 2

> >

PQ= (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) Q

>

> > >

@ BA @ 5

1 ( 2 8, 2 4, 2 8) 12 2 1 2 5 a2 2 , 2 b 3 3 3 > > > > > > 3. Let x 5 PQ, y 5 QR, and > 2 y 5 QS, as in the > diagram below. Note that 0 RS 0 5 0 2y 0 5 6 and that triangle PQR and triangle PRS share angle u. 5

@ BA @

>

BA

>

6-32

22.

A(3, 4)

C(5, 0)

> > Case 2 If and c are not collinear, then> by spanning b > > > sets, b and c span a plane in R3, and > 2b 1> 4c is in > that plane. If a is perpendicular to b and c , then it is perpendicular to the plane and all vectors in the > > > plane. So, a is perpendicular to 2b 1 4c .

B(3, 4)

>

>

> > 1. Let P be the tail of a and let Q be the head . > > of c > > > > The vector sums 3a 1 ( b 1 c )4 and 3 ( a 1 b ) 1 c 4 can be depicted as in the diagram below, using the triangle law of We see > > addition. > that > > > > PQ 5 a 1 ( b 1 c ) 5 ( a 1 b ) 1 c . This is the associative property for vector addition.

P a (a + b)

>

b (b + c) c

5 20 1 80 > 5 100 @ AB @ 2 5 102 5 100 So, triangle ABC is a right triangle. > > > > > > > 23. a. FL 5 FG 1 GH 1 HL 5 a 1 b 1 c > > > > > b. MK 5 JK 2 JM 5 a 2 b > > > > > > > c. HJ 5 HG 1 GF 1 FJ 5 2 b 2 a 1 c > > > > d. IH 1 KJ 5 FG 1 GF 5 0 > > > > > > e. IK 2 IH 5 HK 5 IJ 5 b 2 c 24. b

a > >2 2 25. a. " 0 a 0 1 0 b 0 by the Pythagorean theorem > > b. " 0 a 0 2 1 0 b 0 2 by the Pythagorean theorem > > c. "4 0 a 0 2 1 9 0 b 0 2 by the Pythagorean theorem > > > > 26. Case 1 If b and c are > collinear, then 2b 1 4c is > > also collinear with both b and c . But a is perpendi> > > > > cular to b and c , so a is perpendicular to 2b 1 4c .

@ BC @ 2 1 @ CA @ 2 5 A 2"5 B 2 1 A"80 B 2

> >

PQ= (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) Q

>

> > >

@ BA @ 5

1 ( 2 8, 2 4, 2 8) 12 2 1 2 5 a2 2 , 2 b 3 3 3 > > > > > > 3. Let x 5 PQ, y 5 QR, and > 2 y 5 QS, as in the > diagram below. Note that 0 RS 0 5 0 2y 0 5 6 and that triangle PQR and triangle PRS share angle u. 5

@ BA @

>

BA

>

6-32

R u y

x+y

xy

By the cosine law: > > > > 0 y 02 1 0 x 1 y 02 2 0 x 02 and cos u 5 > > > 20 y 0 0 x 1 y 0 > > > > > 0 2y 0 2 1 0 x 1 y 0 2 2 0 x 2 y 0 2 cos u 5 . > > > 2 0 2y 0 0 x 1 y 0 Hence, > > > > 0 y 02 1 0 x 1 y 02 2 0 x 02 > > > 20 y 0 0 x 1 y 0 > > > > > 0 2y 0 2 1 0 x 1 y 0 22 0 x 2 y 0 2 5 > > > 2 0 2y 0 0 x 1 y 0 > > > > 2( 0 y 0 2 1 0 x 1 y 0 2 2 0 x 0 2 ) > > > > > 5 0 2y 0 2 1 0 x 1 y 0 2 2 0 x 2 y 0 2 > >2 >2 > >2 > 0 x 2 y 0 5 20 y 0 2 0 x 1 y 0 1 20 x 02 > > > > > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 "2 0 y 0 2 2 0 x 1 y 0 2 1 "2 0 x 0 2 > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 "2(3)2 2 ( "17 )2 1 "2(3)2 > > 0 x 2 y 0 5 "19 > > > > > > 4. a. We have 3x 2 2y 5 a and 5x 2 3y 5 b. Multiplying the first equation by 2 3 and the second > > > equation by 2 yields: 2 9x 1 6y 5 2 3a and > > > 10x 2 >6y 5 2b. Adding these equations, we have: > > this into the first equation x 5 2b 2 3a > . Substituting > > > yields: 3(2b 2 3a ) 2 2y 5 a . Simplifying, we > > > have: y 5 3b 2 5a . b. First, conduct scalar multiplication on the third vector, yielding: (2, 2 1, c ) 1 ( a, b, 1) 2 (6, 3a, 12) 5 ( 2 3, 1, 2c ). Now, each of the three components corresponds to an equation. First, 2 1 a 2 6 5 2 3, which implies a 5 1. Second, 2 1 1 b 2 3a 5 1. Substituting

Calculus and Vectors Solutions Manual

a 5 1 and simplifying yields b 5 5. Third, c 1 1 2 12 5 > 2c, so c 5 2 11. > 5. a. a and b span R 2, because any vector (x, y) in > > R 2 can be written as a linear combination of a and b. These two vectors are not multiples of each other. b. First, conduct scalar multiplication on the vectors, yielding: ( 2 2p, 3p ) 1 (3q, 2 q ) 5 (13, 2 9). Now, each component corresponds to an equation. First, 2 2p 1 3q 5 13. Second, 3p 2 q 5 2 9. Multiplying the second equation by 3 and adding the result to the first equation yields: 7p 5 2 14, which implies p 5 2 2. Substituting this into the first equation and simplifying yields q 5 3. > > > 6. a. a 5 mb 1 nc (1, 12, 2 29) 5 m (3, 1, 4) 1 n (1, 2, 2 3) (1, 12, 2 29) 5 (3m, m, 4m ) 1 ( n, 2n, 2 3n ) Each of the three components corresponds to an equation. First, 1 5 3m 1 n. Second, 12 5 m 1 2n. Third, 2 29 5 4m 2 3n. Multiplying the first equation by 2 2 and adding the result to the second equation yields m 5 2 2. Substituting m 5 2 2 into the first equation yields n 5 7. Since m 5 2 2 and solves the third components equation, n 5 7 also > > > > a 5 mb 1 nc for m 5 2 2 and n 5 7. > Hence, a can > be written as a linear combination of b and c . > > > b. r 5 mp 1 nq (16, 11, 2 24) 5 m ( 2 2, 3, 4) 1 n (4, 1, 2 6) (16, 11, 2 24) 5 ( 2 2m, 3m, 4m ) 1 (4n, n, 2 6n ) Each of the three components corresponds to an equation. First, 16 5 2 2m 1 4n. Second, 11 5 3m 1 n. Third, 2 24 5 4m 2 6n. Multiplying the first equation by 2 and adding the result to the third equation yields n 5 4. Substituting n 5 4 into the first equation yields m 5 0. We have that n 5 4 and m 5 0 is the unique solution to the first and third equations, but n 5 4 and m 5 0 does not solve the second equation. Hence, this system of > equations has no solution, and r cannot be written > > as a linear combination of p and q . In other words, > > > r does not lie in the plane determined by p and q . > > 7. x and y have magnitudes of 1 and 2, respectively, and have an angle of 120 between them, as depicted in the picture below.

120 x

6-33

3x + 2y u 3x

2y 60

By the cosine law: > > > > > > 0 3x 1 2y 0 2 5 0 3x 0 2 1 0 2y 0 2 2 2 0 3x 0 0 2y 0 cos 60 > > > > > > 0 3x 1 2y 0 2 5 9 0 x 0 2 1 4 0 y 0 2 2 6 0 x 0 0 y 0 > >2 0 3x 1 2y 0 5 9 1 16 2 12 > > 0 3x 1 2y 0 5 "13 or 3.61 > > > The direction of 3x 1 2y is u, the angle from x . This can be computed from the sine law: > > > 0 2y 0 0 3x 1 2y 0 5 sin 60 sin u > 0 2y 0 sin 60 sin u 5 > > 0 3x 1 2y 0

> 0 2y 0 sin 60 > > b 0 3x 1 2y 0 (4) sin 60 b u 5 sin21 a "13 u 8 73.9 relative to x > > > 8. DE> 5 CE CD > 2 > DE 5 b 2 a Also, > > > BA> 5 CA > 2 CB > BA 5 2b 2 2a Thus, > 1 > DE 5 BA 2 u 5 sin21 a

6-34

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